Article

Transparenz und Anonymität: Potentiale, Grenzen, Irrtümer

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Zusammenfassung In ihrer Funktion, Einsicht zu gewähren, wird die Transparenz in aktuellen medialen Diskursen als Garantie gegen Korruption und Ungleichheit idealisiert. Häufig genug wird ihr in diesem Zuge ein intrinsischer politischer Wert zugeschrieben: Sie gilt als konstitutives Element einer demokratischen Öffentlichkeit. Anonymität dagegen wird in ihrer Funktion, Unerreichbarkeit zu gewähren, mit Rückzug und damit der Umsetzung von persönlichen Freiheitsansprüchen verbunden. Diese Zuschreibung ist der Grund dafür, warum mit Bezug auf die Anonymität eine leichtfertige Bereitschaft besteht, diese zu Gunsten von Gemeinwohlinteressen (Sicherheit, ökonomische Vorteile etc.) einzutauschen. Der Beitrag kritisiert die skizzierte Konstellation in zweifacher Hinsicht: Zum einen nimmt er die Idealisierung von Transparenz kritisch in den Blick, indem er auf ihre Grenzen hinweist und die Gefahren verdeutlich, die sich daraus ergeben mögen, wenn diese Grenzen nicht ernst genommen werden. Zum anderen weist er auf die sozialen Potentiale der Anonymität hin, vor deren Hintergrund deutlich wird, warum es fatal ist, soziale Praktiken der Anonymität leichthin der Sichtbarkeit preis zu geben. Der Beitrag gelangt zu zwei Schlussfolgerungen: 1. Unter den richtigen Umständen können beide Mechanismen korrektiv gegen strukturell verankerte Machtungleichgewichte eingesetzt werden. 2. Dabei verlangen sie aber beide ihre Tribute.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... 11 Vgl. Helm (2017). 12 Vgl. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The increasing complexity of networked systems casts doubt on the self-determination in the digital sphere. Externally predetermined algorithms and practices of third-party data processing raise questions as to the protection of and the danger to autonomy and the freedom of expression. At the same time, the legal, political, ethical, social, and economic responsibility for the consequences of digital transformation processes for societies, collectives, and individuals remains undetermined. Precisely in this field, the present interdisciplinary volume would like to stimulate a discussion on responsibilities and impact assessments; in which regard, it researches problems in digital cultures, tackles possible solutions, and discusses conflicts of economic, political, and social systems. With contributions by Anna K. Bernzen, Barbara Büttner & Carsten Ochs, Stephan Dreyer, Hans-Christian Gräfe & Andrea Hamm, Hermann Jakobi & Elizaveta Saponchik, Thomas Krämer-Badoni & Jens Crueger, Wulf Loh, Tim Raupach & Phillip Siedenburg, Caroline Richter & Christian Lenk, Alexander Schiff, Julia Schröder, Lea Watzinger and Florian Wittner
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the evolving definition of transparency from a postmodernist approach. It traces the meaning of transparency from its use by nongovernmental and supranational organizations to its use in the international relations, nonprofit, public policy, and administration literature. It finds that the definition of transparency reveals three metaphors: transparency as a public value embraced by society to counter corruption, transparency synonymous with open decision-making by governments and nonprofits, and transparency as a complex tool of good governance in programs, policies, organizations, and nations. In the first metaphor, transparency is subtly intertwined with accountability. In the second, as transparency encourages openness, it increases concerns for secrecy and privacy. In the third, policymakers create transparency alongside accountability, efficiency, and effectiveness. The analysis concludes that these meanings affect the way organization members conduct and will conduct their day-to-day activities and how policies are and will be created. Transparency is becoming an unofficial mandate by the public and is often a legal mandate.
Article
Full-text available
To paraphrase Mark Twain, reports of either the recent death or coming dominance of anonymity have been greatly exaggerated. This article is a beginning effort to lay out some of the conceptual landscape needed to better understand anonymity and identifiability in contemporary life. I suggest seven types of identity knowledge, involving legal name, location, symbols linked and not linked back to these through intermediaries, distinctive appearance and behavior patterns, social categorization, and certification via knowledge or artifacts. I identify a number of major rationales and contexts for anonymity (free flow of communication, protection, experimentation) and identifiability (e.g., accountability, reciprocity, eligibility) and suggest a principle of truth in the nature of naming , which holds that those who use pseudonyms on the Internet in personal communications have an obligation to indicate they are doing so. I also suggest 13 procedural questions to guide the development and assessment of any internet policy regarding anonymity.
Article
Full-text available
The concepts of transparency and accountability are closely linked: transparency is supposed to generate accountability. This article questions this widely held assumption. Transparency mobilises the power of shame, yet the shameless may not be vulnerable to public exposure. Truth often fails to lead to justice. After exploring different definitions and dimensions of the two ideas, the more relevant question turns out tobe: what kinds of transparency lead to what kinds of accountability, and under what conditions? The article concludes by proposing that the concept can be unpacked in terms of two distinct variants. Transparency can be either 'clear'or 'opaque', while accountability can be either 'soft'or 'hard'.
Chapter
Mit dem Erfolg bei den Abgeordnetenhauswahlen in Berlin ist die Piratenpartei in Politik und Öffentlichkeit angekommen. Sind die Piraten nur ein Übergangsphänomen, das von der Schlafmützigkeit des Establishments profitiert, oder gibt es ein Potenzial für nachhaltige Verschiebungen im politischen Koordinatensystem? Bildet ein »digitaler Wertekanon« im Spannungsfeld von Offenheit, Dezentralität und Beteiligung die Basis für eine neue politische Arena? Oder sind Themen wie Urheberrecht, Datenschutz und Netzneutralität lediglich Modeerscheinungen? Werden mit Stilmitteln wie »radikale Transparenz« und »liquid democracy« neue Zugänge für Kooperation und Beteiligung in politischen Organisationen entwickelt? Diesen und weiteren Fragen widmet sich der Band und nimmt damit eine erste Bestandsaufnahme und kulturelle Deutung eines neuen politischen Phänomens vor.
Book
'The Anonymous Society' is an in-depth anthropological study conducted in Portugal among the 12-Step associations Alcoholics Anonymous, Families Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Here, the author explores thoroughly issues like therapy, addiction, ritual, religion, identity and anonymity, providing an insightful knowledge of these associations' importance in contemporary society.
Article
Every fiscal quarter automated writing algorithms churn out thousands of corporate earnings articles for the AP (Associated Press) based on little more than structured data. Companies such as Automated Insights, which produces the articles for AP, and Narrative Science can now write straight news articles in almost any domain that has clean and well-structured data: finance, sure, but also sports, weather, and education, among others. The articles aren’t cardboard either; they have variability, tone, and style, and in some cases readers even have difficulty distinguishing the machine-produced articles from human-written ones.
Article
This article examines whether anonymity online has a future. In the early days of the Internet, strong cryptography, anonymous remailers, and a relative lack of surveillance created an environment conducive to anonymous communication. Today, the outlook for online anonymity is poor. Several forces combine against it: ideologies that hold that anonymity is dangerous, or that identifying evil-doers is more important that ensuring a safe mechanism for unpopular speech; the profitability of identification in commerce; government surveillance; the influence of intellectual property interests and in requiring hardware and other tools that enforce identification; and the law at both national and supranational levels. As a result of these forces, online anonymity is now much more difficult than previously, and looks to become less and less possible. Nevertheless, the ability to speak truly freely remains an important 'safety valve' technology for the oppressed, for dissidents, and for whistle-blowers. The article argues that as data collection online merges with data collection offline, the ability to speak anonymously online will only become more valuable. Technical changes will be required if online anonymity is to remain possible. Whether these changes are possible depends on whether the public comes to appreciate value the option of anonymous speech while it is still possible to engineer mechanisms to permit it.
Book
'Transparency' is widely canvassed as a key to better governance, increasing trust in public-office holders. But it is more often preached than practised, more often referred to than defined, and more often advocated than critically analysed. This book exposes this doctrine to critical scrutiny from a range of disciplinary perspectives, including political science, philosophy, and economics. It traces the history of transparency as a doctrine of good governance and social organization, and identifies its different forms; assesses the benefits and drawbacks of measures to enhance various forms of transparency; and examines how institutions respond to measures intended to increase transparency, and with what consequences. Transparency is shown not to be a new doctrine. It can come into conflict with other doctrines of good governance, and there are some important exceptions to Jeremy Bentham's famous dictum that 'the more closely we are watched, the better we behave'. Instead of heralding a new culture of openness in government, measures to improve transparency tend to lead to tighter and more centralized management of information.
Article
EVERY FISCAL QUARTER, automated writing algorithms churn out thousands of corporate earnings articles for the Associated Press based on little more than structured data. Companies such as Automated Insights, which produces the articles for the AP, and Narrative Science can now write straight news articles in almost any domain that has clean and well-structured data: finance, sure, but also sports, weather, and education, among others. The articles are not cardboard either; they have variability, tone, and style, and in some cases readers even have difficulty distinguishing the machine-produced articles from human-written ones.4 It is difficult to argue with the scale, speed, and laborsaving cost advantage that such systems afford. But the trade-off for media organizations appears to be nuance and accuracy. A quick search on Google for "'generated by Automated Insights' correction'" yields results for thousands of articles that were automatically written, published, and then had to have corrections issued.
Chapter
Are the private aff airs of public offi cials a matter of public concern? Imagine that a cabinet member in his off duty capacity makes a discriminatory remark about a minority group. Perhaps he makes a racist joke when at the dinner table with his family. Is the citizenry entitled to know? We do not have to resort to imagined cases. In 1976 the press revealed that President Carter's nominee to the position of Attorney General, Bell Griffin, was a member of private clubs that had a policy of segregated membership excluding blacks, Jews and other minorities. Following that revelation, his nomination became an object of controversy (Thompson 1987: 130). Was the press entitled to reveal Griffi n's private club memberships? Was the public entitled to know?.
Book
Written by a select international group of leading privacy scholars, Social Dimensions of Privacy endorses and develops an innovative approach to privacy. By debating topical privacy cases in their specific research areas, the contributors explore the new privacy-sensitive areas: legal scholars and political theorists discuss the European and American approaches to privacy regulation; sociologists explore new forms of surveillance and privacy on social network sites; and philosophers revisit feminist critiques of privacy, discuss markets in personal data, issues of privacy in health care and democratic politics. The broad interdisciplinary character of the volume will be of interest to readers from a variety of scientific disciplines who are concerned with privacy and data protection issues.
Article
Big data promises to deliver analytic insights that will add to the stock of scientific and social scientific knowledge, significantly improve decision making in both the public and private sector, and greatly enhance individual self-knowledge and understanding. They have already led to entirely new classes of goods and services, many of which have been embraced enthusiastically by institutions and individuals alike. And yet, where these data commit to record details about human behavior, they have been perceived as a threat to fundamental values, including everything from autonomy, to fairness, justice, due process, property, solidarity, and, perhaps most of all, privacy. Given this apparent conflict, some have taken to calling for outright prohibitions on various big data practices, while others have found good reason to finally throw caution (and privacy) to the wind in the belief that big data will more than compensate for its potential costs. Still others, of course, are searching for a principled stance on privacy that offers the flexibility necessary for these promises to be realized while respecting the important values that privacy promotes. This is a familiar situation because it rehearses many of the long-standing tensions that have characterized each successive wave of technological innovation over the past half-century and their inevitable disruption of constraints on information flows through which privacy had been assured. It should come as no surprise that attempts to deal with new threats draw from the toolbox assembled to address earlier upheavals. Ready-to-hand, anonymity and informed consent remain the most popular tools for relieving these tensions - tensions that we accept, from the outset, as genuine and, in many cases, acute. Taking as a given that big data implicates important ethical and political values, we direct our focus instead on attempts to avoid or mitigate the conflicts that may arise. We do so because the familiar pair of anonymity and informed consent continues to strike many as the best and perhaps only way to escape the need to actually resolve these conflicts one way or the other.
Article
Although the purpose of this chapter is to construct an anatomy of transparency, it is essential to address the triangular relationship between transparency, openness, and surveillance. The first question is whether a clear distinction can be drawn between transparency and openness. The second question concerns the relationship between transparency/openness and surveillance. This chapter examines transparency, focusing on directions and varieties of transparency and how they interact with their habitat and with each other. It distinguishes four directions of transparency and maps its varieties. The chapter also emphasizes the importance of examining the habitats within which transparency operates. Finally, it draws some brief conclusions, stressing the implications of the analysis for the measurement of transparency. The aim is to identify different directions and varieties of transparency in relatively neutral terms. Abstracting from the issue of direction, transparency can be analysed by means of a set of three dichotomies: event transparency versus process transparency; transparency in retrospect versus transparency in real time; and nominal transparency versus effective transparency.
Article
Die Problematik von Anonymität und Privatheit will ich im Folgenden von einer bestimmten Perspektive aus untersuchen und diskutieren: und zwar werde ich versuchen, die normativen Grundlagen der Idee eines Rechts auf Anonymität zu klären. Ich werde also nicht (oder nur am Rande) über juristische Probleme sprechen, sondern ich werde nur versuchen zu erklären und zu plausibilisieren, warum wir ein solches Recht auf Anonymität, das wir intuitiv offenbar für notwendig halten, auch für gerechtfertigt halten dürfen und sollen.
Article
Based on historical materials about the technology of the 15th and 16th century Portuguese maritime expansion, the author shows that in order to understand the emergence, functioning, and collapse of technological systems we need to develop an approach that will be centred on the notion of heterogeneous engineering. Heterogeneous engineering presupposes that the building of technological systems involves associating and channelling diverse entities and forces, both human and nonhuman. This permits an analysis of how the existence of particular systems is shaped equally by different factors: natural, social, economic, and technical. In the case of Portuguese maritime expansion, the success of system-building was determined by the association between shipbuilding; the navigational skills of the navigators; navigational equipment and guns; features of the capes, oceanic currents, and winds; and the system of state support, training, and regulation - all of which made possible the establishment of a stable and powerful network that allowed the Portuguese to dominate the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Therefore, the construction of a technological system is a process of resolving conflicts between heterogeneous elements, and the associated elements must be able to withstand encounters with hostile forces and entities, both physical (e.g. oceans) and social (e.g. the Muslims). The systems approach proposed by the author shows, first, that technology can be analysed using the principle of generalized symmetry, which states that the same type of analysis should be made for all components in a system whether these com­ponents are human or not; and, second, that actors should be understood as entities that exert detectable influence on other entities.
Article
Resource mobilization theory has recently presented an alternative interpretation of social movements. The review traces the emergence and recent controversies generated by this new perspective. A multifactored model of social movement formation is advanced, emphasizing resources, organization, and political opportunities in addition to traditional discontent hypotheses. The McCarthy-Zald (1973) theory of entrepreneurial mobilization is critically assessed as an interpretation of the social movements of the 1960s-1970s, and the relevance of the Olson (1968) theory of collective action is specified. Group organization is argued to be the major determinant of mobilization potential and patterns. The debate between the Gerlach-Hine (1970) and entrepreneurial theories of social movement organization is traced in terms of historical changes in the social movement sector and the persistence of organizational diversity. A model of social movement politics is outlined, building on Gamson’s (1975) theory of strate...
Article
Privacy and anonymity in the profession of librarianship was one of the themes emerging from the Internet Public Library (ipl2) institute in March 2010, questioning whether new trends in librarianship are leading to the demise of the “anonymous librarian.” This article examines the research literature on how privacy and anonymity issues can affect users and librarians. The rise of new initiatives such as embedded librarians, on-site liaison librarians, and personal librarians appears to be a shift toward increasing professional visibility and away from anonymity in professional practice.
Article
Computer scientists have recently undermined our faith in the privacy-protecting power of anonymization, the name for techniques for protecting the privacy of individuals in large databases by deleting information like names and social security numbers. These scientists have demonstrated they can often 'reidentify' or 'deanonymize' individuals hidden in anonymized data with astonishing ease. By understanding this research, we will realize we have made a mistake, labored beneath a fundamental misunderstanding, which has assured us much less privacy than we have assumed. This mistake pervades nearly every information privacy law, regulation, and debate, yet regulators and legal scholars have paid it scant attention. We must respond to the surprising failure of anonymization, and this Article provides the tools to do so.
Article
"If you've got nothing to hide," many people say, "you shouldn't worry about government surveillance." Others argue that we must sacrifice privacy for security. But as Daniel J. Solove argues in this book, these arguments and many others are flawed. They are based on mistaken views about what it means to protect privacy and the costs and benefits of doing so. In addition to attacking the "Nothing-to Hide Argument," Solove exposes the fallacies of pro-security arguments that have often been used to justify government surveillance and data mining. These arguments - such as the "Luddite Argument,"the "War-Powers Argument," the "All-or-Nothing Argument," the "Suspicionless-Searches Argument," the "Deference Argument," and the "Pendulum Argument" - have skewed law and policy to favor security at the expense of privacy.The debate between privacy and security has been framed incorrectly as a zero-sum game in which we are forced to choose between one value and the other. But protecting privacy isn't fatal to security measures; it merely involves adequate oversight and regulation. The primary focus of the book is on common pro-security arguments, but Solove also discusses concrete issues of law and technology, such as the Fourth Amendment Third Party Doctrine, the First Amendment, electronic surveillance statutes, the USA-Patriot Act, the NSA surveillance program, and government data mining.
Article
Anonymity is a form of nonidentifiability which I define as noncoordinatability of traits in a given respect. This definition broadens the concept, freeing it from its primary association with naming. I analyze different ways anonymity can be realized. I also discuss some ethical issues, such as privacy, accountability and other values which anonymity may serve or undermine. My theory can also conceptualize anonymity in information systems where, for example, privacy and accountability are at issue.
Article
Privacy decisions often involve balancing competing interests. As such, they're a natural field of study for economics. But traditional economic models have made overly restrictive assumptions about the stability and nature of individual privacy preferences. Approaches drawing on existing research in behavioral economics and psychology can offer complementary tools for understanding privacy decision making.
Article
Quel est le sens de l'anonymat a l'heure de l'ere electronique et de l'information en surabondance ? C'est ce que se propose d'approfondir, sous forme de reflexion personnelle, l'auteur de cet article.
Article
Our claim in this paper is that not being identified as the data source might cause harm to a person or group. Therefore, in some cases the default of anonymisation should be replaced by a careful deliberation, together with research subjects, of how to handle the issues of identification and confidentiality. Our prime example in this article is community participatory research and similar endeavours on indigenous groups. The theme, content and aim of the research, and the question of how to handle property rights and ownership of research results, as well as who should be in charge of the research process, including the process of creating anonymity, should all be answered, before anonymity is accepted.
In Developing Die Schönheit der Chance Utopien und das Internet In Juridi
  • Thorsten
2013: Der unsichtbare Mensch. Wie die Anonymität im Internet unsere Gesellschaft verändert
  • I Brodnig
What is transparency? In: Public Integrity
  • C Ball
2013: Daten, Drohnen, Disziplin. Ein Gespräch über flüchtige Überwachung
  • Z Bauman
  • D Lyon
Mythos und Autonomie im Therapieprogramm selbstgegründeter Suchtgenesungsgruppen
  • P Helm
Kampf um Anerkennung. Zur moralischen Grammatik sozialer Konflikte
  • A Honneth
Lessons from the identity Trail. Anonymity, Privacy and Identity in a Networked Society
  • I Kerr
  • V Steeves
  • C Lucock
Rede von Bundeskanzlerin Merkel beim 10. Nationalen IT-Gipfel am 17 Zugriff über: https://www.bundeskanzlerin
  • A Merkel
2014: Die Schönheit der Chance. Utopien und das Internet
  • T Thorsten
2014: Hacker, Hoaxer, Spy. The Many Faces of Anonymous. Verso Books
  • G Coleman
Anonymity and Privacy: Conceptual Links and Normative Implications
  • T Dumsday
Die Falle der Transparenz. Zur Problematik einer fraglosen Norm
  • F Vogelmann
  • L Hempel
2016: Freiheit durch Anonymität? Privatheitsansprüche, Privatheitsnormen und der Kampf um Anerkennung
  • P Helm
Verfall und Ende des öffentlichen Lebens
  • R Sennet
Werfen Sie ihr Smartphone weg! In: HAZ. Zugriff über: http://www.haz.de/Sonntag/Gastkommentar/Werfen-Sie-Ihr-Smartphone-weg!-Gastbei-trag-von-Soziologe-Harald-Welzer
  • H Welzer
Zur Problematik einer fraglosen Norm
  • F Vogelmann
  • L Hempel
Der unsichtbare Mensch
  • I Brodnig
Hacker, Hoaxer, Spy. The Many Faces of Anonymous
  • G Coleman
Einschränkungen" des in S. 1 genannten Informationszugangsanspruchs vorsieht
  • Abs
Abs. 3 S. 2 AEUV, der sogleich "Einschränkungen" des in S. 1 genannten Informationszugangsanspruchs vorsieht.
European Data Protection Supervisor 2014: Privacy and competitiveness in the age of big data: The interplay between data protection, competition law and consumer protection in the Digital Economy
  • Band Auflage
  • Art Ii
Auflage, Band II, Art. 20-82, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen. Eichenhofer, Johannes 2016a: Privatheit im Internet als Vertrauensschutz. Eine Neukonstruktion der Europäischen Grundrechte auf Privatleben und Datenschutz. In: Der Staat 55, S. 41-67. Ders. 2016b: Privatheitsgefährdungen durch Private. Zur grundrechtsdogmatischen Einordnung von Internetdienstanbietern. In: Datenschutz und Datensicherheit (DuD), Jahrgang 2016, S. 84-88. European Data Protection Supervisor 2014: Privacy and competitiveness in the age of big data: The interplay between data protection, competition law and consumer protection in the Digital Economy (im Internet abrufbar unter: https://secure.edps. europa.eu/EDPSWEB/webdav/site/mySite/ shared/Documents/Consultation/Opinions/2014/14-03-26_competitition_law_big_ data_EN.pdf) Fried, Charles 1968: Privacy. In: The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 77 No. 3, S. 475-493. Gavison, Ruth 1980: Privacy and the limits of the Law. In: The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 89, No. 3, S. 421-471. Geminn, Christian 2016: Demokratie zwischen Öffentlichkeit und Privatheit. In: Verwaltungsarchiv (VerwArch), Zeitschrift für Verwaltungslehre, Verwaltungsrecht und Verwaltungspolitik, 107. Jahrgang, Heft 4, S. 601-630. Gusy, Christoph 2016: Einseitige oder allseitige Transparenz? Das Informationsverwaltungsrecht und die post-privacy-Debatte. In: Knopp/Wolff (Hrsg.), Umwelt-Hochschule-Staat, Festschrift für F.-J. Peine, 2016, S. 423-440. Ders. 2015a: Privatheit und Demokratie. In: Kritische Vierteljahresschrift für Gesetzgebung und Rechtsprechung (KritV), S. 430-461
Lessons from the identity trail: anonymity, privacy and identity in a networked sociey
  • Wolfgang Sofsky
Sofsky, Wolfgang 2007: Verteidigung des Privaten: Eine Streitschrift. München: C. H. Beck. Solove, Daniel J. 2008: Understanding privacy, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Solove, Daniel J. 2013: Privacy self-management and the consent dilemma. In: Harvard Law Review 126, 1880-1903. Staab, Philipp 2016: Falsche Versprechen: Wachstum im digitalen Kapitalismus. Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, HIS. Steeves, Valerie 2009: Reclaiming the social value of privacy. In: Ian Kerr/Valerie Steeves/ Carole Lucock (Hg.), Lessons from the identity trail: anonymity, privacy and identity in a networked sociey. New York: Oxford University Press, 191-208. Thompson, Michael J. 2015: The two faces of domination in republican political theory. In: European Journal of Political Theory, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1474885115580352
Personal Data: "The Emergence of a New Asset Class
  • Joseph Turow
Turow, Joseph 2005: Audience Construction and Culture Production: Marketing Surveillance in the Digital Age. In: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 597, 103-121. Wacks, Raymond 2010: Privacy, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Warren, Samuel/Brandeis, Louis 1984: The right to privacy, in: Ferdinand Schoeman (Hg.), Philosophical dimensions of privacy: an anthology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 75-103. Wood, Ellen Meikshins 1999: The politics of capitalism, in: Monthly Review 51, abrufbar unter: http://monthlyreview.org/1999/09/01/ the-politics-of-capitalism. World Economic Forum. 2011. Personal Data: "The Emergence of a New Asset Class." Geneva: World Economic Forum. [14.03.17].