The critical importance of meetings to leader and organizational success

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Workplace meetings take place for many reasons. Employees meet to talk about problems, develop solutions, generate ideas, reach consensus, and make decisions. But in addition to the outcomes they are intended to achieve, meetings are also sites for many other organizational phenomena, including sensemaking, leadership influence, relationship building, team dynamics, conflict, and the shaping of employee attitudes. The impact of meetings extends well beyond the boundaries of the meeting itself. Today, scholars from multiple disciplines, including management and organizational behavior, communication, organizational psychology, and sociology, have all made efforts to better understand the many facets of meetings, such as how meetings are planned and conducted in organizations, what happens inside of the meetings, and how meetings may affect overall individual, team, and organizational outcomes.

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... It is especially frustrating for attendees when they think they will have opportunities to provide input, only to realize the information will only flow 1 way: from the science expert to the local expert. Fortunately, we have also found that local experts are likely to attend meetings when they know why the meeting is being called and when they trust that the meeting organizers will not deviate from the defined purpose (Lehmann-Willenbrock et al. 2018). We advise being as explicit as possible when announcing meetings and communicating clearly whether they are informational meetings or ones where local input will be solicited (Willems et al. 2020). ...
... We advise scheduling meetings for the convenience of the attendees and providing refreshments (Lehmann-Willenbrock et al. 2018). Meeting attendance will be enhanced when meetings are scheduled at a time and place convenient for attendees. ...
... During the meeting, it is also important to maintain and encourage a positive tone. If participants find a meeting too stressful, that experience is likely to deter their attendance at future meetings (Lehmann-Willenbrock et al. 2018). One need not be a comedian or entertainer, but consider modeling people you know who maintain their good humor even under crisis. ...
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Transformative research in freshwater ecosystems requires successfully engaging an array of stakeholders. Local community members are experts of the social and ecological systems in which they are embedded and can improve scientific research in many ways. We outline several steps for researchers to engage local experts specifically by focusing on making their projects meaningful to participants. Based on the authors’ collective experiences of engaging communities in freshwater research, we offer 3 sets of practical strategies for facilitating public engagement in natural resources research. We outline 3 techniques for building mutuality with the local community and local experts, 2 strategies for building and maintaining relationships, and 5 key efforts that help research teams achieve reliable attendance at meetings. Involving locals is not merely a means for arranging access to valuable research sites or for gathering data. Local experts can inform scientific investigations of the ways local social and ecological systems interact, improve the communication of science, and enrich the experience of field research.
... This paper extends current conversations on common knowledge (Dixon, 2000) and proposes four practices contributing to the construction of common knowledge in the context of organizational meetings. In this paper, common knowledge is defined as a form of organizational knowledge related to the internal know-how unique to specific organizational projects that are created through experience (Dixon, 2000) accumulated during organizational meetings (Allen et al., 2015;Lehmann-Willenbrock et al., 2018) and that becomes publicly known to the members of the organization (Desouza and Awazu, 2006). ...
... This paper aims to fill in this research gap and contribute to current conversations related to common knowledge (Dixon, 2000;Desouza and Awazu, 2006), providing a means to better understand the practices associated to the construction of common knowledge in the context of organizational meetings (Lehmann-Willenbrock et al., 2018;Allen et al., 2015). This paper answers the following research question: "How do organizational members construct common knowledge practices in the context of organizational meetings?" ...
... Organizational practices such as meetings, after-action reflections or debriefings offer unique opportunities to better understand commonly constructed knowledge in organizational contexts (e.g. Lehmann-Willenbrock et al., 2018;Allen et al., 2016). Meetings, in particular, have been conceptualized as social system stabilizers (Peck et al., 2004), forums for coordination (Boden, 2014) and have been proposed to contribute to the shaping of organizational strategy (Jarzabkowski and Seidl, 2008). ...
... This chapter investigates how meetings, as essential features of organizations (Allen, Lehmann-Willenbrock, & Rogelberg, 2015;Lehmann-Willenbrock, Rogelberg, Allen, & Kello, 2018;Scott, Allen, Rogelberg, & Kello, 2015), can develop into a planned emergence strategy (Grant, 2003;Hodgkinson, Whittington, Johnson, & Schwarz, 2006). This investigation is based on an exploratory case study within a large organization which is currently experimenting with the development of new forms of decentralized strategy. ...
... So far, the strategy literature has provided only few empirical studies on open strategy processes which include strategy meetings or strategy workshops (Grant, 2003;Hutzschenreuter & Kleindienst, 2006;Laine & Vaara, 2015;Mirabeau & Maguire, 2014). In addition, meeting science is still a young research field, and to date, empirical studies have often addressed regular team meetings with the team leader moderating the meeting (Lehmann-Willenbrock, Rogelberg, Allen, & Kello, 2018). This chapter addresses these gaps and adds to the micro-level of strategy process research by focusing on the micro-activities in strategy meetings (Hutzschenreuter & Kleindienst, 2006). ...
... Meetings form organizational life Lehmann-Willenbrock et al., 2018;Scott et al., 2015). They enable organizational members to coordinate and synchronize their work, and foster sensemaking (Weick, 1995) for example through the recognition and evaluation of problems or development of new ideas (Seidl & Guérard, 2015). ...
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Organizations increasingly view their internal staff as a source of innovation and change and tend to involve an increasing number of organizational members in strategy work. This inclusion is a form of decentralized strategy and usually takes place in meetings. This chapter explores how meetings can become a planned emergence strategy for unlocking endogenous innovation potential. Data have been gathered from a still ongoing field project in which employees of six public offices such as the police or fire brigade participate. The public offices’ administration is characterized by a traditional division of responsibility, meaning that strategy has so far been the business of only few people at the top of the organization. For the first time in this organization, managers and other specialists at various organizational levels have been invited to partake in the new bottom-up strategy format Think Tank. The goals of the Think Tank are to identify the needs of the employees, to find and show potential, create a subculture and encourage innovation. The Think Tank meetings are attended by highly motivated employees who want to develop further organizational goals. The investigation illustrates that exchange on an equal basis, voluntary participation and mixed teams form the foundation for planned emergence strategy meetings. The interactions within the groups are characterized by participants having a positive attitude and avoiding negatively connoted behavior. In the strategy meetings, the various organizational members are enabled to join forces and contribute to strategic renewal. Strategic renewal is essential in a volatile, uncertain, ambiguous, and complex world. This chapter illustrates how meetings can facilitate strategic renewal through planned emergence. Keywords: Meetings; emergent strategy; planned emergence; strategic renewal; case study; interaction analysis
... In organizational meetings, effective communication is the key to success (Kauffeld and Lehmann-Willenbrock, 2012). Designing effective meetings as well as ensuring that measures discussed are taken into action after a meeting are central interests of team managers and organizations (e.g., Scott et al., 2012;Lehmann-Willenbrock et al., 2018). Shifting focus to the way in which team members exchange information within a meeting can lay ground for a deeper understanding of team communication processes and their role in the relationship between team compositional factors and team outcomes. ...
... As a substantial number of meetings is ineffective and even described as a "waste of time" (Rogelberg et al., 2006), scholars have focused on factors for successful meetings (e.g., Scott et al., 2012;Reiter-Palmon and Sands, 2015;Lehmann-Willenbrock et al., 2018). In this regard, research has shown that the way in which a group communicates within a meeting is central to their success (e.g., Kauffeld and Lehmann-Willenbrock, 2012;Sauer and Kauffeld, 2013). ...
... Research as shown that solutions only foster productivity when they are not only discussed but also implemented later on (Kauffeld, 2006;Lehmann-Willenbrock et al., 2018). To ensure that measures planned in a meeting are also taken into action later on, communicating effectively within a meeting is crucial (Lehmann-Willenbrock et al., 2013). ...
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Communication between different subgroups is essential to group success, as different perspectives and knowledge need to be integrated. Especially when subgroups form due to faultlines, hypothetical dividing lines splitting a group into homogeneous subgroups, the resulting subgroups are vulnerable to negative intergroup processes. In this article, we evaluate different methods that have been used to trace communication between faultline-based subgroups and discuss challenges that researchers face when applying those methods. We further present the faultline communication index (FCI) as a novel approach to meet those challenges. We combine techniques from social network analysis with a behavioral process approach to trace communication processes between subgroups and provide scholars with tools to integrate in their own research. We illustrate this approach by observing and coding real time interactions in 29 organizational meetings. Results show that although functional faultline strength does not impact information exchange between subgroups, intersubgroup interactions positively relate to the quality of action plans defined at the end of a meeting. Managers and practitioners who work with diverse teams can be given guidance on how communication between subgroups evolves and how it can be shaped to become more effective. We further discuss implications for future research on communication between subgroups.
... As Lehmann-Willenbrock et al. (2018) discuss, in the organizations literature there are three major approaches to studying dynamic interactional data: lag sequential analysis, pattern analysis, and statistical discourse analysis. The lag sequential approach analyzes temporal patterns in sequentially recorded events of groups or individuals (Sackett 1987). ...
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In recent years social network analysis, influenced by relational sociology, has taken a cultural turn. One result has been a growing interest in the cultural, and not just structural, aspects of social networks. And yet, while relational literature conceptualizes network ties as being interactionally constructed through cultural processes, relationalist inspired quantitative network analysts have rarely made face-to-face interaction a focus of study. More often, these scholars have adopted an interpretive approach and examined the network structure of cultural forms and belief systems. This article argues that network analysis is missing an opportunity to study procedural aspects of culture by taking advantage of our growing ability to collect and analyze streaming data of face-to-face interaction. To productively do so, however, network studies of interaction can apply ideas from sociolinguistics related to the context and style of communication in order to capture cultural aspects of interaction.
... Meetings are an important and ubiquitous part of working life. Understanding how to successfully manage and direct meetings is a vital step towards improving workplace satisfaction and employee engagement and productivity [1,9]. Thus, a system for automatic analysis of a group's attitudes towards their management, their own group processes, and towards each other, could be very useful for providing feedback to a group or the group leader. ...
Conference Paper
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We present experimental results on the task of automatically predicting group members' attitudes about management of their meeting, based on linguistic and acoustic features derived from the meeting recordings and transcripts. The group members' attitudes were gathered from detailed post-meeting questionnaires. A key finding is that features of linguistic content by themselves yield poor prediction performance on this task, but the best results are found by combining acoustic and linguistic features in a multimodal prediction model. When trying to automate the detection of group member attitudes that might be manifested subtly in their language and behaviour, a multimodal analysis is key.
... In a normal workday, as many as 55 million meetings happen every day. Employees spend on average six hours per week sitting in meetings (Lehmann-Willenbrock, Rogelberg, Allen, & Kello, 2018). Depending upon the organization's culture, the costs of meetings, such as collective salaries of the attendees, and time, are incentives to have productive meetings (Leach, Rogelberg, Warr, & Burnfield, 2009). ...
... An essential part of the success of the organisations Rozaliya Amirova, Sergey Masyagin, Anastasia Reprintseva, Giancarlo Succi, and Herman Tarasau is effective communication and interaction among all levelsdevel opers, management and stakeholders. But despite meetings being a necessary part of many organisations everyday life, as many as half of them are rated as "poor" and lead to a waste of more than 200 billion US dollars per year [ 5 ]. The success of a meeting is affected by the attention of its individual participants. ...
Nowadays, Computer Science tightly entered all spheres of human activity. To improve quality and speed of development process, it is important to help programmers improve their working conditions. This paper proposes a vision on exploring this issue and presents in conjunction a factor that has been claimed multiple time to affect the effectiveness of software production, concentration and attention of software developers. We choose to focus on developers brain activity and features that can be extracted from it.
... An essential part of the success of the organisations is effective communication and interaction among all levels -developers, management and stakeholders. But despite meetings being a necessary part of many organisations everyday life, as many as half of them are rated as "poor" and lead to a waste of more than 200 billion US dollars per year [5]. The success of a meeting is affected by the attention of its individual participants. ...
Conference Paper
Nowadays, Computer Science tightly entered all spheres of human activity. To improve quality and speed of development process, it is important to help programmers improve their working conditions. This paper proposes a vision on exploring this issue and presents in conjunction a factor that has been claimed multiple time to affect the effectiveness of software production, concentration and attention of software developers. We choose to focus on developers brain activity and features that can be extracted from it. CCS CONCEPTS • Software and its engineering → Collaboration in software development.
... In the United States alone, there are as many as 55 million meetings every day (Keith, 2015), with employees averaging 6 hours per week spent in meetings. Managers invest even more time in meetings, with averages around 23 hours per week (for an overview, see Lehmann-Willenbrock et al., 2018). These figures demonstrate the vast amount of organizational resources (e.g., employee time, salaries) that go into meetings, with organizations devoting between 7% and 15% of their personnel budgets to meetings (Doyle & Straus, 1993;Rogelberg, 2019). ...
Meeting lateness—that is, meetings starting past the pre-scheduled time—can be viewed as a disruption to the temporal pacing of work. Previous research in the United States indicates that late meetings produce less optimal outcomes, but empirical insights concerning the extent to which experiences of meeting lateness are similar or different across different cultures remain sparse. While prior work suggests differences in how individuals from different cultures experience time-related phenomena, globalization trends suggest increasing similarities in employees’ work experiences, and potentially similar experiences of meeting lateness across different cultural settings. We explore this idea in a cross-cultural study of meeting lateness in China, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States. We empirically establish the cross-cultural relevance of meeting lateness and their generally negative outcome. We show how meeting lateness relates to perceptions of impaired meeting processes, meeting outcomes, and group-related attitudes across cultures. We discuss these findings in light of extending meeting science to different cultures as well as contributions to the debate between cross-cultural differences versus globalization tendencies.
... Managers have attracted particular attention in that regard, as their position of formal power allows them to shape meeting agendas and enforce decisions. Furthermore, they attend numerous meetings, with Lehmann-Willenbrock et al. (2018) reporting that managers spend up to 80% of their working hours in meetings. Using formal power to guide meetings is, however, not the same as enacting leadership, which is defined as the exhibition of a goal-directed social influence process that requires the acceptance of employees, who are supposed to follow (Antonakis, 2018). ...
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In this conceptual paper, we define a person's meeting mindset as the individual belief that meetings represent opportunities to realize goals falling into one of three categories: personal, relational, and collective. We propose that in alignment with their respective meeting mindsets, managers use specific leadership claiming behaviors in team meetings and express these behaviors in alignment with the meeting setting (virtual or face-to-face) and their prior experiences with their employees. Employees’ responses, however, are also influenced by their meeting mindsets, the meeting setting, and prior experiences with their managers. The interplay between managers’ leadership claiming behavior and their employees’ responses shapes leader–follower relations. Embedded in the team context, the emerging leader–follower relations impact the meaning of meetings. We outline match/mismatch combinations of manager–employee meeting mindsets and discuss the influence that a manager and employee can have on each other's meeting mindset through their behavior in a meeting.
... This might be typical for think tank meetings but cannot necessarily be generalized to agile meetings. The fact that the think tank groups do not share typical team characteristics such as shared office spaces or frequent interaction (e.g., Lehmann-Willenbrock et al., 2018) reduces the generalizability for team research. In addition, further research could focus on diversity among meeting members. ...
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This article offers initial theorizing on an understudied phenomenon in the workplace: the meeting after the meeting (MATM). As an informal and unscheduled event, the MATM takes place outside managerial control and has potentially far-reaching consequences. However, our current knowledge of the MATM relies primarily on practitioner observations, and conceptual work that integrates the MATM into the larger meeting science literature is missing. This article fills this gap by outlining key defining features of the MATM that can be used to structure future research. Moreover, and based on theorizing concerning the affect-generating nature of meetings, we develop an affect-based process model that focuses on the antecedents and boundary conditions of the MATM at the episodic level and shines light on meetings as a sequential phenomenon. Plain Language Summary This article sheds light on an understudied but rather common phenomenon in the workplace: The meeting after the meeting (MATM). Defined as an unscheduled, informal and confidential communication event, the MATM has the potential to create new structures in everyday organizational life. Yet, our current knowledge of this particular meeting type is very limited and largely based on anecdotal accounts by practitioners. To guide future research, this article first outlines key features of the MATM, focusing on when the MATM occurs, where it takes place, how it takes place, why it takes place, and who is involved in the MATM. Next, this article presents an affect-based process model of the MATM. To this end, antecedents and boundary conditions at the episodic level are outlined, highlighting that meetings should be seen as interconnected, sequential events.
In diesem Kapitel wird die große Bedeutung hochrangiger Meetings für das Gelingen der Matrix begründet. Hochrangige Meetings sind nicht zuletzt deshalb erforderlich, weil in matrixstrukturierten Unternehmen typischerweise stark ausgeprägte funktionsbereichs-, produktbereichs- und regionenübergreifende Interdependenzen vorliegen. Verschiedene Arten derartiger Meetings werden besprochen.
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This article in the journal Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. (GIO) presents a study on meetings, an important part of contemporary organizational life. What happens in meetings affects individual employee experiences, team processes, and organizational functioning. However, to date little is known regarding cross-cultural differences in meeting practices. This study leverages an organizational sample (N = 488) with a German and a Spanish site to compare how pre-meeting talk, meeting design, voice in meetings, and meeting follow-up actions differ across the two cultures. Hypotheses were derived from prior intercultural theory (i.e., the GLOBE study). Following Open Science principles, the study was pre-registered. Contrary to our expectations, we found no significant differences in meeting practices between monocultural German and Spanish workplace meetings. These findings suggest that cultural differences in workplace attitudes and work practices may be diminishing in an increasingly global workplace. We sketch implications for meeting science and cross-cultural research on business practices more broadly.
Organizations without healthy dissent stagnate from myopic thinking. Previous research has examined how employees might dissent to supervisors or coworkers, but little research has focused on how dissent might be expressed to multiple audiences simultaneously. Dissent conversations might happen only once or might be repeated over time, but the ways in which dissent processes unfold over time has also been neglected in past research. The present study examined biweekly meetings in the fundraising department of a nonprofit organization for 2 years to explore organizational dissent across time and to reveal possible nuances in the ways in which dissenters express disagreement. Results revealed several dissent topics repeated during the data collection period with mixed results—some of these topics were resolved whereas others were not. Two dissent conversations emerged as particularly meaningful events in the history of the department. At the same time, these data illustrated dissent expressed to multiple audiences (a single dissenter simultaneously talking to a supervisor and multiple coworkers) and dissent expressed by multiple dissenters. These forms of collective dissent extend previous models of organizational dissent that typically conceptualize a conversation between a single dissenter and a single dissent audience.
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Extensive research and theory has focused on organizational innovation and the organizational factors that influence that innovation. Research on teams has highlighted a similar set of factors as important for team innovation. However, these literatures have not provided a clear picture of the key factors that influence the collaborative idea exchange processes that occur in teams and organizations. The literature on collaborative ideation has provides a useful theoretical and empirical basis for understanding these processes and the conditions required for optimizing creativity in group interactions. We provide the theoretical and empirical basis for a pragmatic approach to enhancing collaborative innovation processes in various organizational settings and highlight additional research needs and future directions.
Meeting science has advanced significantly in its short history. However, one-on-one (1:1) meetings have not been studied empirically as a focal topic despite making up nearly half of all workplace meetings. While some meeting science insights may apply to 1:1 meetings, others may not (or may function differently) due to conceptual, theoretical, and practical differences between meetings involving dyads and groups. Although 1:1 meetings come in various forms (e.g., peer-to-peer, employee-to-customer), we chose to use manager-direct report 1:1 meetings as an exemplar given their prevalence, theoretical relevance, and practical implications. In this paper, we first review some conceptual differences between dyads and groups. We then discuss how these differences likely manifest in the meeting context (before, during, and after meetings), and outline related propositions. Last, we leverage this conceptual framework and subsequent propositions to provide guidance for future research and theory on 1:1 meetings. In doing so, we hope this paper will act as the impetus for research and theory development on 1:1 meetings. Plain Language Summary Meeting science has flourished over the past two decades, with research and theory exploring best practices for leading and attending workplace meetings. However, a large portion of this research has focused on meetings of three or more people – despite the fact that meetings are often defined as a gathering between two or more people. Ignoring the one-on-one (1:1) meeting is a missed opportunity, as 1:1 meetings have a large presence in industry. It has been estimated that nearly half (47%) of all meetings are 1:1s, and these dyadic meetings often have unique purposes (e.g., performance appraisals) and involve different interactions (e.g., more interpersonal) outside of larger group meetings. Industry and practice have begun to explore these 1:1 meeting-especially meetings between managers and direct reports. For example, internal studies conducted at Microsoft and Cisco found that direct reports who had more frequent and effectively run 1:1 meetings with their managers were more engaged than their counterparts. While companies have seemingly acknowledged the importance of these meetings, research lags behind. Little empirical or theoretical investigations have explored 1:1 meetings. Yet, with the continued growth in the number of meetings worldwide, it is important to obtain empirical insights specific to 1:1 meetings. Doing so will help inform best practices when it comes to leading and attending 1:1 meetings. Thus, in this conceptual review of 1:1 meetings, we provide a future research agenda encouraging researchers (and practitioners) to investigate this unique (and important) meeting type – the one-on-one meeting between a manager and their direct report.
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Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor-performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter during 54 regular organizational team meetings. Performance ratings were obtained immediately following the team meetings as well as at a later time point from the teams' supervisors. At the behavioral unit level within the team interaction process, lag sequential analysis identified humor and laughter patterns occurring above chance (e.g., a joke followed by laughter, followed by another joke). Moreover, humor patterns triggered positive socioemotional communication, procedural structure, and new solutions. At the team level, humor patterns (but not humor or laughter alone) positively related to team performance, both immediately and 2 years later. Team-level job insecurity climate was identified as a boundary condition: In low job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns were positively related to performance, whereas in high job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns did not relate to team performance. The role of job insecurity as a boundary condition persisted at both time points. These findings underscore the importance of studying team interactions for understanding the role of humor in organizations and considering team-level boundary conditions over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study follows the idea that the key to understanding team meeting effectiveness lies in uncovering the microlevel interaction processes throughout the meeting. Ninety-two regular team meetings were videotaped. Interaction data were coded and evaluated with the act4teams coding scheme and INTERACT software. Team and organizational success variables were gathered via questionnaires and telephone interviews. The results support the central function of interaction processes as posited in the traditional input-process-output model. Teams that showed more functional interaction, such as problem-solving interaction and action planning, were significantly more satisfied with their meetings. Better meetings were associated with higher team productivity. Moreover, constructive meeting interaction processes were related to organizational success 2.5 years after the meeting. Dysfunctional communication, such as criticizing others or complaining, showed significant negative relationships with these outcomes. These negative effects were even more pronounced than the positive effects of functional team meeting interaction. The results suggest that team meeting processes shape both team and organizational outcomes. The critical meeting behaviors identified here provide hints for group researchers and practitioners alike who aim to improve meeting success.
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Using an interruptions framework, this article proposes and tests a set of hypotheses concerning the relationship of meeting time demands with job attitudes and well-being (JAWB). Two Internet surveys were administered to employees who worked 35 hr or more per week. Study 1 examined prescheduled meetings attended in a typical week (N=676), whereas Study 2 investigated prescheduled meetings attended during the current day (N=304). As proposed, the relationship between meeting time demands and JAWB was moderated by task interdependence, meeting experience quality, and accomplishment striving. However, results were somewhat dependent on the time frame of a study and the operational definition used for meeting time demands. Furthermore, perceived meeting effectiveness was found to have a strong, direct relationship with JAWB.
Associate Professor, of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 15919, 1001 NK Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Nale Lehmann-Willenbrock
Nale Lehmann-Willenbrock (Associate Professor, of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 15919, 1001 NK Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Email:
Rogelberg (Chancellor's Professor; Professor of Organizational Science, Psychology, and Management
  • G Steven
Steven G. Rogelberg (Chancellor's Professor; Professor of Organizational Science, Psychology, and Management, University of North Carolina-Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223. Email:
Associate Professor of Industrial/Organizational Psychology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 6001 Dodge Street
  • Joseph A Allen
Joseph A. Allen (Associate Professor of Industrial/Organizational Psychology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68182-0274. Email:
Professor of Psychology, Davidson College
  • E John
  • Kello
John E. Kello (Professor of Psychology, Davidson College, Box 6968, Davidson, NC 28035.
blog/ fresh-look-number-effectiveness-cost-meetings-in-us. For sample studies on the effects of meetings on employee attitudes and wellbeing, see Allen
  • J A Allen
  • N Lehmann-Willenbrock
  • S G Rogelberg
Allen, J. A., Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., & Rogelberg, S. G. (2015). The Cambridge Handbook of Meeting Science. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. For the prevalence of meetings in contemporary organizations and different purposes of meetings, see Van Vree, W. (2011). Meetings: the frontline of civilization. The Sociological Review, 59, 241-262. For statistics on the prevalence and effectiveness of meetings in U.S. organizations, see http://blog. fresh-look-number-effectiveness-cost-meetings-in-us. For sample studies on the effects of meetings on employee attitudes and wellbeing, see Allen, J. A., & Rogelberg, S. G. (2013). Manager-led group meetings: a context for promoting employee engagement. Group & Organization Management, 38, 534-569;
Meetings in Organizations: Do They Contribute to Stakeholder Value and Personal Meaning
  • I S G Ravn
  • L R Shanock
  • C W Scott
Ravn, I. (2007). Meetings in Organizations: Do They Contribute to Stakeholder Value and Personal Meaning. Philadelphia, PA, USA: The Academy of Management. For meetings as an ROI opportunity, see Rogelberg, S. G., Shanock, L. R., & Scott, C. W. (2012). Wasted time and money in meetings: Increasing return on investment. Small Group Research, 43, 236-245. For the origin of meeting science, see Schwartzman, H. B. (1986). The meeting as a neglected social form in organizational studies. Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, 233-258.