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História Natural dos Morcegos Brasileiros: Chave de Identificação de Espécies.

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História Natural dos Morcegos Brasileiros: Chave de Identificação de Espécies.

... Wetterer et al. (2000) confirmed the validity of the genus through a combined analysis of morphological and molecular features. Nogueira et al. (2014) and Reis et al. (2017) re-allocated Trinycteris nicefori to the subfamily Glyphonycterinae (rather than Phyllostominae), following the proposal of Baker et al. (2003). Given the problems of the classification of this genus, further analyses are required to conclusively determine its taxonomic placement (Reis et al. 2017). ...
... Nogueira et al. (2014) and Reis et al. (2017) re-allocated Trinycteris nicefori to the subfamily Glyphonycterinae (rather than Phyllostominae), following the proposal of Baker et al. (2003). Given the problems of the classification of this genus, further analyses are required to conclusively determine its taxonomic placement (Reis et al. 2017). ...
... Niceforo's big-eared bat, Trinycteris nicefori, is an insectivore (Reis et al. 2013(Reis et al. , 2017. The diagnostic characteristics of the species include: its small size, with an adult head-body length of 51-58 mm; forearm of 35-41 mm; faintly tricolored dorsal hairs, with a darker base and tip; ventral fur dark; ventral margin of the nasal leaf horseshoe merging gradually with the upper lip, chin with a pair of dermal pads arranged in a V shape, without a central papilla; face and anterior orbital region of the cranium not inflated (Reis et al. 2013(Reis et al. , 2017. ...
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Niceforo’s big-eared bat, Trinycterisnicefori (Sanborn, 1949), is a monotypic species which has been recorded in a number of Brazilian states, but has a disjunct distribution in this country. This study presents the first record of T.nicefori in the Brazilian state of Maranhão. The specimens were collected in the municipalities of Godofredo Viana and Cândido Mendes, in fragments of the Amazon forest. One male (forearm: 38.00 mm, weight: 6 g) and one female (39.68 mm, 8 g) specimens were collected. The specimens presented chestnut-colored fur, and a chin with a pair of dermal pads arranged in a V-shape, without a central papilla. The COI gene sequences were plotted in the BOLD Systems platform, which confirmed the morphological identification of the species, with a 99.1% similarity in the male, and 99.4% in the female to existing sequences. This record extends the known distribution of T.nicefori in Brazil by approximately 310 km to the most eastern part of the Amazon Biome.
... Even white fur may occur in some species (e.g., Diclidurus spp., Ectophylla alba) although this does not appear to increase its predation (Reis et al. 2007). The pattern of coloration is an important taxonomic tool that helps on the identification of some species, such as the tufts of white hair on the dorsal part of the forearm and the longitudinal stripes on the dorsal fur in Rhynchonycteris naso (Emballonuridae), the different facial strips patterns on some stenodermatines (e.g., Platyrrhinus spp.), the remarkable pattern of body fur coloration in Niumbaha superba (Vespertilionidae), and the stunning pattern of wing coloration in Kerivoula picta (Vespertilionidae) (Fenton and Simmons 2015;Reis et al. 2017). Besides taxonomy, the color pattern may function as a camouflage in roosting situations, potentially protecting bats from visually oriented predators. ...
... A projection from the lower margin of the ear, called tragus, is also important in echolocation (Feldhamer et al. 2007). On the other hand, the larger ears of gleaning bats, including some phyllostomids, are important to hear the sounds generated by insects or small vertebrates (Kunz and Fenton 2005;Reis et al. 2017). As the coloration patterns, the facial features are important to taxonomy: the flesh nose leaf present in Phyllostomidae, Nycteridae, Rhinolophidae, and Megadermatidae; the lips with folds and hairs around the muzzle that look like a mustache in Pteronotus spp.; the upper lip divided by two vertical grooves in Noctilionidae (Feldhamer et al. 2007;Gardner 2008). ...
... A cartilaginous process, the calcar, helps to support the uropatagium. The size and shape of the tail membrane varies from extremely reduced (e.g., Desmodontinae) to well-developed, being sometimes even greater than the body length (e.g., Natalidae), and may completely enclose the tail (e.g., Vespertilionidae) or just a part of it (e.g., Molossidae) (Feldhamer et al. 2007;Reis et al. 2017). ...
... Distribution. In Brazil the species occurs in the Amazon, Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, in the states of Acre, Amazonas, Goiás, Rondônia, Pará, Tocantins, Piauí, Bahia, Espírito Santo, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, and Paraná (Tavares et al. 2008, Brandão et al. 2016, Reis et al. 2017. In São Paulo the species is known for two southern localities (Garbino 2016). ...
... Distribution. In Brazil the species is recorded in Amazon, Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, in the states of Amazonas, Pará, Amapá, Rondônia, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Mato Grosso (Tavares et al. 2008, Reis et al. 2017. In São Paulo, the species is known only from four localities (Garbino 2016). ...
... Distribution. In Brazil the species is recorded in all biomes and states (Tavares et al. 2008, Reis et al. 2017. In São Paulo, the species is widely distributed, occurring in all the vegetational formations, and also in urban areas (Garbino 2016). ...
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Carlos Botelho State Park (PECB) is a large remnant of Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil, with more than 37,000 ha. As its bat fauna is still unknown, we performed the first bat survey on PECB, to provide data on the distribution, natural history and taxonomy of the species. Fieldwork was conducted monthly, from October 2016 to September 2017. Captures were made using ground-level mist-nets (39600 m2.h), canopy mist-nets (2017.5 m2.h) and searches for roosts (42 hours).We captured 412 bats from 34 species of Phyllostomidae, Molossidae and Vespertilionidae. A total of 11 species were captured only in ground-level mist-nets, five in canopy mist-nets, and seven in roosts. Dermanura cinerea Gervais, 1856, Eptesicus taddeii Miranda, Bernardi & Passos, 2006, Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas, 1896 and Lampronycteris brachyotis (Dobson, 1879) are rare on surveys conducted in the Atlantic Forest of São Paulo and were captured in canopy mist-nets. Micronycteris schmidtorum Sanborn, 1935 and Molossus currentium Thomas, 1901 constitute the first record for the state of São Paulo, and were captured in canopy mist-nets and roosts, respectively. The species richness registered for PECB surpasses other surveys conducted in Atlantic Forest localities that use only ground-level mist-nets. Our results reinforce the importance of employing mixed capture methods, such as elevated mist-nets and searches for roosts.
... S. tildae shares a number of external characteristics with the other members of the genus, such as the lack of a tail, narrow and hairy interfemoral membrane, small ears, a small, broad nasal leaf, and posterior members and feet hairy, as far as the claws (Peracchi et al., 2011). The color of the pelage varies from tones of yellow to brown, with some males having tufts of orangish or dark reddish-brown hair on the shoulders (Reis et al., 2017). ...
... The specimen was fixed in formaldehyde and preserved in ethanol at UEMA's Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Biology, on the campus of Caxias, and then transferred to the mammal collection of the Federal University of Paraíba, in João Pessoa, Brazil, where is it deposited. The specimen was identified based on its external traits and craniometric measurements, following Vizzoto & Taddei (1973), Simmons & Voss (1998), and Reis et al. (2013Reis et al. ( , 2017. Measurements taken include the length of right and left forearms, ear, tragus, foot, greatest length of the skull, basal length and condylobasal length, width of the brain case and the mastoid, zygomatic width, the length of the upper tooth row, and the width across the molars (Table 1). ...
... In Brazil, S. tildae has been recorded in the Amazon, Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, and Caatinga biomes. In the Amazon biome (IBGE, 2019), there are records from the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Amapá, Roraima, and Mato Grosso (Tavares et al., 2008;Reis et al., 2013;Novaes & Laurindo, 2014;Reis et al., 2017), and the closest locality to the present study site is 280 km west, in Pará. This is the fifth record of the occurrence of S. tildae in the Brazilian Northeast. ...
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The bat genus Sturnira is widely distributed in the Neotropical region, from northwestern Mexico to northern Argentina, and four species occur in Brazil: Sturnira lilium, Sturnira giannae, Sturnira magna, and Sturnira tildae. The present study is the first to record Sturnira tildae in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, based on morphological and molecular diagnoses. The specimen was identified based on its cranial and morphometric traits. The diagnostic traits include discreetly bilobed inner upper incisors with a broad base, lower first and second molars with lingual cusps separated by shallow grooves, and forearm longer than 45 mm. The molecular sequences of Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI) and 16S rRNA genes confirmed the morphological identification and thus the occurrence of Sturnira tildae in the Amazon biome of Maranhão. This record represents an eastward extension of the known distribution of the species in the Amazonia, to Cândido Mendes, Maranhão, within an area dominated by dense rainforest and influenced by tides.
... Further, I report the fi rst record of Phyllostomus discolor in Alagoas State. This bat occurs from Mexico to Paraguai (Díaz et al. 2016), having a wide distribution including in Brazilian territory, where it is present in all biomes except the Pampas and all in states except Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (Reis et al. 2017, Vargas-Mena et al. 2018, Almeida et al. 2019 (Figure 1). Alagoas was the only state in northeastern Brazil where P. discolor had not been registered (Reis et al. 2017, Vargas-Mena et al. 2018, although its occurrence was expected since it occurs in the neighboring states of Sergipe (Brito & Bocchiglieri 2017) and Pernambuco (Queiroz Guerra 2007). ...
... This bat occurs from Mexico to Paraguai (Díaz et al. 2016), having a wide distribution including in Brazilian territory, where it is present in all biomes except the Pampas and all in states except Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (Reis et al. 2017, Vargas-Mena et al. 2018, Almeida et al. 2019 (Figure 1). Alagoas was the only state in northeastern Brazil where P. discolor had not been registered (Reis et al. 2017, Vargas-Mena et al. 2018, although its occurrence was expected since it occurs in the neighboring states of Sergipe (Brito & Bocchiglieri 2017) and Pernambuco (Queiroz Guerra 2007). Here I am fi lling this gap in the known geographic distribution on this species about 120 km south and 175 km north from its nearest registers: Saltinho Biological Reserve in Pernambuco and Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco in Sergipe, respectively ( Figure 1). ...
... Both bat species are widespread in Brazil, though Phyllostomus. discolor had not yet been registered for the state of Alagoas (Reis et al. 2017). Artibeus lituratus and P. discolor are both found in artifi cial shelters, however, the former is most commonly found in treetops even in urban areas (Pacheco et al. 2010, Reis et al. 2017. ...
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Domestic cats (Felis catus) prey upon bats, but the impact of this predation on bats, and their populations, by domestic cats worldwide has been underestimated. In Brazil, there is no scientific record of this natural predation event. In this paper, I report firsthand observations of domestic cat natural predation on bats in Brazil. The observations took place in an urban area in northeast Brazil and revealed a female cat attacking Artibeus lituratus (Olfer, 1818) and Phyllostomus discolor (Wagner, 1843). It is also the first record of P. discolor in Alagoas state. Two out of five predation records consist of parts of bats (skull and wings) left by the cat. The other three are from entire bats rescued. As many species of bats live in urban environments, information on predation gives access to some threats wildlife living in the cities could be submitted, especially when the predator is a domestic animal. © 2020, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). All rights reserved.
... Many insectivores, for example, also feed on other arthropods and may complement their diet with fruits and small vertebrates. Similarly, the frugivores may consume nectar, floral parts, and even insects (Rex et al. 2010;Monteiro and Nogueira 2011;Reis et al. 2017). Rex et al. (2010) demonstrated that phyllostomids are "opportunistic omnivores" and complement their primary diet with nutrients from many different food sources, which is important to satisfy the protein and carbohydrate requirements for growth, tissue synthesis, and reproduction. ...
... This ability to switch among several food types also helps them survive in periods of scarcity of their preferred food (Rex et al. 2010). Even so, some species are more food specialized and have a more restrict diet (e.g., Dermanura, Pygoderma, Desmodus) or consume just occasionally other resources (e.g., Macrotus, Lonchorrhina, Trinycteris) (Monteiro and Nogueira 2011;Reis et al. 2017). In these cases, the over-consumption of the same sources, such as fruits by herbivorous bats, may allow them to meet their protein requirements when eating a protein-poor diet. ...
... Most bats feed on insects, but other invertebrates, such as crustaceans, spiders, and scorpions, may also be part of their diet. The taxa of insects most (Kunz and Fenton 2005;Reis et al. 2017). The hardness of the prey eaten varies from soft (e.g., lepidopterans) to hard (e.g., coleopterans), and the capacity of these bats to feed on harder prey depends on their skull size, teeth morphology, and bite force. ...
... Indeed, while overall small, the body mass of aerial insectivore bats may vary by two orders of magnitude, from approximately 2 g in the Kitti's hognosed bat, Craseonycteris thonglongyai (Hill 1974;Ramos Pereira et al. 2006) to about 200 g in the naked bulldog bat Cheiromeles torquatus (Leong et al. 2009) and some larger species of the genus Hipposideros (Cotterill and Fergusson 1999;Heller 1995;Monadjem et al. 2010). In the Neotropics, aerial insectivores body masses range from about 4 g in the smallest Vespertilionidae to 40 g in the largest Molossidae (Reis et al. 2017). Considering these striking differences in body mass, both daily and seasonal environmental temperature variations must lead to distinct behavioural responses by aerial insectivores of different body masses. ...
... Genera were then grouped by body mass: the Vespertilionidae Myotis Kaup 1829 and Rhogeessa Allen 1866 occurring in the region, with average body mass between 4 and 8 g, were grouped as small bats, while the Molossidae Cynomops Thomas 1920 and Eumops Miller 1906, with average body mass between 30 and 35 g, were grouped as large bats. The remaining genera were classified as medium-sized bats (see Reis et al. 2017 for details on average body masses of the species of the genera occurring in the study area) and were not included in the analyses. ...
... For example, the lesser long-eared bat, Nyctophilus geoffroyi (8 g, Vespertilionidae), remained torpid throughout cold summer days in a subtropical region of Australia, when maximum daily temperatures did not exceed 18 °C (Turbill et al. 2003). Thermal tolerance depends on the intensity and duration to which animals are exposed to extreme conditions, so the range of temperature that an organism can endure should narrow when the time of exposure to that stressor increases (Rezende et al. 2014). Torpor, hibernation and migratory behaviour are well-known in the northern hemisphere and in some regions of the southern hemisphere like Australia, where bats have to deal with prolonged periods of extreme cold (Barclay 1991;Geiser and Körtner 2010;Genoud and Christe 2011;Nagel and Nagel 1991;Rodrigues and Palmeirim 2008). ...
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Small, volant and nocturnal, bats face strong challenges to avoid heat loss. Among aerial insectivores, body mass varies by two orders of magnitude between the smallest and the largest species. At low temperatures, physiological constraints should be harsher for smaller bats, as they lose more heat through their body surface than larger species. So, temperature variations should lead to distinct behavioural responses by bats of different body masses. Also, because they feed on arthropods, dependent on ambient temperature, aerial insectivores should halt feeding at low temperatures. Using ultrasound detectors and temperature and humidity sensors, we investigated how aerial insectivores of the coldest region in austral Brazil respond to nightly temperature variations and compared those responses between guilds of distinct body masses. We predict that smaller bats reduce their activity faster than larger bats, but that foraging should reduce simultaneously in the two guilds, as they depend on ectothermic prey. Bat activity reduced significantly below 12 °C. Larger bats maintained their activity at temperatures where the activity of smaller bats had already halted. However, larger bats foraged mostly during the first half of the night, at higher temperatures than those chosen by smaller bats to forage. We associate these differential responses to the thermal convection process, which may increase prey availability at higher altitudes, where larger molossids are known to forage. Smaller species, mostly edge-space hunters, probably take advantage of less variable prey availability during the night, resulting in a more regular behavioural pattern of navigation and foraging.
... This species is frequently recorded throughout the Amazonian areas (e.g., rural and urban areas - Bernard and Fenton, 2007;Tavares et al., 2008;Verde et al., 2018) and consumes fruits of the genus Piper spp. (Martins et al., 2014;Reis et al., 2017). In urban and degraded habitats, this bat species is also adaptive to artificial shelters (Lima, 2008), and feeds on exotic plants of the genus Syzygium spp. ...
... The presence of some species in the region can positively signal a low degree of urbanization. For example, the occurrence of species of the genus Peropteryx solely in rural areas indicates these areas are more forested and are less impacted than urban areas (Reis et al., 2017). Presence of native vegetation is considered an important factor affecting the distribution and abundance of nocturnal insects consumed by bats (Russo and Ancillotto, 2015). ...
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Bats and bat flies are intimately associated and are relevant models to study the effects of anthropogenic impacts when bats are highly distributed in urban environments. The lack of knowledge on bat's responses to the anthropogenic effects as related to their bat flies leads to ineffective conservation strategies. Thus, our goal is to describe the association between bats and bat flies in urban and non-urban environments and measuring how much urbanization can alter the parasite-host associations. We collected bats and bat flies in 11 sites (six urban areas and five non-urban areas) distributed among five municipalities of the state of Pará. To identify a possible pattern on communities, we conducted a Composition Principal Component Analysis and performed a permutational multivariate analysis of variance using distance matrices — PERMANOVA. We captured 513 bats and examined 867 bat flies. Our findings show that bat and bat fly communities of rural environments in the Amazon are more diverse than those from urban environments. Urbanization seems to play an essential role as an environmental filter of bats and bat fly species that are exclusively rural.
... Within mammals, bat communities have a high taxonomic richness, surpassed only by rodents (Sim mons, 2005;Reis et al., 2017). Bat characteristics, such as the ability to fly and orientate themselves acoustically, have enabled them to exploit different types of resources and consequently perform different and important ecological functions in different ecosystems (Ghanem and Voigt, 2012;Vilas, 2016), such as, insect predation (Maas et al., 2016), seed dispersal (Preciado-Benítez et al., 2015), and plant pollination (Sritongchuay et al., 2019). ...
... Mist-nets were kept open for five hours and reviewed every 20 minutes. Captured individuals were identified following the criteria of Barquez et al. (1999), Simmons andVoss (1998), LaVal (1973), and Reis et al. (2017). Bat euthanasia was authorized by the Ethics Committee on the Use of Animals of Community Univer sity of the Region of Chapecó (protocol nº 011/2018), and by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conse rvation (Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversi dade-ICMBio) under the collection license number 64276-1. ...
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Changes in landscape environmental characteristics may influence habitat use by bat species as well as species composition and community functional structure. Landscape features may drive the functional role variability of bat species on the ecosystems. Consequently, landscapes may change the degree of functional differentiation between species. We have evaluated the effect of pine forest monoculture and their environmental characteristics on the distribution and functional attributes of bat species. We sampled bat communities in areas with high (three sites) and low (three sites) forest land use management practices including six mist-netting locations in order to sample for bats at each site. In addition, we have also measured temperature, humidity, percentage of land use coverage (managed forest, agriculture, and native forest), and percentage of canopy openness at each site. We captured 87 bats belonging to eight species representing two families: Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae. For the functional analysis, we used three functional attributes to describe wing morphology: wing loading, aspect ratio, and forearm length. No significant effect of any environmental variable was observed on bat species composition. However, bat species distribution was driven by the ability associated with their functional attributes to occupy the space. Moreover, forearm length was positively correlated with forest cover, canopy openness, and humidity. Species with similar wing morphology have responded in a similar way to environmental variables in the studied areas. Functional dispersion was high in the native forest. The monoculture of exotic species may increase the functional attributes related with vulnerability as described by bat wing morphology. Therefore, the native forest conversion to pine forest monoculture may increase the loss of functional attributes in the bat community.
... tos, como, pelo comportamento social complexo, por sua maior longevidade e principalmente pela capacidade de voar, que além de ser uma característica única dentro da classe dos mamíferos, influi diretamente a esses animais um importante papel na manutenção ecossistêmica através da grande capacidade de dispersão que o voo possibilita (Reis et al. 2017;Jesus & Oliveira, 2017). Devido à toda essa grande diversidade a ecologia dos morcegos permanece pouco conhecida Pacheco et al. (2010). ...
... No que se refere a ecologia trófica, sabemos que, quando comparado com outros mamíferos a pressão predatória sobre a ordem é baixa (Tuttle & Stevenson, 1982;Reis et al. 2017). Em contrapartida diversos vertebrados e até mesmo invertebrados podem predar estes pequenos mamíferos casualmente (Duran & Lewis, 1985;Esbérard & Vrcibradic, 2007). ...
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A ecologia trófica de morcegos do Brasil continua pouco conhecida, não sendo até então, considerado a predação como algo significativo para a mortalidade desses animais. Apesar de haver poucos registros dessas interações, é sabido que, muitos animais com comportamento oportunista podem predá-los ocasionalmente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo relatar a predação oportunista de morcegos no Brasil, através de uma revisão bibliográfica das espécies que predaram morcegos em redes de neblina e em ambientes naturais, bem como, discorrer a viabilidade de essas interações serem habituais. O levantamento de dados foi feito a partir de revisão de literatura através de buscadores online, utilizando palavras-chaves em português e inglês. Localizamos cinquenta e três publicações relatando predações, nestas identificamos quarenta e nove vertebrados e dois invertebrados agindo como predadores fortuitos de morcegos. Esses registros são importantes para compreender se há um impacto efetivo na população de morcegos, além de agregar conhecimento aos estudos de chiropterofauna e consequentemente, sobre os hábitos alimentares dos predadores.
... Species average body mass were obtained from the literature (e.g. Kumirai & Jones, 1990; Rodr ıguez-Dur an & Kunz, 1992;Giannini & Barquez, 2003;Cole & Wilson, 2006;Reis et al. 2017). ...
... 100 Conhecidos como morcegos vampiros as três espécies que se alimentam de sangue são Desmodus rotundus, Diaemus youngii e Diphylla ecaudata. As duas últimas espécies, apesar da ampla distribuição geográfica, são mais raras (REIS et al., 2017) e a principal fonte de alimento é o sangue de aves, podendo eventualmente se alimentar de sangue de mamíferos (UIEDA, 1994;BOBROWIEC et al., 2015;ITO et al., 2016). A falta do conhecimento sobre a importância dos morcegos, dificulta a realização de estratégias de preservação desses animais. ...
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A utilização de jogos educativos voltados à educação ambiental é uma importante estratégia pedagógica que reforça o aspecto lúdico em muitas ações, estimulando o engajamento dos participantes e garantindo a abordagem de temáticas socioambientais. Este livro é uma coleção de jogos desenvolvidos por alunos do curso de pós-graduação em Educação Ambiental para Sustentabilidade do Centro Universitário Senac, campus Santo Amaro, localizado em São Paulo-SP. Ao todo são 13 capítulos, sendo dois teóricos e 11 jogos que tratam de diferentes temáticas, como mata atlântica, morcegos e hortas e que adotam distintas propostas pedagógicas, como quebra-cabeça, tabuleiros, jogo de cartas, entre outras. As propostas didáticas foram criadas por autores que residem em diferentes regiões do país, a saber sudeste, sul e norte, assim, temos ampliada a diversidade dos textos e o potencial desta obra em colaborar com o trabalho de educadores ambientais do país todo.
... Captured bats were sedated with an intraperitoneal injection of 10% ketamine (200 mg/kg) and 2% xylazine (20 mg/kg) solution at a ratio of 2:1, and blood was collected by cardiac puncture and stored at À20 C until DNA purification. Taxonomic identifications were based on analyses of skull and dental characters and on morphometric measurements (Moratelli et al. 2011;Reis et al. 2017;Loureiro et al. 2018). Subsequently, specimens were euthanized with 2.5% sodium thiopental (120 mg/kg) and spleen samples were collected and fixed in 99% pure isopropyl alcohol and submitted to DNA purification. ...
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Tick-borne protozoans of the genus Hepatozoon are obligate hemoparasites that can infect domestic and wild terrestrial vertebrates. Main hepatozoonosis affects canids and involves mainly Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon amer-icanum. However, molecular studies revealed the capacity of H. canis to infect a wide range of wild mammals. In July 2018, we conducted an epidemiological survey for tick-borne pathogens in wild hosts, assaying Hepatozoon sp. occurrence of in 34 bats captured in different habitats within a conservation unit in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Blood and spleen tissue DNA samples were submitted to PCR amplifications of Babesia/Theileria and Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene and 21% (7/34) were positive for Hepatozoon sp. Phylogenetic inferences grouped the obtained sequences from Seba's short-tailed bat (Carollia perspicillata) with the H. canis cluster, and from the great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus) with rodent-associated Hepatozoon cluster. Further studies are needed to characterize the epidemiological role of Seba's short-tailed bat and the great fruit-eating bat in the wild transmission cycle of these hemoparasites in Brazil.
... Captured bats were removed from the nests and placed in cotton bags for later identification. Bats were sexed, weighed and identified in the field according to Lim and Engstrom (2001); Gardner (2008), López-Baucells et al. (2016), and Reis et al. (2017). Species nomenclature follows Garbino et al. (2020). ...
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Across the globe, millions of hectares of native vegetation have been replaced by commercial plantations, with negative consequences for biodiversity. The effects of the replacement of native vegetation with commercial plantations on the functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages remain understudied, and most studies have focused exclusively on the taxonomic component of diversity. Here, we investigate how the replacement of natural savannahs by acacia plantations affects the α-and β-diversity of bat assemblages. We sampled bats, using mist-nets at ground level, in natural forest, savannah areas and acacia plantations, in the Lavrados de Roraima in the northern Brazilian Amazon. Our results show that, in general, acacia is less diverse than native forests in terms of taxonomic and functional diversity, and is also less taxonomically diverse than the savannah matrix which it substitutes. The observed patterns of α-and β-diversity found in the present study are in large part driven by the superabundance of one generalist and opportunistic species, Carollia perspicillata, in the acacia plantations. Taken together, our results show that the replacement of areas of natural savannah by acacia plantations causes a regional loss in diversity across all diversity dimensions: taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic. However, further studies are required to fully understand the ecological and conservation implications of this landscape change.
... Although host distribution does not determine the ectoparasite occurrence [47], the occurrence of S. chrotopteri in Rio de Janeiro State is not a surprise. Chrotopterus auritus is widespread in Brazil, occurring in most states and all biomes [48] and bears S. chrotopteri in few Atlantic Forest [49,50] and Cerrado sites [5,[51][52][53]. In Brazil, Basilia juquiensi has its geographic distribution in the Federal District and the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, Minas Gerais and São Paulo [10], occurring in Atlantic Forest and Cerrado sites [16,54]. ...
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PurposeNeotropical bats are infested by multiple ectoparasites (like bat fly and mite species) and investigations on these invertebrates on their hosts are crucial to better understand the ectoparasite-ectoparasite and ectoparasite-host associations. The goal of this study was to report ectoparasites species (bat flies and mites) on bats, emphasizing ectoparasite co-occurrences and host-ectoparasite associations. We also test if there is relationship between bat flies and mites on their hosts.Methods This study occurred twice a month from September 2011 to September 2012 in an Atlantic Forest remnant in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Spearman correlation was used to test relationship between bat flies and mites.ResultsWe found 27 species of ectoparasites on 13 species of bats. Ectoparasites belonged to the bat fly families Streblidae and Nycteribiidae, and the mite families Spinturnicidae, Macronyssidae, Sarcoptidae, and Trombiculidae. Streblid-streblid association was more frequent, but we also recorded streblid-spinturnicid, streblid-sarcoptid and spinturnicid-spinturnicid associations. The abundance of spinturnicid species was negatively related to the abundance of streblid species. We record the first occurrence of Strebla chrotopteri associated with Chrotopterus auritus, Periglischrus paracutisternus associated with Trachops cirrhosus and Basilia juquiensis associated with Myotis riparius for Rio de Janeiro State.Conclusion There were several co-occurrences between different taxa and between species of the same family. These results show the importance of the integrated taxonomic record. The negative interspecific interactions between spinturnicid and streblid may affect distributions, structuring ectoparasite communities on hosts.
... One external and 10 cranial measurements were taken to four adults individuals with a digital caliper (accurate to 0.01 mm) according to the parameters presented by Gregorin and Taddei (2002) and Reis et al. (2017): forearm length (FA), greatest length of skull (GLS), condyleincisive length (CIL), palatal length (PAL), zygomatic breadth (ZIB), post-orbital breadth (POB), braincase breadth (BCB), length of upper canine-last molar (C-M), upper molar breadth (M-M), mandible length (MAL), and length of lower canine-last molar (c-m). The taxonomic identification of the collected specimens was based on analysis of the morphological traits and measurements available for the Eumops species that occur in Brazil (Anderson 1972;Eger 1977;Best et al. 1996;Gregorin et al. 2016;Sartore et al. 2017). ...
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The Greater Bonneted Bat, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821), is widely distributed in Brazil, but valid records of its occurrence in Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-West Region, are still scarce and limited to the Pantanal portion of the state. Here, we report the first record of E. perotis from the Cerrado portion of Mato Grosso do Sul, based on specimens collected in an urban forest remnant in the municipality of Campo Grande. These specimens add to the records of E. perotis in the Cerrado of the Central-West and fill gaps in the distribution of this species.
... Estes animais diferem de outros pequenos mamíferos em diversos aspectos: normalmente, são mais longevos; podem ter comportamento social mais complexo, como cuidado compartilhado da prole ou altruísmo; e têm hábitos alimentares variados. Além disso, são os únicos mamíferos capazes de voar, o que afeta sua capacidade de dispersão, com efeito direto sobre seu endemismo (Oliveira & Pessôa, 2005;Reis et al., 2017). ...
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RESUMO: Apesar de os quirópteros serem um dos grupos mais diversos de mamíferos brasileiros ainda há várias áreas do país com lacunas em seu conhecimento. Este é o caso da Chapada Diamantina, no nordeste brasileiro, onde inventários que utilizaram as tradicionais redes de neblina produziram um conhecimento incipiente sobre as faunas locais de quirópteros. Metodologias mistas que incluam a recuperação de morcegos em egagrópilas de corujas enriquecem as listas de mamíferos voadores. Neste trabalho, são apresentadas as espécies de morcegos em egagrópilas da coruja-das-torres, Tyto furcata, coletadas em uma caverna no estado da Bahia. De 137 egagrópilas examinadas, 110 continham de um a quatro morcegos, totalizando 160 indivíduos. Outros 155 indivíduos foram recuperados de egagrópilas desassociadas no chão da caverna. Destes 315 indivíduos, 293 foram identificados e atribuídos a Lasiurus ega, uma espécie não determinada de Myotis, Eumops auripendulus, Noctilio leporinus, uma espécie não determinada de Glossophaga, Chrotopterus auritus, Phyllostomus discolor, Platyrrhinus lineatus e Artibeus obscurus. Observou-se uma dominância de morcegos no conteúdo das egagrópilas, diferentemente da maioria dos outros estudos similares, onde os roedores costumam apresentar-se como o grupo mais abundante. Com os dados apresentados aqui, a lista de espécies de morcegos para a região é enriquecida com Eumops auripendulus, Lasiurus ega, uma espécie indeterminada de Myotis, Chrotopterus auritus e Artibeus obscurus, bem como Desmodus rotundus, que não foi encontrado nas egagrópilas, mas estava presente em outras partes da caverna. Palavras-Chave: Molossidae; Noctilionidae; Phyllostomidae; Vespertilionidae; regurgitos de corujas.
... Com exceção do gênero Carollia spp., todos morcegos não hematófagos encontrados no município de S. Pedro compartilhavam abrigo outra espécie de morcego. Este gênero alimenta-se de frutos, néctar e insetos e apresenta ampla distribuição no Brasil, utilizando abrigos tanto em áreas florestais como urbanas (Reis et al., 2017). Há relatos de compartilhamento de Carollia perspicillata com D. rotundus e com o morcego nectarivoro Glossophaga soricina (Almeida, 2014). ...
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O morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus é o principal transmissor da raiva nos herbívoros domésticos e animais silvestres. A transmissão da raiva entre morcegos pode ocorrer por meio do ciclo aéreo, incluindo espécies de morcegos não hematófagos que habitam áreas antropizadas, havendo assim uma crescente preocupação do risco de exposição ao vírus rábico para animais carnívoros domésticos e seus proprietários. Este trabalho teve por objetivo elaborar um modelo de áreas vulneráveis à circulação do vírus da raiva, utilizando um modelo de análise de decisão por múltiplos critérios em Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG). Devido à ausência de casos de raiva na região, a vulnerabilidade à circulação do vírus da raiva no município de São Pedro variou em função da distância dos abrigos, do tamanho da população de morcegos que ocupavam os abrigos e do número de carnívoros domésticos habitando as residências humanas. O modelo pode ser usado na determinação de áreas vulneráveis à ocorrência de raiva otimizando ações de vigilância epidemiológica e educativas, concentrando seus esforços nas áreas mais vulneráveis, poupando assim tempo e recursos e aumentando a eficiência dos serviços.
... In Santa Catarina, Molossidae has 10 species recorded (Passos et al., 2010;Carvalho et al., 2017;Althoff et al., 2018), which includes the specie M. molossus, evaluated in the present study. These bats are medium size insectivores characterized by present rounded ears and close to the midline above the head, hair dark brown to reddish brown and a ventral tuft of hair on the upper lip (Weber et al., 2013;Reis et al., 2017). It is considered a synanthropic species, occurring often in urban areas where the human constructions are used as a shelter (Souza, 2011;Reis et al., 2012;Talamoni et al., 2013). ...
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The bats usually inhabit shelters with favorable conditions for fungal proliferation, including pathogenic and opportunistic species. The fungal diversity present on bats is little known and the studies are scarce in Brazil, which only a work has been performed in Cerrado and Pantanal biomes. Therefore, the objective of this study was evaluating the occurrence of filamentous fungi on the rostral region of Molossus molossus in an Atlantic Forest remnant of Brazil. The bats were captured with mist nets installed outside a shelter located in the municipality of Treviso, (28°29'23”S and 49°31'23”W), south region of state Santa Catarina. With a swab sterile moistened in saline solution, samples from the rostral region were obtained from all captured M. molossus individuals. The samples were taken to the laboratory for analysis and isolation in different culture media, followed of identification of fungal through the microculture technique. In total, 15 individuals were captured, which five fungal genus and 19 taxa were identified. Among the taxa registered, Aspergillioides sp.2, (47%), Penicillium sp.1 (33%), Chrysonilia sp. (33%), Cladosporium sp. (27%) were classified as little constant. In terms of abundance, Penicillium sp.1 (34%), Aspergillioides sp.2 (21%) and Aspergillus sp.2 (11%) were the most abundant in the samples. The results showed the occurrence of high diversity fungal in the rostral region of M. molossus in the Atlantic Forest, which is higher than observed in others Brazilian biomes. Some fungal genera found may harbor pathogenic and opportunistic species that need to be identified for preventing potential disease well as for bat conservation projects.
... Estes foram pesados em uma balança digital (BIOPRECISA), mensurados com o auxílio de paquímetro para obtenção do comprimento e posteriormente realizou-se a identificação das espécies por meio da análise da sua morfologia. As técnicas de campo para análise morfológica e identificação foram seguidas segundo Pacheco (2004); Reis et al. (2017). A confirmação das espécies de morcegos foi realizada por um especialista. ...
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O Brasil registra atualmente 181 espécies de morcegos descritas com 68 gêneros e nove famílias. Com relação aos endoparasitos em morcegos, há um registro de 59 espécies, dentre os quais, nematóides, acantocéfalos e platelmintos. No total foram capturados 64 morcegos, dos quais 26,5% (17/64) encontravam-se parasitados por helmintos, todos nematoides. A espécie Carollia perspicillata apresentou a maior diversidade parasitária, apresentando infecção por três dos cinco gêneros de nematóides encontrados: Histiostrongylus sp., Tricholeiperia sp. e Litomosoides sp. Os morcegos Phyllostomus discolor e Sturnira lilium apresentaram infecção por Histiostrongylus coronatus. Os nematóides Histiostrongylus sp. e Tricholeiperia sp. foram encontrados infectando morcegos do gênero Trinycteris nicefori. e o morcego Lophostoma silvícola estava parasitado por nematóides da família Ornithostrongylidae. Os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho reforçam a necessidade de maiores estudos na área de parasitologia de quirópteros, uma vez que elevados índices parasitários podem afetar o animal de diversas formas, principalmente reduzindo suas aptidões físicas.
... S) and "Florestinha" (CEA Flor.; 54°33′ 43.352 W and 20°24′ 11.614 S) (Fig. 1). The animals and their ectoparasites (Diptera: Streblidae and Nycteribiidae; Acarina: Macronyssidae, Spinturnicidae and Argasidae) were identified using the identification keys for bats (Reis et al. 2017) and parasites (Herrin and Tripton 1975;Wenzel 1976;Guimarães et al. 2001). The bats were then taken to the laboratory and euthanized using 10% ketamine and 1% acepromazine association at 9:1 ratio and 0.1 mL/kg injected intramuscularly. ...
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Piroplasmida is an order of the phylum Apicomplexa that comprises the Babesia, Cytauxzoon, and Theileria genera. These hemoparasites infect vertebrate blood cells and may cause serious diseases in animals and humans. Even though previous studies have shown that bats are infected by different species of piroplasmids, the occurrence and diversity of these hemoparasites have not been investigated in this group of mammals in Brazil. Therefore, the present work aimed to investigate the occurrence and assess the phylogenetic placement of piroplasmids infecting bats sampled in a peri-urban area from Central-Western Brazil. Seventeen (12.6%) out of 135 animals were positive by nested PCR assay for the detection of Babesia/Theileria targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Eleven sequences of the 17 positive samples could be analyzed and showed an identity of 91.8–100% with Theileria bicornis, Babesia vogeli, a Babesia sp. identified in a small rodent (Thrichomys pachyurus) from the Brazilian Pantanal and a Babesia sp. identified in a dog from Thailand as assessed by nBLAST. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from an alignment of 1399 bp length using analyzed and known piroplasmid 18S rRNA sequences. In this tree, piroplasmid 18S rRNA sequences detected in three specimens of Phyllostomus discolor (Piroplasmid n. sp., P. discolor) were placed as a sister taxon to Theileria sensu stricto (Clade V) and Babesia sensu stricto (Clade VI). An additional phylogenetic tree was generated from a shorter alignment of 524 bp length including analyzed piroplasmid 18S rRNA sequences of bat species Artibeus planirostris and A. lituratus (Piroplasmid sp., Artibeus spp.). The two 18S rRNA sequences detected in Artibeus spp. (Piroplasmid n. sp., Artibeus spp.) were placed within Babesia sensu stricto (Clade VI) into a strongly supported clade (bootstrap: 100) that included Babesia vogeli. The two 18S rRNA sequences of Piroplasmid sp., Artibeus spp. showed a single and a two-nucleotide differences, respectively, with respect to B. vogeli in a 709 pb length alignment. For the first time, the present study shows the occurrence of putative new piroplasmid species in non-hematophagous bats from Brazil.
... At present, 86 bat species in eight families and 43 genera are known to occur in Pernambuco (Reis et al. 2017;Loureiro et al. 2018;Barbier et al. 2019). This tally includes 70 species in the state's semiarid Caatinga scrublands and 66 species found in the small fragments of Atlantic Forest that persist in the state. ...
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This study presents the first record of Trinycteris nicefori Sanborn, 1949 from the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. The specimens were collected in the municipalities of Recife and São Lourenço da Mata in fragments of the Atlantic Forest. Three females were collected. The measurements and coloration pattern of these specimens are consistent with the diagnosis of the species. This record establishes a new limit for the known distribution of T. nicefori in Brazil, extending this range approximately 450 km to the most northeastern part of the Atlantic Forest.
... Lactating and/or pregnant females were released after field screening, as well as individuals who reached the maximum number of species collected per location as per license permits. The animals and their ectoparasites were identified using previously described identification keys for bats [43,44] and ectoparasites [45][46][47] (Table S1). The bats were then taken to the Laboratory of Parasitc Biology of the Catholic University Dom Bosco. ...
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The relationship among bats, ectoparasites and associated microorganisms is important to investigate how humans can become exposed to zoonotic agents. Even though the diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats and ectoparasites has been previously reported, the occurrence of gltA genotypes within hosts has not been assessed so far. We aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. in non-hematophagous bats and associated ectoparasites by assessing cloned gltA Bartonella genotypes in intra- and inter-hosts levels, as well as by using three additional molecular markers. Overall, 13.5% (18/133) bat blood samples, 17.18% bat flies (11/64) and 23.8% (5/21) Macronyssidae mite pools showed to be positive for Bartonella spp. Seventeen positive samples were submitted to gltA-cloning and three clones were sequenced for each sample. We also obtained 11, seven and three sequences for nuoG, rpoB and ftsZ genes, respectively. None were positive for the other target genes. We found at least two genotypes among the three gltA-cloned sequences from each sample, and 13 between all the 51 sequences. Among the nuoG, rpoB and ftsZ sequences we found eight, five and three genotypes, respectively. In the phylogenetic analysis, the sequences were positioned mainly in groups related to Bartonella identified in rodents, bats and bat flies. Herein, we showed the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bat’s blood and associated ectoparasites samples at both intra- and inter-host levels.
... Bats are the group of mammals with the second highest species diversity in the Neotropics (Findley, 1993;Nowak, 1994;Voss & Emmons, 1996;Burgin et al., 2018), only behind rodents. It has 1.386 species world wide (Burgin et al., 2018) and 180 recorded in Brazil (Reis et al., 2017), with seven species included on Brazilian Fauna Red List (ICMBIo/MMA, 2018). Bats maintain parasitic relationships, such as endoparasitism and ectoparasitism. ...
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Due to the small number of records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of the Atlantic Forest. The present study was carried out at Bom Retiro Farm Natural Heritage Private Reserve. We captured 401 bats of 17 species, 13 genera, and four families; bat flies infested 221 bats of only four species. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) has the highest fly diversity, with seven fly species: Trichobius joblingi (Wenzel, 1966) (n = 23), Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926) (n = 15), Strebla guajiro (García & Casal, 1965) (n = 15), Aspidoptera falcata (Wenzel, 1976) (n = 6) Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907) (n = 8), Paraeuctenodes similis (Wenzel 1976) (n = 3), and Trichobius anducei (Guerrero, 1998) (n = 1). Two species infested Platyrrhinus lineatus (É. Geoffroy, 1810): Aspidoptera falcata (n = 1) and Anastrebla caudiferae (Wenzel, 1996) (n = 1). Paradyschiria parvula (Falcoz, 1931) (n = 11) infested Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758) and M. proxima (n = 12) and Trichobius uniformis (Curran, 1935) (n = 1) infested Sturnira lilium (É. Geoffroy, 1842). Sturnira lilium has the highest infestation rate, with ten out of 46 captured individuals parasitized, followed by Carollia perspicillata, with 33 out of 164 captured parasitized, and by P. lineatus with only two parasitized individuals out of ten. Among 97 streblid flies captured, M. proxima was the most abundant (27.83%), followed by T. joblingi (23.71%), and S. guajiro (15.46%). All remaining bat fly species represented 33%. Paradichyria parvula has the first record for Rio de Janeiro State.
... For the genus Pteronotus, we considered all individuals to be Pteronotus sp. because we cannot identify if the individuals are P. alinotus or P. rubiginosus, which has been recently recorded in this region (Thoisy et al. 2014;Pavan et al. 2018). Bats were sexed, weighed and identified in the field according to Lim and Engstrom (2001), Gardner (2008), Reis et al. (2017) and Lòpez-Baucells et al. (2018). Nomenclature of species follows Garbino et al. (2020). ...
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The high levels of biodiversity in the Amazon are maintained mostly due to its composition as a natural mosaic of different habitats, including both unflooded and flooded forests, campinaranas, and savannahs. Here, we compared multiple dimensions of α-and β-bat biodiversity between four natural Amazonian habitats (savannah, campinarana, forest patches, and continuous forest). In addition, we explored the extent to which bat communities in the different habitats are nested within one another, and compared the community-level functional uniqueness and community-weighted mean traits between habitats. Our results show that taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic α-diversity of bats is higher in continuous forest than in any of the other habitat types. The continuous forest also harbours more unique species, and indeed, the bat community assemblages in the less-complex habitats, including forest patches, campinarana and savannahs, are taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic subsets of the assemblage found in the continuous forest. By examining β-diversity partitions and species composition, we are able to shed light on the mechanisms behind the variation in diversity between the four habitat types, which reflect a process of environmental sorting along a habitat gradient going from a more complex to a less complex habitat. We conclude that nesting patterns along the mosaic of habitats are determined by differences in complexity between habitats and that taxonomic and functional uniqueness contribute to overall regional bat diversity and functionality. Ongoing human-induced disturbances of these habitats could provoke an unprecedented loss of bat diversity and functionality with negative consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services.
... Vários estudos já foram conduzidos na tentativa de compreender melhor esse grupo tão diverso. Os estudos anatômicos em morcegos estão voltados, principalmente, para identificação de espécies, por meio de medições de crânios, morfometria e morfologia [5,3,6,11,12,13,14]. Já os estudos moleculares em morcegos ganharam destaque nas últimas décadas na resolução de conflitos taxonômicos, análise populacional e/ ou identificação de espécies crípticas [15,16,17,18,19,20,21]. ...
... Four out of these 15 bats (26.7%) were caught in the rural area of the municipality of Mandaguaçu, six (40%) in Ingá Park and five (33.3%) in the rural area of the municipality of Paiçandu. These bats were placed in individual cloth bags, chemically restrained (xylazine 4.0 mg/kg and ketamine 20.0 mg/kg), euthanized using isoflurane in a carbon dioxide chamber and identified at the species level (Reis, Peracchi, Batista, Lima, & Pereira, 2017). Four species were identified: Artibeus lituratus (7/15; 46.67%), Carollia perspicillata (2/15; 13.33%), Sturnira lilium (4/15; 26.67%) and Sturnira tildae (2/15; 13.33%). ...
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The order Chiroptera is the second largest group of mammals with bats being identified as reservoir of several viral zoonoses, although, little is known about their role in other groups of pathogens, including hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. To date, hemoplasma species have been found infecting several species of bats with high genetic diversity between 16S rRNA gene sequences. On this study, we aimed to identify the occurrence and characterize 16S and 23S rRNA genes of hemoplasma species in four bats species (Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium and Sturnira tildae) from forest fragments in Paraná State, southern Brazil, using PCR-based assays. Spleen tissue samples were collected, DNA extracted and further screened by a pan‑hemoplasma PCR assay. All samples consistently amplified the mammal endogenous gapdh gene. One out of 15 (6.66%; 95% CI: 0.2-31%) bats tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. by the PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragment from the hemoplasma-positive bat showed 99.14% identity with hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. detected in Sturnira parvidens from Belize. Sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene fragment from the hemoplasma-positive bat showed 86.17% identity with ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosphiggurus’ detected in orange-spined hairy dwarf porcupines (Sphiggurus villosus) from Southern Brazil.
... A nomenclatura taxonômica segue Faria et al. (2019), Patton et al. (2015), Reis et al. (2017) e atualizada de acordo com Abreu et al. (2021). A maioria das amostras de tecidos e cariótipos se referem a espécimes cujas peles, crânios e esqueletos foram depositados em coleções como o Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro) e Museu de Zoologia da USP (São Paulo), configurando uma coleção com maior ênfase em dados citogenéticos e genéticos. ...
Article
Coleções científicas são importantes repositórios e testemunhos do conhecimento sobre a biodiversidade, sendo fontes de referência para diversas linhas de pesquisa. Criada em 1996, a Coleção de Mamíferos do Laboratório de Mastozoologia da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) conta atualmente com amostras de tecidos, cariótipos (células em suspensão), peles, crânios e esqueletos de mamíferos coletados e/ou recebidos de colaboradores. Trata-se de coleção de pesquisa com 2.486 registros de espécimes na forma de tecidos (2.200), núcleos mitóticos em suspensão (1.085 preparações cariológicas), peles taxidermizadas (159), crânios (385), esqueletos parciais (148) e em meio líquido (198 Chiroptera e 40 Rodentia). Provenientes de 166 localidades, distribuídas na Floresta Atlântica (131), Caatinga (20), Cerrado (12) e Floresta Amazônica (3), sendo o estado do Rio de Janeiro com o maior número de localidades (82). Inclui espécies das Ordens Carnivora (Canidae, Felidae e Procyonidae), Cingulata (Chlamyphoridae e Dasypodidae), Chiroptera (Emballonuridae, Molossidae, Natalidae, Phyllostomidae e Vespertilionidae), Didelphimorphia (Didelphidae), Lagomorpha (Leporidae), Primates (Atelidae) e Rodentia (Caviidae, Cricetidae, Dasyproctidae, Echimyidae, Erethizontidae, Muridae e Sciuridae). Espécies mais representadas são Akodon cursor (302 espécimes/63 localidades), Marmosops incanus (115/29), Castoria angustidens (107/11) e Cerradomys vivoi (104/7). Essa coleção destaca-se pelas amostras de tecidos e de cariótipos que, apesar das dificuldades de manutenção, representam banco importante principalmente para estudos taxonômicos, filogenéticos e filogeográficos, tendo permitido a publicação de relevante produção científica e trabalhos em colaboração.
... Collected specimens were deposited in the mammals´ collection of the Department of Zoology of the Universidade Federal of Minas Gerais. The identification of the bats was based on the keys available in Gardner (2008), Miranda et al. (2011), andReis et al. (2017), and on additional taxonomic literature (i.e., Woodman and Timm 2006;Velazco et al. 2010;Moratelli et al. 2011;Wilson and Mittermeier 2019). Taxonomy follows Wilson and Mittermeier (2019) and Garbino et al. (2020). ...
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We characterize the bat fauna of forested sites in the municipality of Domingos Martins, Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil, and update the list of bat species of the state. We conducted a rapid inventory using ground-level mist nets (27,000 m²·h effort) and occasional roost searching, which resulted in a list of 23 species belonging to Phyllostomidae (18 species), Vespertilionidae (3), and Molossidae (2). We report the first record of Molossops neglectus Williams & Genoways, 1980 and Myotis lavali Moratelli, Peracchi, Dias & Oliveira, 2011 from Espírito Santo, bringing the total number of confirmed species in the state to 86. The molossid Nyctinomops laticaudatus (É. Geoffroy, 1805) was exclusively recorded in its diurnal roost in rocky outcrops. Our study fills knowledge gaps in the distribution of bat species in southeastern Brazil, and more specifically in the highly diverse coastal Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo. These data reinforce the importance of continuously inventorying and documenting bats in the Neotropics.
... • Mammal names followed a set of five bibliographies (Paglia et al., 2012;Nogueira et al., 2014;Patton et al., 2015;Graipel et al., 2017;Reis et al., 2017). ...
Article
Brazilian biodiversity is undergoing numerous attacks and misguided policies that aim to reduce protected areas (PAs) with the main argument of expanding agribusiness to improve the country's economic performance. An example is the draft law (DL) 527/2016, which aimed to reduce approximately 70% of the Devonian Escarpment Environmental Protection Area (DEEPA), a large PA in southern Brazil, hosts two biodiversity hotspot biomes. This study shows the possible downsizing damages to biodiversity and landscape by quantifying the size and connectivity of the vegetation remnants in the surrounding landscape concerning the degree of threat to the species that occur in both the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Savanna domains. The DEEPA downsizing can affect natural savanna and Atlantic Forest vegetation area proposed by DL 527/2016 would fail in protecting 383 (56.82%) of the threatened species. Only three species evaluated as critically endangered, 13 classified as endangered , and 13 classified as vulnerable would be preserved; the reduction would also negatively affect essential ecosystem services and the quality of life in human populations. Furthermore, man-made fragmentation and habitat loss would jeopardize several biological and ecological aspects fundamental to biomes' maintenance and ecosystem services. In addition to reducing this environmental protection area, it would cut taxes from the current PA and could affect its surrounding municipalities in southern Brazil.
... The rabies virus (RABV) has been isolated in several bats species in the world, and among them, hematophagous, frugivorous and insectivorous species (Brass, 1994). In Brazil, of 180 bat species identified (Reis et al., 2017) at least 44 were diagnosed positive for rabies (Sodré et al., 2010;Scheffer, 2011;Almeida et al., 2019). ...
Article
The rabies virus (RABV) has been isolated in several bats species in the world, and among them, hematophagous, frugivorous and insectivorous species. Bats found in Brazil are small, which can lead to situations in which there are limitations in the collection of the central nervous system (CNS) and the amount of material may be insufficient to carry out laboratory diagnostic techniques for rabies. The objective of this work was to evaluate an alternative sample collection for the diagnosis of rabies in bats. A total of 92 bat samples, 82 positives and 10 negatives were selected. The cranial cavity was scraped with the aid of sterile tips and a virus diluent was added to create a suspension. All samples were submitted to Rabies Tissue Culture Infection Test (RTCIT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the RTCIT and RT-PCR using the cranial cavity lavage were calculated in comparison with the results of the laboratory routine (DFAT and RTCIT) performed with the CNS (considered gold standard). The results of the RTCIT show that the cranial cavity lavage is not an adequate sample for viral isolation, since the diagnostic sensitivity was low (37.8%) when compared with the tests with the CNS. However, the RT-PCR of the cranial cavity lavage may be a tool to assist in the diagnosis, since it presented a sensitivity of 76.8%. The results of this study suggest that cranial cavity lavage is an interesting alternative to enable the diagnosis of rabies in bats and increases the possibility of diagnosis contributing to rabies surveillance and control.
... The nets were kept open for 5 h and reviewed every 20 min. The captured specimens were identified following the criteria of Barquez et al. (1999), Simmons andVoss (1998), LaVal (1973) and Reis et al. (2017). All procedures involving capture and handling of animals were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Universidade Comunit aria da Região de Chapec o (protocol number 011/2018). ...
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Different land uses can influence the way species are distributed across the landscape, which can generate arguments and justifications for conservation and the management of potential areas for conservation. Our study aimed to evaluate the structural complexity of the habitat (canopy openness) and the different land uses (native forest cover, silviculture and agriculture) in the composition of species of the bat community in areas of native forest and silviculture. We also aimed to compare the richness, abundance and beta diversity between these habitats. Bats were captured using mist nets during 21 nights of sampling in each area. We found an unusual pattern for bat assemblages in Neotropical regions, registering greater species richness for the family Vespertilionidae. No significant differences were found between the two areas regarding the abundance, species composition and beta diversity. The native forest area showed greater species richness, corroborating our hypothesis. We demonstrated how bat species are distributed in habitats with different land uses, as well as the importance of native forest areas to maintain the set of regional species.
... Bats were captured with mist nets (9 × 3 m, with 16 mm mesh) set up from 18:00h to 00:00h in possible bat routes, which were inspected every 30 minutes. The animals were recorded and identified to species level following specialized bibliography (Vizotto and Taddei 1973;Gardner 2008;Reis et al. 2013;Nogueira et al. 2014;Reis et al. 2017). Both species have very evident white facial stripes, however, among other differences, they have different sizes (with forearm 38 to 40 mm in D. anderseni and 34 to 38 mm in D. gnoma) and different dental formulas (I2 / 2, C1 / 1, P2 / 2, M2 / 2 = 32 for D. anderseni and I2 / 2, C1 / 1, P2 / 2, M2 / 3 = 30 for D. gnoma). ...
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Dermanura Gervais, 1856 is represented by small frugivorous bats of the Stenodermatinae subfamily. The taxonomy of this group presents controversies and has been subject to changes, especially since the morphological characters evaluated have left gaps that are difficult to fill regarding good species characterization. Previous studies performed in Dermanura cinerea Gervais, 1856 found that the karyotype of this species has a diploid number of chromosomes equal to 30 and 56 autosomal arms. The objective of the present study was to describe, for the first time, the karyotypes of the species Dermanura anderseni (Osgood, 1916) and Dermanura gnoma (Handley, 1987) based on classical cytogenetic markers. For both species, the diploid number found was 2n = 30 and NFa = 56. Two pairs of chromosomes showed markings of the nucleolus organizing regions (AgNORs) in the species D. anderseni and only one pair in D. gnoma , differing from what has already been described for D. cinerea . The two species analyzed here also showed differences in the sex chromosome system, with D. gnoma showing a neo-XY type system while in D. anderseni the classic XY sexual system was observed. In both species, visualization of the constitutive heterochromatin occurred in the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes, as well as in the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosomes. The present work represents an important expansion of karyotypic information for the subfamily Stenodermatinae, bringing chromosomal features that are possible to use in the taxonomic implications of the group.
... The species in the suborder Microchiroptera mostly feed on insects. Dietary composition is mostly Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera Reis et al., 2017). Insectivorous bat species can catch insects in different ways: "aerial insectivores" catch insects in flight, while "gleaning insectivores" take them from the substrate (Findley, 1993, Schnitzler andKalko, 1998). ...
... Estes foram pesados em uma balança digital (BIOPRECISA), mensurados com o auxílio de paquímetro para obtenção do comprimento e posteriormente realizou-se a identificação das espécies por meio da análise da sua morfologia. As técnicas de campo para análise morfológica e identificação foram seguidas segundo Pacheco (2004); Reis et al. (2017). A confirmação das espécies de morcegos foi realizada por um especialista. ...
... The species in the suborder Microchiroptera mostly feed on insects. Dietary composition is mostly Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera Reis et al., 2017). Insectivorous bat species can catch insects in different ways: "aerial insectivores" catch insects in flight, while "gleaning insectivores" take them from the substrate (Findley, 1993, Schnitzler andKalko, 1998). ...
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This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Leishmania infection in bats in urban and wild areas in an endemic municipality for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Between April 2014 to April 2015, 247 bats were captured and classified into 26 species belonging to Phyllostomidae (90.7%), Vespertilionidae (8.1%) and Molossidae (1.2%) families. Blood samples from 247 bats were collected and submitted to nested-PCR, targeting the variable V7-V8 region of the SSU rRNA gene, followed by sequencing of the PCR product. The overall infection rate of Leishmania spp in bats was 4.4%. Of the eleven bats infected, ten were frugivorous bats: Artibeus planirostris (8/11), Artibeus lituratus (1/11) and Artibeus cinereus (1/11) and one a nectarivorous bat (Glossophaga soricina). None of the individuals exhibited macroscopic alterations in the skin, spleen or liver. Phylogenetic analysis separated Leishmania species in clades corresponding to the subgenera Viannia, Leishmania, and Mundinia, and supported that the isolates characterized in the present study clustered tightly with with Leishmania (Viannia) sp., Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Here we report for the first time the bat Artibeus cinereus as a host of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. In the study we found that the mean abundance of bats did not differ in wild habitats and urban areas and that bat-parasite interactions were similarly distributed in the two environments. On the other hand, further studies should be conducted in more recent times to verify whether there has been changes in these parameters.
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Flying mammals present unique intestinal adaptations, such as lower intestinal surface area than nonflying mammals, and they compensate for this with higher paracellular absorption of glucose. There is no consensus about the mechanistic bases for this physiological phenomenon. The surface area of the small intestine is a key determinant of the absorptive capacity by both the transcellular and the paracellular pathways; thus, information about intestinal surface area and micro‐anatomical structure can help explain differences among species in absorptive capacity. In order to elucidate a possible mechanism for the high paracellular nutrient absorption in bats, we performed a comparative analysis of intestinal villi architecture and enterocyte size and number in microchiropterans and rodents. We collected data from intestines of six bat species and five rodent species using hematoxylin and eosin staining and histological measurements. For the analysis we added measurements from published studies employing similar methodology, making in total a comparison of nine species each of rodents and bats. Bats presented shorter intestines than rodents. After correction for body size differences, bats had ~41% less nominal surface area (NSA) than rodents. Villous enhancement of surface area (SEF) was ~64% greater in bats than in rodents, mainly because of longer villi and a greater density of villi in bat intestines. Both taxa exhibited similar enterocyte diameter. Bats exceeded rodents by ~103% in enterocyte density per cm2 NSA, but they do not significantly differ in total number of enterocytes per whole animal. In addition, there is a correlation between SEF and clearance per cm2 NSA of L‐arabinose, a nonactively transported paracellular probe. We infer that an increased enterocyte density per cm2 NSA corresponds to increased density of tight junctions per cm2 NSA, which provides a partial mechanistic explanation for understanding the high paracellular absorption observed in bats compared to nonflying mammals. Bats have longer and denser villi per unit intestinal nominal surface area (area of the bore tube) than rodents providing a larger total number of enterocytes which in turn produces more tight junctions. This differential intestinal morphology architecture gives the basis to explain an enhanced absorption of water‐soluble solutes through the paracellular route that compensates for shorter intestines and higher or similar energy requirements in bats than in non‐flying mammals.
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Bats perform important ecological functions as consequence of their diet. Food choice is associated with body size and morphology, and therefore, with taxonomic relationships. Here we describe the diet of bats and test for associations between diet and body mass or phylogeny. Bats were captured in mist nets in Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. We collected fecal samples and identified food items from feces. We used cluster analysis to test for associations between diet and body mass or phylogeny. A total of 245 bats were caught in five families, 20 genera and 29 species, and from which we gathered 134 fecal samples. With an average of 5.2 fecal samples (1–28) per species, we identified 26 taxa of food items, which included pollen, fruits of 11 species of plants, four orders of insects and a single vertebrate. Bats were divided into six main groups (guilds) based on diet: frugivore, frugivore-insectivore, insectivore, insectivore-frugivore, insectivore-nectarivore and hematophagous. Guilds vary in the number of species that belong to each and there were differences in the proportion of consumption of each type of food item and/or the different consumption of specific items within the same group. Body mass was not a good indicator of diet, but bat size can play an important role in resource partitioning. Diet is more associated with phylogeny, although taxonomic relationship is not a deterministic indicator of food habits. Some taxonomic groups seem more conservative than others, while the family Phyllostomidae is characterized by a great diet diversification among its representatives.
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A Herpetofauna é composta por espécies de anfíbios e répteis. O estudo em conjunto desses grupos é possível graças a aspectos variados de seus modos de vida e biologia, que permitem aos herpetólogos o emprego das mesmas técnicas (ou similares) em investigações de campo e laboratório (VITT; CALDWELL, 2014).
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Allintoshius Chitwood, 1937 is the only genus of the family Ornithostrongylidae (Travassos, 1937) Durette-Desset and Chabaud, 1981 that parasitizes bats. Currently, there are 10 valid species in the genus, of which 3 were described from Brazil. This study describes a new species of Allintoshius and records the first occurrence of a nematode of this genus parasitizing Artibeus lituratus (Olfers). Allintoshius gomesae n. sp. is characterized by having anterior region coiled, cephalic vesicle with cuticular dilation striated transversely, and claviform esophagus. Synlophe in females consists of 16 cuticular ridges at the mid-body. Males have large caudal bursa, and conic and small spicules, and the gubernaculum is absent. Females have uterus didelphic, amphidelphic, tail tip tapered, and ovijector divided into 2 divergent branches, subequal in length. The new species differs from its congeners especially by the shape of the tail tip, vulvar opening, and size of spicules. Allintoshius gomesae is the fourth species of Allintoshius from Brazil and the first report in Ar. lituratus, increasing the number of species recognized of the genus.
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Urban green areas are an important instrument for the conservation of wildlife. However, urban habitats are fragmented and often isolated, resulting in a decline in species richness. Faunistic inventories in urban green areas significantly increase the knowledge on biodiversity and contribute to the understanding about impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on wild communities. Thus, our goal was to characterize, for the first time, the species composition of the community of small terrestrial and flying mammals that inhabit the park of Instituto Butantan in the municipality of São Paulo. Seventeen species were recorded, seven of which are terrestrial small mammals and 10 are bats. The species recorded for the park are common in other urban fragments, indicating synanthropic characteristics. We observed that attributes such as the degree of isolation of the fragment and dispersal capacity of animals represent critical factors for the presence and abundance of the sampled species. For terrestrial small mammals, the park’s isolation acts as a barrier to recolonization, resulting in low species richness. However, for bats, isolation is not a limiting characteristic due to the dispersion capacity of these animals. Thus, the fragment offers a point of shelter and foraging for species of chiropterans in the municipality of São Paulo.
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The availability of shelter in karst areas affects the richness, abundance, and assemblage composition of bat species and may play an important role in movement dynamics, activity patterns, and foraging behavior. Our work in the midwestern region in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, showed a high richness of the bat fauna, given the anthropic impact caused by mineral exploration and agricultural activities, thus leaving vegetation islands over karst areas in a vast anthropized matrix. Sampling at 12 sites resulted in 1,444 captures of bats, representing 30 species. Our beta diversity partitioning analyses indicated a pattern of turnover, i.e. species replacement, suggesting that these vegetation fragments may function as ecological springboards or stopping points.
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