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ADHD, impulsivity and entrepreneurship ☆

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Abstract

Recently, entrepreneurship scholars have started to show interest in how " negative " traits associated with mental disorders such as ADHD may have positive implications in entrepreneur-ship. While this research has the potential of producing important and counter-intuitive results, it is still in its infancy and the causal mechanisms that drive those individuals to be attracted to entrepreneurship have received limited attention. Consequently, we draw on the person-environment fit literature and propose that individuals are attracted to, and engage in, entrepreneurship because the task environment of entrepreneurship which favors speed of action is aligned with the traits of those individuals. We develop and test a model which suggests that ADHD influences entrepreneurship through the multifaceted trait of impulsivity. We find that inattention is negatively but hyperactivity is positively associated with entrepre-neurship. We also find that sensation seeking and lack of premeditation generally positively influences entrepreneurship, whereas urgency has the opposite influence. Taken together, this suggests complex, multifaceted implications of ADHD and impulsivity in entrepreneurship. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. Research on entrepreneur personality has been mostly associated with positive traits, such as self-efficacy and achievement motivation. However, most traits are not universally positive or negative and what is functional or dysfunctional depends on context (Judge et al., 2009). Entre-preneurship is characterized by uncertainty, which indices anxiety, worry, procrastination and inaction among most people (McMullen and Shepherd, 2006; Paulus, 2007). However, it is also a vocation that grants more autonomy in terms of job design and task allocation, which may be attractive to individuals who need more leeway in designing their own tasks. Acknowledging the high uncertainty and autonomy in entrepreneurship, we argue that ADHD symptoms, which are associated with negative consequences in many areas of life, may have positive implications in the context of entrepreneurship because ADHD is characterized by traits such as sensation seeking, a focus on action with little premeditation, and a desire for autonomy. We employ person-environment fit theory (e.g., Holland, 1997) to argue that ADHD symptoms influence entrepreneurial preferences and behavior through the multi-dimensional traits of im-pulsivity. Specifically, ADHD symptoms are related to higher levels of sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance and urgency. These traits in turn influence the perceived attractiveness of entrepreneurship and the probability of starting a business. We conducted surveys on a sample of MBA alumni from a school that is consistently ranked as one of the top fifty public MBA programs, who by virtue of their degree tend to have viable job opportunities and were thus less likely to be pushed into entrepreneurship. We find that ADHD symptoms have a complicated relationship with entrepreneurial preferences and action, with the pathway through sensation seeking and lack of premeditation being mostly positive while the pathway through urgency being negative. Further, hyperactive symptoms seem to mainly result in positive outcomes while inattention symptoms lead to negative ones. Our findings demonstrate that entrepreneurship is indeed a unique area where negative traits, such as ADHD, may represent valuable assets. Previous research has mostly associated ADHD with negative job-related outcomes (Barkley et al., 2006). Our research indicates that certain aspects of ADHD symptoms, such as sensation seeking and lack of premeditation, could lead individuals to be attracted to entrepreneurship and to start their own businesses. This suggests a contextualized view of personality traits, as well as boundary conditions to existing theories. Second, we develop and empirically test a model that links ADHD symptoms to entrepreneur-ship through the multi-dimensional traits of impulsivity, which provides a more nuanced and theoretically interesting understanding of the ADHD—entrepreneurship relationship. The same can be said about our findings of the differential influences of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms. Thus, this paper contributes to previous research on ADHD and entrepreneurship that has mostly examined the bivariate relationship between the two (e.g., Veryheul et al., 2015; Thurik et al., 2016). Finally, our post-hoc analyses showed that the effects of ADHD symptoms on entrepreneurship are more pronounced under highly uncertain environments. This is consistent with our theorizing, suggesting that individuals with ADHD symptoms are more likely to harness advantages associated with ADHD rather than suffer from associated disadvantages in highly uncertain and dynamic environments such as entrepreneurship. There are at least two important practice implications of our results. First, our results imply that individuals with ADHD symptoms may be empowered to craft their own jobs to fit their special needs. Second, our findings suggest that people with ADHD symptoms and impul-sivity will tend to prefer action speed over action accuracy and that this may be functional in the context of entrepreneurship.

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... This may be because of the strong fit between traits associated with certain mental health conditions and characteristics of entrepreneurship, making people more attracted to and better prepared for the tasks central to the entrepreneurial process (for an overview see Wiklund, Hatak, Patzelt & Shepherd, 2018). Specifically, by broadening individuals' attention, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can facilitate the recognition of new entrepreneurial opportunities (Wiklund, Yu, Tucker, & Marino, 2017). Furthermore, individuals with some mental disorders, such as bipolar disorder and ADHD, experience unusually high positive affect (Wiklund et al., 2018), which can also facilitate opportunity recognition (Baron, 2008). ...
... On the one hand, ADHD symptoms, for example, facilitate action under uncertainty -a defining characteristic of success in entrepreneurship. On the other hand, entrepreneurial success requires focused attention and perseverance in the pursuit of a wide variety of tasks, many of which are complex and challenging in entrepreneurship (Wiklund et al., 2017). People with ADHD have difficulties preserving and sustaining focus when tasks become difficult, while they can become completely immersed in the things that they are passionate about (Wiklund, Patzelt, & Dimov, 2016). ...
... For example, an increasing number of people suffer from mental health conditions such as ADHD or bipolar disorder that hamper careers in employment. At the same time, recent research indicates that the very symptoms and traits of certain disorders may be advantageous and provide benefits in the performance of some entrepreneurial tasks (Wiklund et al., 2017). To the extent that, and under what conditions, such generally dark characteristics are associated with positive entrepreneurial outcomes, there is an interesting opportunity to push the boundaries of existing theories and provide new and relevant insights, including the notion of equifinality in entrepreneurial endeavors and plurality in entrepreneurial logics for action (Wiklund et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
This chapter provides a stock-take on mental health in entrepreneurship, outlining the progress that research has made in considering mental health in the entrepreneurial process. Conceptually, the chapter focuses on the individual entrepreneur as the unit of analysis. Empirically, it describes the streams of research suggesting that mental health is a resource in the entrepreneurial process, together with a stream of research that focuses on mental health conditions as a strength in entrepreneurship. The chapter concludes by highlighting a number of unsolved issues and interesting pathways for future research on entrepreneurial mental health.
... We focus specifically on neurodiversity in terms of ADHD because there is evidence that ADHD symptoms convey advantages in entrepreneurship in terms of greater entrepreneurial entry (Wiklund et al., 2017) and performance (Yu, Wiklund, & Perez-Luno, 2019). However, at the same time, multiple studies of the general population show that those very symptoms are negatively linked with well-being (e.g. ...
... Conversely, if ADHD symptoms positively influence well-being among entrepreneurs, it suggests that entrepreneurship is a unique context where findings from the wider field of ADHD research do not apply. This would reinforce that entrepreneurship is truly a unique context where assumptions about ADHD do not pan out, as suggested in some earlier studies (e.g., Wiklund et al., 2017). ...
... Despite the fact that over the last few years, a growing conversation has arisen linking ADHD and entrepreneurship (e.g., Dimic & Orlov, 2014;Verheul & Rietdijk, 2016, Wiklund, Yu, Tucker, & Marino, 2017 and for decades, researchers have examined well-being of individuals suffering from ADHD (e.g., Harpin, 2005;Kupper, 2012;Watters, 2018), there is limited research on the relationship between ADHD and "entrepreneurial" well-being. Our study reveals a possible paradox that has not yet been explored in existent literature. ...
... Perhaps the most prominent development in this regard is emerging research linking attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to higher entrepreneurial intention (EI) (Verheul et al., 2015), entrepreneurial orientation (Wismans et al., 2020) and nascent venturing (Lerner et al., 2019;Stappers and Andries, 2021), where impulsivity appears to be the underlying trait driving these results (Antshel, 2018;Wiklund et al., 2017). Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct encompassing four distinct impulsigenic traits, which predispose individuals to impulsive behaviours (Whiteside and Lynam, 2001). ...
... This judgement-then-action perspective has dominated incumbent models of entrepreneurial behaviour (Krueger, 1993;McMullen and Shepherd, 2006), which have, explicitly or implicitly, derived from the Expected Utility Theory (Von Neumann and Morgenstern, 1947) to assume that entrepreneurs rationally engage in systematic calculations of opportunity desirability (utility), weighted against feasibility (expectancy), prior to choosing whether to act (Schlaegel and Koenig, 2014). However, emerging research indicates the relevance of impulsivity (Wiklund et al., 2017), and related dispositional factors, such as ADHD (Stappers and Andries, 2021), to explaining entrepreneurial behaviour. While this empirical work suggests the presence of unreasoned entrepreneurial behaviour and descriptive shortcomings of the incumbent models, the lack of a demonstrable mechanism explaining how unreasoned behaviour deviates from these models has fostered alternative, fully rational explanations for the impulsivity-entrepreneurship link. ...
... Impulsive individuals, in particular, may be attracted to uncertainty, actually forging ahead and being more decisive in these contexts (Hofmann et al., 2009). Indeed, research suggests that far from being an obstacle, uncertainty can be a major stimulus driving risky behaviour engagement among impulsive individuals (Leland et al., 2006), such as engagement in entrepreneurial pursuits (Wiklund et al., 2017). ...
Article
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While entrepreneurial behaviour is generally seen to arise from a reasoned, judgement-then-action pathway, evidence of an alternative is emerging. Yet, this alternative – an unreasoned, impulse-driven pathway remains to be empirically explored. We develop a novel measure to capture this unreasoned pathway and test a mediation model explaining how multidimensional trait impulsivity impacts entrepreneurial behaviour via this pathway. Employing structural equation modelling with longitudinal survey data from owner-managers and several robustness tests, we find compelling support for our model. We demonstrate a lack of reasoning, exhibited through placing more salience on an entrepreneurial opportunity’s desirability than feasibility, as a critical pathway explaining how impulsivity encourages entrepreneurial behaviour and overcomes the inhibitory effects of uncertainty in entrepreneurial pursuits. These results advance a rapidly unfolding scholarly debate regarding whether all entrepreneurial behaviour ought to be ascribed a reasoned, intendedly rational role, the implications of which extend to theories of entrepreneurial behaviour and the inclusion of an unreasoned pathway within them.
... Some of the characteristics commonly associated with it are competitive aggressiveness, autonomy, capacity for innovation, proactivity and willingness to take risks (Aljanabi, 2018;Bolton, 2012;Fillis & Rentschler, 2010;Rauch et al., 2009;S. Robinson & Stubberud, 2014) Studying the relationship between Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation showed that sensation seeking and a lack of premeditation generally have a positive influence on entrepreneurship (Wiklund et al., 2017). These authors conclude that Impulsivity is positive for Entrepreneurial Orientation and that sensation seeking is related to curiosity and is intrinsic to motivation (Collins et al., 2004;Wismans et al., 2020;Zuckerman, 1994). ...
... In relation to entrepreneurship, Wiklund, Yu, Tucker, and Marino (2017) found that an attention deficiency hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) influences entrepreneurship through the trait of impulsivity that these people possess, so that hyperactivity is positively associated with entrepreneurship. These authors also indicate that sensation seeking, and a lack of premeditation generally have a positive influence on entrepreneurship. ...
... These authors also indicate that sensation seeking, and a lack of premeditation generally have a positive influence on entrepreneurship. The reason is that the uncertainty of the business world produces anxiety, worry, procrastination and inaction in most people (McMullen & Shepherd, 2006;Paulus, 2007), and thus hyperactivity is a positive feature (Wiklund et al., 2017). ...
Article
El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar si la curiosidad es una variable moderadora entre la Impulsividad y la Orientación Emprendedora. Se utiliza una muestra multiocupacional de 883 empleados españoles (49 % hombres, 51 % mujeres), obtenidos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico. Se ha utilizado el programa SPSS 23.0. Se encontraron correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre todas las variables de la investigación a excepcion de la impulsividad Funcional. Finalmente, la evidencia empírica indica que la Curiosidad-D tiene un papel moderador entre la impulsividad Disfuncional y la Orientación Emprendedora mostrada, en el sentido de que la Curiosidad-D (entendida como una variable cuantitativa) afecta la intensidad de la relación entre la Impulsividad Disfuncional (variable predictora) y la Orientación Emprendedora (variable de criterio). The objective of the present study is to analyze whether the variable Curiosity is a moderating variable between Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation. The multi-occupational sample of 883 Spanish and Colombian employees (49% men, 51% women) was obtained through non-probabilistic sampling. The data collected were processed with the SPSS 23.0 program. Statistically significant correlations were found among all the research variables except for Functional Impulsivity. Finally, empirical evidence indicates that Curiosity-D plays a moderating role between Dysfunctional Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation in the sense that Curiosity-D (understood as a quantitative variable) affects the intensity of the relationship between Dysfunctional Impulsivity (predictor variable) and Entrepreneurial Orientation (criterion variable).
... In recent years, research and literature have started to examine the positive aspects of mental disorders. Specifically, certain negative behaviours may become useful in different contexts (Wiklund et al., 2017;Wienen et al., 2019). Many similarities have been identified between ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial behaviours (see Appendix). ...
... Many similarities have been identified between ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial behaviours (see Appendix). Some positive traits of people with ADHD include having more energy and creativity (Wiklund et al., 2017), being more willing to take risks (Wiklund et al., 2018) and making decisions quickly and decisively in uncertain environments (Archer, 2015). These traits are especially important in the entrepreneurial setting and people with ADHD could make use of their symptoms to achieve entrepreneurial success. ...
... Many famous and established entrepreneurs have been identified as displaying ADHD behaviours, such as Bill Gates, Donald Trump and David Neeleman (Lerner et al., 2018). Researchers have started to examine the relationship between ADHD and entrepreneurship among real business entrepreneurs (Wiklund et al., 2017;Tucker et al., 2021). It has been found that ADHD influences entrepreneurial tendencies in multidimensional ways (Wiklund et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mental health problems currently affect a quarter of the world's population. Recent research in western societies has started to examine the relationship between entrepreneurship and mental health problems such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia. However, little has been done to categorize entrepreneurs into different types and investigate how their levels of mental health and well-being correspond to these types. This study divided entrepreneurs into established and nascent categories and examined this topic in Singapore. By distributing two sets of surveys, a total of 834 responses were collected, with 346 responses from established entrepreneurs and 488 responses from nascent ones. The results showed that the nascent entrepreneurs' levels of well-being were found to be much lower than those of the established entrepreneurs. Furthermore, entrepreneurs with ADHD or dyslexia symptoms generally had a much lower level of life satisfaction, compared with those without. However, the self-care behaviours observed in this sample differed somewhat from observations made in western societies, which might be explained by the different cultures and habits in Singaporean society. The findings not only highlight the need for relevant organizations to support nascent entrepreneurs but serve to remind veteran entrepreneurs to practice more healthy self-care behaviours.
... Third, our review of the citation patterns for M&S (2006) indicates that while much of the citing works focus on the mutuality of knowledge and motivation as key antecedents of entrepreneurial action and judgment. Emerging work, however, broadens this conversation by pointing to the prevalence of impulsivity (Wiklund, Yu, Tucker, & Marino, 2017), sensation-seeking behaviors (Lerner & Hunt, 2012), and other less-deliberative motivations as precursors to entrepreneurial action (Lerner, Hunt & Dimov, 2018;Wiklund et al., 2018). In these situations, the door is opened for a revitalized "theory of mind" to augment the two-stage model in M&S (2006) with "alternative rationalities" that influence both the perceived desirability and feasibility assessments in shaping entrepreneurial action. ...
... Nonetheless, new debates are emerging --many involving disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) (Townsend & Hunt, 2019)that elevate the central importance of addressing the epistemological assumptions undergirding EAT. Emerging work also suggests a more refined and nuanced theory of the mind is needed to account for a broader set of individual-level factors underpinning EAT, such as impulsivity Wiklund et al., 2017), neuro-biological drivers (Krueger & Day, 2010), genetic predispositions (e.g. Nicolaou, et al., 2008;Nicolaou & Shane, 2009;Zhang, et al., 2009), and alternative modalities of entrepreneurial action . ...
... Consistent with this view, future research building on the M&S (2006) model may employ contemporary neuroscience research to provide robust means for incorporating emerging work on the neurological processes of impulsivity (Wiklund, Yu, Tucker, & Marino, 2017), sensationseeking behaviors (Lerner & Hunt, 2012), and other less-deliberative, neurological processes as precursors to entrepreneurial action (Lerner, Hunt & Dimov, 2018;Wiklund, 2018). By building on the two-stage model, scholars can account more effectively for the diverse range of lower-level sensory inputs that are infused with higher order human values and motivation through an emergent process. ...
... While valuable contributions from scholars researching ADHD-related traits suggest that such traits make individuals well equipped for entrepreneurial activities (e.g. Stappers & Andries, 2021;Wiklund et al., 2017), they also point out that these individuals tend to give up easily when faced with obstacles (Fayolle & Gailly, 2015;Patel & Thatcher, 2014). Evidence of this is provided in a recent study by Stappers and Andries (2021), who show that while impulsivity/hyperactivity traits help aspiring entrepreneurs, symptoms of inattentiveness related to ADHD hinder the transition of individuals' intentions into actual entrepreneurial behaviour van Gelderen et al., 2015). ...
... Evidence of this is provided in a recent study by Stappers and Andries (2021), who show that while impulsivity/hyperactivity traits help aspiring entrepreneurs, symptoms of inattentiveness related to ADHD hinder the transition of individuals' intentions into actual entrepreneurial behaviour van Gelderen et al., 2015). Hence, venturesomeness is related to functional impulsivity (Dickman, 1990;Wiklund et al., 2017), while gambling and its lack of forethought are regarded as a case of dysfunctional impulsivity which is detrimental to entrepreneurship (Wiklund et al., 2017). ...
... Evidence of this is provided in a recent study by Stappers and Andries (2021), who show that while impulsivity/hyperactivity traits help aspiring entrepreneurs, symptoms of inattentiveness related to ADHD hinder the transition of individuals' intentions into actual entrepreneurial behaviour van Gelderen et al., 2015). Hence, venturesomeness is related to functional impulsivity (Dickman, 1990;Wiklund et al., 2017), while gambling and its lack of forethought are regarded as a case of dysfunctional impulsivity which is detrimental to entrepreneurship (Wiklund et al., 2017). ...
Article
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In our paper ‘New venture survival: A review and extension’ in the International Journal of Management Reviews, we synthesized more than five decades of entrepreneurship, management and sociology research on the reasons why some new ventures survive and others fail. Based on our review and analysis, we provided an up‐to‐date systematization of the literature and a framework that includes important extensions to Stinchcombe's seminal work. Coad and Storey criticized our framework for basing venture outcome on skill—something that can be influenced by entrepreneurs and other stakeholders. In this paper, we argue that: (i) the distinction between survival and performance matters when thinking about the antecedents of these constructs; (ii) gambling is an incompatible analogy for entrepreneurship; and (iii) psychological processes cannot be ignored when studying new ventures’ survival. We also correct some points made by Coad and Storey about our findings. We encourage future studies on new venture survival to be cautious of adopting a view of venturing as a ‘game of chance’—which is, in our perspective, a potentially discouraging view for people pursuing entrepreneurship.
... While some new venture ideas emerge and develop only after careful and deliberate economic calculus, others arise from impulsivity (Hunt and Lerner, 2018). A growing literature explores connections between psychological proclivities toward impulsivity, such as ADHD, and entrepreneurship (Antshel, 2017;Greidanus and Liao, 2021;Lerner et al., 2018a;Lerner et al., 2018b;Rajah et al., 2021;Tucker et al., 2021;Wiklund et al., 2016;Wiklund et al., 2018;Wiklund et al., 2017). This research presumes that impulsive and non-deliberate actions are highly prone to biases and are, thus, less rational. ...
... Within this framework, entrepreneurial action is understood to occupy a position on a spectrum of rationality, ranging from fullyirrational reflex to fully-rational maximization calculus (Lerner et al., 2018a). Under this positivist framework, we can understand entrepreneurs as being generally less rational than non-entrepreneurs, acting at least somewhat irrationally against great odds of failure, and that less rational actors would be comparatively more likely to become entrepreneurs (Antshel, 2017; Greidanus and Liao, 2021;Lerner et al., 2018b;Rajah et al., 2021;Wiklund et al., 2016;Wiklund et al., 2017). We would also expect entrepreneurs who are comparatively more deliberative and rational to be more accurate in their expectations and judgment and, thus, to have a greater chance of success (Hayward et al., 2006;Invernizzi et al., 2017). ...
... Let us, finally, remark somewhat on the debate that has sparked this research over the rationality or not of impulsive action (Brown et al., 2018;Hunt and Lerner, 2018;Wiklund, 2019). Broadly, established wisdom suggests that impulsivity facilitates irrational entrepreneurial action in the face of high uncertainty and long odds (Lerner et al., 2018a;Lerner et al., 2018b;Wiklund et al., 2018;Wiklund et al., 2017). Logically, this has the consequence of comparatively higher venture failure rates, and also suggests a higher than previously presumed element of luck in entrepreneurial success. ...
Article
The aim of this article is to expound the subjectivist position on the concept of ‘rationality.’ To begin, we review the longstanding and still ongoing debate in philosophy over the differences (or not) between the natural and social sciences. While positivism, which supposes no difference between the sciences, has been the tradition whence the economic rationality construct (homo economicus and its modern variants) has derived, a longstanding interpretivist tradition holds that social science is innately distinct from, and should be studied differently than, the natural sciences. From this interpretivist vantage, we assess and critique the positivist conception of rationality and put forth a subjectivist account of rationality as a process in its stead. Rationality here emerges as an intentional process of betterment over time. Because entrepreneurship is definitionally such a process, we explore the implications of this process rationality for entrepreneurial action theory.
... Recently, there is growing interest in the links between impulsivity, ADHD symptoms and business ventures (Yu et al., 2019;Wiklund et al., 2017). Scholars have been interested in discovering entrepreneurial impulsivity, while initial studies found that business ventures are attractive to individuals with ADHD symptoms. ...
... According to the updated version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) that is employed for diagnosing mental disorders, "ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattentiveness and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. It entails behavioral, cognitive and affective difficulties that emerge in childhood and persist chronically" (Wiklund et al., 2017, p. 630). People with these symptoms are likely to have higher entrepreneurial intentions and behavior (Yu et al., 2019;Wiklund et al., 2017). However, there are controversial views of entrepreneurial impulsivity from recent researches. ...
... Many prominent entrepreneurs who achieved business successes do not derive from reasoned judgments but rather from disinhibition (Orfalea and Marsh, 2005;Tegseen et al., 2019). Thus, some recent studies showed that ADHD symptoms, impulsivity and entrepreneurship may be relatively correlated (Lerner et al., 2017;Wiklund et al., 2017). One in five people engaged in entrepreneurial behavior appeared to do so without a reasoned judgment (Kautonen et al., 2015). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to integrate predictions from clinical psychology and UPPS impulsivity with the theory of planned behaviors (TPB) to draw a conceptual framework and test the prediction that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, impulsivity would contribute to the prediction of the reasoned cognitive process of entrepreneurship over and above key predictors from an extended TPB model. Design/methodology/approach This study utilized a sample of 2,482 students from 14 universities/institutes in Vietnam; confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test the validity and reliability. Then, regression analysis with PROCESS macro approach (5,000 bootstrap sample and 95% confidence interval) was employed to estimate the association paths and multiple mediators. Findings The study reveals that ADHD symptoms and impulsivity substantially contribute to the exploration of an entrepreneurial intention throughout TPB predictors, with those higher in ADHD symptoms and impulsivity having higher intentions to engage in business venturing. Moreover, UPPS impulsiveness might valuably be incorporated with TPB predictors while predicting behaviors that are often examined as the process of rational cognitive strategies business venturing. Practical implications This study showed that a start-up business can be seen as a career choice for students who exhibit extensive ADHD symptoms to use their talents effectively, thus contributing to creating value for society and improving personal well-being. Originality/value This article stood to make contributions to entrepreneurship literature by investigating the effects of ADHD symptoms, four impulsivity traits on an entrepreneurial intention via three precursors in TPB, including attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control.
... Their results show that although hyperactivity is linked to entrepreneurial orientation, the overall ADHD symptomatology score positively associates only with the risk-taking subdimension of entrepreneurial orientation and negatively correlates with the proactiveness subdimension. Wiklund et al. (2017) found that the beneficial effects of subclinical ADHD symptoms on entrepreneurial behavior are reached via hyperactivity (see Antshel, 2018 for a summary). ...
... Moreover, as a few recent studies found that subclinical impulsive and/or hyperactive symptoms are positively linked to entrepreneurial orientation and the performance of ventures while subclinical inattention symptoms are not (Wiklund et al., 2017;Yu et al., 2018Yu et al., , 2021, future research should examine the effect of the two aspects of ADHD on entrepreneurial well-being separately among entrepreneurs with a dominant aspect of subclinical ADHD. Additionally, making entrepreneurial beliefs more realistic about the skills and abilities entrepreneurs need to succeed would probably prevent a lot of disappointment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Results on the relationship between ADHD and entrepreneurial success are conflicting and several aspects of entrepreneurial success, especially on the personal level, have not been studied. By using a randomly selected Hungarian sample, the study examines the effects of subclinical ADHD symptomatology on the subjective quality-of-life outcomes in employment and entrepreneurship. The results indicate that subclinical ADHD impairs only entrepreneurs’ subjective income and harms entrepreneurs’ health perception to a larger extent than that of employees. Yet, the negative effects of ADHD symptomatology on life satisfaction are rather felt among employees. We argue that these results reflect a relatively good fit between entrepreneurship and subclinical ADHD symptomatology on the needs-supplies dimension but not on the demands-abilities dimension.
... Concepts of the dark triad, or by definition closely related to it, which have been researched in the context of entrepreneurship include greed and hubris 103 (Haynes, Hitt and Campbell, 2015;Hayward, Shepherd and Griffin, 2006 104 ), behavioral disinhibitions (Lerner, 2016), sub-clinical psychopathy (Akhtar et al., 2013;Hmieleski and Lerner, 2016), narcissism (Wales et al., 2013 105 , Mathieu andSt. Jean, 2013;Hmieleski and Lerner, 2016), and ADHD-like behavior (Wiklund et al., 2017;Verheul et al., 2015). ...
... Thereby higher levels of resilience play an important role (see Hayward et al., 2010). Individuals high on dark personality traits have further demonstrated biases towards risk taking, gambling, novelty seeking, creativity, the disruption of the status quo (Jones, 2003;Wiklund et al., 2017), and elevated levels of confidence (Mathieu and St. Jean, 2013). All characteristics which have been related to those of entrepreneurs (see e.g., . ...
Thesis
Unterscheidet sich die Ausprägung sozialer Präferenzen zwischen Unternehmern und Nicht-Unternehmern? Beeinflussen die sozialen Präferenzen von Unternehmern welchen Geschäftstyp (soziales vs. kommerzielles Unternehmen) sie gründen? Haben soziale Präferenzen einen Einfluss auf produktive und/oder unproduktive unternehmerische Motive? Spielt die Persönlichkeitsstruktur in diesem Kontext eine Rolle? Die vorliegende Dissertation behandelt diese Fragen anhand von vier experimentellen Studien mit Unternehmern, Landwirten, Studierenden der Betriebs- und Volkswirtschaftslehre, sowie Mitarbeitern, Kollaboratoren und Investoren von Start-up-Unternehmen. Dabei werden unterschiedliche Methoden in Labor, Online, sowie „Lab-in-the field“ Experimenten angewendet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Unternehmer im Vergleich zu den anderen Testgruppen, generell stärker ausgeprägte soziale Präferenzen besitzen, insbesondere bezüglich kooperativer Eigenschaften. Darüber hinaus wird kein Zusammenhang zwischen den sozialen Präferenzen von Unternehmern und ihrer Entscheidung ein soziales oder kommerzielles Unternehmen zu gründen gefunden.
... To examine whether social capital and risk preference mediate the relationship between local area crime and self-employment, we first use PROCESS, which allows us to simultaneously examine the role of multiple variables as mediators in a single model (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). By simultaneously examining the role of multiple mediators, we can identify the overall mediation effect and determine the extent to which each of the potential mediators can explain the relationship between crime and self-employment while minimising concerns around missing parameter bias (Preacher & Hayes, 2008;Wiklund et al., 2017). Following Wiklund et al. (2017), we use 1,000 replications of bootstrapping and the bias-corrected percentile approach to deal with potential non-normality in our data. ...
... By simultaneously examining the role of multiple mediators, we can identify the overall mediation effect and determine the extent to which each of the potential mediators can explain the relationship between crime and self-employment while minimising concerns around missing parameter bias (Preacher & Hayes, 2008;Wiklund et al., 2017). Following Wiklund et al. (2017), we use 1,000 replications of bootstrapping and the bias-corrected percentile approach to deal with potential non-normality in our data. ...
Technical Report
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Social capital is integral to business formation. Because crime can damage social capital within communities, we examine the links between crime rates and the propensity for entrepreneurship within those communities. Drawing on Australian longitudinal data, we match entrepreneurship rates with types of crime at the community level where crime occurs. We find that higher crime rates cause lower rates of entrepreneurship and that the presence of social capital mediates this relationship as a core explanatory mechanism. We also show that the relationship between crime rates and propensity for entrepreneurship is not deterministic. Being more internal on locus of control dampens the adverse effect of local area crime on the likelihood of being an entrepreneur.
... Researchers have found that ADHD symptomology is associated with higher turnover compared to coworkers without ADHD symptomology (Iyer & Masling, 2015). Adult ADHD has been associated with a variety of workplace impairments and poor workplace performance (Wiklund et al., 2017). ...
... Qualitative research used thematic exploration (e.g., Levanon-Erez et al., 2017) and the use of narratives to understand how individuals internalize their ADHD diagnosis and its effect on their lives (e.g., Berger, 2015). Quantitative analysis included t-tests for between-groups analysis (e.g., Levanon-Erez et al., 2017), multiple regression analyses (e.g., Nagata et al., 2019), moderation (e.g., Wiklund et al., 2017) and mediation (e.g., Verheul et al., 2015). When evaluating SCCT, several quantitative studies included using structural equation modeling to look at social capital within the SCCT framework (Pham et al., 2019;Wendling & Sagas, 2020); this method allowed researchers to incorporate the evaluation of both direct and indirect effects, in addition to moderation or mediation. ...
Experiment Findings
Neurodivergent employees have higher turnover rates than their neurotypical peers, andmuch remains unknown about how to improve their workplace experience. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationships between neurodiversity and workplace social capital on job satisfaction and turnover intent. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) informed the study design. Working adults (N = 1,243) in the United States recruited using convenience sampling and MTurk participated through an anonymous online survey. Data analysis was conducted using three-way ANOVA and mediation. Significant three-way interactions were found between gender, job classification, and likelihood of having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on three separate dependent variables: workplace social capital, job satisfaction, and turnover intent. The relationships between neurodiversity symptomology and both job satisfaction and turnover intent were significantly mediated by workplace social capital. These findings add to the body of knowledge in understanding differences between individual workplace experiences relative to worker neurodiversity which can inform HR practice and workplace training and retention initiatives. This study may support social change by encouraging greater consideration of adult ADHD, neurodiversity and workplace social capital within diversity and inclusion (D&I) research and workplace initiatives.
... There is a substantial body of research on entrepreneurs' risk propensity (Stewart and Roth, 2001) and there has been a growing interest in how sensation seeking relates to entrepreneurship (Nicolaou et al., 2008). This research suggests individuals with these underlying characteristics and behaviors may find success in pursuing entrepreneurship due to their struggles to fit into a traditional work environment (Wiklund et al., 2017). Thus, the factors that cause adolescents with higher levels of risk seeking, sensation seeking to be more likely misuse or abuse alcohol and drugs may be the same ones that lead these individuals to pursue entrepreneurial activity. ...
... It is our contention that these individuals are more likely to persist in entrepreneurship, that is, have longer periods of self-employment because these individuals cannot find employment, either because they cannot work with others (as manifest by their aggressive anti-social behaviors), or because employers are unlikely to hire individuals who might manifest such behaviors in the work place. This aligns with prior research that says individuals with these underlying characteristics and behaviors (ADHD, impulsivity and sensation seeking) may find success in pursuing entrepreneurship due to their struggles to fit in a traditional work environment (Wiklund et al., 2017). The finding that males from low SES backgrounds are the mostly likely individuals to engage in self-employment would mirror recent theoretical work that individuals that are likely to have minimal resources and skills would fit the characteristics of certain kinds of necessity entrepreneurs (Dencker et al., 2021). ...
Article
Purpose The authors explore the relationship between adolescent behavior and subsequent entrepreneurial persistence by drawing on scholarship from clinical psychology and criminology to examine different subtypes of antisocial behavior (nonaggressive antisocial behavior and aggressive antisocial behavior) that underlie adolescent rule breaking. The intersection of gender and socioeconomic status on these types of antisocial behavior and entrepreneurial persistence is also studied. Design/methodology/approach Using a longitudinal research design, this study draws from a national representative survey of USA adolescents, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997) (NLSY97). Nonaggressive antisocial behavior was assessed with a composite scale that measured economic self-interest and with a second measure that focused on substance abuse. Aggressive antisocial behavior was assessed as a measure of aggressive, destructive behaviors, such as fighting and property destruction. Entrepreneurial persistence was operationalized as years of self-employment experience, which is based on the number of years a respondent reported any self-employment. Findings Aggressive antisocial behavior is positively related to entrepreneurial persistence but nonaggressive antisocial behavior is not. This relationship is moderated by gender and socioeconomic status. Originality/value These findings contribute to research on the relationship between adolescent behavior and entrepreneurship in adulthood, the effect of antisocial behavior, and demographic intersectionality (by gender and socioeconomic status) in entrepreneurship. The authors surmise that the finding that self-employment for men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds involved in aggressive antisocial behavior was significantly higher compared to others may indicate that necessity entrepreneurship may be the primary driver of entrepreneurial activity for these individuals.
... For example, Logan (2009) found a positive association between dyslexia and entrepreneurship. Wiklund et al. (2017) showed a positive association between ADHD and entrepreneurship. Bogan et al. (2013) found a positive link between entrepreneurship and mood disorders. ...
Article
Purpose This article contributes to the literature on entrepreneurship for people with disabilities through a better understanding of the impact of entrepreneurial self-efficacy perceptions on entrepreneurial intentions in populations with lower levels of self-esteem. It investigates the entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy of a population of students suffering from dyslexia, which is a learning disability. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on the study of a data set of 796 male and female adolescents in the USA, aged 13–19 years, both with and without dyslexia. The sample is a convenient one. The whole sample replied to the questionnaire on their self-efficacy perception and their intention to create, one day, their own venture. They also self-declare their dyslexia. Regressions have been conducted to answer the research question. Findings Results show that having dyslexia has a negative impact on entrepreneurial self-efficacy perceptions. They also reveal that self-efficacy perceptions mediate the relationship between dyslexia and entrepreneurial intentions and their three antecedents (social norms, control behavior and perceived ability). Research limitations/implications The sample is composed of students from private schools and might socially be biased. Practical implications Our findings relaunch the debate on the necessity to develop education programs that consider the personal-level variables of students, specifically the development of entrepreneurial self-efficacy among adolescents with disabilities Social implications Such findings should help to better understand students who are suffering from dyslexia and help them find a place in society and economic life. Originality/value This is so far the first study that has been conducted on dyslexic adolescents.
... Their dissatisfaction increases their motivation to become their own bosses, which spurs opportunity search. Research has found three important entrepreneurial motivation, reflecting the needs for: independence/autonomy, achievement, and willingness to become an entrepreneur (Robichaud et al., 2001;Stewart and Roth, 2007;Wiklund et al., 2017). Each is addressed next. ...
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Purpose This research studies an important, but relatively unexplored entrepreneurial aspect: motivation and aspiration on opportunity finding/discovery. Design/Methodology/Approach This study surveyed 230 nascent entrepreneurs on their opportunity finding behavior. A poisson regression and a logistic analysis were conducted to discover the relationship between motivation/aspiration and opportunity search behavior. Findings Motivation and aspiration interact to influence active search in a positive way. However, only willingness to become an entrepreneur is found to search for opportunities purposefully. Research Limitations/Implications Participants of the research are from a Midwest state in United States. Future research may collect sample from more and larger areas. Practical Implications Bankers may use entrepreneurial opportunity search behavior as one criterion determining if to fund a person or not. Originality/Value This article answers the call to study motivation/aspiration on opportunity finding ( Yitshaki and Kropp, 2018 ; Murnieks et al., 2020 ). It is one of the first studies to explore the above relationship.
... Following from these implications, ADHD thus becomes an urgent societal problem solved only by intervention on the individual, rather than on the society which problematises their embodiment. This negates how people with ADHD often have strategies and traits that allow them to make substantial contributions to collectives and societies [135,167]. ...
... Building on such perspectives, many have focused on individual self-efficacy as a major EI antecedent (Hockerts, 2017;Schmutzler et al., 2019). Contemporary research has called for an integration of cognitive perspectives with other theoretical perspectives, such as personality traits, motivational, social or institutional perspectives, to obtain a better understanding of EI (Schmutzler et al., 2019;Wiklund et al., 2017). We respond to such calls by including both the motivational and cognitive antecedents of EI regarding franchising. ...
Article
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An important challenge for franchisors is to find individuals with strong intentions to become franchisees that they can actively support in this ambition. We contribute to franchising research by developing and testing a model to explain individual intentions to become franchisees as a specific type of entrepreneurial intention (EI). We combine Achievement Motivation Theory (AMT) with the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to propose inverted U-shaped associations between individual motivations (i.e. need for achievement and risk-taking propensity), their cognitive assessments of franchising (i.e. attitude towards franchising and perceived behavioural control), and their EI regarding franchising. Our survey of 666 individuals demonstrates that need for achievement impacts attitude towards franchising and perceived behavioural control regarding franchising following respectively inverted U-shaped and declining positive relationships, and they partly mediate the relationships between need for achievement and EI regarding franchising. We find a negative linear association with attitude towards franchising.
... In another study, diagnosed adults reported curiosity and hyperfocus as positive attributes of their disorder [28]. In a study by Wiklund et al [29], entrepreneurs with ADHD defined their impulsivity and hyperfocus as the major drivers of their entrepreneurial action. However, the participants in the study by Holthe and Langvik [27] also described challenges in everyday life, including poor time management of daily plans and procrastination of tasks that lead to a sense of constantly being behind schedule. ...
Preprint
BACKGROUND When designing online interventions, it is important to adapt the therapeutic content to the values and needs of the target group. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) represent a heterogeneous group experiencing a wide range of both strengths and difficulties related to the core symptoms of the diagnosis. An online intervention attuned to their needs is expected to support them in their everyday lives. OBJECTIVE This paper describes and evaluates a participatory process used to produce content for an online intervention for adults with ADHD relevant to their experiences and needs. The main objective of this process was to produce video vignettes that clarify core training principles of the intervention by establishing connections between the content and the participants' everyday experiences. METHODS In this paper, we report on the qualitative data related to the design and evaluation of video vignettes for an online intervention. Our research was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, 12 adults with ADHD, 2 clinicians, and 2 research assistants participated in the production of video vignettes for the online intervention. In the second phase, we collected qualitative feedback on the videos from participants (n=109) that followed a clinical trial of the intervention. After the trial, a subgroup of the participants (n=7) was interviewed in-depth regarding their experiences with the videos. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS In the first phase, the participants with ADHD contributed with experiences from everyday situations they qualified as challenging. In the process, we navigated between therapeutic principles and the participants' experiential perspectives to create content relevant and consistent with the target group's values and experiences. In the thematic analysis of the second phase, we identified three themes related to the participants experiences and interpretation of the video vignettes: (1) recognition of ADHD-related challenges, (2) connection with the characters and the situations, and (3) video protagonists as companions and role models for change. CONCLUSIONS A participatory design process for designing online mental health interventions can be used to probe and balance between the therapeutic principles defined by clinicians and the participants’ experiences of mental health issues in the production of therapeutic content. In our study, the inclusion of video vignettes in an online intervention enabled a contextualized and relevant presentation of everyday experiences and psychosocial factors in the life of an adult with ADHD. CLINICALTRIAL https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04511169
... The evidence points to growth being extremely difficult to predict using standard human capital characteristics of the owner(s). Instead, a more promising avenue is to see growth as a random walk and survival as 4 Wiklund et al. (2017), for example, discuss the role of ADHD and entrepreneurship. ...
Article
This ‘Debate Essay’ responds to the extensive overview of research on new venture survival provided by Soto‐Simeone et al. (‘New venture survival: A review and extension’, International Journal of Management Reviews, 22(4), 2020, pp. 378–407). The material they reviewed exclusively emphasized the link between the talents, skills, awareness of the business owner and new venture outcomes. Our case is that such a review is incomplete, even misleading, because it omits the key concept of ‘chance’, and all references to the stream of literature demonstrating that new venture performance is best explained by the gambling analogy. We therefore set out the Gambler's Ruin model in which new venture performance is a random walk and exit depends on access to financial resources—chips. This model takes the entrepreneur out of entrepreneurship.
... So, consider asking of your research objectives some challenging questions: Could we be enlightened by what we might find? Are there interesting surprises or counterintuitive paradoxes that may emergefor example, how a lack of resources can lead to successful ingenuity, or how innovation slows firm growth (Ingram et al., 2016;Irava & Moores, 2010;Wiklund et al., 2017)? Have you identified a phenomenon important to scholars or managers? ...
Article
We reflect on some limitations that seem to have become more common in family business research and propose some paths forward. For fairness, we refrain from listing specific papers in our critiques because 1) no one should be singled out for criticism when the limitations to which we refer apply so broadly; 2) our own work suffers from some of these very same limitations.
... Por ejemplo, Wiklund et al. (2018) afirman que la impulsividad puede ser un activo en una carrera emprendedora, y que contextos inciertos como el del emprendimiento pueden atraer a personas impulsivas. En esta línea, la impulsividad y constructos relacionados con ella como la búsqueda de sensaciones (Wiklund et al., 2018) o síntomas relacionados con el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH; Wismans et al., 2020) han sido asociados con la intención emprendedora (Antshel, 2018), con preferencias por el emprendimiento (Wiklund et al., 2017), la acción emprendedora (Antshel, 2018) y la orientación emprendedora (Wismans et al., 2020). ...
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El emprendimiento se está convirtiendo en uno de los motores económicos de Extremadura, la cual, sin abandonar la base tradicional de su subsistencia, el sector primario, tiene cada vez más empresas dedicadas a la prestación de servicios. En los últimos años, Extremadura ha tenido una tasa de crecimiento de la actividad emprendedora por encima de la media del resto de Comunidades Autónomas españolas y, antes de la crisis de 2008, incluso por encima de la media europea. Por otra parte, el concepto de Triple Bottom Line ha adquirido notoriedad en los últimos 30 años, proporcionando un marco teórico que justifica la medida de los resultados de la empresa no solamente en el ámbito económico, sino también en el social y el medioambiental, lo que ha provocado una mayor conciencia en los empresarios sobre la necesidad de aplicar prácticas de Responsabilidad Social Corporativa como parte de la estrategia de sus empresas. Además, Extremadura ha sido la primera región de España en contar con una Ley de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y con un Observatorio dedicado a certificar su cumplimiento por parte de las empresas que así lo deseen, por lo que la Responsabilidad Social Corporativa debe ser tenida en cuenta a la hora de crear una nueva empresa. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer qué factores llevan a los empresarios extremeños a tomar la decisión de emprender en un contexto de sostenibilidad, partiendo de una muestra compuesta por 81 observaciones y aplicando un Análisis Factorial Exploratorio. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que en la decisión de emprender influyen factores como el rendimiento económico que se espera obtener o las aptitudes personales de la persona emprendedora, entre otros. Entrepreneurship is becoming one of the economic engines of Extremadura, which, without abandoning the traditional basis of its subsistence, the primary sector, has more and more companies dedicated to the provision of services. In recent years, Extremadura has had a growth rate of entrepreneurial activity above the average of the rest of the Spanish Autonomous Communities and, before the 2008 crisis, even above the European average. On the other hand, the Triple Bottom Line concept has gained notoriety in the last 30 years, providing a theoretical framework that justifies the measurement of company performance not only in the economic sphere, but also in the social and environmental spheres, which has led to a greater awareness among entrepreneurs of the need to apply Corporate Social Responsibility practices as part of their companies' strategy. Moreover, Extremadura was the first region in Spain to have a Corporate Social Responsibility Law and an Observatory dedicated to certifying compliance with it by companies that wish to do so, so Corporate Social Responsibility must be taken into account when setting up a new company. The aim of this study is to establish which factors lead Extremaduran entrepreneurs to take the decision to start a business in a context of sustainability, based on a sample of 81 observations and applying an Exploratory Factor Analysis. The results obtained show that the entrepreneurial decision is influenced by factors such as the expected economic performance or the personal skills of the entrepreneur, among others.
... К таким характеристикам можно отнести синдром дефицита внимания и гиперактивности, социальную девиацию, импульсивность, чрезмерную самоуверенность и др. [Wiklund et al., 2017]. Индивиды, обладающие данными чертами, могут проявлять себя с разных сторон как в процессе развития предпринимательских намерений, так и на этапе перехода от намерений к действиям по созданию бизнеса. ...
Article
This article examines the influence of the “dark triad” personality traits — narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy — on the development of entrepreneurial intentions through the prism of the theory of planned behavior. The theory explains entrepreneurial intentions formation trough emergence and development of the attitude towards entrepreneurship, relevant subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. These personality traits are considered in the study in their non-clinical manifestations. The proposed theoretical model has been tested on a sample of 191 students and graduates from 13 Russian universities. The empirical data were collected through an online survey. The analysis was carried out with OLS estimation. To assess the mediation effects, the PROCESS macro for the SPSS data analysis package was employed. The study identifies the key role of narcissism as an antecedent of intention to start one’s own business, while the main element of the theory of planned behavior mediating psychological effects is the attitude towards entrepreneurship. In addition, a negative relationship between psychopathy and subjective norms as well as perceived behavioral control has been established. With this study, we contribute to the theory of personality traits in the context of entrepreneurship and expand knowledge about the role of negatively perceived individual psychological characteristics in the entrepreneurial process. In addition, this work details the theory of planned behavior in terms of identifying possible antecedents of attitudes towards entrepreneurship, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The results of this study can be used by entrepreneurship educators, especially in courses and trainings on the psychology of entrepreneurship.
... The majority of previous research focuses on these challenges. Individuals with ADHD, however, may possess exceptional skills related to problem-solving, entrepreneurial endeavors, and other areas [19,20]. As a result of limited research on strengths, providers are tasked with continuously reacting to patients' problems rather than proactively promoting their thriving and well-being. ...
Article
Introduction: A substantial proportion of college students experience challenges transitioning from pediatrics to the adult healthcare system. Combined internal medicine and pediatrics (Med-Peds) providers are frequently tasked with facilitating this transition and promoting the health and well-being of this population. There is an increasing proportion of college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the U.S. This population experiences particularly pronounced challenges navigating the healthcare system and, as a result, often contends with fragmented healthcare. These issues are due to a range of factors, including lack of physician training, education, and resources, as well as a dearth of available research that can inform Med-Peds providers' efforts to support college students with ADHD. Methods: The current study compared a nationally representative sample of U.S. college freshmen with ADHD to those without ADHD on health, academic, and non-academic capacities. This study analyzed population-weighted data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program's Freshman Survey. Results: Students with ADHD were more likely to report co-occurring conditions and feelings of depression and overwhelm. They were less likely to report emotional health that was above average or in the highest 10th percentile. Although they reported lower overall academic aspirations, they were more likely to rate themselves in the highest 10th percentile on a range of non-academic capacities. Conclusion: The results from this study can inform efforts among Med-Peds providers seeking to promote the health and well-being of college students with ADHD.
... Second, the rational intentionality in EAT exerts tremendous influence; so much so, in fact, that even recent empirical studies seeking to illuminate the impact of unreasoned drivers find it difficult to escape resorting to a judgementbased view (e.g. Pietersen & Botha, 2021;Wiklund et al., 2017;. 4 As a consequence, the impact of unreasoned drivers, such as impulsivity and disinhibition, remain on the outside of EAT, even as the exclusion grows more conspicuous. ...
Article
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Entrepreneurship scholarship finds itself in something of a quandary concerning rationality. While an increasingly large body of empirical work has found evidence of less-deliberative and even impulsive drivers of business venturing, the dominant theories of entrepreneurial action remain anchored to the assumption that intended rationality is a defining attribute of entrepreneurship. The growing schism between entrepreneurial action theory (EAT) on the one hand, and empirics and practice on the other hand, represents a consequential and exciting opportunity for the field to revisit its core assumptions regarding rationality, particularly the presence, role, and function of rational intentionality. In this study, we undertake a review and exploratory investigation of the assertion that without reasoned intentionality there is no entrepreneurship. Our work generates three important insights that contribute to rethinking key facets of the most prominent and influential EATs: alternative, non-rational pathways to business venturing exist with a non-ignorable prevalence; a proclivity towards reasoned intentionality is not invariably prescriptive; and, less-reasoned, less-deliberative tendencies do not constitute an entrepreneurial death sentence. Rather, entrepreneurs (including highly successful ones) embody a shifting blend of rational and non-rational proclivities, motivations, decisions, and actions.
... In particular, an emerging stream of entrepreneurship research has begun to examine the effect of neurological disorders on entrepreneurial processes and outcomes (Antshel, 2018;Lerner et al., 2018;Stephan, 2018;Wiklund et al., 2018). For example, studies have revealed that those with dyslexia and ADHD have increased entrepreneurship engagement than those who do not have these disorders (Thurik et al., 2016;Wiklund et al., 2016Wiklund et al., , 2017. ...
Article
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Emotion significantly affects strategic decision-making by entrepreneurs in family business organisations (FBOs). This paper proposes a cognitive framework of management in FBOs that emphasises the importance of emotion, based on a micro-foundational perspective: that is, an integrated hierarchy of cognitive processes underlying FBOs’ strategic decision-making and their interactions with external affective events. Previous studies that used traditional behavioural methodologies are reviewed with reference to the proposed cognitive framework to highlight importance of understanding effect of emotion-cognition interactions on entrepreneurs’ strategic decision-making process. New techniques using biological, physiological, and neuroscientific tools are then introduced as complementary methods for this line of research. Finally, future research directions are discussed with a focus on implicit cognitive processing, complex emotions, and cognitive interventions.
... Moreover, ADHD has been reported as a risk factor for SUD [11,12]. Interestingly, ADHD is related to traits such as sensation-seeking [13], included under the broader umbrella of ...
Article
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Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sensation-seeking, a trait characterized by risk-related behaviors, have been recognized as risk factors in substance use disorder (SUD). Though ADHD co-occurs with sensory modulation dysfunction (SMD), SMD has scarcely been explored in SUD. Thus, this study aimed to characterize ADHD symptomology, sensation-seeking, and SMD, as well as to explore their contribution to SUD likelihood. Methods: A cross sectional two-group comparative study including therapeutic community residents with SUD (n = 58; study group) and healthy individuals (n = 62; comparison group) applying the MOXO continuous performance test (MOXO-CPT) evaluating ADHD-related symptoms. In addition, participants completed the ADHD Self-Report Scale-Version 1.1 for ADHD screening; the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale quantifying risk-taking behaviors; and the Sensory Responsiveness Questionnaire-Intensity Scale for identifying SMD. Results: The study group demonstrated higher SMD incidence (53.57% vs. 14.52%) and lower performance in three MOXO-CPT indexes: Attention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity, but not in Timing, compared to the comparison group. Sensory over-responsiveness had the strongest relationship with SUD, indicating 27-times increased odds for SUD (95% CI = 5.965, 121.216; p ≤ 0.0001). A probability risk index is proposed. Conclusion: We found SMD with the strongest relation to SUD exceeding that of ADHD, thus contributing a new perspective for developing future therapeutic modalities. Our findings highlight the need to address SMD above and beyond ADHD symptomology throughout the SUD rehabilitation.
... The study by Yu et al. (2021), conducted on small-medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the USA and Spain, is one of the first to empirically demonstrate that the impulsive and hyperactive symptoms of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) positively relate to firm performance through EO, while inattention symptoms exhibited no significant relationship to EO, or performance via EO. ADHD is of particular interest because recent research (e.g., Lerner et al., 2019;Verheul et al., 2015;Wiklund et al., 2017), together with real-life stories of entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms (i.e., Richard Branson and Ingvar Kamprad), suggest that "ADHD may serve as an asset in entrepreneurial forays, not as a liability" (Antshel, 2018, p. 243). ...
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The entrepreneurship literature has suggested the criticality of replicating findings along with the potential for nuance when examining relationships within emerging market contexts. In this study, we seek to reproduce the findings of Yu et al. (2021) concerning entrepreneurial orientation (EO), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and firm performance using a sample of Russian SMEs. We conduct a quasi-replication study, systematically changing the data, measures, and construct within our empirical models. The results of our study are partly in line with the original study's findings: we did not find a significant relationship between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and EO. However, when we considered different sub-dimensions of EO (innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking), managers with hyperactivity/impulsivity ADHD symptoms exhibited greater innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking, while managers with inattention ADHD symptoms exhibited opposite effects. We discuss the extent to which the effects of ADHD on firm performance in developed economies, as mediated by EO, are generalizable within an emerging economy.
... As Lerner et al. (2018b) theorized, and related empirical research has shown (Lerner et al 2018a;Wiklund et al., 2016;Yu et al., 2018), efforts to downplay unreasoned and unintended action by claiming it is not relevant to business venturing is unnecessarily self-limiting. There are two reasons for this: first, the exclusion does not strengthen the explanatory framework(Wiklund, 2019); and, second, the exclusion may simply be wrong, given the presence and consequentiality of unreasoned and unintended dynamics in varied forms across all phases of the business venturing lifecycle (e.g.,Lerner et al., 2018b;Wiklund et al., 2017). This matters greatly because impulsive, less-rational, non-deliberative logics, are all likely to elicit rather different temporal configurations and time-calibrated narratives. ...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to address key aspects of Wood, Bakker, and Fisher’s (AMR, in press) time-calibrated theory of entrepreneurial action, through which they take important steps towards identifying temporal calibrations that characterize the business venturing lifecycle. The issue that concerns us with the Woods et al. theorization is the extent to which it unnecessarily constrains itself to reasoned intentionality. While we do not doubt that logical reasoning and judgment often play a role in opportunity exploitation and that such logics can be instrumental to founding and scaling a successful enterprise, we would still assert that unintended and unreasoned elements of entrepreneurial action elude and even weaken the connection between an entrepreneur’s conscious time calibration and the actual timing of events, thereby limiting the descriptive and predictive value Wood et al.’s framework. A growing body of research shows that unreasoned drivers (e.g., disinhibition, impulsivity) are non-ignorable facets of human activity that are equally indispensable to a predictive framework for entrepreneurial action. Thus, the better pathway is to apply the broad-spectrum approach of Lerner, Hunt and Dimov (2018), who argue for the treatment of rational and non-rational drivers as empirically and conceptually coexistent. As Martin Buber wrote, “All journeys have secret destinations of which the traveler is unaware.”
... Among our research variables, customer citizenship behavior meets the required normality (Shapiro-Wilk: 0.058 > 0.05) [116]. Thus, we employed an additional analysis to confirm our research results [117]. ...
Article
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This study explored green restaurant consumers’ self-actualization and self-transcendence motivations that drive customer citizenship behavior (CCB). A survey of green restaurant consumers was administered, and structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was performed. The findings indicate the presence of positive associations between pride and self-actualization, and healthy social narcissism and self-transcendence. This study also found a positive relationship between self-actualization and self-transcendence, and they are positively associated with CCB. Interestingly, the findings suggest that green restaurant consumers’ pride, self-actualization and CCB path is more dominant path vis-à-vis the path from healthy social narcissism mediated by self-transcendence to CCB.
... Harman's single factor test (Harman, 1967) was used in EFA and found that the single factor (40.89%) was below the threshold value of 50%. An unmeasured common latent method factor technique was then adopted to test CMV in CFA (Podsakoff et al. 2003) which is commonly used in entrepreneurship research (e.g., Wiklund et al., 2017). After adding a common factor in our measurement model, the model fit did not improve significantly (ΔCFI=0.00, ...
Article
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This research investigates how entrepreneurial education activity (EEA) influences entrepreneurial behaviour (EB) by unpacking how EEA influences both entrepreneurial intention (EI) and EB and how behavioural entrepreneurial mindset (BEM) mediates the relationship between EEA and EI. This furthers research into the behavioural subdimension of entrepreneurial mindset and how this impacts the relationship between EEA and EI. Confirmatory factor analysis was used for checking the measurement model fit and psychometric properties of the measurement scales used, and structural equation modelling was used for testing the proposed model using questionnaire data collected from 1428 students participating in EEA in higher education institutions in China. The research found that effective EEA has a positive effect on EB which was partly mediated by EI, and that EEA positively affects BEM, which in turn mediates the relationship between EEA and EI. This research contributes by expanding the understanding of how EEA can influence students' EB by highlighting BEM as an impact indicator of entrepreneurship education (EE). Secondly, it contributes to the understanding of the formation of students' EB by identifying how BEM mediates the transition from EEA to EB through the development of EI. This highlights BEM as an effective endogenous driver of students’ EI, addressing a lacuna in research by investigating EM from the behavioural perspective in EE research.
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New venture ideation is critical to the entrepreneurial process. To generate creative ideas, some entrepreneurs turn to cannabis, proposing its benefits. However, extant research has not validated such claims. Using a new venture ideation task, we explore differences between cannabis users' and non-users' creativity in new venture ideation by assessing the originality and feasibility of their ideas. We theorized and found that cannabis users generate new venture ideas that are more original, but less feasible, compared to non-users. Further building upon creativity research emphasizing that motivation and knowledge shape creative thinking, we theorize that the cognitive effects of being a cannabis user on idea originality and feasibility are influenced by entrepreneurial passion for inventing—which reflects motivation to explore new venture ideas—and entrepreneurial experience (i.e., founding experience). Consistent with our theorizing, the increased originality and decreased feasibility of cannabis users' ideas surfaced to the extent that they had entrepreneurial passion for inventing and diminished commensurate with their entrepreneurial experience. Our study contributes to the literatures on new venture ideation, entrepreneurial passion, entrepreneurial experience, and cannabis users' creativity by providing an integrated perspective of cognitive, motivational, and experiential factors that drive entrepreneurs' creativity. Executive summary New venture ideation is fundamentally creative, serving as a critical impetus to the entrepreneurial process. As such, scholars have long sought to understand the sources of creativity in new venture ideation, examining the influence of prior knowledge, alertness, experience, intuition, and pattern recognition, to name a few. Beyond such factors, certain drugs have long been used across a range of cultures to promote creativity. Perhaps most relevant in the present day is cannabis, which is becoming increasingly legitimized and used alongside a wave of legalization, with many advocating its creative benefits. However, little is known regarding whether entrepreneurs who use cannabis demonstrate enhanced creativity in new venture ideation. Whereas creativity research has generally found that cannabis users generate ideas of higher originality than non-users, new venture ideas must also be feasible if they are to be implemented in a manner that creates market value. Moreover, although entrepreneurship research has proposed and found evidence that some entrepreneurs use drugs in an attempt to cope with negative emotions and stress, understanding whether entrepreneurs' drug use of any kind is associated with differential performance on entrepreneurial tasks, whether positive or negative, is notably lacking. Drawing upon research on the cognitive influence of chronic cannabis use, we propose that cannabis users generate new venture ideas of higher originality, but lower feasibility, compared to non-users. Cannabis users are more impulsive, disinhibited, and better at identifying relationships among seemingly disparate concepts, holding potential to benefit their idea originality. However, such effects and cannabis users' impaired executive functioning likely detract from idea feasibility. We theorize additional contingencies of these relationships by building upon Runco and Chand, 1994, Runco and Chand, 1995 model of creative thinking, which holds that creative thinking is shaped by motivation and knowledge gained through experience. We theorize that entrepreneurial passion for inventing—which reflects motivation to explore new venture ideas—strengthens cannabis users' tendency to focus on idea originality to the detriment of idea feasibility. In contrast, entrepreneurial experience buffers such tendencies of cannabis users, encouraging a more pragmatic approach that is less focused on idea originality, but more focused on idea feasibility. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 254 entrepreneurs with founding experience by employing a new venture ideation task in which we separately account for the originality and feasibility of cannabis users' and non-users' new venture ideas. Cannabis users generated ideas of higher originality, but lower feasibility, compared to non-users. In addition, these differences were contingent upon entrepreneurial passion for inventing and entrepreneurial experience. Specifically, the higher originality and lower feasibility of cannabis users' ideas surfaced for entrepreneurs with high, but not low, entrepreneurial passion for inventing, and for those with low, but not high, entrepreneurial experience. Thus, entrepreneurial passion for inventing appears to play a role in channeling cannabis users toward idea originality but away from idea feasibility. Conversely, entrepreneurial experience appears to attenuate the positive relationship of being a cannabis user with idea originality and its negative relationship with idea feasibility. Our study contributes to literatures on new venture ideation, entrepreneurial passion, entrepreneurial experience, and cannabis users' creativity. Whereas research on creativity in business and entrepreneurial contexts often conflates originality and feasibility, the divergent effects we uncover highlight the importance of their separate consideration. We also contribute to the literatures on entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial experience by theorizing and finding evidence that their influence on creativity in new venture ideation differs based on cognitive factors, such as those that differ between cannabis users and non-users. Finally, we provide insight into the creative benefits and detriments associated with being a cannabis user, suggesting that cannabis usersespecially those who are passionate about exploring new venture ideas or those with relatively little entrepreneurial experience, may benefit from non-users' insights to develop the feasibility of their ideas.
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This study advances research on mental health and entrepreneurship through the examination of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms, associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. We examine the impact of these symptoms at age 10 on entrepreneurial performance as an adult. We find that while ADHD-like symptoms in childhood may have a positive impact on entrepreneurial selection, they negatively impact on survival and performance, with a variant effect by each symptom, predominantly among males. We find that high levels of inattention predict business failure and lower take-home income, while high levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity contribute to overall negative earnings' growth.
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Research examining mental health and entrepreneurship has found important links between mental health and entrepreneurship. These findings have led scholars to suggest a fit between some aspects of mental health, and in particular, mental dysfunction, and entrepreneurship. This paper complements extant studies in this area by examining the mental health and entrepreneurship relationship from a sociocognitive perspective. We examine to what extent does ADHD influence entrepreneurial self-efficacy and opportunity recognition tendency. Our findings are consistent with our hypotheses, suggesting that people with ADHD may not be efficacious in the entrepreneurial context, and specifically in recognizing opportunities. However, confidence in one’s ability regarding the entrepreneurship vocation can grow with education and experience. Our findings allow us to advance theory and offer practical implications.
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We examine the relationship between Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and entrepreneurship with a specific focus on the influence of treatment. To guide our analysis, we develop the Coping-Dueling-Fit (CDF) theory as an extension to the dueling symptoms and person-environment fit perspectives. The CDF posits that ADHD symptoms' fit with entrepreneurship can act as both an asset and liability, and that coping, which we operationalize as treatment, serves to moderate this relationship to the benefit of the individual. We test our hypotheses by drawing on unique data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and find that treatment moderates the relationships between ADHD and business venturing, performance, and persistence. A post-hoc analysis further explores nuances in the variety of ADHD including the influences of comorbidity with depression, treatment type, push and pull factors in entrepreneurial entry, as well as persistence in the face of negative performance.
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Childhood adversities, such as neglect, abuse, and poverty, lead to negative career outcomes. Anecdotal stories of entrepreneurs, however, present a contrasting picture, showing that many successful entrepreneurs had a difficult childhood. Building on the underdog framework of entrepreneurship and the stress inoculation model, we resolve the puzzle by hypothesizing the inverted U-shaped relationship between entrepreneurs’ childhood adversities and career success that is mediated by resilience. Using data from a representative sample of 573 U.S. entrepreneurs from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study, we find support for the hypotheses. We further find resilience is more important for less-successful entrepreneurs. Our results are robust to various checks, including an additional study based on a sample of U.S. entrepreneurs from the Qualtrics online panel. Our study indicates the need to consider nonlinear and context-specific implications of childhood adversities and examine performance-related outcomes, thus enriching existing research on childhood adversities and entrepreneurship.
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We present an exploratory study to examine the antecedents of artrepreneurship, the decision of artists to commercialise the fruits of their practice. We hypothesise and test the influence of three key drivers using a questionnaire-based study with 93 practicing artists. While a number of factors from individual difference psychology are significant explanators, objective characteristics associated with several aspects of artistic practice (such as career stage, income, recognition and time intensity) provide little evidence to explain what makes an artist become an artrepreneur. We also measure the concept of artrepreneurial passion adapted from the business entrepreneurship literature but find no evidence that this drives artrepreneurship. Overall the results, while tentative based on a modest sample size, support a disconnect between artistic identity and business venturing as suggested in the previous work. Instead, individual difference characteristics associated more generally with business entrepreneurship seem to make the artrepreneur.
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The dance metaphor allows us to figuratively depict entrepreneurial decision making processes. Being conventionally conceived of as a sequence of purposeful behaviors rooted in a rational cognition process, entrepreneurial decision making can be featured as a sort of ‘ballet’. This interpretation puts in the background the improvisational nature of decision making, which revokes ‘lindy hop’ as a dance style. The article intends to illuminate the role of intuition, highlighting its overlap with rationality in the entrepreneurial decision making dance. For this purpose, a bibliometric analysis followed by an interpretive literature review advances a comprehensive report of 66 peer-reviewed journal articles published from 1995 to 2019, constructing evidence on the nature of entrepreneurial decision making and on the interplay between intuition and rationality. Literature is categorized in five clusters, which are reciprocally intertwined. Firstly, intuition is unconsciously used as a strategy to deal with the uncertainty that inherently affects entrepreneurial ventures. Secondly, intuition is rooted in the entrepreneurs’ impulsivity, that echoes the role of emotions in decision making. Thirdly, the merge of rationality and intuition improves the entrepreneurs’ ability to keep up with the erratic rhythm of the decision making dance. Fourthly, the mix of intuition and rationality serves as a catalyst of entrepreneurs’ ability to thrive in complex and unpredictable environments. Fifthly, intuition generates drawbacks on entrepreneurs’ meta-cognitive knowledge, which should be carefully recognized. Embracing the dance metaphor, intuition turns out to be crucial to make entrepreneurs able to fill in the gap between rationality and uncertainty.
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We examine the association between several behavioral and electrophysiological indices of impulsivity-related constructs and multiple entrepreneurial constructs. Specifically, we investigate if these behavioral and electrophysiological measures are more useful as predictors of entrepreneurship than self-reported measures of impulsivity. Our findings are based on two datasets (n = 133 and n = 142) and indicate that behavioral and electrophysiological impulsivity measures are not robustly associated with entrepreneurship constructs, in contrast to self-reported measures of impulsivity. Though disappointing at first, our findings pave the way for future research on the relevance of behavioral and electrophysiological measures for entrepreneurship.
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Purpose This study aims to develop a conceptual framework that integrated insights from Shapero and Sokol (1982)’s model of entrepreneurial event, Bandura (1977)’s social learning theory and clinical psychology to empirically test and discover the underlying mechanism of how attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms can influence student entrepreneurial intention. Design/methodology/approach The study uses structural equation modeling with a sample of 2,218 students from 14 universities in Vietnam. Findings The research reveals that although ADHD symptoms are not found to have the direct role in shaping student perceived feasibility entrepreneurial intention, these psychiatric symptoms have more influences and significances in the growth of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and perceived desirability. Also, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and perceived desirability are found to be full mediators in ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial intention linkage. Besides, both perceived desirability and perceived feasibility partially mediate the entrepreneurial self-efficacy effect on entrepreneurial intention. Practical implications The findings provide policymakers and universities with important insights into how to nurture intention to become entrepreneurs among college students, especially those individuals. Originality/value The present study offers a new insight about the linkage between ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial intention. Also, the model of entrepreneurial event and the social learning theory are shown to be unifying theoretical construct of the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and entrepreneurial intention among Vietnamese students.
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Purpose Although emerging research has linked impulsivity with the decision to start a business, scholars have yet to draw implications for later-stage entrepreneurial outcomes. Furthermore, the authors have still to derive a parsimonious profile of the multidimensional impulsivity construct which can be positively linked to the entrepreneurial context. This paper proposes and tests a model to explain how impulsivity may relate to entrepreneurial perseverance—a construct typically regarded as a pivotal later-stage entrepreneurial outcome. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 807 owner-managers using an online survey and augmented with the novel use of longitudinal data from the central registrar of companies in South Africa. Covariance-based structural equation modeling and a D2 indexing approach for forming an entrepreneurship-prone impulsivity profile were employed. Findings Results show that multidimensional impulsivity is significantly, but differentially, related to entrepreneurial perseverance; the perceived desirability of entrepreneurship mediates this effect for two of the four impulsivity dimensions. In particular, the authors find evidence that insufficiency of deliberation enhances, while urgency hinders, perseverance—reflected behaviorally through the filing of annual returns over a three-year period. Furthermore, the authors derive a new entrepreneurship-prone impulsivity profile which begins to suggest an intraindividual profile of impulsivity traits which may be beneficial to the entrepreneurial context. Originality/value By demonstrating how impulsivity impacts entrepreneurial perseverance over time, this paper advances emerging research on the relationship between impulsivity and entrepreneurship, while contributing to explaining why the perseverance decision is not simply a matter of venture pecuniary benefits and feasibility.
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This study builds and tests a model that explains entrepreneurs’ emotional responses to events in their work lives while specifying the role of entrepreneurs’ personality in moderating such responses. Drawing on the cognitive appraisal theory, we hypothesize that daily entrepreneurial stressors (workload and financial) exert negative influences on two discrete emotions (fear and pride) and that entrepreneurs’ neuroticism and dispositional optimism can moderate the proposed relationships. We examined daily diary data of 61 entrepreneurs over a two-week period and found multilevel evidence of individual differences in entrepreneurs’ emotional responses to these stressors at both the between- and within-person levels of analysis. We also found that neuroticism and optimism partially account for the examined relationships across both levels. This study contributes to the literature on stress-related emotional experiences in an entrepreneurial context by taking into account the type of stressor and the temporal framework across levels of analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Over the past decade, entrepreneurial action theory (EAT) has emerged as one of the foundational, multi-level theories of entrepreneurship.
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Complementing recent studies supporting a variety of associations between self-employment and biological outcomes associated with stress, physical wear and tear, and aging, we examine the relationship between self-employment and aging. In a sample of 6088 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, we find a small but meaningful negative association between self-employment and Klotho levels. Specifically, for self-employed, relative to the employed, the geometric mean of Klotho was lower by 2% or a 5.51% lower standard deviation from the mean Klotho levels in the sample. Our findings show that self-employment has a small but meaningful association with aging.
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Existing theory has not documented the potential benefits of facing the challenges of underdog entrepreneurs, who may succeed unexpectedly. This research explains why, and under what circumstances, the underdog status of entrepreneurs can promote entrepreneurial success rather than just hinder it. We predict that the underdog effect has the potential to boost entrepreneurial resource efficiency when entrepreneurs hold an incremental (vs. entity) theory, enter a low-barrier (vs. high-barrier) industry, and are in a favorable (vs. unfavorable) business environment. Study 1 provides support for the positive relationship between underdog status and resource efficiency through an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis, which is accompanied by a moderating effect of the implicit theory, industry context, and business environment. The data was obtained from two nationwide surveys. By extending a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) of multiple case studies, Study 2 reveals support for a synergistic effect of the above factors. Our research results examine the assumption that perceiving underdog status is detrimental and offer meaningful insights into why and when underdog entrepreneurs have good performance in entrepreneurial resource efficiency. We provide a psychological and behavioral explanation for the underdog effect, extending the underdog effect theory to the field of entrepreneurship for the first time from the perspective of the actors. Finally, theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed by indicating the limitations of the research.
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Purpose The purpose of our study is to examine the direct and mediating effects of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance and sensation seeking (UPPS) impulsivity traits on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention as well as to test the moderation impact of ADHD symptoms in the link between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and start-up intention. Design/methodology/approach The stratified random sampling was approached to recruit the data from 2,566 university students in Vietnam. Cronbach’s alpha and confirmatory factor analysis were used to test the reliability and validity of scales. Then, Pearson correlation analysis was utilized to test direct effects, while PROCESS macro was approached to test moderation and mediation impacts. Findings The study found evidence that ADHD symptoms, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance are significantly and directly conducive to the formation of entrepreneurial intention. Yet, ADHD symptoms might weaken the link between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention. Entrepreneurial self-efficacy was also found to partially mediate the link between sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance and intention to become an entrepreneur. Practical implications The findings provide constructive recommendations for policymakers and educators to nurture and foster university students’ entrepreneurial activities as well as to restrain the negative effects of ADHD symptoms on youths. Social implications Understanding the impacts of psychiatric symptoms, such as ADHD and UPPS impulsivity, on entrepreneurial activities provide useful insights to individuals with ADHD symptoms, the community and the society to restrain the detrimental impacts of psychological disorder symptoms and consider entrepreneurship as a career choice. Originality/value The study is expected to have a significant contribution to psychological entrepreneurship literature by broadening our horizons of the links between psychiatric symptoms and entrepreneurial intentions. Especially, this study reveals that ADHD symptoms and UPPS impulsive traits are significantly correlated with intention to become entrepreneurs and the link between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention become weaker when the degree of ADHD symptoms is high.
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Background Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) represent a heterogeneous group with both strengths and difficulties associated with the diagnosis. An online intervention attuned to their needs may improve their everyday functioning. When designing online interventions, it is important to adapt the therapeutic content to the values and needs of the target group. Objective This paper describes and evaluates a participatory process used to produce content for an online intervention for adults with ADHD by producing video vignettes clarifying core training principles grounded in the participants' everyday experiences. Methods We report on the qualitative data from 2 research phases: the design and evaluation of video vignettes for an online intervention. In the first phase, 12 adults with ADHD, 2 clinicians, and 2 research assistants participated in the production of video vignettes for the online intervention. In the second phase, participants (n=109) gave feedback on the videos as part of a clinical trial of the intervention. A subgroup (n=7) was interviewed in-depth regarding their experiences with the videos. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results In the first phase, the participants with ADHD contributed with experiences from challenging everyday situations. In the process, we navigated between therapeutic principles and the participants' experiential perspectives to create content relevant and consistent with the target group's values and experiences. In the second phase, we identified 3 themes related to the participants' experiences and interpretation of the video vignettes: (1) recognition of ADHD-related challenges, (2) connection with the characters and the situations, and (3) video protagonists as companions and role models for change. Conclusions A participatory design process for designing online mental health interventions can be used to probe and balance between the therapeutic principles defined by clinicians and the participants’ experiences with mental health issues in the production of therapeutic content. In our study, the inclusion of video vignettes in an online intervention enabled a contextualized and relevant presentation of everyday experiences and psychosocial factors in the life of an adult with ADHD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04511169; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04511169
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms have been associated with the decision to become self-employed. Although these symptoms are generally regarded as disadvantageous, there may also be a bright side. To our knowledge, however, there has been no systematic, epidemiological evidence to support this claim. This paper examines the association between ADHD symptoms and self-employment in a population-based sample from the STAGE cohort of the Swedish Twin Registry (N = 7208). For replication, we used a sample of Dutch students who participated in the Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students' Survey (N = 13,112). In the Swedish sample, we found a positive association with self-employment for both general ADHD symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 1.13; 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 1.04-1.23] and hyperactivity symptoms [OR 1.19; 95 % CI 1.08-1.32], whereas no association was found for attention-deficit symptoms [OR 0.99; 95 % CI 0.89-1.10]. The positive association between hyperactivity and self-employment was replicated in the Dutch student sample [OR 1.09; 95 % CI 1.03-1.15]. Our results show that certain aspects of ADHD, in particular hyperactivity, can have a bright side, as they are positively associated with self-employment.
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In this paper, we argue that much of the small business strategic management literature has drawn too heavily from work done on large, established firms. We build upon the notions of the liabilities of smallness and newness to discuss how microenterprises and very new firms are different in regards to their strategic analysis, strategic content, strategic resources, and strategic processes. We note that there are a number of important and non-obvious questions that need to be asked that have implications for the most common firms in the world, those that are very small.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This reprinted article originally appeared in Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology , 2003, Vol. 11, (No. 3), 210–217. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2003-05958-006 .) The present study explores the relation among 4 personality traits associated with impulsive behavior and alcohol abuse. Personality traits were measured using the 4 subscales of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS; S. P. Whiteside & D. R. Lynam, 2001). The UPPS and measures of psychopathology were administered to clinical samples of alcohol abusers high in antisocial personality traits (AAPD), alcohol abusers low in antisocial personality traits (AA), and a control group (total N = 60). Separate analyses of variance indicated that AAPDs had significant elevations on all 4 UPPS scales, whereas the AAs and controls differed only on the Urgency subscale. However, when controlling for psychopathology, group differences on the UPPS scales disappeared. The results suggest that personality traits related to impulsive behavior are not directly related to alcohol abuse but rather are associated with the elevated levels of psychopathology found in a subtype of alcohol abusers.
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Background ADHD shows clear, albeit heterogeneous, cognitive dysfunctions. Instead, personality traits are not well understood in adults with ADHD and it is unclear whether they are predisposing factors or phenotypical facets of the condition. Aims To assess whether personality traits of impulsivity, sensation seeking and sensitivity to punishment and reward are predisposing factors for ADHD or aspects of the clinical phenotype. Methods 20 adults with ADHD, 20 unaffected first degree relatives and 20 controls completed rating scales assessing traits of impulsivity, sensation seeking, and sensitivity to punishment/reward. Results Compared to relatives and controls, individuals with ADHD showed increased impulsive personality traits, were more susceptible to boredom and presented hypersensitivity to reward but normal sensitivity to punishment. Conclusions High impulsivity traits, heightened sensitivity to reward and boredom are associated with the phenotype of ADHD, rather than being predisposing factors, as these traits were not shared between ADHD probands and their relatives.
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In this review of the psychology of entrepreneurship, we first present meta-analytic findings showing that personality dimensions, such as (general) self-efficacy and need for achievement, and entrepreneurial orientation are highly associated with entrepreneurship (business creation and business success). We then discuss constructs that were developed within entrepreneurship research, such as entrepreneurial alertness, business planning, financial capital as resources, and entrepreneurial orientation, and how they can be better understood by taking a psychological perspective. Next, we elaborate how traditional psychological constructs have been utilized in entrepreneurship and how this may enhance our knowledge in industrial and organizational psychology (with respect to, for example, knowledge, practical intelligence, cognitive biases, goals and visions, personal initiative, passion, and positive and negative affect). Finally, we provide an overall framework useful for the psychology of entrepreneurship, and implications for future research.
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Little is known about the relation between entrepreneurship and the extent of psychiatric symptoms. Validated psychiatric symptom scores are seldom used for non-clinical reasons. One prevalent symptom that deserves our interest is Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a developmental disorder characterized by inattentiveness and hyperactivity that has been linked to occupational choice and performance. Building on the person–environment fit literature, we hypothesize that individuals who exhibit behavior associated with ADHD are more likely to have entrepreneurial intentions. Using a sample of 10,104 students enrolled in higher education, we can confirm our prediction that students with a higher level of ADHD-like behavior are more likely to have entrepreneurial intentions. Additionally, we show that risk taking propensity is a mediator that partly explains this positive effect. Our study points to the importance of behavioral tendencies associated with developmental disorders, when making entrepreneurship decisions. Our study contributes to the literature on the determinants of entrepreneurship, which so far has largely neglected the effects of psychiatric symptoms on entrepreneurship.
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This study examines the relationship between prenatal testosterone exposure (PTE) and selection into entrepreneurship. We argue that the relationship between PTE and entrepreneurial intent is positive and mediated by general and domain-specific risk-taking related to financial investment and professional career. Using the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) as noninvasive retrospective marker for PTE, we identify two-step mediation effects of PTE on entrepreneurial intent through both general and domain-specific risk-taking. To account for possible socialization-based effects, we control for gender and parental self-employment. Applying ordinary least square regression analyses and structural equation models, we provide empirical evidence for a biological association between 2D:4D and entrepreneurial intent.
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Objective: Adults diagnosed with attentional deficit disorder (ADHD) are easily distracted in many tasks. Yet ADHD performance on inattentional blindness (IB) tasks has not been examined. Such investigation may aid in discriminating between 3 ADHD models: the neurological model, the perceptual load theory, and the "hunter versus farmer" hypothesis. Method: Distractibility was assessed in ADHD and non-ADHD college students using the MOXO task that involves detection of a single attended stimulus that repeatedly appears in the same place and in the well-known IB "gorilla" video which involves tracking of a stimulus moving at a fast pace in a dynamic, complex manner. Results: ADHD college students showed increased distractibility in the MOXO task. By contrast, they performed better than controls in the attended channel of the IB task, while they were also better at noticing the unattended stimuli and thus exhibiting little-to-no inattentional blindness. Conclusions: As no attentional tradeoffs were evident in the IB task, it appears that the results are most consistent with the "hunter versus farmer" hypothesis, which postulates that ADHD individuals have an alternative cognitive style which is less equipped to deal with detection of repeated stimuli while comprising advantages in the tracking of stimuli moving in a fast dynamic manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability.
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This study draws on the Rubicon model of action phases to study the actions or lack of actions that follow the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Concurrently, it examines the roles of self-control and action-related emotions in explaining the intention–action gap using longitudinal survey data (N = 161). The results show that self-control positively moderates the relationship between intention and action, and that it counters the rise of action-related fear, doubt, and aversion. We also find evidence for interaction effects between action aversion, action doubt, and intention strength. Our results signal the importance of studying moderators of the intention–action relationship.
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Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent public health problem associated with fronto-temporal dysfunction and maladaptive personality traits. To further test these associations, we assessed neuropsychological performance in pathological gamblers (PGs) and controls. We also examined selected personality characteristics and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Subjects were recruited from the community. All received a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, the ADHD Rating Scale, and personality measures including the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. People with DSM-IV PG (n = 54) and controls (n = 65) were comparable in age, sex, and education level. PGs were more likely to have comorbid lifetime mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders; antisocial personality disorder; and other impulse control disorders. PGs performed significantly worse on the Wisconsin Card Sort Test-64 perseverative responses subscale and the Trails B test; they also had lower performance and full scale IQs. PGs had elevated levels of depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and harm avoidance, but lower levels of reward dependence. High levels of self-reported impulsivity or ADHD symptoms in PGs did not predict worse neuropsychological performance. We conclude that PGs performed worse than controls on two measures of executive function and had lower IQs. They also had more psychiatric comorbidity, higher levels of trait impulsivity and ADHD symptoms, and both novelty seeking and harm-avoidance, but lower levels of reward-dependence. This study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with high levels of impulsivity or ADHD symptoms in PGs.
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Research on employee recruitment has shown that an organization’s corporate social performance (CSP) affects its attractiveness as an employer, but the underlying mechanisms and processes through which this occurs are poorly understood. We propose that job seekers receive signals from CSP that inform three signal-based mechanisms that ultimately affect organizational attractiveness: job seekers’ anticipated pride from being affiliated with the organization, their perceived value fit with the organization, and their expectations about how the organization treats its employees. We hypothesized that these signal-based mechanisms mediate the relationships between CSP and organizational attractiveness, focusing on two aspects of CSP: an organization’s community involvement and pro-environmental practices. In an experiment (n = 180), we manipulated CSP via a company’s web pages. In a field study (n �= 171), we measured CSP content in the recruitment materials used by organizations at a job fair and job seekers’ perceptions of the organizations’ CSP. Results provided support for the signal-based mechanisms, and we discuss the implications for theory, future research, and practice.
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Multiple Regression and Beyond offers a conceptually-oriented introduction to multiple regression (MR) analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), along with analyses that flow naturally from those methods. By focusing on the concepts and purposes of MR and related methods, rather than the derivation and calculation of formulae, this book introduces material to students more clearly, and in a less threatening way. In addition to illuminating content necessary for coursework, the accessibility of this approach means students are more likely to be able to conduct research using MR or SEM--and more likely to use the methods wisely. This book: • Covers both MR and SEM, while explaining their relevance to one another • Includes path analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and latent growth modeling • Makes extensive use of real-world research examples in the chapters and in the end-of-chapter exercises • Extensive use of figures and tables providing examples and illustrating key concepts and techniques New to this edition: • New chapter on mediation, moderation, and common cause • New chapter on the analysis of interactions with latent variables and multilevel SEM • Expanded coverage of advanced SEM techniques in chapters 18 through 22 • International case studies and examples • Updated instructor and student online resources.
Book
In this book, one of the most highly recognized entrepreneurship scholars shares in a personal and readable way his rich experience and ideas on how entrepreneurship can be researched. Entrepreneurship is a phenomenon of tremendous societal importance. It is also an elusive phenomenon, which makes researching it fun, fascinating—and frustrating at times. In this fully updated edition, numerous real examples accompany the treatment of problems and solutions concerning design, sampling, operationalization and analysis. Researching Entrepreneurship is targeted primarily at research students and academics who are relatively new to research or to entrepreneurship research. This said, basic knowledge of research methods is assumed, and when foundational issues are discussed they are typically approach from a non-standard angle and/or with an eye to illuminate entrepreneurship-specific problems and solutions. This makes large parts of the contents potentially valuable for entrepreneurship scholars at any level of research proficiency. The book is also of interest to sophisticated, non-academic users with a professional interest in collecting and analyzing data from emerging and young ventures, and to those who make use of published entrepreneurship research. For example, analysts in marketing research or consultancy firms, business associations, statistical agencies and other government offices may find this book to be a valuable tool. Moreover, while the examples are derived from entrepreneurship research, the book provides a unique "experienced empirical researcher" (rather than "textbook method expert") treatment of issues that are of equal relevance across the social sciences. This goes for topics like the role of theory; research design; validity assessment; statistical inference, and replication. Entrepreneurship research has developed rapidly in the decade that has passed since the first edition. Therefore, all chapters have been comprehensively updated and many have been extended; sometimes to twice the original length. Two of the original chapters have been excluded to make room for entirely new chapters on “the Dependent Variable” and “The Entrepreneurship Nexus.” While retaining a unique, personal tone, the author uses examples and references that build on contributions from a large number of top entrepreneurship researchers.
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Importance: Recognition that adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common, seriously impairing, and usually undiagnosed has led to the development of adult ADHD screening scales for use in community, workplace, and primary care settings. However, these scales are all calibrated to DSM-IV criteria, which are narrower than the recently developed DSM-5 criteria. Objectives: To update for DSM-5 criteria and improve the operating characteristics of the widely used World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) for screening. Design, setting, and participants: Probability subsamples of participants in 2 general population surveys (2001-2003 household survey [n = 119] and 2004-2005 managed care subscriber survey [n = 218]) who completed the full 29-question self-report ASRS, with both subsamples over-sampling ASRS-screened positives, were blindly administered a semistructured research diagnostic interview for DSM-5 adult ADHD. In 2016, the Risk-Calibrated Supersparse Linear Integer Model, a novel machine-learning algorithm designed to create screening scales with optimal integer weights and limited numbers of screening questions, was applied to the pooled data to create a DSM-5 version of the ASRS screening scale. The accuracy of the new scale was then confirmed in an independent 2011-2012 clinical sample of patients seeking evaluation at the New York University Langone Medical Center Adult ADHD Program (NYU Langone) and 2015-2016 primary care controls (n = 300). Data analysis was conducted from April 4, 2016, to September 22, 2016. Main outcomes and measures: The sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and positive predictive value (PPV) of the revised ASRS. Results: Of the total 637 participants, 44 (37.0%) household survey respondents, 51 (23.4%) managed care respondents, and 173 (57.7%) NYU Langone respondents met DSM-5 criteria for adult ADHD in the semistructured diagnostic interview. Of the respondents who met DSM-5 criteria for adult ADHD, 123 were male (45.9%); mean (SD) age was 33.1 (11.4) years. A 6-question screening scale was found to be optimal in distinguishing cases from noncases in the first 2 samples. Operating characteristics were excellent at the diagnostic threshold in the weighted (to the 8.2% DSM-5/Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale population prevalence) data (sensitivity, 91.4%; specificity, 96.0%; AUC, 0.94; PPV, 67.3%). Operating characteristics were similar despite a much higher prevalence (57.7%) when the scale was applied to the NYU Langone clinical sample (sensitivity, 91.9%; specificity, 74.0%; AUC, 0.83; PPV, 82.8%). Conclusions and relevance: The new ADHD screening scale is short, easily scored, detects the vast majority of general population cases at a threshold that also has high specificity and PPV, and could be used as a screening tool in specialty treatment settings.
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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The two logics capture a fundamental distinction between two modes of action in organizations (and beyond). They essentially characterize the difference between deliberate and habitual action. The two logics play a central role in theories of bounded rationality and have been elaborated by the Carnegie School and a considerable number of social scientific paradigms. They provide the conceptual starting point for studies that aim to understand how cognitive mechanisms (in particular, their limitations) drive action. At the same time they represent archetypes of action that play an enormous role both in the real world and in prominent models of organizations, firms, markets, institutions, states and societies.
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Because of the prevalence of both nonnormal and categorical data in empirical research, this chapter focuses on issues surrounding the use of data with these characteristics. Specifically, we review the assumptions underlying NT estimators. We describe nonnormal and categorical data and review robustness studies of the most popular NT estimator, maximum likelihood (ML), in order to understand the consequences of violating these assumptions. Most importantly, we discuss three popular strategies often used to accommodate nonnormal and/or categorical data in SEM: 1. Weighted least squares (WLS) estimation, 2. Satorra-Bentler (S-B) scaled χ² and robust standard errors, and 3. Robust diagonally weighted least squares (DWLS) estimation. For each strategy, we present the following: (a) a description of the strategy, (b) a summary of research concerning the robustness of the χ²-statistic, other fit indices, parameter estimates, and standard errors, and (c) a description of implementation across three software programs.
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This paper studies the impact of people having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on their predisposition toward entrepreneurship. We employ hand-collected survey data and psychometric tests to study the relationship between ADHD and occupational choice. The results of regression analysis suggest that ADHD sufferers have a significantly higher marginal probability of being entrepreneurs, while ADHD does not affect the likelihood of being a wage earner or being unemployed. Moreover, people with ADHD exhibit significantly higher values in the entrepreneurial tendency measures relative to others. By exploring the determinants of entrepreneurial tendencies, we find that ADHD affection has a positive impact on many entrepreneurial characteristics. Furthermore, we find that the significance of the ADHD variable maintains in the presence of entrepreneurship and demographic controls. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of the ADHD community as a rich source of entrepreneurs.
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While the personality of entrepreneurs can be cast in positive and negative lights, it is essential that researchers understand the complex process through which personalities shape behavior and influence outcomes. Building on Miller's observations on downsides of entrepreneurs' personalities, we present five broad lines of inquiry derived from the organizational behavior literature to guide future research on the role of personality in entrepreneurial phenomena. These streams of research have implications for how personality is conceptualized in the entrepreneurship literature, and we urge researchers to examine interactions among different personality traits, and between traits and contextual and affective variables which play a critical role in personality-outcome relationships. Finally, we encourage scholars to consider the personality of new venture team members, and how some traits may serve important resource-conservation roles.
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This study investigates the link between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and entrepreneurial orientation (EO). EO is known to be a crucial factor for small firm survival and growth, conceptualised as a business characteristic but influenced by the personality of the small business owner and measured at her individual level. There is ample anecdotal evidence claiming that ADHD symptoms have helped entrepreneurs in their careers. Using a data set of French small firm owners, we are the first to go beyond the anecdotal level in linking ADHD symptoms and EO. Our study contributes to our understanding of entrepreneurship, particularly the determinants of EO, and to “destigmatising” ADHD, which is considered solely a clinical disorder that should be treated.
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Objective: To examine the association of personality traits and characteristics on quality of life and functioning in adults with ADHD. Method: Participants were adults with (n = 206) and without ADHD (n = 123) who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report (SAS-SR). Participants also provided information on academic, motor vehicle operation, legal, social, familial, and occupational functioning. Outcomes were examined using stepwise linear regression, logistic regression (for binary outcomes), and negative binomial regression (for count outcomes) controlling for ADHD symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity, and executive dysfunction. Results: Adults with ADHD significantly differed from controls across nearly all TCI personality domains. On average, adults with ADHD endorsed more novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence, and less reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Personality traits and characteristics, especially self-directedness, significantly predicted functional impairments even after controlling for ADHD symptoms, executive function deficits, and current psychiatric comorbidities. Conclusion: In adults with ADHD, personality traits exert unique associations on quality of life and functional impairment across major life domains, beyond the relations expected of and associated with ADHD symptoms and other associated psychiatric conditions and cognitive vulnerabilities. Addressing personality traits in adults with ADHD may lead to improvements in quality of life and reductions in functional impairment.