Conference PaperPDF Available

Tourist Shopping Styles and Preferences in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



Tourism is a flourishing industry and vital in mobilizing the national economy. Malaysian economic sectors have benefited from tapping on the tourism industry with various promotional activities which include shopping. Shopping is the most favourite tourist activity and a significant economic contributor to the tourism and retail industry. Although various researches were conducted on tourism and shopping, a comprehensive investigation on tourist's shopping styles and prefer-ences still remains very much unanswered especially in Malaysian shopping land-scape. Thus, a comprehensive research on this matter and arising issues are much required to avoid a drop in retail sales, a decrease in tourist spending, and other unfavourable aspects. Therefore, to fulfil this gap, this study was conducted to examine the inter-relationship between tourist demographic characteristics, tourist shopping styles, and tourist shopping preferences, during their visit to Kuala Lum-pur. Administrative questionnaires were distributed personally to 471 tourists us-ing mall intercept surveys. The data was analysed using the Statistical Program for the Social Science (SPSS) and findings revealed that there is significant rela-tionship between demographic characteristics and tourist preferences towards tourist shopping style. Both local and international tourists prefer to buy clothing while they are in Kuala Lumpur. In terms of their shopping styles, the internation-al tourists tend to be novelty-seeking and local tourists tend to be price conscious since they prioritized value for money while shopping. The study includes among others the matters of influence such as the styles, choices, and regulatory impact, such as tax redemption to assess their preferences. The study concludes that un-derstanding the tourist shopping styles according to their preferences and demo-graphic characteristics is beneficial for shopping tourism and retail industry in Ma-laysia.
Tourist Shopping Styles and Preferences in
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Azila Azmi1, Anis Liana Buliah, Angayar Kanni Ramaiah, Hashim Fadzil
Ariffin, & Anderson Ngelambong
1 Faculty of Hotel and Tourism Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Pulau Pinang,
Abstract. Tourism is a flourishing industry and vital in mobilizing the national
economy. Malaysian economic sectors have benefited from tapping on the tourism
industry with various promotional activities which include shopping. Shopping is
the most favourite tourist activity and a significant economic contributor to the
tourism and retail industry. Although various researches were conducted on tour-
ism and shopping, a comprehensive investigation on tourist's shopping styles and
preferences still remains very much unanswered especially in Malaysian shopping
landscape. Thus, a comprehensive research on this matter and arising issues are
much required to avoid a drop in retail sales, a decrease in tourist spending, and
other unfavourable aspects. Therefore, to fulfil this gap, this study was conducted
to examine the inter-relationship between tourist demographic characteristics,
tourist shopping styles, and tourist shopping preferences, during their visit to Kua-
la Lumpur. Administrative questionnaires were distributed personally to 471 tour-
ists using mall intercept surveys. The data was analysed using the Statistical Pro-
gram for the Social Science (SPSS) and findings revealed that there is significant
relationship between demographic characteristics and tourist preferences towards
tourist shopping style. Both local and international tourists prefer to buy clothing
while they are in Kuala Lumpur. In terms of their shopping styles, the internation-
al tourists tend to be novelty-seeking and local tourists tend to be price conscious
since they prioritized value for money while shopping. The study includes among
others the matters of influence such as the styles, choices, and regulatory impact,
such as tax redemption to assess their preferences. The study concludes that un-
derstanding the tourist shopping styles according to their preferences and demo-
graphic characteristics is beneficial for shopping tourism and retail industry in
Keywords: shopping tourism, tourist shopping styles, tourist shopping prefer-
ences, retailing
2 Azmi, Buliah, Ramaiah, Ariffin, & Ngelambong
1 Introduction
Tourism industry has a major impact on Malaysia’s economic development by
benefiting the various tourism related commercial activities and economic sectors
such as hospitality, transportation, shopping, entertainment, recreational and lei-
sure activities (Kusni, Kadir, & Nayan, 2013). Studies have revealed that Kuala
Lumpur is ranked as the fourth best shopping city in the world and third out of 10
largest malls located within the city in the world are (Kim, 2014). Thus, Malay-
sia’s plan to absorb tourists from huge emerging markets of China, India, and
more specifically, Middle East, can be a remarkable contribution to the economic
growth of the country. According to Malaysia Tourist Profile (2013), shopping has
become a prominently important tourist activity in Malaysia for at least two rea-
sons; first, it is among the major activities that tourists had engaged after the sight-
seeing and the value spent on accommodation by tourist is almost equal to the val-
ue spent on shopping. Tourists find their trip is incomplete without having spent
time shopping and feel they cannot return home without buying “something” to
take back home from the country they visited (Jaafar, Hamiruddin, & Sohaili,
Although a number of research studies regarding tourist shopping behaviour
have been historically examined, but fewer have been found dealing specifically
with tourists who come to Malaysia. There are also very few researches that exam-
ined on tourist shopping style and preferences in Malaysia shopping landscape.
Hence, to fulfil this gap, this study examines the interrelationship between tourist
shopping demographic, tourist shopping styles, and their preferences during their
trip or vacation in Kuala Lumpur using tourist shopping styles typology adopted
from Letho, Chen and Silkes (2014). The adaptation of tourist shopping typology
is more diverse than the Consumer Styles Inventory (CSI) in gaining more infor-
mation about tourist behaviour.
2 Shopping Tourism
Most tourists travel itineraries are considered incomplete without the possibility
of shopping activities (Filipović, Jovanović, & Cicvarić Kostić, 2013; Jin, Mos-
cardo, & Murphy, 2017). Traditionally, tourists tend to look primarily for souvenir
items and purchased them as a symbol and memory during their vacation or trip.
However, previous studies revealed that souvenirs are no longer the primary tour-
ists purchase product (TIA, 2001; Timothy, 2005). Researchers upon examination
of the general tourist shopping trend found that the tourists do purchase many
more items besides souvenirs (Kim et. al., 2011). Tourist shopping products have
been categorized and tested with tourist demographics, trip typologies, and trip-
Tourists Shopping Styles and Preferences in Kuala Lumpur 3
specific characteristics to understand the reason why tourists shop for general
items (Lehto, O’Leary & Marrison, 2004; Oh et. al., 2004).
Furthermore, habitually, tourists usually focus on specific goods and services,
for example hotels, restaurants, cultural or entertainment zones that are offered in
the place (Moscardo, 2004). Nevertheless, modern tourists are enjoying making a
high purchase power and consumers of wider goods, such as fashion, crafts or de-
sign (Kim, Timothy, & Hwang, 2011; Zhu, Xu, & Jiang (2016). The preferences
of tourist shopping items also diverse across different destination (Lehto et al.,
2004; Xu & McGehee, 2012; Wong, 2013). In view of that, shopping has undeni-
ably become one economic contributor and a part of the recreational activities
(AbuElEnain, & Yahia, 2017).
2.1 Tourist shopping styles and preferences
Tourist shopping styles can be defined as behaviours among tourists during their
vacation. There are twelve behaviour styles according to Lehto et al. (2014) which
are: (1) Perfectionistic, High-quality Conscious; (2) Brand Conscious, “Price
Equals Quality”; (3) Novelty-seeking Style; (4) Fashion-conscious Style; (5) Rec-
reational, Hedonistic Style Confused; (6) Price Conscious, “Value For Money”;
(7) Impulsive, Careless Style; (8) Confused By Over Choice; (9) Habitual, Brand-
loyal; (10) Uniqueness-seeking; (11) Variety-seeking; and (12) Incidental, Apa-
thetic. CSI will adapt into the tourism context to account for tourists’ perceptions
and preferences. Each of the shopping styles is explained below:
Perfectionistic, High-quality Conscious Style: This type of characteristic describes
a tourist who searches carefully and thoroughly for the best quality in products.
Perfectionistic or high-quality conscious consumer has specific ideas about best
quality products and consistently looks for these qualities (Nayeem, 2012). This
research measures the tourists’ search for the very best quality in products by
shopping carefully, systematically or by comparison.
Brand Conscious, “Price Equals Quality” Style: For this kind of tourist style,
tourists believe the higher the price of a product, the better the quality would be.
Usually, they prefer products that are rather expensive and of the well-known
brands. Brand conscious element is choosing well-known brands allows avoiding
risks and believing high prices equal to high quality (Decrop & Snelders, 2005).
For this research, the researcher will examine tourists’ orientation towards buying
expensive and well-known brands.
4 Azmi, Buliah, Ramaiah, Ariffin, & Ngelambong
Novelty-seeking Style: A characteristic identifying consumers who appear to like
new and innovative products and gain excitement from seeking out new things.
Consumers with novelty-seeking shopping style are likely to gain excitement and
pleasure from seeking out new things through shopping (Zuckerman, 1979). When
tourists have strong characteristics of novelty-seeking, they experience the ex-
citement of thrill and surprise, and thus, are more involved in situations, and have
higher degrees of situation involvement and satisfaction.
Fashion-conscious Style: Individuals who possessed the value of fashion con-
sciousness would be likely to also exhibit positive attitudes towards fast fashion
retailers that offered them an opportunity to purchase up-to-date merchandise
(Homer & Kahle, 1988). For this study, fashion-conscious style will be examined
to understand the tourists’ tendency to keep up-to-date with styles and being in
style on vacation.
Recreational, Hedonistic Style: A characteristic measuring the degree to which a
consumer finds shopping a pleasant activity and shops just for the fun of it. Bel-
lenger and Korgaonkar (1980) defined recreational shoppers as “those who enjoy
shopping as a leisure-time activity” while Prus and Dawson (1991) identified rec-
reational shopping orientations as embracing “nations of shopping as interesting,
enjoyable, and entertaining and leisurely activity”. Enjoyment is a major compo-
nent of recreational shopping. Hence, for this research, this style will be used to
examine whether tourists find shopping pleasant and fun.
Price Conscious, “Value for Money” Style: According to Nicolau (2011), price is
one of the most influential factors affecting tourist decisions and this explains the
wide use of the low-cost strategy by tourism firms. Tourists normally are aware of
how much things cost and thus, avoiding buying expensive items and looking for
value for money. This style measures whether tourists look for sale prices and ap-
pear conscious of value for money.
Impulsive, Careless Style: Multitudes of research studies have been conducted to
define, explain, and measure purchase on impulse (Rook & Hoch, 1985; Rook,
1987; Rook & Gardner, 1993; Rook & Fisher, 1995). Impulse buying occurs when
an individual feels a sudden, often powerful and persistent desire to make an unin-
tended, unreflective, and immediate purchase after being exposed to certain stimu-
li. This style identifies those who tend to buy in the branch of the moment and ap-
pear unconcerned about how much they spend.
Tourists Shopping Styles and Preferences in Kuala Lumpur 5
Confused by Over Choice Style: Sproles and Kendall (1986) characterized con-
sumer's confusion caused by too much product information or too many product
choices. A variety of factors may contribute to confusion from the abundance of
promotional information, through to the array of competing brands in the market
(Nayeem & Casidy, 2015). This dimension measures how much tourists feel over-
loaded with brand and store options.
Habitual, Brand-loyal Style: Usually, tourists who are fond towards this style have
formed habits in choosing these continually. A characteristic which indicates con-
sumers with their favourite brands and stores, and those who like to choose these
things repetitively (Vincent, 2013). Brand loyal style implies the habitual purchas-
ing. Consumers that have high loyalty tend to repeat their purchase from past
brands and stores. This factor measures whether tourists tend to choose brands and
stores that they are accustomed to when they are not travelling.
Uniqueness-seeking Style: People who have this kind of style have a value
uniqueness desire to see themselves as different from others. Snyder and Fromkin
(1977) investigated the concepts of conformity and uniqueness-seeking. They ob-
served that most people have a need to see themselves as moderately unique, but
they spotlighted the fact that individual differences in this motive emerge. Indi-
viduals who value uniqueness desire to see themselves as different from others
(Fromkin & Snyder, 1980). For this study, uniqueness-seeking style will examine
tourists’ tendency of seeking unique, scarce or customized products.
Variety-seeking Style: Variety-seeking style is a behavioral tendency that can be
observed in various consumption situations (Huang, 2014). Consumers' varie-
ty‐seeking tendency is associated with the strength with which individuals seek
variety by switching within familiar alternatives (Orth & Bourrain, 2005). For this
study, the variety-seeking style will examine on tourists’ brand switching behavior
and tourists’ desire for trying and buying new products when travelling.
Incidental, Apathetic Style: Apathetic shoppers have little or no interest in shop-
ping or in store type and try to minimize buying effort (Kwek, Tan, & Lau, 2010).
According to Reaid and Brown (1996), they are people who have no real interest
in or actively dislike shopping and appear to endure rather than enjoy the whole
experience. For this research, apathetic style will be studied to measure the lack of
interest in shopping when they travel.
6 Azmi, Buliah, Ramaiah, Ariffin, & Ngelambong
Meanwhile, tourist shopping preferences is a term referring to the items that have
been purchased by the tourists during their vacation or trip. They tend to look for
souvenirs that represent the destination they visit (Timothy, 2005). A souvenir is a
symbol and memory of an experience that differs from the daily routine (Littrell,
1990; Timothy, 2005). The primary reason for souvenir purchases is to remind
tourists about their experience (Timothy, 2005). The item that has been chosen by
tourists: mass produced items and figurines; and arts and crafts (Turner &
Reisinger, 2001); gem stones; jewellery (Turner & Reisinger, 2001); leather
goods; house wares; objects that depict wildlife and nature objects; markers paint-
ing by word such as mug and clothing; picture or symbol represents the place by
the souvenir (Blundell, 1993; Gordon, 1986); antiques product (Grado, Strauss, &
Lord, 1997); collectibles (Michael, 2002); clothing (Asplet & Cooper, 2000;
Turner & Reisinger, 2001); postcards (Markwick, 2001); and food and clothing as
local products (Gordon, 1986). However, the range of goods purchased by tourists
is broadening and does not any longer consist of just souvenirs and necessary per-
sonal items (Turner & Reisinger, 2001). Additionally, the amount of grocery
shopping by tourists has increased (Timothy & Butler, 1995) and the retail stores
are an important part of the tourism infrastructure (Timothy, 2005). Apart from in-
frastructure, the performance of tourism destination has become a significant ele-
ment of the retail stores' performance (Suhartanto, 2017).
2.2 The shopping landscape of Malaysia
Shopping has been given an agenda and prominence in the Malaysia Tourism
Transformation Plan 2020. Malaysia’s Mega Sale Carnival and Malaysia’s Year
End Sale have been held every year to attract tourist and is recognized in Malaysi-
an Calendar of Events. Within the carnival periods, tourists are awarded with vari-
ous discounts, special offers, and incentives which include some tax reliefs. Spe-
cial visitor’s incentive programs are particularly set for tourists by several
shopping malls and retailers to attract tourists which also allow them to enjoy
great discounts or rebate on normal price item.
Furthermore, the encouraging regulatory environment which supports fair
competition pricing system through the Competition Act 2010 and Malaysian
Competition Commission (MyCC) promotes consumer welfare by imposing better
competition and pricing system in Malaysia. This together with Consumer Protec-
tion Act 1999 and Consumer Tribunal with appropriate consumer safety regula-
tions and goods standardization also boost the sales because it promotes the confi-
dence level of the shoppers and retail business in Malaysia. This is also one of the
reasons why Malaysia stands out to be one of the better shopping destinations in
The Ministry of Tourism in Malaysia also has attempted and adopted a number
of strategies to strengthen the shopping tourism industry in Malaysia which in-
Tourists Shopping Styles and Preferences in Kuala Lumpur 7
cludes some focusing on fast development of well-known shopping malls such as
Suria KLCC, Pavilion, Star Hill, Mid-Valley, The Gardens, Times Square, 1 Uta-
ma, Sunway Pyramid, Publica and brand outlets which offer diversity of products
and brands from all over the world. In recognition of the potential retail sector to
further boost tourist expenditure in the country, Tourism Malaysia, in fact, has
formed Malaysia Shopping Secretariat (SSM) in 2003 to streamline all efforts in
intensifying the development of the shopping sector as a major component of Ma-
laysia’s tourism economy. One of the SSM's mission is to promote Malaysia as a
world-class shopping destination to both domestic and international tourists. In
2015, Tourism Malaysia has clustered and recognized eight major shopping desti-
nations in Malaysia which includes the Klang Valley, Penang, Johor, Malacca,
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Federal Territory of Labuan, Kuching and Miri in Sarawak,
and Langkawi in Kedah. Each cluster has its own shopping attractions.
3 Methodology
The quantitative method was used as a research paradigm and a self-
administrated questionnaire was distributed to 500 domestic and international
tourists using the mall intercept technique at major shopping complexes in Kuala
Lumpur. From the 500 questionnaires distributed, 471 were returned and ana-
lyzed, yielding 94.2% response rate. Convenience sampling was used as sampling
technique. Kuala Lumpur was selected since it is the main capital city of Malaysia
and most of the major shopping complexes are located in that particular city. The
data was analyzed by using Cronbach’s Alpha for reliability; Test of Normality
was used to determine whether the data collected is normal or non-normal; De-
scriptive Analysis was tabulated on the respondents’ demographic; and the Krus-
kal-Wallis test analysis was used to determine the objective.
4 Results and Discussion
4.1 Tourist demographic characteristics and tourist shopping styles
There is significant relationship between demographic characteristics and tour-
ist shopping styles among international and local tourists. Specifically, significant
differences were found among respondents with different gender, age, education,
income, region/country, travel party composition, purpose of vacation, and occu-
pation. Travel party composition was the only characteristic that is not significant
relationship in explaining the differences in tourist shopping styles among interna-
8 Azmi, Buliah, Ramaiah, Ariffin, & Ngelambong
tional tourists. Compared to the purpose of vacation, there is a significant relation-
ship for the local tourists, but for the international tourists, the result shows no
significant relationship. In this study, the researcher found that, international tour-
ists tend to portray Novelty-seeking style and local tourists tend to portray Price
Conscious, “Value for Money” style during their shopping.
4.2 Tourist shopping styles towards their shopping preferences
Table 1 showed that the tourist shopping styles towards their shopping prefer-
ences. The 15 purchased items were categorised based on the tourist shopping
styles. These 15 items represent the tourist shopping preferences and the items are
beauty and fragrance, book, camera or camera equipment, camping equipment,
children’s toys, clothing, home accessories or furniture, home electronics, jewel-
lery or accessories, liquor, luggage; music; shoes; souvenir or art and craft; and
sports equipment. Among the 15 items, tourists prefer only 14 items that have sig-
nificant relationship with tourist shopping style as there is no significant relation-
ship between liquor and tourist shopping styles for both local and international
tourists. It shows that both international and local tourists do not have the tenden-
cy of buying liquor during their vacation in Kuala Lumpur. The researcher also
found that camping equipment does not have any significant relationship between
tourist shopping styles for international tourists, but there is significant relation-
ship between tourist shopping styles for local tourists. This study indirectly re-
vealed that both local and international tourists prefer to shop on clothing com-
pared to the rest of the purchased items. The previous researches also found that
the main products purchased by tourists are clothing (Lehto, Chen, & Silkes,
2014); local handcraft and clothing (Litirell, Baizerman, Kean, Gahring, Niemey-
er, Reilly, & Stout, 1994; Traveler’s Notes, 1995); and clothing and shoes (TIA,
Table 1. Summary of the Tourist Shopping Styles towards Their Shopping Preferences
Shopping Style
Tourist Shopping Preferences
International Tourist
Local Tourist
Beauty and fragrance
Home accessories or furniture
Home electronics
Jewelry or accessories
Beauty and fragrance
Camera or camera equipment
Camping equipment
Home electronics
Souvenirs or arts and craft
Sport equipment
Brand Con-
scious, “Price
Equals Quali-
ty” Style
Beauty and fragrance
Camera or camera equipment
Children’s toys
Home electronics
Sport equipment
seeking Style
Souvenirs or arts and craft
Sport equipment
Camping equipment
Jewelry or accessories
Tourists Shopping Styles and Preferences in Kuala Lumpur 9
conscious Style
Sport equipment
Beauty and fragrance
Camera or camera equipment
Home electronics
Jewelry or accessories
Sport equipment
Camera or camera equipment
Souvenirs or arts and craft
Sport equipment
Camera or camera equipment
Children’s toys
Home accessories or furniture
Sport equipment
Price Con-
scious, “Value
for Money”
Home electronics
Jewelry or accessories
Sport equipment
Careless Style
Beauty and fragrance
Home electronics
Home electronics
Jewelry or accessories
Sport equipment
Confused by
Over Choice
Beauty and fragrance
Children’s toys
Sport equipment
Beauty and fragrance
Children’s toys
Jewelry or accessories
Sport equipment
Beauty and fragrance
Home accessories or furniture
Jewelry or accessories
Home electronics
Sport equipment
Seeking Style
Camera or camera equipment
Children’s toys
Jewelry or accessories
Beauty and fragrance
Camera or camera equipment
Home electronics
Jewelry or accessories
Souvenirs or arts and craft
seeking Style
Home accessories or furniture
Children’s toys
Sport equipment
Camera or camera equipment
Children’s toys
Home accessories or furniture
Home electronics
10 Azmi, Buliah, Ramaiah, Ariffin, & Ngelambong
5 Conclusion
The knowledge and awareness of the expected facilities, services and prefer-
ences of the Malaysia’s shopping tourism expectation and demands of goods and
products would better help the intended agencies involved in the retail industry to
better manage the future arrivals of tourists. Moreover, information regarding the
tourist shopping styles would be a great assistance to the agencies especially the
tourism ministry, Malaysia Shopping Secretariat, and retailers to re-evaluate their
approach to suit the tourist preference in shopping. Concurrently, this study also
may help various agencies in Malaysia towards achieving the National Key Eco-
nomic Area (NKEA) Number 4 for wholesale and retail and NKEA Number 5 for
tourism. One of the Tourism Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is to increase the
total number of tourist spending ratio per arrivals, thus relevant with the findings
of this study. In order to increase the number of tourist spending, all related agen-
cies need to truly understand the tourist shopping activities, especially on their
shopping styles and preferences.
AbuElEnain, E., & Yahia, S. (2017). Benchmarking the Egyptian Shopping Tour-
ism Sector against International Best Practices in Dubai, UAE. EJMS Europe-
an Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies Articles, 4.
Asplet, M., & Cooper, M. (2000). Cultural Designs in New Zealand Souvenir
Clothing: The Question of Authenticity. Tourism Management, 21, 307312.
Bellenger, D. N., and Korgaonkar, P. K. (1980). Profiling the Recreational Shop-
per. Journal of Retailing, 56(3), 77-92. Decrop, A., and Snelders, D. (2005). A
Grounded Typology of Vacation Decision-making. Tourism Management,
26(2), 121-132.
Blundell, V. (1993). Aboriginal Empowerment and Souvenir Trade in Canada.
Annals of Tourism Research, 20(1), 64-87.
Filipović, V., Jovanović, D., and Kostić, S. C. (2013). Attracting Tourists to a
Shopping Centre. Tourism Management, 66.
Gordon, B. (1986). The souvenir: Messenger of The Extraordinary. Journal of
Popular Culture, 20(3), 135146.
Grado, S. C., Strauss, C. H., & Lord, B. E. (1997, October). Economic Impacts of
Conferences and Conventions. Journal of Convention & Exhibition Manage-
ment, 1 (1) 19-33. Taylor & Francis Group.
Huang, X., Dong, P., and Mukhopadhyay, A. (2014). Proud To Belong or Proudly
Different? Lay Theories Determine Contrasting Effects of Incidental Pride on
Uniqueness Seeking. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(3), 697-712.
Jaafar, N., Hamiruddin, S. H., Sohaili, M., and Laili, N. (2012). Tourists’ Behav-
ioural TIA (Travel Industry Association of America), (2001). Executive Sum-
Tourists Shopping Styles and Preferences in Kuala Lumpur 11
maries: The Shopping Traveller.
Accessed 20 May 2015
Jin, H., Moscardo, G., & Murphy, L. (2017). Making sense of tourist shopping re-
search: A critical review. Tourism Management, 62, 120-134.
Kim, V., (2014). CNN Online.
best-shopping-cities/ Accessed 25 January 2016
Kim, S. S., Timothy, D. J., & Hwang, J. (2011). Understanding Japanese tourists'
shopping preferences using the Decision Tree Analysis method. Tourism
Management, 32(3), 544 - 554.
Kusni, A., Kadir, N., and Nayan, S. (2013). International Tourism Demand in Ma-
laysia by Tourists from OECD countries: A Panel Data Econometric Analysis.
Procedia Economics and Finance, 7, 28-34.
Kwek, C. L., Tan, H. P., and Lau, T. C. (2010). Investigating The Shopping Orien-
tations on Online Purchase Intention in the E-commerce Environment: A Ma-
laysian study. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 15(2), 1-22.
Lehto, X. Y., Chen, S. Y., and Silkes, C. (2014). Tourist Shopping Style Prefer-
ences. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 20(1), 3-15.
Lehto, X. Y., O’Leary, J. T., & Morrison, A. M. (2004). The Effect of Prior Expe-
rience on Vacation Behavior. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 801-818.
Littrell, M. A. (1990). Symbolic Significance of Textile Crafts for Tourists. An-
nals of Tourism Research 17(2): 228245.
Malaysia Tourists Profile 2013, Selected Markets, Tourism Malaysia Government,
Markwick, M. (2001). Postcards from Malta. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(2),
Michael, E. (2002). Antiques and Tourism in Australia. Tourism Management, 23,
Moscardo, G. (2004). Shopping as a Destination Attraction: An Empirical Exami-
nation of the Role of Shopping in Tourists’ Destination Choice and Experi-
ence. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(4), 294-307.
Nayeem, T. (2012). Cultural Influences on Consumer Behaviour. International
Journal of Business and Management, 7(21), 78.
Nayeem, T., and Casidy, R. (2015). Australian Consumers' Decision-making
Styles for Everyday Products. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), 23(1),
Nicolau, J. L. (2011). Differentiated Price Loss Aversion in Destination Choice:
The Effect of Tourists’ Cultural Interest. Tourism Management, 32(5), 1186-
Orth, U. R., & Bourrain, A. (2005). Ambient Scent and Consumer Exploratory
Behaviour: A Causal Analysis. Journal of Wine Research, 16(2), 137-150.
Prus, R., and Dawson, L. (1991). Shop'til You Drop: Shopping as Recreational
and Laborious Activity. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens De
Sociologie, 145-164.
Reid, R., and Brown, S. (1996). I Hate Shopping! An Introspective Perspective.
International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 24(4), 4-16.
12 Azmi, Buliah, Ramaiah, Ariffin, & Ngelambong
Rook, D. W., and Hoch, S. J. (1985). Consuming Impulses. Advances in Consum-
er Research, 12(1), 23-27.
Rook, D. W. (1987). The Buying Impulse. Journal of consumer research, 189-
Rook, D. W., and Gardner, M. P. (1993). In The Mood: Impulse Buying’s Affec-
tive Antecedents. Research in Consumer Behaviour, 6(7), 1-28.
Rook, D. W., and Fisher, R. J. (1995). Normative Influences on Impulsive Buying
Behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 305-313.
Sproles, G. B. and Kendall EL (1986). A Methodology for Profiling Consumers’
Decision-Marking Styles. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 20(2), 267279.
Suhartanto, D. (2017). The role of store coopetition and attractiveness on the per-
formance of tourism destination and its retail stores. International Journal of
Tourism Policy, 7(2), 151-165.
TIA (Travel Industry Association of America), (2001). Executive Summaries: The
Shopping Traveler.
Accessed 20 May 2015
Timothy, D. J. (2005). Shopping Tourism, Retailing, and Leisure. Clevedon, UK:
Channel View Publications.
Timothy, D. J., & Butler, R. W. (1995). Cross-boder Shopping: A North American
Perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(1), 16-34.
Turner, L. W., & Reisinger, Y. (2001) Shopping Satisfaction for Domestic Tour-
ists. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8 (1), 1527.
Wong, I. K. A. (2013). Mainland Chinese shopping preferences and service
perceptions in the Asian gaming destination of Macau. Journal of Vacation
Marketing, 19(3), 239-251.
Xu, Y., & McGehee, N. G. (2012). Shopping behavior of Chinese tourists visiting
the United States: Letting the shoppers do the talking. Tourism Management,
33(2), 427-430.
Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation Deeking. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology.
Zhu, D., Xu, H., & Jiang, L. (2016). Behind Buying: The Chinese Gaze on
European Commodities. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 21(3),
... Based on the findings of a study conducted by the Economic And Social Commission For Asia And The Pacific Bangkok (ESCAP) in 1991 (Azmi, Buliah, Ramaiah, Ariffin, Ngelambong, 2017) domestic and international tourists spend money for the purpose of shopping on certain items especially such as leather goods, textiles, pewter ware, jewelry, non-electric, fragrance in Malaysia. This clearly shows that shopping is an important factor in encouraging a person to travel. ...
Full-text available
Over the last few decades, the tourism industry has grown tremendously in Malaysia, especially in Sabah. The shopping sub-sector is an increasingly important component in the industry as well as accommodation, food and beverages, local transportation, entertainment and more. Statistics released by Tourism Malaysia records the bulk of international tourist spending in the country for shopping. Shopping spending increased from 31.3% in 2015 to 31.7% in 2016, surpassing the expenditure of accommodation for the second consecutive year. The purpose of this study is to identify patterns of souvenir buying among international tourists in Sabah. The characteristics and types of souvenir products that are a favorite of tourists in the state are identified. In addition, the factors that motivate international tourists to buy a souvenir product offered and the availability of tourist spending allocation to buy souvenirs in Sabah were also identified. The findings reveal that the important features that international travelers prefer in choosing souvenirs are local products, picture imaging, and accessories and decorations. Meanwhile, local food products in the form of dry products are the main choice of international travelers followed by mini products such as key chains, pens, bumper stickers and others, and postcards and handicrafts. In addition, the souvenir features that attract international travelers to buy them are products must be traditional, easy to carry and value for families and friends. It is also found that in addition to self-esteem is given to neighbors and relatives as their main purpose is to buy souvenirs. The encouraging and important findings of this study are the majority of tourists, 83.8%, stated that the selection of souvenir products offered in Sabah meets their needs. The purchase of souvenirs is an important activity and experience in tourism to tourists, so it is hoped that this study will contribute to improving and furthering the souvenir industry in Sabah especially and other places throughout Malaysia in general. In the further advance of souvenir industry in Sabah, the researcher recommended to improve the quality of current souvenir products especially popular products of tourist choice, get to know tourists and get information from them, produce souvenir products of tourist choice, plan appropriate promotional strategies for souvenirs and provide training and communication skills courses to sales people.
... Shopping has undeniably become an economic contributor and part of leisure activities (Azmi, Buliah, Ramaiah, Ariffin & Ngelambong, 2019), and the tastes of tourist shopping goods often vary across different destinations. The shopping complex in Chinatown to be specific, is situated in Malaysia's capital. ...
Conference Paper
Petaling Street is considered as one of the most punctual streets to be developed in Kuala Lumpur, with the establishment of shopping complexes that run for around 1 km from Bulatan Merdeka to Jalan Yap Ah Loy. It moved from the tin mines of the Petaling area in the late 1800s. It has come a long way, enduring numerous calamities, including major surges, wars in the 1870s within the Chinese nation, British invasion and World War 2. Since the country's growing number of tourists is increasing together with the act of shopping as the most appropriate leisure activity to raise domestic income, today's shopping activity attracts tourists to spend money on buying souvenirs and products while gaining unique experiences throughout their tour. In Malaysia, neighborhood shopping malls or lifestyle malls have transformed from ordinary to fashionable shopping places for people to gather and socialize with tourist shoppers. Shopping complex nearby the original Chinatown of the Centre of Kuala Lumpur retains a lot of its ancient atmosphere, significantly in the dead of night until vendors distribute their merchandise on the street. The cultural, physical climate and customer satisfaction are the variables that come while visiting to. This research is about the discernment of the Petaling Street’s shopping complex neighborhood community around shopping tourism. A total of 250 questionnaires received from respondents coded in SPSS version 22. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation. The findings showed that cultural, physical environment customer loyalty significantly influence the behavioral intention of tourists to re-visit Petaling Street’s shopping complex. In conclusion, the local community are very cautious with their spending and that is why they came to Petaling Street’s shopping complex to shopping. In fact, that has not happened to the local community only, but it happens to other nationality and tourist that visit the Shopping Complex. Therefore, the number of tourists visit Petaling Street’s shopping complex will be affected if the cultural, physical environment and customer loyalty remain poor in condition.
... Kuala Lumpur is famous for its various natural and man-made attractions as well as high rise buildings with modern architecture (Kozlowski, Mehan, & Nawratek, 2020). Previous studies have revealed that Kuala Lumpur is ranked as one of the best travel destinations in the world particularly in shopping tourism (Azmi, Buliah, Ramaiah, Ariffin, & Ngelambong, 2019). Bouchon (2014) noted that more than 10 million international tourists were received in 2011 compared with one million in 1995. ...
Although value co-creation concept has captured much interest, especially in the tourism and hospitality fields, limited empirical studies have been conducted to explore the complexity of experience value co-creation process in the online tourism review platform context. The current study will fill the research gap by proposing user-generated platforms as a contributor to the online co-creation process (platform engagement: pre-travel) and how this co-creation experience enhances a travel destination’s image and, subsequently, impacts on the travel experience (destination engagement: at-travel). It employs a holistic model which incorporates platform-use experience, platform co-creation experience, travel destination image, and overall destination satisfaction. A total of 342 surveys were collected from travellers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Structural equation modelling analysis showed that perceived usefulness, perceived ease-of-use, aesthetics and homophily were important determinants for platform co-creation experience. Positive and significant relationships also existed between platform co-creation experience and cognitive and affective images. These images were also found to influence respondents’ travel satisfaction. These findings contribute to a better theoretical understanding of the role that UGC platform use experiences play in the overall platform co-creation experience, and how this impacts on destination image formation and subsequently, satisfaction. Managerial implications, limitations and suggestions for future studies are also discussed
Full-text available
The rapid growth of Internet technology development has enabled Malaysian consumers to purchase products or services from web-retailers and to search for product information over the Internet. As such, it is vital to identify the determinants of the customer online purchase intention. The first objective of this research is to evaluate the impact of shopping orientations on customer online purchase intention. The second objective is to identify which construct has the greatest impact on purchase intention. The findings revealed that impulse purchase intention, quality orientation, brand orientation and convenience orientation are positively related to the customer online purchase intention. It is also discovered that convenience orientation is the most important contributor to the online purchase intention
Full-text available
Europe has become a popular destination for Mainland Chinese in recent years and shopping in Europe is essential and very exciting to most of them. While previous research has mostly comprised descriptive marketing studies, and a few have interpreted the shopping behavior of this emerging market from the traditional Chinese culture perspective, this paper presents a dynamic sociological approach to interpret the deeper mindset behind the Chinese buying by applying the theoretical concept of tourism gaze. A typical group, 17 white-collar employees and corporate elites in a Sino-foreign joint venture from a developed city in China, was interviewed, and thematic analysis was used. Three categories of mass commodity - functional goods, adornment goods and social gifts - were found to be the major items Chinese mainland tourists like to buy when traveling in Europe, among which functional goods for practical use are the most popular. The paper concludes that the deeper tourist gaze of trust and brand admiration upon Western goods is a result of the long Chinese modernization process and is very much influenced by the global consumer culture.
Shopping tourism has become one of the main economic motivators for tourism development in several destinations. “Shopping means entertainment and experience. Regardless of trip purpose –business, family or vacation—shopping is woven into the human interactions of the visit.” It means exploring and discovering and could be about the planned or temporary consumption. Shopping became gradually more significant element of the tourism “value chain”. Shopping has improved into a contributing factor determining tourism destination selection, a vital element of the total tourist knowledge and, sometimes, the major tourism incentive. Destinations have consequently an enormous chance to influence this innovative “market trend” by increasing realistic and exclusive shopping experiences that enhance value to their tourist deal while strengthening, and even, outlining their tourism brand and planning. This research suggests that there are increasing numbers of tourists who are travelling to Dubai with the aim of shopping, not only because they are encouraged by a mixture of first-class shopping, reasonable costs, trustworthy deals, Duty-free and a variation of rate or goods related aspects, but the charm of the destination certainly creates decision when selecting a destination. This study provides an outline of the significance and up-to-date types of shopping tourism, principally in the emerging market of Dubai, offering recommendations to support Egypt as a central tourist destination to stimulate the inbound shopping tourism. This research first examines relevant literature on possibility to develop this tourism type in Egypt and make it one of the tourist attractions by comparing it to Dubai, UAE as a shopping destination. The study explores the objectives, and factors affecting the progress of that type in Egypt and the improvements made in Dubai. The research then investigates potentialities of developing that type in Egypt and its impacts on improving the tourist experience in Egypt and increasing the tourist flow into Egypt. Results indicated that shopping tourism could face several obstacles in practical performance, but it could be very helpful in supporting the tourism industry in Egypt especially at the time of deterioration. However, shopping tourism can also offer incentives to the tourism employees who have almost lost their jobs and may change their career. Benefits are not only confined to this, but also extended to cover enhancing existing tourism types and introducing new ones as well as enhancing the tourist numbers and their average expenditure. The Research provides recommendations for actions that could encourage more tourists to visit Egypt as a shopping destination.Keywords: shopping, Dubai, purchasing, goods, products.
Shopping is a common activity for many tourists, but research into this phenomenon is piecemeal and fragmented. This paper provides a critical review of tourist shopping research with the aims of identifying progress, presenting a descriptive framework, and suggesting new areas and approaches for research. The paper identifies main themes in tourist shopping research based on a “4W2H” framework that examines who (segmentation), what (product), why (motivation), where (setting and service), how (behaviour and experience) and how much (expenditure). Attention then shifts to a review of conceptual, theoretical and methodological issues. The findings show that the area is dominated by quantitative studies and a reliance on four generic concepts – customer satisfaction, motivation, culture and attitude. A lack of appropriate and specific theoretical foundations is a major problem for the area and the paper concludes with a discussion of key topics that merit further attention and that could address this problem.
Shopping Tourism, Retailing and Leisure provides a comprehensive examination of the relationships between tourism, leisure, shopping, and retailing. Critical issues are examined within the framework of the dichotomous relationship between utilitarian and hedonic forms of shopping, shopping as a primary and secondary attraction in tourist destinations, the development of various tourist-retail venues, the role of souvenirs in tourism, and management issues (e.g. merchandising, venue design, and customer service).
Shopping has been recognized as the most popular activity for both domestic and international tourists. With many destinations adopting shopping as a positioning strategy, the development of shopping products is central to tourism promotion. The present study attempted to develop a tourist shopping style typology by evaluating tourist's shopping attitudes and preferences. The Consumer Style Inventory (CSI) was adapted into the tourism setting to develop a tourist shopping style typology. The adaptation of CSI assists in solidifying theoretical foundations for tourism shopping research. The exploration of the interrelationship between tourists' shopping psychology, tourist demographics, and their actual purchases revealed valuable practical information on how to strategically integrate shopping into tourism planning and marketing.