ArticlePDF Available

Interventional Effect of Bhramari Pranayama on Mental Health among college Students

Authors:
  • District Hospital Balrampur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract

Mental health as a being of well being in which individual realize his or her own abilities, can cope with normal stress of life, can work productively and fruitfully, able to make his or her community (World Health Organization, 2014). The present study is aimed to measure the interventional effect of Bhramari Pranayama on Mental Health in students. Total 60 subjects of Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar who enrolled in under graduate courses were selected. A mental health scale (Kamlesh Sharma 1996) was administered as a single group pre and post study. Fifteen minutes Bhramari Pranayam exercise session for 20 days used as an intervention variable in the study. Results revealed that Bhramari Pranayama intervention was found significant effect on mental health and increased level of mental health was found in post study in comparison to pre study. This concludes that Bhramari Pranayama provides a means to individual peace, happiness, develops optimism attitude, self esteem and proper coordination between mind and body. Keywords: Mental Health, Bhramari Pranayama
The International Journal of Indian Psychology
ISSN 2348-5396 (e) | ISSN: 2349-3429 (p)
Volume 4, Issue 2, No. 87, DIP: 18.01.044/20170402
ISBN: 978-1-365-71287-6
http://www.ijip.in | January-March, 2017
© 2017 Srivastava S, Goyal P, Tiwari S, Patel A; licensee IJIP. This is an Open Access Research distributed under the
terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any Medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Interventional Effect of Bhramari Pranayama on Mental Health
among college Students
Suprabha Srivastava1*, Preeti Goyal2, Shraddhesh Kumar Tiwari3,
Ashok Kumar Patel4
ABSTRACT
Mental health as a being of well being in which individual realize his or her own abilities, can
cope with normal stress of life, can work productively and fruitfully, able to make his or her
community (World Health Organization, 2014). The present study is aimed to measure the
interventional effect of Bhramari Pranayama on Mental Health in students. Total 60 subjects of
Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar who enrolled in under graduate courses were selected.
A mental health scale (Kamlesh Sharma 1996) was administered as a single group pre and post
study. Fifteen minutes Bhramari Pranayam exercise session for 20 days used as an intervention
variable in the study. Results revealed that Bhramari Pranayama intervention was found
significant effect on mental health and increased level of mental health was found in post study
in comparison to pre study. This concludes that Bhramari Pranayama provides a means to
individual peace, happiness, develops optimism attitude, self esteem and proper coordination
between mind and body.
Keywords: Mental Health, Bhramari Pranayama
Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional well-being or an
absence of mental disorders. From the perspective of the discipline of Positive Psychology or
Holism: "mental health may include an individual's ability to enjoy life and procure a balance
between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. Mental health is an
expression of one emotion and signifies a successful adaptation to a range of demands". It has
seen as fundamental to physical health and quality of life. It needs to be addressed as important
components of improving overall health and well being of an individual. It is determined by
multiple and interactive social psychological and biological factors just as health and illness in
1 Clinical Psychologist, Department of Neurology, AIIMS, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India
2 School of Yoga and Health, Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya (DSVV), Haridwar, U.K., India
3 DDU, University, Gorakhpur, U.P., India
4 Clinical Psychologist, Department of Neurology, AIIMS, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India
*Responding Author
Received: December 26, 2016; Revision Received: January 22, 2017; Accepted: February 2, 2017
Interventional Effect of Bhramari Pranayama on Mental Health among college Students
© The International Journal of Indian Psychology, ISSN 2348-5396 (e)| ISSN: 2349-3429 (p) | 30
general. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines: "Mental health as a being of well-being
in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope up with the normal stresses of
life, can work productively and fruitfully and is able to make a contribution to his or her
community."
Man has stepped into the 21st century. Medical scientists are working with many technologies to
offer better health care and this century has made rapid strides in eradicating epidemics and
pandemics through inventions of antibiotic and vaccine. But, in spite of these greater than 100
years, the expected quality of life with harmony and peace seems to be far from reality.
Biochemical, psycho-neuro-physiology, immunological researches are all recognizing the role of
mind or matter and pointing out that lifestyle, suppressed emotions are responsible for most of
the problems either social or in psychological quanta. That's why people are moving towards
alternative therapies. One of these is Yoga. It is a science not less than 5000 years old and able to
transform normal man to higher state of harmony and peace both as individual and social being.
The literal meaning of Yoga is "to join", "to add", "to harmonize". In Patanjali Yoga Sutra,
Patanjali states:
"Yogascha chottvritti norodhah"- II/1
Yoga is the restraint (control, mastery) of the modifications (changes, movement, thought-forms)
of the mind field. This is the most fundamental of the yoga sutras; it is the yoga definition. It
defines Yoga, Union, Self realization, Mind Control and Enlightenment.
Yoga is the culmination of psyche and its stuffs. The mind consists of various ongoing thoughts
and already present thought. Yoga helps in removing and culminating those thoughts from
psyche. Yoga is the union of psycho-spiritual and physiological balance of one's identity
(Sandeep Singh, 2009).
Bhramari is a sanskrit word which is derived from "Bhramar" the black Indian bumble bee. It
describes the characteristic humming sound which is produced while exhaling in this breathing
exercise. Karel, Netspar and Bhuti, Swarup (2000) states that "Bhramari Pranayama reduces
anxiety, stress, aggression, insomnia, depression and very useful after neurosurgery". In
Bhramari Pranayama the ear is closed by thumb, eye is blocked by fingers and forehead is
pressed to vibrate with higher amplitude. So, the resonance of mind is enhanced. Bhramari forms
vibrations in the brain. By these vibrations the cerebral cortex sends impulses directly to the
hypothalamus, which controls the pituitary gland or the master gland.
In present study, it was tried to improve the mental health of the subjects by the yogic practice
named "Bhramari Pranayama". This breathing technique is very much useful for elevating
positive mood and relieving anxiety and depression. This acts miracle in person with thyroid
Interventional Effect of Bhramari Pranayama on Mental Health among college Students
© The International Journal of Indian Psychology, ISSN 2348-5396 (e)| ISSN: 2349-3429 (p) | 31
problems. It releases heat from body by perspiration and gives a feeling of pleasure. This
Pranayama is also useful in lowering blood pressure and regulates circulation of blood. Keeping
these views in the mind, the main objective of the study was to investigate the intervention effect
of Bhramari Pranayama on Mental Health in students.
Hypothesis
1. Bhramari Pranayama sessions would be improves the Mental Health of the students.
RESEARCH METHODS
Participants
A total of 60 under graduate students from various department of Dev Sanskriti
Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, who were consented and ready to cooperate in the study were
selected. The age ranges of the participants were 16 to 20 years. They were selected on the basis
of incidental sampling technique. Participants who were suffering from any chronic disease were
excluded from the study.
Study Design
The goal of the study was to examine the effect of Bhramari Pranayam on mental health, a single
group pre and post study was designed.
Description of Variables
Experimental Treatment/ Experimental Variable: Bhramari Pranayama (works as an
Independent Variable)
Dependent Variables: Mental Health
Material and Procedure
A Mental Health Scale (Kamlesh Sharma 1996) was used. It contains 60 items (30 positve and
30 negative statements). The scale has good psychometric properties. The split half reliability
of scale has been found 0.88 and test retest reliability is 0.86. The validity coefficient with
equivalents mental health checklist (Pramod Kumar 1996) was found to be 0.79.
Participants were contacted individually, a healthy rapport was established. The purpose of the
study was told them and requests them to participate in study session. Participants, who were
interested in fifteen minutes Bhramari Pranayam session for 20 days, recruited them. As per our
study design was planned, mental health questionnaire was given. After taking their responses,
participants were monitored regularly 20 days and then again mental health questionnaire was
filled.
Interventional Effect of Bhramari Pranayama on Mental Health among college Students
© The International Journal of Indian Psychology, ISSN 2348-5396 (e)| ISSN: 2349-3429 (p) | 32
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The aim of the present study was to investigate the intervention effect of Bhramari Pranayam on
mental health in students. An effort has been made to know the intervention effect of
Bhramary Pranayam on mental health; a paired sample t test was calculated for pre and post data.
Table-1 shows the effect of Bhramaryi Pranayam on mental health. The effect of Bhramary
Pranayam intervention was found significant [t = (59) 5.60, p>.01]. Respective mean clearly
shows the increased mental health score after Bhramary Pranayam intervention in comparison to
pre mental health score. It means the practice of Bhramary Pranayam session increase the mental
health condition of students with constant effort.
Table-1: Mean, SD and t value of students
Study Condition
Mean
S.D.
r
t-value
Pre
74.26
10.25
0.19 5.61**
Post
94.46
10.92
Note: **p>.01
The considerable evidences shows that Pranayama one's to discover the great life force, (Prana)
that exists both within and around us. It is Prana that gives one energy and life. By learning to
control one's breath, one can gain control over their emotions and their other mental states as
well gradually becoming more sensitive to one's mind. How do one breathe also effects the heart,
brain and nervous system, with the direct co-relation between the breath and anxiety, the breath
is shorter, more frequent and quite shallow. The breathing patter maintains a level of arousal.
The Pranayama like Bhramari Pranayama stimulates the reflex of Autonomic Nervous System in
turns the level of noradrenalin, a compound that functions as a hormone and neuro-transmitter in
the nervous system, actually increase with a deeper breathe and resonates while exhaling. This
secreted noradrenalin in turn helps one to decrease the level of neuro-hormones responsible for
various stresses, anxiety and aroused mental state in deeper form through bio-feedback
mechanism.
Limitations
Participants were selected age group and its numbers cannot be considered as totally
representative of wider population. Number of days and timing of Bhramari pranayam sessions
limit to generalization of study. In spite of these limitations, finding gives a progress to research
of mental health.
CONCLUSION
Present study was done to investigate the interventional effect of Bhramari Pranayam on mental
health. This study reveals the significance of Bharamari Pranayama & study also opens up a way
to delineating the further importance of Bhramari Pranayam with mental and physical health.
Interventional Effect of Bhramari Pranayama on Mental Health among college Students
© The International Journal of Indian Psychology, ISSN 2348-5396 (e)| ISSN: 2349-3429 (p) | 33
Bharamari Prayanama and Yoga could be play a vital role to improve mental as well as physical
health especially for young adult, corporate, old age and patient with suffering from mental
disorders in near future.
Acknowledgments
The author appreciates all those who participated in the study and helped to facilitate the
research process.
Conflict of Interests: The author declared no conflict of interests.
REFERENCES
Khare, K.C. (2002). "Role of Yoga in management of stress induced geriatric problems". "Yoga
Mimamsa", Vol.34, No. 3&4 Oct-Jan, pp.262-272, (2002). Kaivalyadham, Lonavala.
Kocher, H.C. (1976). "Yoga Mimamsa", Vol.18, No. 3&4 Oct-Jan (1976). Kaivalyadham,
Lonavala.
Kumari, Santosh, Tehal, Kohli and Devi, Batani (2005). "Impact of yogic shatkriyas and
pranayama on stress".
Palsane, M.N. (1998). "Psychological Benefits of Yoga". "Yoga Mimamsa", Vol.33, No. 2 July
(1998). Kaivalyadham, Lonavala.
Patanjali, Maharshi. II/1. "Yoga Darshn". Geeta Press Gorakhpur, pp.11.
Rajapurkar, M.V. (1999). "Pranayama modulator of cerebral functions". "Yoga Mimamsa",
Vol.33, No. 4, Jan (1999), pp.42-60. Kaivalyadham, Lonavala.
Rammurti, V. (1987). "Yoga Mimamsa", Vol.2, pp. 28-39, Kaivalyadham, Lonavala.
Saraswati, Swami Niranjanananda (1997). "Gherand Samhita". Bhargava Bhushan Press,
Varanasi.
Singh, S.K. (2009). Dissertation: "Efficacy of Special Pranayama on the Selective Physiological
and Psychological factors among college going students". Dept. of Yogic Sciences and
Holistic Health, School of Yoga and Health, DSVV, Haridwar (U.K.), p.3.
World Health Organization, (2014). “Mental Health: a state of well being”.
http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en.
How to cite this article: Srivastava S, Goyal P, Tiwari S, Patel A (2017), Interventional Effect
of Bhramari Pranayama on Mental Health among college Students, International Journal of
Indian Psychology, Volume 4, Issue 2, No. 87, ISSN:2348-5396 (e), ISSN:2349-3429 (p),
DIP:18.01.044/20170402, ISBN:978-1-365-71287-6
... Improved physical health among healthy university students 23 , decrease in parasympathetic and/or increase sympathetic control of the heart 24,39 . Pranayama enhanced attention skills 25 , provides peace, happiness, optimistic attitude, self esteem and proper coordination between mind & body 25 , and improves performance in the digit vigilance test 41 . It helps in stress, anxiety 26 , and weight reduction, improved muscle strength, endurance 27 , reduction of craving, withdrawal symptoms of cigarette smoking 28 , and overall health improvement 29 . ...
... Improved physical health among healthy university students 23 , decrease in parasympathetic and/or increase sympathetic control of the heart 24,39 . Pranayama enhanced attention skills 25 , provides peace, happiness, optimistic attitude, self esteem and proper coordination between mind & body 25 , and improves performance in the digit vigilance test 41 . It helps in stress, anxiety 26 , and weight reduction, improved muscle strength, endurance 27 , reduction of craving, withdrawal symptoms of cigarette smoking 28 , and overall health improvement 29 . ...
... Efficacy of Pranic Healing in treating various human ailments is supported by various empirical observations and clinical trials. In a study conducted (Srivastava et al., 2017) among 60 undergraduate students in the age group of 16-20 years, with an objective to examine the effect of Bhramari Pranayam on mental health, it was observed that Bhramari Pranayama intervention had a significant effect on mental health of the study participants. ...
... Therefore, it could be concluded that through Pranic healing students experienced relaxation, inner peace, harmony and positive thinking in daily work and activities. According to Acharya Sri Ram Sharma, the unstabilized mind could be balanced only through Pranic therapy (Srivastava et al., 2017). By focusing on these important conclusions, it becomes clear that bringing bad thoughts in the mind leads to deterioration of the body. ...
Article
Full-text available
It has been acknowledged that various complementary and alternative therapies are commonly used in community settings in India. Pranic therapy is a seminal and ground breaking work that attempts to bridge the gap between the mind, the physical body, and the human energy system by using the Principle of Self-Recovery and Life Force. The present pre-post interventional research study was undertaken in Dev sanskriti University, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) with an aim to investigate the effect of Pranic Healing on Mental Health among 42 females pursuing undergraduation in the age group of 16-20 years by administering Mental Health Scale (MHS) by Dr. Kamlesh Sharma (Sharma, 1996) for a duration of one month. As a result, it was observed that pranic healing therapy has a significant positive effect on mental health.
... Augment cerebral blood flow and oxygenation, improving neuronal activities in the brain centres, including those present in the limbic areas, hypothalamus, and medulla, and improve sympathovagal outflow [15] Improves components of health-related fitness, i.e., cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and body fat percentage [16] Soothing and calming effect on the mind, improves mental and physical health [17] Lowers blood pressure, cooling effect Parasympathetic stimulation Sympathetic stimulating effect; may be recommended in people with diabetes [18] Regulation of pineal, pituitary, and adrenaline glands, important role in the regulation of metabolism [19] Bandha (lock) Constricts a certain part of the body U ddiyan bandha (abdominal lock): creation of negative pressure in abdomen and contraction of abdomen Beneficial psychological effects, such as faster reactions to stimuli and being less prone to various forms of stress [24], anxiety reduction, and blood pressure control [25] Positive effects on sugar levels ...
... Anulom vilom pranayama (alternate nostril breathing) has been shown to yield significant improvements in components of health-related fitness (i.e., cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and percentage of body fat) [16]. The vibrations created in bhramari prayanama (humming bee breath) have a soothing and calming effect on the mind and could play a vital role in improving mental and physical health [17]. Right nostril breathing is believed to have a sympathetic stimulating effect and may be recommended in people with diabetes [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Yoga originated in India more than 5,000 years ago and is a means of balancing and harmonizing the body, mind, and emotions. Yoga practice is useful in the management of various lifestyle diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Psycho-neuro-endocrine and immune mechanisms are involved in the beneficial effects of yoga on diabetes. Incorporation of yoga practice in daily life helps to attain glycaemic control and reduces the risk of complications in people with diabetes. In this review, we briefly describe the role of various yoga practices in the management of diabetes based on evidence from various clinical studies.
... The word Bhramari, on the other hand, comes from the word Bhramar which means bumble bee or wasp in Sanskrit (Malhotra et al., 2016). In this PB technique, humming sounds that resemble wasps are made during exhalation process (Srivastava et al., 2017). When this PB is practiced, the ears are covered by the thumbs and the eyes are closed off with fingers. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the impact of pranayamic breathing (PB) as a positive psychology exercise on mitigating foreign language anxiety (FLLA) and test anxiety (TA) of undergraduate English students studying at a Turkish university. Additionally, the study examined the effects of PB on academic achievement in listening and reading comprehension skills of the participants as well as exploring learners’ and their instructor’s perceptions of using PB techniques in their classrooms. The sample consisted of 140 sophomore English language learners. Two intact classes, each comprising 70 participants, were selected as the experimental and the control group using convenience sampling. Two basic PB techniques, Nadi Shodhana Pranayama and Bhramari Pranayama, were implemented to the experimental group on a weekly basis for a total of 7 weeks. In this mixed-method study, the quantitative data were gathered using English Language Learning Anxiety Scale, Foreign Language Test Anxiety Scale, and listening and reading achievement pre- and post-tests, while the qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews, and the teacher’s reflective journal. The findings revealed that the implementation of positive psychology technique of pranayama breathing mitigated the FLLA and TA levels significantly and also improved listening and reading comprehension skills of the participants to a considerable extent. The findings also demonstrated that both the students and their instructor perceived PB implementation as a useful and a practical medium in alleviating the anxious feelings, promoting the general class atmosphere and regulating daily habits despite the implementational challenges shared by the instructor.
... Low-pitched sound also can be made, but it is good to make a high-pitched sound for better results. Continue the same pattern 3-4 times for few minutes [46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes can be defined as a metabolic disorder characterized by resistance to the action of insulin, insufficient insulin secretion, or both. In this article, we reviewed about the non-pharmacological approaches in the management of diabetes mellitus that includes diet and stress management programs such as Pranayama, meditation, and exercises along with the lifestyle modification which has to be followed by the diabetics for the better management of diabetes in natural ways. By following, these approaches besides regular usage of medications one can lead a healthy life with very less complications. The quality of life can be increased in the patients who follow these methods when compared to those patients who do not consider any of these methods in their daily life. Not only the patient, a healthy individual but can also prefer these methods to prevent chronic diseases and make their day to day life happy and healthy.
Role of Yoga in management of stress induced geriatric problems
  • K C Khare
Khare, K.C. (2002). "Role of Yoga in management of stress induced geriatric problems". "Yoga Mimamsa", Vol.34, No. 3&4 Oct-Jan, pp.262-272, (2002). Kaivalyadham, Lonavala.
Impact of yogic shatkriyas and pranayama on stress
  • Kumari
  • Santosh
  • Batani Devi
Kumari, Santosh, Tehal, Kohli and Devi, Batani (2005). "Impact of yogic shatkriyas and pranayama on stress".
Psychological Benefits of Yoga
  • M N Palsane
Palsane, M.N. (1998). "Psychological Benefits of Yoga". "Yoga Mimamsa", Vol.33, No. 2 July (1998). Kaivalyadham, Lonavala.
Pranayama modulator of cerebral functions
  • M V Rajapurkar
Rajapurkar, M.V. (1999). "Pranayama modulator of cerebral functions". "Yoga Mimamsa", Vol.33, No. 4, Jan (1999), pp.42-60. Kaivalyadham, Lonavala.
Efficacy of Special Pranayama on the Selective Physiological and Psychological factors among college going students". Dept. of Yogic Sciences and Holistic Health
  • S K Singh
Singh, S.K. (2009). Dissertation: "Efficacy of Special Pranayama on the Selective Physiological and Psychological factors among college going students". Dept. of Yogic Sciences and Holistic Health, School of Yoga and Health, DSVV, Haridwar (U.K.), p.3. World Health Organization, (2014). "Mental Health: a state of well being". http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en.
Mental Health: a state of well being
World Health Organization, (2014). " Mental Health: a state of well being ". http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en.