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Music while you work: the differential distraction of background music on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts

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Abstract

The current study looked at the distracting effects of ‘pop music’ on introverts' and extraverts' performance on various cognitive tasks. It was predicted that there would be a main effect for music and an interaction effect with introverts performing less well in the presence of music than extraverts. Ten introverts and ten extraverts were given two tests (a memory test with immediate and delayed recall and a reading comprehension test), which were completed, either while being exposed to pop music, or in silence. The results showed that there was a detrimental effect on immediate recall on the memory test for both groups when music was played, and two of the three interactions were significant. After a 6-minute interval the introverts who had memorized the objects in the presence of the pop music had a significantly lower recall than the extraverts in the same condition and the introverts who had observed them in silence. The introverts who completed a reading comprehension task when music was being played also performed significantly less well than these two groups. These findings have implications for the study habits of introverts when needing to retain or process complex information. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... For example, De Groot [3] suggested that the lack of a general beneficial effect of background music on vocabulary learning in her study could be explained by participants' differences in extraversion. Researchers have accumulated evidence in favour [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] and against [9,10,12,14,16,17] this idea by investigating intro-and extraverts' performance in various cognitive tasks. The most common theoretical framework used in these studies is Eysenck's theory of personality [18], which forms the basis for the present study. ...
... For example, De Groot [3] suggested that the lack of a general beneficial effect of background music on vocabulary learning in her study could be explained by participants' differences in extraversion. Researchers have accumulated evidence in favour [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] and against [9,10,12,14,16,17] this idea by investigating intro-and extraverts' performance in various cognitive tasks. The most common theoretical framework used in these studies is Eysenck's theory of personality [18], which forms the basis for the present study. ...
... One recurring issue is the selection of the right range of frequencies in the EEG signal and their correlation with internal states of alertness and wakefulness. The classic assumption, dating back to the 1930s, is that alpha power (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13) is inversely related to mental activity [25,26]. According to this arousal model, increased alpha power reflects a more relaxed state or a decrease in cortical arousal. ...
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As tantalizing as the idea that background music beneficially affects foreign vocabulary learning may seem, there is-partly due to a lack of theory-driven research-no consistent evidence to support this notion. We investigated inter-individual differences in the effects of background music on foreign vocabulary learning. Based on Eysenck's theory of personality we predicted that individuals with a high level of cortical arousal should perform worse when learning with background music compared to silence, whereas individuals with a low level of cortical arousal should be unaffected by background music or benefit from it. Participants were tested in a paired-associate learning paradigm consisting of three immediate word recall tasks, as well as a delayed recall task one week later. Baseline cortical arousal assessed with spontaneous EEG measurement in silence prior to the learning rounds was used for the analyses. Results revealed no interaction between cortical arousal and the learning condition (background music vs. silence). Instead, we found an unexpected main effect of cortical arousal in the beta band on recall, indicating that individuals with high beta power learned more vocabulary than those with low beta power. To substantiate this finding we conducted an exact replication of the experiment. Whereas the main effect of cortical arousal was only present in a subsample of participants, a beneficial main effect of background music appeared. A combined analysis of both experiments suggests that beta power predicts the performance in the word recall task, but that there is no effect of background music on foreign vocabulary learning. In light of these findings, we discuss whether searching for effects of background music on foreign vocabulary learning, independent of factors such as inter-individual differences and task complexity, might be a red herring. Importantly, our findings emphasize the need for sufficiently powered research designs and exact replications of theory-driven experiments when investigating effects of background music and inter-individual variation on task performance.
... Office-related activities are day-to-day tasks related to planning and scheduling, distribution and logistics, personnel, financial, record keeping and billing, and many other activities within a company. Interruptions can occur during the performance of these activities as a result of insufficient employee education (or unawareness) about interruptions and their consequences [42], noises from conversations and other offices [25-27, 38, 43], high traffic areas [44], and disturbance by visitors for staff working either on high cognitive load activities or on tasks with tight timelines [42,43]. Authors in [42] reported that in any company, interruptions may occur as a result of insufficient employees' education regarding this matter. ...
... The authors' suggestion had substantial improvements in user's performance and contentment. Authors in [43] studied the preferences of staff working on critical and tight timelines, and recommended assignment of independent working space for employees working on jobs with strict deadlines. Some studies addressed noise as a widespread cause of interruptions in workplace environments [25-27, 38, 43]. ...
... Several strategies have been reported to decrease the influence of such interruptions. For example authors in [43] suggested the use of alternative sounds such as ambient background office music that could counterbalance chatty noises and control the distractions in the office. Authors in [38] reported that the use of ear buds/headphones undoubtedly restricts the different conversations and other office noises [38]. ...
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Interruptions are unexpected breaks that introduce new tasks on top of ongoing activities. In work environments, interruptions occur when operators and decision-makers have to deal simultaneously with several stimuli and information sources and have to make decisions so as to maintain the flow of activities at a satisfactory level of performance or quality of service. The causes and effects of interruptions and their subsequent management strategies in workplace environments have been researched in the past, however, only a few review articles are available to report on current advances in this area, to analyze contributions, and to highlight open research directions. This paper offers an up-to-date review and a framework for interruptions and interruption management strategies. The current approaches to identify, report, and manage interruptions in a variety of workplace environments are reviewed and a description of environmental characteristics that favor the occurrence of interruptions and influence interruption management in workplace environments is provided. Various approaches to classify and model the different types of interruptions and their cause-consequence relationships are discussed and the strategies to manage interruptions and approaches to measure human performance when dealing with interruptions are analyzed. Based on these insights, several guidelines to manage interruptions in workplace environments are provided, and future research directions are highlighted.
... Despite a broadly positive relation between music in the workplace and employees, there are studies acknowledging variations in preferences among individuals (Bruner, 1990;North and Hargreaves, 1996). A number of studies have indicated that, for example, the effect of music depends on whether the individual has an extroverted or introverted personality (e.g., Furnham and Bradley, 1997;Cassidy and MacDonald, 2007). Extroverts generally listen to music more often than introverts, and they are less affected by music than introverts when completing tasks (Furnham and Bradley, 1997). ...
... A number of studies have indicated that, for example, the effect of music depends on whether the individual has an extroverted or introverted personality (e.g., Furnham and Bradley, 1997;Cassidy and MacDonald, 2007). Extroverts generally listen to music more often than introverts, and they are less affected by music than introverts when completing tasks (Furnham and Bradley, 1997). While there are a number of studies indeed focusing on how music affects employees, the specific circumstance of store employees (see Skandrani et al., 2011 as an exception of research on store employees) and the further link to customers seems to be absent in present research. ...
... These risks may be amplified as various employees would represent different music tastes (cf. Furnham and Bradley, 1997;Cassidy and MacDonald, 2007). Furthermore, the employee maybased on the music selectedact in ways that negatively affect the customer's experience (such as the dancing). ...
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The effects of in-store music on consumer behavior have attracted much attention in the marketing literature, but surprisingly few studies have investigated in-store music in relation to employees. Conducting a large-scale field experiment in eight Filippa K fashion stores in Stockholm, Sweden, we investigate whether it is beneficial for store owners to give employees more opportunities to influence the in-store music. The experiment lasted 56 weeks, and the stores were randomly assigned into a treatment group and a control group, with the employees in the treatment stores having the opportunity to influence the in-store music through an app developed by Soundtrack Your Brand (SYB). The results from the experiment show that sales decreased by, on average, 6% in treatment stores when employees had the opportunity to influence the music played in the store. Interviews revealed that employees frequently changed songs, preferred to play high-intensity songs, and had diverse music preferences that were not congruent with the brand values of the company. Our results thus imply that employees choose music that suits their preferences rather than based on what is optimal for the store, suggesting that store owners might want to limit their opportunities to influence the background music in stores.
... Music was found distracting for introverts and extroverts 1401 performing cognitive tasks and introverts performed the cognitive tasks worse than extroverts in presence of music. (Furnham & Bradley, 1997, Furnham 2002)But complexity of music had not much effect on word memory task in introverts and extroverts (Matias L, 2014).Thus the evidence is more on short term memory and episodic (autobiographical) memory. However there is lack of clear understanding of effect of music and personality on semantic memory retrieval. ...
... We observed that the participants were able to focus more readily as there was least amount of distraction around while they performed in silence. This is in agreement with the previous studies on cognitive tasks where participants performed best in silence ( Furnham & Bradley, 1997, Konantz E, 2012,Jameson C, 2013. ...
... But in our study, extroverts also performed the best during silence and worst when instrumental music was played, thereby differing with the results of previous studies. (Furnham & Bradley, 1997, Mistry H.2015The reason behind this varied result may be because the tasks in the previous studies involved working memory whereas this study demanded recall from long term part of the memory. ...
... Although multitasking is often expected in many different situations, not all individuals are able to handle outside distractors easily; some find it difficult to concentrate even in the most tranquil environments, and others cannot focus on a task at hand without being overwhelmed by the hum of hectic daily life. When it comes to susceptibility to outside distraction, it appears that individual differences matter more than the actual distractors themselves, and research on sensory distraction has shown that these crucial differences lie in individual personality traits (Eysenck & Graydon, 1989;Furnham & Allass, 1999;Furnham & Bradley, 1997). Knowing exactly which personality characteristics make individuals more susceptible to outside distraction has practical applications in vehicles, workplaces, school, and other social settings. ...
... For introverts, both short term memory and reading comprehension abilities suffer when completed in the presence of music compared to baseline scores taken during silence, but scores for extra verts do not differ between conditions. Moreover, the level of distraction reported by participants in a posttest questionnaire correlates negatively with Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) Extraversion scores, suggesting that introverts find the same level of music to be more distracting than their extraverted counterparts (Furnham & Bradley, 1997). Interestingly, other factors found to correlate positively with EPQ scores include reported frequency of radio listening while working as well as the frequency of radio listening in general. ...
... The current study examined three hypotheses, the first being that there would be a negative correlation between level of extraversion and selfreported distraction while under highsalience visual stimulation-meaning that the higher a participant's level of extraversion, the lower their reported level of distraction as a result of viewing highsalience visual stimulation. Data supporting this first hypothesis would be the first to suggest that Eysenck's theory of sensory threshold differences between introverts and extraverts-shown by previous research to be applicable to the senses of taste (Corcoran, 1964), touch (Haslam, 1967), and hearing (Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Geen, 1984)-could be extended to isolated visual stimulation as well. Since Eysenck's theory utilized the term "sensory" as an allencompassing label, results of this study assessing visual stimulation should mirror the promising results of studies that assessed other forms of sensory stimulation. ...
... According to the Eysenckian hypothesis, introverts and extroverts differ in their levels of arousal as extroverts have lower levels of excitement and choose environments that provide more stimulation while introverts have a higher level of arousal and do not seek out stimulating environments (Eysenck, 1967). Furnham and Bradley (1997) found that pop music had a detrimental effect on immediate recall and a reading comprehension test for both introverts and extroverts. However, the introverts who performed with music were less able to store the information for later recall than extroverts (Furnham and Bradley, 1997). ...
... Furnham and Bradley (1997) found that pop music had a detrimental effect on immediate recall and a reading comprehension test for both introverts and extroverts. However, the introverts who performed with music were less able to store the information for later recall than extroverts (Furnham and Bradley, 1997). This indicates that the effects of listening to music while studying may interact with personality traits and could provide an interesting avenue for future research. ...
... The interaction effect of background music on learning outcomes of introverts and extraverts has been investigated for many years (Avila, Furnham, & McClelland, 2011;Cassidy & MacDonald, 2007;Chamorro-Premuzic, Swami, Terrado, & Furnham, 2009;Dobbs, Furnham, & McClelland, 2011;Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Furnham & Strbac, 2002). Most of these studies actually support the assumption, that background music in general raises the cortical arousal level: They report that extraverts showed better learning outcomes than introverts without using specifically fast, arousing background music. ...
... This does not automatically mean that extraverts always profit from background music. While there is only one study reporting a stimulating effect of music on extraverts (Furnham, Trew, & Sneade, 1999), there is broader evidence suggesting that the outcomes of extraverts can also remain unaffected (Dobbs et al., 2011;Furnham & Bradley, 1997) or even be impaired by background music (Cassidy & MacDonald, 2007). Interestingly, Cassidy and MacDonald (2007) found that extraverts were more negatively affected by music with high arousal potential than by music with low arousal potential, pointing out that also extraverts may become over aroused. ...
Article
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Seductive details in general affect learning and cognitive load negatively. However, especially background music as a seductive detail may also influence the learner´s arousal, whose optimal level depends on the learner´s extraversion. Therefore, the interaction of extraversion and background music on learning outcomes, cognitive load and arousal was investigated. We tested 167 high school students and found better transfer outcomes for the group with background music. They also reported higher germane load, but no impact of background music on extraneous cognitive load or arousal was found. In the group without background music, learners with higher extraversion performed better, which was not found in the group with background music. Results indicate that there is a beneficial impact of background music that compensates for the disadvantages of low extraverted learners and which cannot be explained through arousal.
... As such, there has been an increase in the amount of research examining the effects of these background sounds on cognitive performance, which is particularly important given the implications for learning and productivity in both educational and organisational work settings (Gheewalla et al., 2020;Jamshidzad et al., 2018;Lesiuk, 2005;Schwartz et al., 2017). The literature has focused on what sort of distraction (i.e., type of music) has an effect on what sort of (work) activity (e.g., reading, memorizing) (Gheewalla et al., 2020;Jamshidzad et al., 2018;Kang & Williamson, 2014;Salamé & Baddeley, 1989;Thompson et al., 2011) for what sort of individuals (e.g., introverts, neurotics) (Dobbs et al., 2011;Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Furnham & Strbac, 2002;Reynolds et al., 2014), and from which cultures (East, West) (Kou et al., 2018). In this study, we focus particularly on individual differences and culture, the latter factor of which has been relatively neglected. ...
... Background noise has generally been found to negatively affect cognitive performance in both educational and work settings (Jahncke et al., 2011;Klatte et al., 2013), although specific types of noise, such as white noise, have not been found to negatively affect cognitive performance (Salamé & Baddeley, 1989). Background music, however, has been shown to have either a positive effect (Rauscher et al., 1993;Savan, 1999;Schellenberg & Hallam, 2006), negative effect (Cassidy & MacDonald, 2007;Dobbs et al., 2011;Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Furnham & Strbac, 2002), or no effect at all (Kou et al. 2018;Lehmann & Seufert, 2017;Reynolds et al., 2014) on cognitive performance. ...
Article
Previous research found that introverts performed worse than extraverts on cognitive tasks in the presence of noise or music in a Western sample but not in an Asian sample. This is a cross-cultural part replication of these studies using a Western (British; N = 45) and Asian (Singaporean; N = 45) sample. Participants engaged in three cognitive tests in the presence of pop songs, background noise, and in silence. It was predicted that for British participants, introverts would perform worse than extraverts on all three tasks in the presence of background sounds, and performance would be worse in the presence of background sounds than in silence, but not for the Singaporean participants. The results did not show any performance differences between the background sound conditions for any of the tests across the two samples, nor any performance differences between extraverts and introverts across the background sound conditions, with three exceptions: extraversion for the British was a significant predictor of performance on the Raven’s test in the silence condition, extraversion was a significant predictor of performance for both groups on the mental arithmetic task in the silence condition, and extraversion was a significant predictor of performance for Singaporeans on the mental arithmetic task in the music condition.
... Cripe [16], Gregoire [17] and Reardon & Bell [18] were not agreed with the same instead they reported that the activity level will be decreased in case of mentally retorted children. Another research initiative involving factory workers i. e. adult human involving repetitive task released [9] various conclusion-i) Not all of them prefer working where music is played, 1 to 10 per cent are annoyed also, ii) Instrumental music are preferred over vocal, iii) Young and inexperienced employees, performing simple and repetitive tasks, stimulated by music increased their output, on the contrary experienced factory Staffs with stabilized working pattern and complex tasks did not increase their production. However a large numbers of contradictory conclusions are due to the task being measured and the individual human nature. ...
... Later Smith [13] hypothesized that music helps to reduce the pressure and monotony of repetitive works. The introverts perform less well in distracting stimulus than extroverts [9]. The present work is an extension in line of the previous investigations [19,20] of the proposer in learning [21]. ...
Article
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Objective of the system is to measure the effect of sound wave/music sample(s) on human brain while concentrating on study and reading some texts. The idea is to discover some interesting measure from the recorded image-base, by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)/Computer Tomography(CT) scan, through correspondence with the metadata of music sample i.e. music spectrum analyzed through Digital Signal Processing and further to relate them transitively with the physical feedback given by the person who is under testing. In the model formulation of the problem, first the parameters/performance indicators in Music Information Retrieval (MIR) are identified causing maximum impact while reading any content attentively. The concentration level is tried to be identified through MRI/CT Scan through follow up testing. The reading content can either be texts or images since music is already in the background. If reading content includes videos/music then there will be clash of interest because of the presence of background music. The data has to be collected from each and every training music sample and measured correspondence through images of brain developing a tabular form including the information of each parameters and correspondence through MRI/CTS images. The parametric identification is done using Digital Signal Processing toolbox in MATLAB and the MRI/CTS images are to be corresponded through Digital Image Processing. This dynamical system initially employs generate and test mechanism with variant music sample and measure impact on small population of human being producing a sound warehouse. Trends are then analyzed and discovered from this data warehouse by means of Data Mining techniques by constructing the association rule. This is first step towards construction of rule base. Once the rule base is built, the knowledge base is constituted and hence Production System is developed. This correspondence, when established with a reasonable degree of aspiration from the sound warehouse, it is applied to examine how much accurately the association rule is working for various test cases. The System is trained with extended music database so as to correspond the song type and attention level which may yield different result for different human being. Parametric identification of stylometry plays an important role. In the solution process, the system is tested with the similar song type and the texts/contents on different human being. The evaluation/assessment of reading content of various human beings with background music and without background music are put under a comparative study. The limitation of the system is the feedback of the human being regarding their own perceived attention level is taken into consideration in pursuit of perfection. However, resolution can be made with the results obtained through comparative study. The major motivation behind this work is the earlier work to develop cognitive system that can treat patient of non –surgical category (both psychological and non-psychological) using Music Therapy treatment convention. The successful application of it may well open the scope of utilizing music as an effective tool in various human needs viz. relaxation, temperament restoration, therapeutic needs and concentration building of children with learning, emotive and developmental difficulties.
... Researchers in other domains have used several methods to induce distraction. These methods include mental tasks such as performing arithmetic calculations (Ersal et al. 2010), visual stimuli such as videos (Pool et al. 2003), and auditory stimuli such as music (Furnham and Bradley 1997). ...
Conference Paper
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Hazard recognition is an essential element for successful accident and injury prevention. However, studies have revealed that construction workers fail to identify a large proportion of hazards in their workplaces. Therefore, understanding factors that adversely affect hazard recognition performance is a fundamental step towards improving safety performance. Given the unique, complex, and dynamic nature of construction operations, past research has provided anecdotal evidence suggesting that distraction may be correlated to undesirable safety outcomes such as injuries. For example, Hinze’s distraction theory suggests that workers are more likely to be involved in an accident while they are distracted. However, these theoretical propositions have not been empirically tested. To address this knowledge gap, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that distracted workers will identify fewer hazards than undistracted workers. To test the hypothesis, an experiment was conducted with 70 construction workers where the participants were randomly assigned to a distracted or an undistracted group. Sixteen pre-selected case images, representing real construction operations, were used to evaluate the hazard recognition performance of the workers. For the distracted group, distraction was induced using visual stimuli presented as unrelated video clips during the hazard recognition activity. The data analysis results showed that the distracted workers recognized a smaller proportion of hazards than the undistracted workers (p-value = 0.003). The research findings indicate that reducing workplace distractions can be a useful intervention to improve the safety performance of construction workers such as hazard recognition levels.
... Easy listening classical music or slow tempo music (between 60 and 80 beats/min) are acknowledged to be most strongly associated with these results, and particularly when played at a low volume (Bonny, 1986;Anyanwu et al., 2016). Recordings with both voice and instruments seem less efficient for tasks requiring memory or comprehension than instrumental music (Belsham and Harman, 1977;Furnham and Bradley, 1997;Chou, 2010). However, there is no evidence of a preferential style of classical music: renaissance period, baroque, romantic or 20 th century music. ...
... Individuals who multitask with media show poor cognitive performance on at least one of the combined tasks, such as reading and homework, recognition of media content, and working on memory tasks (e.g., Armstrong & Chung, 2000;Armstrong & Sopory, 1997). Such effects have been shown with traditional media, such as music and television (e.g., Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Pool, Koolstra, & van der Voort, 2003;Lee, Lin, & Robertson, 2012), new media and devices, such as laptops, instant messaging, websites, podcasts, and social media (e.g., Hembrooke & Gay, 2003;Kononova, Joo, & Yuan, 2016;Srivastava, 2013), and traditional and new media together (Voorveld, 2011). ...
Article
This study explored the effects of media multitasking on the choice and consumption of snack foods. Participants in four experimental conditions used either one medium or several media while having access to healthful and energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) snacks. Participants who snacked during the study were more likely to pick and eat EDNP snacks. Fewer healthful than EDNP snacks were chosen and eaten in TV/texting/online reading condition, which was rated more negatively than the other three conditions. The more positively a media use situation was evaluated, the more healthful snacks participants chose and ate. The findings are discussed using the theoretical perspectives of limited capacity and cognitive load, self-regulation and regulatory focus, and approach-avoidance system. The cognitive and emotional nature of each media use condition was considered to explain the results.
... As to cognition performance, the music's effect was positive for extroverts and negative for introverts [8]. There were also studies concluding that music had negative effects on memory and attention [12][13][14][15][16][17]. For example, the memory of advertisement pushed by short message was harmed by background music [12]. ...
Conference Paper
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The present study measured the visual lobe shape and visual search performance of 65 participants under different background music conditions. A 2 (tempo: 40% faster vs. 40% lower) × 2 (volume: 85 dB vs. 55 dB) between-subject factorial design was used in this experiment. Results revealed that the tempo and volume of background music had significant effects on visual lobe area, and the size of visual lobe was largest when the music tempo was fast and the volume was large. As to visual search performance, search time was significantly shorter when music tempo was fast. The obtained results indicated that the tempo, volume as well as subjects’ perceived feeling of background music had an influence on visual lobe shape and visual search performance. The conclusions could provide guidelines for the design of visual tasks with background music.
... Easy listening classical music or slow tempo music (between 60 and 80 beats/min) are acknowledged to be most strongly associated with these results, and particularly when played at a low volume (Bonny, 1986;Anyanwu et al., 2016). Recordings with both voice and instruments seem less efficient for tasks requiring memory or comprehension than instrumental music (Belsham and Harman, 1977;Furnham and Bradley, 1997;Chou, 2010). However, there is no evidence of a preferential style of classical music: renaissance period, baroque, romantic or 20 th century music. ...
Introduction/Objectifs Malgré l’arrivée de nouvelles techniques d’apprentissage de l’anatomie, les dissections restent incontournables dans la pédagogie médicale. Cependant, nous savons que ces dissections sont pourvoyeuses d’anxiété chez les étudiants en médecine [1]. Or des études ont montré une réduction de l’anxiété présente lors de tâches anxiogènes grâce à la musique [2]. Notre objectif était donc de déterminer si la musique pouvait avoir une influence anxiolytique sur les étudiants lors des dissections anatomiques. Matériels/patients et méthodes Nous avons réalisé un essai interventionnel en 6 clusters équilibrés avec randomisation sur l’intervention. La population était de 180 étudiants de 2e année de médecine de la faculté de Grenoble. L’intervention était une musique de fond adaptée et standardisée selon les données de la littérature [3]. Le critère de jugement principal était le score à l’échelle d’auto-évaluation standardisée STAI [4]. La satisfaction de l’étudiant mesurée par EVA ainsi que ses notes étaient également recueillies. Résultats Nous n’avons pas constaté d’amélioration significative de la satisfaction des étudiants. Toutefois, nous avons mis en évidence une réduction de l’anxiété aiguë de 37 % (OR = 1,37 ; p = 0,71) dans le groupe bénéficiant de l’intervention, c’est à dire la musique de fond, grâce à un modèle linéaire mixte ajusté sur le groupe et l’anxiété chronique. Par ailleurs, l’intervention a permis une amélioration des notes à l’évaluation pratique de 0,21 points (p = 0,29). Conclusions Ainsi, nous avons montré l’impact d’une musique d’ambiance dans un environnement anxiogène qu’est la salle de dissection. Lors des travaux d’anatomie, nos étudiants ont mieux réussi leurs évaluations et ont surtout eu une réduction de leur anxiété vécue. Cette intervention à visée pédagogique simple a donc permis un meilleur apprentissage.
... The influence of music on cognitive performance has also linked to personality types. The pop music, in particular, serves as a distractor in the cognitive performance of both introverts and extroverts [5]. ...
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Listening to music while studying has become a usual practice in the student population. While one group of students claim it would enhance their curricular efficiency, on the other hand, some researchers deny such assumptions. The overall objective of the study was to explore the effect of music on the curricular activity of the student and whether this trend is to rule out it is beneficial to the students in their academic performances. Present study involved 200 Malaysian students representing three major ethnicities. Among them, 120 students prefer to listen to music while studying and remaining 80 were not. The study comprised of two ways of survey namely questionnaire based and experiment based. Data obtained from the responses of participants compiled in the form of graphs and charts 47% believes that music helps them to concentrate while studying. 29% claims that music would keep their mind calm, and 17% stated that it would prevent sleepiness. 78 out of 80 students said that listening to music while studying distract their concentration. Experimental data revealed higher incidence (75%) of correct answers while listening to soft music than other fast track or instrumental music. The positive finding as obtained from the study is relevant to justify the current trend of listening to music while studying as it may not pose any adverse effects on the concentration of student. In fact, it might also improve the performance of the student in their academic perspectives.
... Media multitasking can create situations in which people are unable to effectively distribute their limited cognitive resources to process mediated information (Jeong, Hwang, & Finshbein, 2010). For example, background television, video, and music negatively affect the processing of textual information (Armstrong & Chung, 2000;Armstrong, Boriarsky, & Mares, 1991;Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Furnham et al., 1994;Lin et al., 2009); combining media use with homework increases the time needed to complete the homework, leads to worse homework performance, and results in poor recognition of TV messages (Bowman, Levine, Waite, & Gendron, 2010;Junco & Cotten, 2011;Pool et al., 2003;Pool, van der Voort, Bentjes, & Koolstra, 2000;Zhang, Jeong, & Fishbein, 2010); and multitasking with media impairs phonological and visual working memory functions (Armstrong & Sopory, 1997;Vega, McCracken, Nass, & Labs, 2008). Multitasking with new digital technologies and its deleterious effects on cognition have been widely studied in the context of education and learning. ...
... A study conducted by Furnham and Bradley (1997) examined whether the level of extroversion moderates cognitive task performance under background auditory stimuli and found significant results. In this study, 10 extroverts and 10 introverts completed three cognitive tasks: reading comprehension, memory, and delayed memory. ...
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The present research aimed to investigate the effect of background Mozart Classical music on translator students' performance. In this study, the researchers focused not only on the relationship between music and translation but also on the relationship between music and personality traits. The main question this study tried to answer was whether using background music might enhance students' translation scores. To answer this question, 32 students from Islamic Azad University of Quchan, Iran, participated in this study. They were selected out of 40 students, employing Nelson proficiency test and were randomly assigned to two groups. The participants in experimental group were asked to translate three texts accompanied by background music, but the subjects in the control group were asked to translate the same texts without background music during three sessions. Students' translations were scored based on Kim's (2009) meaning-oriented translation assessment model. Statistical analyses were applied for qualitative data and an interview was designed for the qualitative research question. Researchers concluded that there was a significant difference between the translation scores of the experimental and control groups. The former outperformed the latter group on the translation task.
... Likewise, cognitive processes can affect performance (Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Schwartz et al., 2017). Kahneman (2011) describes how cognitive processes are involved in thinking and decision making when using "system 1" (fast, emotional and unconscious decisions) and "system 2" (slow, logical, conscious decisions). ...
Preprint
Music plays a significant role in human life. Background music surrounds us in many places, in restaurants, shopping centers and even at work. The literature suggests that background music can influence an individual's decision-making process. In the current study, we asked participants to complete a questionnaire about their time preference while listing to background music. There were three different treatments (fast music, slow music, and no music), and our findings indicate that participants exposed to a faster tempo have a higher present preference than those exposed to slow music or none at all. Our analysis showed that although impulsiveness is related to time preference and was affected by the music, it was not a mediator between background music and time preference. We suggest that time preference changes due to cognitive processes and decision avoidance.
... Previous research has found that music can distract people from performing cognitive tasks, according to Furnham and Bradley studies (9). Another significant finding is that (77.6 %) of respondents are aware of the noise effect. ...
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Introduction:Buildings near roadsides and highways should be given due attention because noise has an impact on the community. Objective: The goal of this study is to assess university students' concentration abilities and noise-related health problems in Section 13, Shah Alam, Selangor. Methodology: The method used was a cross-sectional study of 246 university students. Respondents completed a validated questionnaire that included socio-demographic information, lifestyle information, noise on health problems, and concentration. Result: Building A, located 1.5 kilometers from the highway, is the closest student housing to the highway. The ability to concentrate in noise and noise-related health problems among university students were found to have a positive correlation in this study (p0.01). Exhaustion and its effect on overall academic performance (r=664), as well as anxiety and difficulty completing tasks on time (r=654), have a moderate correlation. The headache, effect on studies, and daily routines have the lowest correlation (r=177). Discussion: There is a correlation between IAQ and SBS symptoms. Poor IAQ and SBS symptoms among occupants may impact teaching and learning process in the university. Conclusion: Controlling noise pollution should be prioritized due to its negative effects on academic performance and general health.
... RQ4. Is there a significant difference in the level of music streaming when grouped according to: 4 Since p-value is 0.496>0.05, then we do not reject the null hypothesis. ...
... For example, several studies have demonstrated that using a cellphone while driving impairs driving performance (e.g., Drews et al., 2008;Hancock, Lesch, & Simmons, 2003;Horrey et al., 2008;Lesch & Hancock, 2004;Strayer & Drews, 2007), and using a laptop for class-unrelated activities during lectures reduces learning (Risko et al., 2013;Sana et al., 2013;Wood et al., 2012). It has also been demonstrated that listening to music sometimes (but not always) hinders performance on mental tasks (e.g., Cassidy & Macdonald, 2007;Furnham & Bradley, 1997), as does looking up information on the internet (Cauwenberge et al., 2014), holding instant-messaging conversations (Fox et al., 2009), and having a video playing in the background (e.g., Armstrong & Chung, 2000;Furnham, Gunter, & Peterson, 1994;Pool, Koolstra, & Van Der Voot, 2003). ...
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In two experiments, we sought to determine whether (a) people are aware of the frequently observed performance costs associated with engaging in media multitasking (Experiment 1), and (b) if so, whether they modulate the extent to which they engage in multitasking as a function of task demand (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants completed a high-demand task (2-back) both independently and while a video was simultaneously presented. To determine whether people were sensitive to the impact that the concurrent video had on primary-task performance, subjective estimates of performance were collected following both trial types (No-Video vs. Video trials), as were explicit beliefs about the influence of the video on performance. In Experiment 2, we modified our paradigm by allowing participants to turn the video on and off at their discretion, and had them complete either a high-demand task (2-back) or a low-demand task (0-back). Findings from Experiment 1 indicated that people are sensitive to the magnitude of the decrement that media multitasking has on primary-task performance. In addition, findings from Experiment 2 indicated that people modulate the extent to which they engage in media multitasking in accordance with the demands of their primary task. In particular, participants completing the high-demand task were more likely to turn off the optional video stream compared to those completing the low-demand task. The results suggest that people media multitask in a strategic manner by balancing considerations of task performance with other potential concerns.
... On the other hand, having numerous people present, especially those unrelated to the juvenile's case, may well create a distracting environment that would adversely affect attention and comprehension. Evidence indicates that, across age, children and adolescents perform worse on a range of cognitive tests when background distractions (e.g., noise, chatter) are present than when they are absent (Anderson & Fuller, 2010;Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Hygge et al., 2003), certainly a possibility among juveniles attempting to track and understand information with background conversations and movement occurring at high rates throughout their hearing. Evidence of difficulties was apparent in a small number of hearings, with slightly more than one in 10 California juvenile defendants overtly displaying confusion at some point during their hearing. ...
Article
Objective: In guilty plea hearings, judges must determine whether defendants' plea decisions were made knowingly, intelligently, and voluntarily. Little is known, however, about how plea hearings unfold, especially in juvenile court, where hearings are generally closed to the public. In this study, we had the unique opportunity to systematically observe plea hearings in juvenile and criminal court. Hypotheses: We predicted that plea hearings would be brief and that defendant participation, especially among juveniles, would be minimal. We also explored how often judges addressed the plea validity components of knowingness, intelligence, and voluntariness and whether addressing these components differed by the type of court (juvenile, criminal), pretrial custody status, and pled-to charge severity. Method: Trained coders in California (n = 104, juvenile court) and Virginia (n = 140, juvenile court; n = 593, criminal court) systematically observed more than 800 guilty plea hearings. Coders reliably documented hearing length, whether the defendant was in pretrial custody, whether the evidence was reviewed, details on defendant participation, and judicial attention to plea validity. Results: On average, juvenile plea hearings lasted about 7 min and criminal plea hearings lasted 13 min. Prosecutors rarely reviewed evidence against the defendants in the juvenile courts, and in one juvenile court, judges paid virtually no attention to plea validity. In the other two courts, certain waived rights (e.g., to trial, to silence) were reviewed consistently. Depending on the court, hearing length and plea validity elements addressed varied by defendants' prehearing custody status and the pled-to charge severity. Conclusions: These findings provide novel insight into how components necessary for plea admissibility-knowingness, voluntariness, and intelligence-are discussed with defendants and, in doing so, raise concerns about the degree to which plea validity is actively assessed in plea hearings. Plea hearings are formal, minutes-long events in which defendant engagement is low. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... According the model of irrelevant speech (Salamé & Baddeley, 1990), people have lower cognitive performance under irrelevant speech than their counterpart in silence. Nevertheless, Furnham and Bradley (1997) showed that personality may moderate cognitive performance under different music conditions. Specifically, the difference in cognitive performance may be associated with the level of the cortical arousal in the groups of introverts and extroverts according to Eysenck (2017) theory of personality. ...
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Lay Description What is already known about this topic Working memory capacity is fundamental to multitasking ability. Online search is a typical multitasking behavior that requires constant switching between different information sources. Students who take note perform better than those who do not while reading materials with seductive but irrelevant information. What this paper adds Students working memory capacity is examined under silent and irrelevant speech conditions. Students exhibited different profile patterns in their working memory capacity under silent and irrelevant speech conditions. Taking note, either in matrix form or free form, can significantly improve students' online search performance for those with high WMC ONLY in irrelevant speech or for those with low WMC in both silent and irrelevant speech conditions. Implications for practice Note‐taking as auxiliary support may facilitate students' integration and evaluation of the online information across multiple sources during their online search. Instructions on how to self‐construct matrix note are needed to help students develop advanced note‐taking skills for their learning involving online search.
... Many studies have focused on driver stress and many have found that it is hard to formalize the effects of music in light traffic. Certain studies affirmed that listening to music while the heavy traffic driving, especially the favorite music of the driver, can reduce the probability of an accident [9][10][11]. Brian H. Dalton and David G. Behm [4] suggest in their systematic review that drivers are less stressed and aggressive while listening to music due to its tendency to distract and decrease a driver's attention from the surrounding stressors. ...
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The attention level of car drivers is affected by many factors. Music is one of the most importantones, but its effect is rarely studied. Music can affect driving style in both positive and negative ways, as itcan reduce fatigue but also increase the level of distraction or aggression. This article presents anexperimental investigation of the effects of music on driver attention level. Several measurements on avehicle simulator were done to collect data that demonstrates the relationship between music and theperformance of the car driver. The simulation measured performance under three conditions - relaxationmusic, rock music and silence. Additionally, the measurements were repeated in both fresh and tired states.The results are, in some aspects, different from our expectations - for example, relaxation music improvedreaction time but also correlated with a higher occurrence of inappropriate steering actions. Deeperunderstanding of how the music and noise affect the driver’s actions and decisions will help to improveroad safety and reduce the probability of accidents
... Now, more than ever, we spend the majority of our time multitasking (see Bachmann et al., 2019). From instances of working while listening to music (Furnham & Bradley, 1997) or with the television playing in the background (Armstrong & Chung, 2000), to driving while talking on the phone (Hill et al., 2015;Nunes & Recarte, 2002), we frequently engage in more than one task at a time. Even as we prepare this manuscript, we are switching from one tab to another, responding to emails, searching for articles, and sending instant messages to collaborators. ...
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Across two studies, we explored whether framing an assignment as involving either multitasking or single-tasking (Srna et al. Psychol Sci 29(12):1942–1955, 2018) leads to differences in both subjective ratings of attentional engagement (i.e., depth of concentration and attentional control) and performance during the assignment. In Experiment 1, we manipulated task framing in the context of an assignment in which participants (Ncollected = 238) simultaneously completed a word-search and an anagram task (Srna et al. Psychol Sci 29(12):1942–1955, 2018). While we replicated prior findings that participants who receive multitasking instructions perform better than those who receive single-tasking instructions, we did not find any influence of task framing on participants’ subjective evaluations of their attentional engagement. Exploratory analyses, however, revealed that regardless of group assignment, those who believed they were multitasking reported greater levels of attentional engagement than those who believed they were single-tasking. In Experiment 2 (Ncollected = 238), task framing was varied in the context of the 2-back task (Kirchner J Exp Psychol 55(4): 352, 1958). Unexpectedly, we found that, relative to participants who received single-tasking instructions, those who received multitasking instructions reported exerting less attentional control over their thoughts and showed a greater number of incorrect responses to non-target trials on the 2-back. Taken together, the results do not support a straightforward conclusion regarding the influence of task framing on either subjective reports of attentional engagement or task performance. Nevertheless, they provide insight into our understanding of the role of task framing in contexts ranging from commonly performed real-world tasks to typical laboratory tasks.
... One possible explanation for our results is cognitive load. Studies focusing on consumer behaviour have shown that music played in the background may create a cognitive load on people's minds, which affects their behaviour (Turley & Milliman, 2000) and their performance (Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Schwartz et al., 2017). Kahneman (2011) described how cognitive load is involved in thinking and decision making when using what he described as System 1 and System 2 thinking. ...
Article
Music plays a significant role in human life. The literature suggests that background music can influence an individual’s decision-making process. Previous studies have shown that the tempo of music can affect people’s choices about whether to prefer the present or the future when buying goods. We focused on the influence of the tempo of music on monetary time preference which is the willingness to wait for receiving money in the present compared to receiving it in a later period. In the experiment we asked participants to complete a questionnaire that included time delay questions to measure time preferences while listening to background music. Those who listened to music with a fast tempo were more likely to favour the present than those who listened to slow music or none at all. We suggest that this difference arises from an increase in people’s cognitive load that leads to a status quo bias.
... Second, the employees might not have perceived the music played as comfortable, particularly with regard to the rhythm and volume 25) . In a previous study, the effects of music differed among introverted and extroverted indi-viduals 26) , and listeners' musical preferences influenced the effects of the music 27) . According to Lehmann and Seufert 28) , a part of working memory is used by BGM while playing BGM; therefore, individuals with a limited working memory are unable to learn while BGM is playing. ...
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Objectives: We investigated whether playing background music (BGM) in the workplace had any effects on overtime hours. Methods: In 15 workplaces, we used a crossover design and alternated between 2 months with and without BGM for 8 months. Using the attendance management records of the company, we documented overtime hours during the observation and the previous year. BGM was played at the end of working hours (A), from 15:00 to the end of work (B), and from beginning to the end (C) in each of the five arbitrarily selected offices. To evaluate the effect on overtime hours, we used a paired t-test to compare the mean overtime between periods with and without BGM and repeated analysis of variance to compare the changes in the trend of overtime in the same months between the observation year and the previous year by an interaction effect. Results: Patterns A, B, and C consisted of 625, 536, and 573 employees, respectively. The mean overtime hours for 4 months were significantly decreased in one ( − 4.3%), two ( − 19.2% and − 10.7%), and three ( − 11.8%, − 16.8%, and − 4.4%) offices, respectively. Furthermore, the trend of overtime between the observation year and the previous year significantly changed in one (1/5), one (1/5), and three (3/5) offices, in patterns A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusions: There were offices that showed less overtime when playing BGM, particularly the entire day, than when BGM was not played. This pilot study suggests that conducting more extensive research in this area is worthwhile.
... Although under some conditions music may have no effect on (Furnham & Allass, 1999) or enhance (Kiger, 1989;Mammarella, Fairfield, & Cornoldi, 2013) working memory as measured by task performance, background music generally impairs working memory (Cassidy & MacDonald, 2007;Crawford & Strapp, 1994;Furnham & Allass, 1999;Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Furnham & Strbac, 2002;Iwanaga & Ito, 2002;Salamé & Baddeley, 1989). Therefore, at the cost of ecological validity, totally muting all audio yields tighter control. ...
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A 1 x 2 multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to assess the influence of auditory feedback on presence in Super Smash Bros. Brawl. 41 participants were assigned to a gameplay treatment condition of muted audio or sound effects only. Dependent variables were measured by the Self-Assessment Manikin, ITC-Sense of Presence Inventory, and Temple Presence Inventory. Covariates included familiarity with controls, visuospatial working memory, the Immersive Tendencies Questionnaire, recent gameplay experience, computer opponent difficulty level, age, sex, and handedness. A significant multivariate effect of treatment condition was observed, but further results were inconclusive. Possible explanations and reliability analyses are discussed.
... Students often listen to background music (BM) with or without intention while studying or performing different tasks such as reading comprehension, doing exercise, doing arithmetic operations, learning how to cook recipes, playing chess, and so on (Chew et al., 2016;De Groot & Smedinga, 2014). Previous research suggests that students who are engaged in studying may find BM either helpful and relaxing (e.g., White, 2007) or distracting (Du et al., 2020;Furnham & Bradley, 1997). The type of task students undertake and, in particular, its cognitive and linguistic characteristics may partly account for the range of the results about the impact of BM as an independent variable on task performance (De Groot & Smedinga, 2014). ...
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The role of music in second-language (L2) learning has long been the object of various empirical and theoretical inquiries. However, research on whether the effect of background music (BM) on language-related task performance is facilitative or inhibitory has produced inconsistent findings. Hence, we investigated the effect of happy and sad BM on complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) of L2 speaking among intermediate learners of English. A between-groups design was used, in which 60 participants were randomly assigned to three groups with two experimental groups performing an oral L2 English retelling task while listening to either happy or sad BM, and a control group performing the task with no background music. The results demonstrated the happy BM group’s significant outperformance in fluency over the control group. In accuracy, the happy BM group also outdid the controls (error-free clauses, correct verb forms). Moreover, the sad BM group performed better in accuracy than the controls but in only one of its measures (correct verb forms). Furthermore, no significant difference between the groups in syntactic complexity was observed. The study, in line with the current literature on BM effects, suggests that it might have specific impacts on L2 oral production, explained by factors such as mood, arousal, neural mechanism, and the target task’s properties.
... RQ4. Is there a significant difference in the level of music streaming when grouped according to: 4 Since p-value is 0.496>0.05, then we do not reject the null hypothesis. ...
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Music streaming websites has become hobby among students especially college. The objective of the study is to determine the effect of music streaming websites to the academic performance of the college students in Panabo City. The study involved 30 college students from public and private schools. There were 10 students from public school and 20 students from private school. The hypothesis of the study was that the level of music streaming website of the student in terms of usefulness, enjoyment and satisfaction help in their academic performance. While there are some factors that affected the academic performance of the students such as gender, age, year level and type of school. This positive finding is relevant to justify the current trend of listening to music while studying as it does not pose any adverse effects on the concentration of student. This positive finding is relevant to justify the current trend of listening to music while studying as it does not pose any adverse effects on the concentration of student. It might have different result if the students the researcher interviews have a high preference in his academic status.
... 11,12 İçe ve dışadönüklerin çevresel uyaranlara bağlı bellek performanslarının değerlendirildiği çalışmalarda içedönüklerin sessiz ortamda en yüksek performansı gösterdiklerini ancak çevresel uyaranların olduğu koşullarda (müzik) en düşük performansı sergiledikleri tespit edilmiştir. 13,14 İçedönüklerde hem uyaranlara karşı 300 milisaniyedeki dalga boyu potansiyelinin yüksek düzeyde oluşması hem de sessiz ortamda performanslarının artması, Eysenck'in düşük duyum eşiğine ve yüksek canlanabilir kortekse sahip olmaları nedeniyle içedönüklerin kolayca canlandıkları ve uyarandan çekindikleri tezinin doğrular görünmektedir. Ancak Eysenck'in kişilik boyutlarının nedensel temellerini ispatlamak için sunulan deneysel kanıtları eleştiren Gray ve diğer araştırmacılar, bu deneylerde pekiştireç türünün etkisinin ihmal edildiğini, deneylerde daha çok ceza pekiştirecinin söz konusu olduğunu ve ödül pekiştirecinin göz önünde bulundurulmadığını belirterek ödül ve cezanın davranış üzerindeki farklı etkileri nedeniyle Eysenck'in kortikal canlanmaya dayalı teorisinin tehlikeye girdiğini iddia etmişlerdir. ...
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Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, Pekiştireç Duyarlılık Teorisi'nde belirtilen "Davranışsal İnhibisyon Siste-mi'nin içedönüklükle bağlantılı olduğu, dolayısıyla içedönüklerin dışadönüklere göre cezaya ödülden daha duyarlı oldukları ve öğrenme sürecinde cezanın ödülden daha etkili olacağı" ve "Davranışsal Aktivasyon Sistemi'nin dışadönüklükle bağlantılı olduğu, dolayısıyla dışadönüklerin içedönüklere göre ödüle cezadan daha duyarlı oldukları ve öğrenme sürecinde ödülün cezadan daha etkili olduğu" hipotezlerini psikometrik ve deneysel açıdan araştırmaktır. Yöntem: Toplam 744 üniversite öğrencisi arasından Eysenck Kişilik Envanteri uygulanarak seçilen 18-40 (21,20±3,68) yaş aralığındaki 84'ü kadın ve 50' si erkek toplam 134 kişi, kişilik tiplerine ve uygulanacak pekiştireç türlerine göre içedönük-ödül, içedönük-ceza, dışadönük-ödül ve dışadönük-ceza olarak dört deney grubuna ayrılmıştır. Katılımcılara Davranışsal İnhibisyon Sistemi/Davranışsal Aktivasyon Sistemi Ölçeği (DİS/DAS) ve Sözel Bellek Süreçleri Testi'nde yer alan kelimeler ile işitsel ve görsel ödül ve cezayı içeren öğrenme deneyi bilgisayar ortamında uygulanmıştır. Bulgular: Kişilik tipi-pekiştireç türü gruplarının performans puanları karşılaştırılması sonucunda içedönük-ceza grubu performans puanının içedönük-ödül grubu ve dışadönük-ceza grubunun performans puanlarından; dışadönük-ödül grubunun başarı puanının dışadönük-ceza ve içedönük-ödül grubunun per-formans puanından anlamlı derecede yüksek olduğu görülmüştür. İçedönük ve dışadönük tiplerin DİS/ DAS puanlarının karşılaştırılması sonucunda, içedönük grubun cezaya duyarlılıkla bağlantılı DİS puanının dışadönük grubun DİS puanından anlamlı seviyede yüksek olduğu, dışadönük grubun ödüle duyarlılıkla bağlantılı DAS puanlarının içedönük grubun DAS puanından anlamlı seviyede yüksek olduğu bulunmuştur. Sonuç: Eysenck'in kişilik teorisinde iddia ettiği içedönüklerin dışadönüklerden daha iyi öğrendiği hipo-tezi reddedilirken Gray'in içedönüklerde Davranışsal İnhibisyon Sisteminin daha baskın olduğu dolayısıyla daha cezaya duyarlı oldukları, dışadönüklerin ise Davranışsal Aktivasyon Sisteminin daha baskın olması nedeniyle ödüle daha duyarlı oldukları hipotezi hem deneysel hem de psikometrik açıdan doğrulanmıştır. ABSTRACT The Relationships Between Introvert and Extravert Personality Traits with Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems: An Experimental and Psychometric Study Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the hypotheses psychometrically and experimentally which is claimed on Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory that "Behavioral Inhibition System is associated with introversion, so introverts are more sensitive to punishment than reward in comparison with extraverts and in learning process punishment is more efficient than reward" and "Behavioral Activation System is associated with extraversion, so extraverts are more sensitive to reward than punishment in comparison with introverts and in learning process reward is more efficient than punishment". Methods: This study was conducted with 134 participants of 84 female and 50 male aged between 18-40 (mean=21.20±3.68) that were selected among 744 university students using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the participants were divided into four experimental groups of introvert-reward, introvert punishment , extravert-reward and extravert-punishment according to personality traits and reinforcement types. Participants were given Behavioral Inhibition System / Behavioral Activation System Scale and a computerized learning experiment that included the words in the Verbal Memory Processes Scala with auditory and visual reward and punishment. Results: As a result of comparing the performance score of personality trait-reinforcement types groups, it was demonsrated that the performance score of introvert-punishment group was significantly higher than the performance score of introvert-reward and extravert-punishment groups; the success score of extravert-reward group is significantly higher than the performance score of extravert-punishment and introvert-reward groups. According to the comparison of BIS/BAS scale scores of introverts and extraverts, it was determined that the BIS score of introverts related with sensitivity to punishment was significantly higher than the BIS score of extraverts; the BAS score of extraverts related with sensitivity to reward was significantly higher than the BAS score of introverts. Conclusion: The hypothesis claimed by Eysenck in his personality theory that the introverts learn much better than extraverts was rejected and the hypothesis claimed by Gray that the Behavioral Inhibition System is more dominant in introverts so the introverts are more sensitive to punishment, the Behavioral Activation System is more dominant in extraverts so the extraverts are more sensitive to reward was confirmed both experimentally and psychometrically.
... Although it has been suggested that the in uence of background music is mediated by the multidimensional nature of the simultaneous tasks that are involved, as well as by individual differences (Furnham and Bradley 1997), and other contextual factors (Eroglu, Machleit, Chebat, 2005). It can be said that music could disrupt the mental processing of information, for example, the task of making decisions while listening to music involves the processing of visual, and audio perceptions simultaneously. ...
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For some people, listening to music can be a pleasant collateral activity during working hours. Occasionally considered to be an important stress reducing strategy in situations when planning, and decision making are required. For that reason, in this work we seek to assess the effect of listening to music at sound pressure levels Leq of 74 to 78 dB-A, in three higher-level cognitive functions: planning, inhibition and visuospatial working memory, in a group of 22 young adults 22 to 39 years old from Mexico City using a two-phase quasi experimental design. During phase 1, all participants were screened for good hearing health through a standard pure-tone audiometry, and then performed four neuropsychological tests while listening to loud music. During phase 2, participants performed the same neuropsychological tests applied during phase 1, but without presenting the musical stimulus in a quiet laboratory environment with a background noise level Leq of 24 to 30 dB-A. In both phases participants were also physiologically tested for possible stress markers. The results demonstrate that listening to loud music might negatively affects daily life cognitive abilities like planning, inhibition, and visuospatial working memory.
... Muzik di dalam video juga mampu menimbulkan tindak balas emosi yang menyukai atau tidak dan keseronokan (North & Hargreaves, 1997 Berk (2008), beliau menyimpulkan bahawa muzik mempunyai nilai yang amat besar sebagai alat mengajar kerana memberi kesan positif kepada fungsi otak pelajar. Berdasarkan kajian Lozanov, beberapa kajian telah mengkaji kesan muzik latar belakang kepada penuisan (Hallam & Godwin, 2000), tingkah laku dan prestasi matematik (Hallam & Price, 1998), membaca (Brown, 1986, ingatan dan pemahaman bacaan (Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Mullikin & Henk, 1985), dan sebagainya. ...
Article
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Through diversity in technology nowadays, innovation in teaching and learning has been adapted to the subject of Thematic Exegesis among students in higher learning institutions including new pedagogy approaches such as language use, teaching style changes, technological developments and so on. This article will study the thematic approach by highlighting the particular theme handled by the Qur'an in teaching and learning Thematic Exegesis subject in the Faculty of Quran and Sunnah Studies (FPQS). Secondly, this study will explore the innovations that have been introduced and applied throughout the teaching and learning process of the subject among students of Quran and Sunnah Studies (QS) and Quran with Multimedia (QM) at the FPQS, USIM. This article uses qualitative methods through observation and documentation. The study found that: (a) there are five types of innovation in the teaching and learning of thematic exegesis subject among students; acting, wayang kulit (shadow puppets) or animation, multimedia presentations, music and lyric, and, choral speaking, (b) students have shown an improvement in innovative approaches in learning the subject of thematic exegesis especially in communication and technology. ABSTRAK Melalui kepelbagaian dalam teknologi pada masa kini, inovasi dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran telah disesuaikan dengan subjek Tafsir Maudu’i di kalangan pelajar di institusi pengajian tinggi termasuk pendekatan pedagogi baharu seperti penggunaan bahasa, perubahan gaya pengajaran, perkembangan teknologi dan sebagainya. Artikel ini akan mengkaji pendekatan tematik (Tafsir Maudu’i) dengan menonjolkan tema tertentu yang ditangani oleh al-Quran dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran subjek Tafsir Maudu’i di Fakulti Pengajian Quran dan Sunnah (FPQS). Kedua, artikel ini akan meneroka inovasi-inovasi yang telah diperkenalkan dan digunapakai sepanjang proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran subjek tersebut di kalangan pelajar pengkhususan Quran dan Sunnah (QS) dan Quran dengan Multimedia (QM) di FPQS, USIM. Artikel ini menggunakan kaedah kualitatif melalui pemerhatian dan dokumentasi. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa: (a) terdapat lima jenis inovasi dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran subek Tafsir Maudu’i di kalangan pelajar; lakonan, wayang kulit atau animasi, multimedia, muzik dan lirik lagu, dan choral speaking, (b) pelajar menunjukkan peningkatan dalam pendekatan baru dalam pembelajaran subjek Tafsir Maudu’i khususnya dalam komunikasi dan teknologi.
... Diğer yandan bazı çalışmalar, bir bellek testinde müzik varlığının anında hatırlama üzerinde olumsuz etkilere sahip olduğu sonucuna varmaktadır. Bu araştırmalar müziğin içinde bulunan farklı uyaranların bir sonucu olarak dikkat dağıtıcı bir etki yarattığını öne sürmektedir (Furnham ve Bradley 1997). Smith ve Morris (1977), aşırı uyarıcı müziklerin sakinleştirici müziklere göre duygusallığı daha fazla artırdığı için katılımcıların daha düşük performans gösterdiğini öne sürmüştür. ...
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Background music is widely used to sustain attention, but little is known about what musical properties aid attention. This may be due to inter-individual variability in neural responses to music. We test the hypothesis that music can sustain attention by affecting oscillations via acoustic amplitude modulation, differentially for those with varying levels of attentional difficulty. We first show that heavily-modulated music improves sustained attention for participants with more ADHD symptoms. FMRI showed this music elicited greater activity in attentional networks in this group only, and EEG showed greater stimulus-brain coupling for this group in response to the heavily-modulated music. Finally, we parametrically manipulated the depth and rate of amplitude modulations inserted in otherwise-identical music, and found that beta-range modulations helped more than other frequency ranges for participants with more ADHD symptoms. Results suggest the possibility of an oscillation-based neural mechanism for targeted music to support improved cognitive performance.
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The direct effects of violent, aggressive, misogynistic and criminalistic song lyrics such as these by Eminem (2000) are unknown throughout literature. Stereotypically, one might say that hip hop has the most criminality and crude lyrics with a lot of explicit languages but do other genres such as rock, pop and country also? Moreover, is the extent of violence, criminality and misogyny within hip hop as much as we think and if so, what extent can it influence behaviours? Artists are role models for people all around the world and people may idolise a following towards criminal lyrics making them commit crime more comfortably and become more susceptible to crime.
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Aims: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship of social networking sites (SNSs) addiction on nurses' performance and how this relationship is mediated by task distraction and moderated by self-management. Design: This cross-sectional study is design to empirically test the relationship of SNSs addiction, task distraction and self-management with the nurses' performance. Methods: Data were collected by conducting an online-survey on nurses across the world using a web-based questionnaire developed through 'Google Docs' and distributed through 'Facebook' from 13 August, 2018 - 17 November, 2018. The Facebook groups were searched using the selected key terms. In total, 45 groups were found to have relevance to this research; therefore, request was made to the admins of these groups to participate in this research and to post a link in their groups. Only 19 group admins responded positively by uploading a link of the research instrument on their respective group pages and 461 members of these groups participated in the research. Results: Results of the data collected from fifty-three different countries indicated that SNSs addiction results in lowering the nurses' performance. This relationship is further strengthened by task distraction introduced as a mediating variable. The results show that self-management mediates the relationship between SNSs addiction and employees' performance. Moreover, the results of the study confirm that self-management reduces the negative impact of SNSs addiction on nurses' performance. Conclusion: SNSs addiction and task distraction reduces the nurses' performance, whereas, self-management enhances nurses' performance. Impact: This study addresses the problem of using SNSs at the workplace and its potential effect on nurses' performance. Results demonstrate that SNSs addiction reduces the performance which is further decreased by task distraction; however, self-management of nurses can enhance the nurses' performance. The research has numerous theoretical and practical implications for hospital administration, doctors and nurses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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