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Abstract

Purpose The purpose of this work is to establish a suitable procedure for producing antimicrobial 100% cotton textiles using Zinc Pyrithione. Zinc Pyrithione being bacteriostatic in nature is eco friendly and safe, both for manufacturer to apply and consumer to use. The antimicrobial textiles are in great demand in Asia-Pacific region and have already touched exports of USD 497.4 Million in 2015 and is projected to reach USD 1,076.1 Million by 2026. Any exporting textile mills, can increase their export earnings by producing antimicrobial textiles. Design/methodology/approach After conducting laboratory trials, bulk trial has also been conducted and efficacy of Zinc Pyrithione as bacteriostatic has been quantitatively determined. The durability of antimicrobial finish was also checked before & after repeated domestic laundry. Findings The findings indicated that it is possible to produce durable antimicrobial 100% cotton textiles in bulk using Zinc Pyrithione. Research limitations/implications Any exporting texile processing mill can directly use the findings of this work and can produce antimicrobial textiles in their factory. Practical implications Any exporting textile mills, can increase their export earnings by producing antimicrobial textiles. The antimicrobial textiles are in great demand in Asia-Pacific region and have already touched exports of USD 497.4 Million in 2015 and is projected to reach USD 1,076.1 Million by 2026 Originality/value The work is original. Very few references are available on Zinc Pyrithione. Firstly, laboratory studies were done and bacteriostatic properties of Zinc Pyrithione was determined quantitatively followed by bulk trial.
Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
Development of antimicrobial textiles using zinc pyrithione
Anil Kumar Jain, Addisu Ferede Tesema,
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To cite this document:
Anil Kumar Jain, Addisu Ferede Tesema, (2017) "Development of antimicrobial textiles using
zinc pyrithione", Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, Vol. 21 Issue: 3, pp.188-202, https://
doi.org/10.1108/RJTA-06-2017-0031
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Development of antimicrobial
textiles using zinc pyrithione
Anil Kumar Jain and Addisu Ferede Tesema
Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology,
Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Abstract
Purpose The purpose of this paperis to establish a suitable procedure for producing antimicrobial 100 per
cent cotton textiles using zinc pyrithione. Zinc pyrithione being bacteriostatic in nature is eco-friendly and
safe, both for manufacturer to apply and consumer to use.
Design/methodology/approach After conducting laboratory trials, bulk trial has also been
conducted, and efcacy of zinc pyrithione as bacteriostatic has been quantitatively determined. The
durability of antimicrobial nish was also checked before and after repeated domestic laundry.
Findings The ndings indicated that it is possible to produce durable antimicrobial 100 per cent cotton
textiles in bulk using zinc pyrithione.
Research limitations/implications Any exporting textile processing mill can directly use the
ndings of this work andcan produce antimicrobial textiles in their factory.
Practical implications Any exporting textile mill can increase their export earnings by producing
antimicrobial textiles. The antimicrobial textiles are in great demand in Asia-Pacic region and have already
touched exports of US$497.4m in 2015 and is projected to reach US$1,076.1m by 2026.
Social implications The textile user can get protection against pathogenic or odour-causing
microorganisms using this hygiene nish in different end uses.
Originality/value The work is original. Very few references are available on zinc pyrithione. First,
laboratory studies were done, and bacteriostatic properties of zinc pyrithione were determined quantitatively
followed by bulk trial.
Keywords Textiles, Antibacterial, Antimicrobial, Bacteriostatic, Zinc pyrithione
Paper type Technical paper
1. Introduction
The microorganisms growth on textiles causes a range of undesirable effects, not only on the
textile itself but also on the user. These effects include the generation of unpleasant odor,
reduction in mechanical strength, stains and discoloration and an increased likelihood of user
contamination (Shahidi and Wiener, 2012). Therefore, due to the growing public health
awareness of the pathogenic effects, over the past few years, intensive research and
development have been promoted to minimise or even eliminate microbes growth on textiles.
This microbial contamination is a great concern, mainly for textiles used not only in hospitals
as medical devices or for health and hygienic care but also in sports clothing, water
purication systems, animal feed and the food industry. The infections acquired in hospitals
may be caused by several species, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
Two different aspects of antimicrobial protection provided by chemical nishes can be
distinguished. The rst is the protection of the textile user against pathogenic or odour-
causing microorganisms (hygiene nishes). The second aspect is the protection of the textile
itself from damage caused by mould, mildew or rot producing microorganisms (Vigo,1983,
1994). The growth of microorganisms on textiles can lead to functional, hygienic and
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Received 20 June2017
Accepted 5 July 2017
Research Journal of Textile and
Apparel
Vol. 21 No. 3, 2017
pp. 188-202
© Emerald Publishing Limited
1560-6074
DOI 10.1108/RJTA-06-2017-0031
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
www.emeraldinsight.com/1560-6074.htm
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aesthetic difculties (for example staining). The most trouble-causing organisms are fungi
and bacteria (Schindler and Hauser, 2004). Under very moist condition, algae can also grow
on textiles and are troublesome because they act as nutrient sources for fungi and bacteria.
Fungi cause multiple problems to textiles including discoloration, coloured stains and bre
damage. Bacteria are not as damaging to bres but can lead to bre damage, unpleasant
odours and a slick, slimy feel (Schindler and Hauser, 2004). Often, fungi and bacteria are
both present on the fabric in a symbiotic relationship. Substances added to bres, such as
lubricants, antistats, natural-based auxiliaries (for example size, thickener and hand
modiers) and dirt provide a food source for microorganisms. Synthetic bres too are not
totally immune to microorganisms, for example polyurethane bres and coatings can be
damaged (Dring, 2003;Rajan, 1999). Natural bres are more easily attacked. Wool is more
likely to suffer bacterial attack than cotton, and cotton is more likely than wool to be
attacked by fungi.
Antimicrobial nishes are particularly important for industrial fabrics that are exposed
to weather. Fabrics used for awnings, screens, tents, tarpaulins, ropes, etc., need protection
from rotting and mildew. Home furnishings such as carpeting, shower curtains, mattress
ticking and upholstery also frequently receive antimicrobial nishes. Fabrics and protective
clothing used in areas where there might be danger of infection from pathogens can benet
from antimicrobial nishing. These include hospitals, nursing homes, schools, hotels and
crowded public areas. Textiles in museums are often treated with antimicrobial nishes.
Sized fabrics that are to be stored or shipped under conditions of high temperature
(40°C or 100°F) and humidity require an antimicrobial nish to retard or prevent
microbial growth fuelled by the presence of warp size. Textiles left wet between
processing steps for an extended time oftenalsoneedanantimicrobialtreatment
(Schindler and Hauser, 2004).
The use of antimicrobial nishes to prevent unpleasant odours on intimate apparel,
underwear, socks and athletic wear is an important market need. The odours are produced
by the bacterial decomposition of sweat and other body uids, and controlling bacterial
growth by hygiene nishes reduces or eliminates the problem.
1.1 Properties of an eective antimicrobial nish
Due to their large surface area and ability to retain moisture, textiles are known as being
conducive to microorganisms growth, such as bacteria and fungi, which can be found
almost everywhere and are able to quickly multiply, depending on the moisture, nutrients
and temperature levels (Gao and Cranston, 2008). Some bacteria populations may double
every 20-30 min under ideal conditions (36-40°C, pH 5-9), meaning that one single bacteria
cell can increase to 1,048,576 cells in just 7 h (Zanoaga and Tanasa, 2014). Therefore,
antimicrobial nishes must be quick acting to be effective. In addition to being fast acting,
the antimicrobial must kill or stop the growth of microbes and must maintain this property
through multiple cleaning cycles or outdoor exposure. The antimicrobial must be safe for
the manufacturer to apply and the consumer to wear. The nish must meet strict
government regulations and have a minimal environmental impact. The antimicrobial nish
must be easily applied at the textile mill, should be compatible with other nishing agents,
have little, if any, adverse effects on other fabric properties including wear comfort and
should be of low cost.
1.2 Mechanisms of antimicrobial nishes
Most of the antimicrobial agents used in commercial textiles are biocides acting in different
ways according to their chemical and structural nature and afnity level to certain target
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sites within microbial cells. Those different modes of action may be (Glazer and Nikaido,
2007):
damage or inhibition of cell wall synthesis, which is critical for the life and survival
of bacterial species;
inhibition of cell membrane function, which is an important barrier that regulates
the intra- and extra-cellular ow of substances, could result in the leakage of vital
solutes for the cells survival;
inhibition of protein synthesis, which is the basis of cell enzymes and structures,
consequently leading to the death of the organism or the inhibition of its growth and
multiplication;
inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis (DNA and RNA) due to the binding of some
antimicrobial agents to components involved in the process of DNA or RNA
synthesis; this inhibition interferes with normal cellular processes, compromising
microbesmultiplication and survival; and
inhibition of other metabolic processes, for instance, the disruption of the folic acid
pathway, which is essential for bacteria to produce precursors important for DNA
synthesis.
Despite the long list of requirements, a variety of chemical nishes have been used to
produce textiles with demonstrable antimicrobial properties. These products can be divided
into two types based on the mode of attack on microbes. One type consists of chemicals that
can be considered to operate by a controlled-release mechanism. The antimicrobial is slowly
released from a reservoir either on the fabric surface or in the interior of the bre. This
leachingtype of antimicrobial can be very effective against microbes on the bre surface
or in the surrounding environment. However, eventually, the reservoir will be depleted and
the nish will no longer be effective. In addition, the antimicrobial that is released to the
environment may interfere with other desirable microbes, such as those present in waste
treatment facilities (Schindler and Hauser, 2004).
The second type of antimicrobial nish consists of molecules that are chemically bound
to bre surfaces. These products can control only those microbes that are present on the
bre surface, not in the surrounding environment. Boundantimicrobials, because of their
attachment to the bre, can potentially be abraded away or become deactivated and lose
long-term durability. Antimicrobial nishes that control the growth and spread of microbes
are more properly called bio stats, i.e. bacteriostats and fungistats. Products that actually
kill microbes are biocides, i.e. bacteriocides and fungicides. This distinction is important
when dealing with governmental regulations, as biocides are strongly controlled. Textiles
with biostatic properties, however, are subject to fewer regulations (Schindler and Hauser,
2004).
The actual mechanisms by which antimicrobial nishes control microbial growth are
extremely varied, ranging from preventing cell reproduction, blocking of enzymes, reaction
with the cell membrane (for example with silver ions) to the destruction of the cell walls and
poisoning the cell from within (Dring, 2003;Rajan, 1999). An understanding of these
mechanisms, although important for microbiologists, is not really a requirement for the
textile chemist who applies and evaluates the effectiveness of antimicrobial nishes.
1.3 Chemistry of antimicrobial nishes
1.3.1 Antimicrobials for controlled release. Many antimicrobial products that were formerly
used with textiles are now strictly regulated because of their toxicity and potential for
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environmental damage. Products such as copper naphthenate, copper-8-quinolinate and
numerous organo mercury compounds fall into this category. Other materials that still have
limited use in specialised areas include tributyl tin oxide, dichlorophene and
3-iodopropynylbutyl carbamate. These products typically show a very broad spectrum of
activity against bacteria and fungi, but suffer from application and durability problems.
Some more useful products of this same general type include benzimidazol derivatives,
salicylanilides and alkylolamide salts of undecylenic acid (particularly effective against
fungi). Application of these materials with resin precondensates can improve durability to
laundering; deactivation by reaction with the resin may also occur.
A widely used biocide and preservation product is formaldehyde. Solutions of
formaldehyde in water, called formalin, were used for disinfection and conservation, for
example, of biological samples for display. Bound formaldehyde is released in small
amounts from common easy-care and durable press nishes. Therefore, these nishes
include at least until they are washed a small antimicrobial side effect. This can also be
true for some quaternary compounds, for example, wet fastness improvers and softeners.
But for more effective requirements, specic antimicrobial nishes are necessary (Schindler
and Hauser, 2004).
One of the most widely used antimicrobial products today is 2,4,4-trichloro-2-
hydroxydiphenyl ether, known more commonly as triclosan. Triclosan nds extensive use
in mouthwashes, toothpastes, liquid hand soaps, deodorant products and the like. Although
it is effective against most bacteria, it has poor antifungal properties. Triclosan is also
important as a textile nish, but as its water solubility is very low, aqueous application
requires use of dispersing agents and binders.
Quaternary ammonium salts have been found to be effective antibacterial agents in
cleaning products and for disinfecting swimming pools and hot tubs. However, their high
degree of water solubility limits their use astextile nishes.
Research into controlled-release antimicrobials continues with organo-silver compounds
and silver zeolites, which are promising candidates for textile nishes. Silver ions, for
example, incorporated in glass ceramic have a very low toxicity prole and excellent heat
stability (Dring, 2003;Rajan, 1999). These principles are also used for bre modication, an
alternative to the antimicrobial nishes with high permanence (Kawata, 1998).
In recent years, a variety of antimicrobial modied bres have been developed, including
polyester, nylon, polypropylene and acrylic types. An example of these bre modications is
the incorporation of 0.5-2 per cent of organic nitro compounds (for example based on 5-
nitrofurfural) before primary wet or dry spinning.
Regenerated cellulosics can be modied with carboxylic or sulfonic acid groups, followed
by immersing in a solution of cationic antimicrobials which are then xed to the cellulose by
salt bonds. A novel approach to the controlled release of antimicrobials is
microencapsulation. These capsules are incorporated either in the bre during primary
spinning or in coatings on the fabric surface.
1.3.2 Bound antimicrobials. Several antimicrobial nishes that function at bre surfaces
have been commercialised. One popular product is based on octadecylaminodimethyl
trimethoxysilylpropylammonium chloride. This material can be applied by either exhaust or
continuous methods. After application, a curing step is required to form a siloxane polymer
coatingonthebre surface. This coating immobilises the antimicrobial part of the molecule (the
quaternary nitrogen) and provides the necessary durability to laundering. Another bound nish
has been developed with polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB). PHMB can also be either pad or
exhaust applied. This chemical has the proper molecular structure to bind tightly to bre
surfaces, yet still be an effective antimicrobial. The antimicrobial effect of cationically charged
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materials is thought to involve interaction of the cationic molecule with anionic phospholipids in
the microbes cell walls. This interaction is believed to increase the permeability of the cell walls to
the point of cell death (Schindler and Hauser, 2004).
A new and novel approach to bound antimicrobials was recently introduced. Cotton
reacted with methylol-5,5-dimethyldyantoin is then treated with hypochlorite to form
chloramines in the bre. These chloramine sites have antibacterial activity and can function
as renewable antimicrobial agents by continued treatment with hypochlorite through
household bleaching and washing after reacting with bacteria. Problems with using higher
concentrations of chloramines include yellowing with heat (for example ironing) and
cellulose bre damage especially signicant strength loss, caused by oxy- and
hydrocellulose (generated by hypochlorous acid).
Another novel approach is the application of chitosan. This modied biopolymer is
manufactured from inexpensive natural waste. Chitin from crustacean shells (e.g. from
crabs) is converted to chitosan by alkaline treatment. Chitin is an analogue of cellulose with
N-acetyl groups insteadof hydroxy groups in Position 2.
Alkali splits most of them (75-95 per cent), generating free amino groups that provide
fungistatic and bacterostatic effects. This mild antimicrobial activity may be amplied by
methylation of the amino groups to quaternary trimethylammonium structures. Chitosan
can be applied by microencapsulation or by reactive bonding to cellulose and by cross-
linking of chitosan. The advantages of the antimicrobial nish with chitosan include high
absorbency properties, moisture control, promotion of wound healing, non-allergenic, non-
toxic and biodegradable properties (Knittel and Schollmeyer, 1988).
1.4 Antimicrobial textiles by the incorporation of antimicrobial agents in bres
Another approach to develop textiles with an antimicrobial ability is by the incorporation of
the antimicrobial agents into the polymeric matrix of the textile bres.
The agents may be incorporated into the polymeric granules prior to the production or
just added to the chamber during the extrusion or electro spinning process (Shahidi and
Wiener, 2012). The sub-micron range of bres produced by electro spinning reveals several
advantages, such as a high surface area to volume ratio, adjustable porosity and the ability
to manipulate the nano bre composition to obtain the desired properties (Gao and Cranston,
2008).
The direct addition of the biocide agent into the polymers has received considerable
attention, especially when using thermoplastic matrices. The main advantage of this method
is that it may be easily implemented in the standard and large-scale processing units already
designed to prepare particulate-lled polymer composites, which are extensively used in the
textile industry. Besides that, when using a low agent content, the resulting mechanical
properties of the modied bres are similar to the unmodied ones. The main disadvantage
of this method is the lower antimicrobial power due to the restricted diffusion of the
antimicrobial agent molecules through the polymeric matrix. Most of the incorporated agent
gets trapped in the matrix, not being available to interact with microorganisms and to
perform its biocide or bacteriostatic function. However, the agentsincorporation may
provide better durability, as the agent is physically withheld in the polymeric matrix,
promoting a slowerrelease during use (Shahidi and Wiener, 2012).
However, this agents incorporation on textile bres may only be used for some synthetic
polymers due to the high standard processing temperature used in an extrusion process. In
addition, it is also necessary to carefully select the antimicrobial agent regarding its
temperature stability. Therefore, metallic particles or even nano particles are the most used
agents in this method, as they do not present degradation when submitted to the standard
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processing conditions of thermoplastic polymers. There are also some products available on
the market in the form of bres or fabrics based on natural bres possessing an intrinsic
antimicrobial ability, such as Chitopoly® and Crabyon
®
, which are based on chitosan and
cellulose bres. However, the biocide and bacteriostatic action of these kinds of products is
less efcient than the ones that use the most conventional antimicrobial agents presented in
this review.
1.5 Zinc pyrithione as antimicrobial
The antimicrobial chemical used in this work is bacteriostatic and prevents the growth of
bacteria on the treated textile. Unpleasant smells due to, for example, decomposition
products formed by the transformation of body perspiration are effectively prevented, for
example, in sportswear, underwear, active wear, outdoor clothing, socks and stockings, etc.
This nish is hygienic for mattress ticking, upholstery, carpets, bed linen and curtains. It
increases shelf life of textiles like wipes, shoe materials, awnings, etc., by preventing their
damaging by bacteria and fungi.
This chemical is effective whether on socks which have to be washed often or on a lter
nonwoven with a long service life. The product is active over long periods and survives a lot
of wash cycles. Tests conrmed a very good bacteriostatic effect even after 20 washing
processes.
This chemical is well skin-compatible and is eco safe. The chemical structure of zinc
pyrithione is presented in Scheme 1 (Morris and Wech,1984, 2016).
The fabric treated by this process has high bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity and
retains antimicrobial properties after repeated laundering.
2. Materials and methods
2.1 Materials
The fabric used for experimentation was 100 per cent dyed cotton with vinyl sulfone type of
reactive dyes, having 145 gsm, without any nishing agent.
The antimicrobial chemical used was zinc pyrithione, pre-solubilised in water.
2.2 Methods
2.2.1 Determination of percentage pick up. The percentage pick up of 100 per cent cotton
dyed fabric, at various pressure readings (2, 3, 4 and 5 bar) and at constant speed of 2.62
metres/min, was determined using two bowls vertical padding mangle, made by Mathis,
Switzerland.
The 100 per cent dyed cotton fabric was weighed before and after padding in water. The
difference in the weight of wet and dry fabric expressed as percentage of weight of dry
fabric gave the percentage pick up as per following formula:
Scheme 1.
Chemical structure of
zinc pyrithione
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WD
D100 ¼percent Pick up
where,
W = is the weight of wet fabric; and
D = is the weight of dry fabric.
2.2.2 Application of antimicrobial. 100 per cent cotton fabric was padded with 3, 6, 9 and 12
gms/litre zinc pyrithione aqueous solution at pH 5 to 6 maintained using 1 gm per litre acetic
acid. The following padding conditions were used to ensure 80 per cent pick up:
Mangle pressure: 4.5 bar
Speed: 2.62 metres/min
per cent Pick up = 80 per cent.
After padding, the treated fabric samples were dried in SDL Mini dryer at 135°C for 3 min.
2.2.3 Application of antimicrobial in bulk. The 100 per cent cotton fabric was treated with
zinc pyrithione on stenter using following conditions:
Zinc pyrithione = 12 g/l
Binder = 20 g/l.
Magnesium chloride = 1 g/l.
Acetic acid = 1 g/l.
Wetting agent = 1 g/l.
The fabric was padded with above solutions followed by drying at 175°C for 2 min.
2.2.4 Determination of bacteriostatic ecacy. The quantitative evaluation of
antimicrobial activity in four samples treated with various concentrations of antimicrobial
nished products was carried out by the JIS L 1902:2008 test method as given in Table I
(test variables).
Sample identication
C
24
= untreated control sample inoculated with bacteria for 24-h contact time.
3 g/l concentration treated sample inoculated with bacteria for 24-h contact time.
6 g/l concentration treated sample inoculated with bacteria for 24-h contact time.
9 g/l concentration treated sample inoculated with bacteria for 24-h contact time.
12 g/l concentration treated sample inoculated with bacteria for 24-h contact time.
2.2.5 Determination of permanency of bacteriostatic eect. To determine the permanency of
bacteriostatic effect, the cotton fabric treated with 12 gms/litre, zinc pyrithione
(antimicrobial) chemical was subjected to washing cycles 10 and 20 times using DIN EN ISO
Table I.
Test variables
Test organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli
Dilution medium used Tryptic soya broth (TSB)
Eluting medium used Sterile normal saline (0.85% NaCl)
Method of sterilisation (pre-cleaning) Autoclave, 121
°
C, 15 lbs, 15 minutes
Size of swatch per sample 0.4 g
Untreated control 24-h contact time
Treated samples 24-h contact time
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6330 standard for domestic laundry using launderometer made by Mesdan Lab, Italy under
following laundry conditions:
Washing temperature: 40°C
Washing time: 15 min.
Detergent used: EEC non-phosphate without optical brightening agent.
Detergent concentration: 1.25 g/l
M:L:R ratio: 1:20.
Drying temperature: 70°C.
Time: 10 min.
After each washing cycle, the fabric was rinsed thoroughly with tap water, squeezed and
dried at 70°C for 10 min.
After completing 10 and 20 washing cycles, the bacteriostatic efcacy test was done
using JIS L 1902:2008 test method.
2.2.6 Determination of colour fastness to washing. The colour fastness to washing of
both untreated and treated cotton fabric with 12 gms/litre zinc pyrithione (antimicrobial)
was tested using ISO-2 test using following conditions in launderometer supplied by
Mesdan Lab, Italy, and the washed samples were dried in an oven supplied by Mesdan, s.p.a
Italy, type M250-VF:
Temperature 50°C
Time 45 min.
Detergent 5 gms/litre (ECE non-phosphate, SDC reference detergent Type 2).
M:L:R ratio = 1:50.
Adjacent fabric used: SDC multi bre DW.
The change in colour and the staining on multi bre fabric was evaluated using AATCC
grey scale both for change in colour and staining, respectively.
2.2.7 Determination of colour fastness to crocking. The colour fastness to crocking of
both untreated and treated cotton fabric with 12 gms/litre zinc pyrithione (antimicrobial)
was tested using AATCC Test Method-8-2004, using Crock meter supplied by Mesdan Lab,
Italy. Both the fabric samples were subjected to ten rubs cycle with dry cotton and wet
cotton cloth, respectively, using Cotton Lawn Rubbing fabric supplied by SDC enterprise.
The staining on cotton rubbed fabric was evaluated using AATCC grey scale for staining.
2.2.8 Determination of colour fastness to perspiration. The colour fastness to
perspiration of both untreated and treated cotton fabric with 12 gms/litre zinc pyrithione
(antimicrobial) was tested, using ISO 105 EO4 1994 (acid and alkaline perspiration), using
Perspirometer supplied by Mesdan Lab, Electrical Heat Thermostatic Culture Box., Model
DH-4000B, Italy.
The samples of untreated and treated cotton fabric in contact with the standard SDC
multi-bre DW fabric (for colour staining) were immersed in simulated alkaline and acid
solution, drained and placed between two plates under a specic load, temperature and time
in the perspirometer. Any change in colour of the samples and staining of the multi bre
was then assessed with the corresponding grey scales for colour change and staining,
respectively.
2.2.9 Determination of colour fastness to light. The natural sunlight source was used for
determining the colour fastness towards light of both untreated and treated cotton fabric
with 12 gms/litre zinc pyrithione (antimicrobial) (Jinlian, 2008).
The light fastness rating system was based on the rate of fading of eight blue-dyed wool
standard samples which are rated from 1 (poor) to 8 (excellent). All the eight blue wool
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standard samples were exposed to natural sunlight source along with untreated and treated
cotton fabric. The light fastness rating was given comparing the fading of blue wool
standard number andtested samples placed parallel to blue wool standard.
2.2.10 Determination of tear strength. The tear strength of both untreated and treated
cotton fabric with 12 gms/litre zinc pyrithione (antimicrobial) was determined, using ASTM
D 1424 method, using SDL Atlas M008E Digital Elmendorf Tester.
2.2.11 Determination of tensile strength. The tensile strength of both untreated and
treated cotton fabric with 12 gms/litre zinc pyrithione (antimicrobial) was determined, using
ISO-13934/1-EN 13534/1, using Fabric Traction Strip method with Tenso Lab Strength
Tester, Mesdan Lab, Italy.
3. Results and discussions
3.1 Eect of mangle pressure on percentage pick up
The effect of mangle pressure on percentage pickup was determined at a mangle speed of
2.62 metres/min. The results are shown in Figure 1.
It can be seen from Figure 1 that with increase in pressure, percentage pick up reduces
and after 4 bar pressure, and reduction in percentage pick up slows down. A mangle
pressure of 4.5 bar was selected to get 80 per cent pickup on 100 per cent cotton.
3.2 Eect of zinc pyrithione (antimicrobial) on bacteriostatic property
The effect of zinc pyrithione (antimicrobial) on bacteriostatic property was studied by
determining the bacteria growth on untreated fabric as control fabric against treated fabrics
(3, 6, 9 and 12 gms/litre) using JIS L 1902:2008 test method.
The results are given below.
In Table II, records of the colony forming unit (CFU) values at platesof different dilutions
that was used to determine the bacterial counts per sample of swatches using Staphylococcus
aureus are given.
Figure 1.
Relation between
mangle pressure and
percentage pick up
Table II.
CFU values against
Staphylococcus
aureus
Sample 10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
CFU/sample
C
24
TNT TNT TNT TNT TNT 175 1.75 10
10
3 TNT TNT TNT TNT 221 200 2.21 10
9
6 TNT TNT TNT 160 3 0 1.6 10
8
9 TNT TNT 125 10 0 0 1.25 10
7
12 TNT TNT 65 4 0 0 6.5 10
6
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where:
CFU = colony forming units per test sample;
TNT = too numerous to count; and
CFU/sample = CFU were counted ranging between 25 and 250 at minimum dilution to
ensure accuracy of results.
ItcanbeseenfromTable II that number of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from
untreated control sample after 24-h contact time (C
24
) was 1.75 10
10
CFU/sample.
However, the number of Staphylococcus aureus recovered in treated fabric at
concentrations of 3, 6, 9 and 12 gms/litre show reducing trend with increase in
concentration of zinc pyrithione.
The percentage reduction in bacteria was calculated using following formula:
Calculation of percentage reduction of bacteria in treatedspecimen:
100 C A
ðÞ
=C¼R
where:
R = per cent reduction;
A = the number of bacteria recovered from the inoculated treated test specimen incubated
over the 24 hour contact period; and
C = the number of bacteria recovered from the inoculated untreated control specimen
incubated over the 24-h contact period.
It can be seen from Table III, that even at 6 gms/litre concentration of zinc pyrithione,
99 per cent reduction in Staphylococcus aureus bacteria growth has been achieved.
It can be seen from Table IV, that average number of Escherichia coli recovered from
untreated control sample after 24-h contact time (C
24
)was 1.72 10
10
CFU/sample.
However, the number of Escherichia coli recovered in treated fabric at concentrations of 3,
6, 9 and 12 gms/litre show reducing trend with increase in concentration of zinc
pyrithione.
Table III.
Percentage reduction
of Staphylococcus
aureus (Gram-
positive bacteria)
Sample
Recovered bacteria after 24-h contact
time (CFU/sample)
% reduction in bacteria compared to C
24
(untreated fabric),
(bacteriostatic effect)
C
24
1.75 10
10
32.21 10
9
87.37
61.6 10
8
99.08
91.25 10
7
99.93
12 6.5 10
6
99.96
Table IV
CFU against using
Escherichia coli
Sample 10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
CFU/sample
C
24
TNT TNT TNT TNT 1,100 172 1.72 10
10
3 TNT TNT 135 7 4 1 1.35 10
7
6 TNT TNT 52 7 0 0 5.2 10
6
9 TNT 520 26 0 0 0 2.6 10
6
12 167 0 0 0 0 0 1.67 10
5
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It can be seen from Table V that even at 3 gms/litre concentration of zinc pyrithione,
above 99 per cent reduction in Escherichia coli bacteria growth has been achieved.
3.3 After wash samples
It can be seen from Table VI, that average number of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from
untreated control sample after 24-h contact time (C
24
)was 2.1 10
10
CFU/sample.
However, the number of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from 12 gms/litre treated sample,
after ten washes were 6.1 10
9
CFU/sample.
It can be seen from Table VII, that after ten domestic washing cycles, the percentage
reduction in growth of Staphylococcus aureus was 70.95 per cent with 12 gms/litre treated
sample.
It can be seen from Table VIII, that average number of Escherichia coli recovered from
untreated control sample after 24-h contact time (C
24
)was 1.72 10
10
CFU/sample.
However, the number of Escherichia coli recovered from 12 gms/litre treated sample, after
ten washes were 6.5 10
9
CFU/sample.
Table VIII.
CFU values against
Escherichia coli
Sample 10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
CFU/sample
C
24
TNT TNT TNT TNT 1100 172 1.72 10
10
12 (10 washes) TNT TNT TNT TNT 856 65 6.5 10
9
Table VII.
Percentage reduction
of Staphylococcus
aureus (Gram-
positive bacteria)
Sample
Recovered bacteria after 24-h contact
time (CFU/sample)
% reduction in bacteria compared to C
24
(untreated
fabric) (bacteriostatic effect)
C
24
2.1 10
10
12 (10
washes)
6.1 10
9
70.95
Table VI.
CFU values against
Staphylococcus
aureus
Sample
Staphylococcus aureus
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
CFU/sample
C
24
TNT TNT TNT TNT TNT 210 2.1 10
10
12 (10 washes) TNT TNT TNT TNT 600 61 6.1 10
9
Table V.
Percentage reduction
of Escherichia coli
(Gram-negative
bacteria)
Sample
Recovered bacteria after 24-h contact
time (CFU/sample)
% reduction in bacteria compared to C
24
(untreated fabric),
(bacteriostatic effect)
C
24
1.72 10
10
31.35 10
7
99.92
65.2 10
6
99.97
92.6 10
6
99.98
12 1.67 10
5
99.99
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It can be seen from Table IX that after ten domestic washing cycles, the percentage
reductioningrowthofEscherichia coli was 62.2 per cent with 12 gms/litre treated
sample.
In both the cases (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), the reduction in
bacteriostatic efcacy was observed after ten domestic washing cycles, indicating that the
bacteriostatic effect is semi-durable.
3.4 Bulk treated cotton fabric with zinc pyrithione and binder
It can be seen from Table X, that average number of Staphylococcus aureus recovered
from untreated control sample after 24-h contact time (C
24
)was 2.46 10
9
CFU/
sample. However, the number of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from 12 gms/litre
treated bulk sample (unwashed) was 1.71 10
8
and after 20 washes were 5.6 10
8
CFU/sample.
It can be seen from Table XI, that the percentage reduction in growth of Staphylococcus
aureus was above 93 per cent with 12 gms/litre treated bulk sample (unwashed) and after 20
domestic laundry cycles, the percentage reduction in growth of Staphylococcus aureus was
above 81 per cent.
It can be seen from Table XII that average number of Escherichia coli recovered from
untreated control bulk sample after 24-h contact time (C
24
)was 1.04 10
10
CFU/
sample. However, the number of Escherichia coli recovered from 12 gms/litre treated
bulk sample (unwashed) was 2.25 10
7
and after 20 washes were 1.61 10
9
CFU/
sample.
It can be seen from Table XIII, that the percentage reduction in growth of Escherichia
coli was above 99 per cent with 12 gms/litre treated bulk sample and after 20 domestic
Table XI.
Percentage reduction
of Staphylococcus
aureus
Sample
Recovered bacteria after 24-h contact time
(CFU/sample)
% reduction compared to C
24
(bacteriostatic
effect)
C
24
2.46 10
9
12 g 1.71 10
8
93.05
After 20 washes 5.6 10
8
81.70
Table X.
CFU values against
Staphylococcus
aureus
Sample 10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
CFU/sample
C
24
TNT TNT TNT TNT 246 2.46 10
9
12g TNT TNT TNT 171 14 1.71 10
8
After 20 washes TNT TNT TNT 854 56 5.6 10
8
Table IX.
Percentage reduction
of Escherichia coli
(Gram-negative
bacteria)
Sample
Recovered bacteria after 24-h
contact time (CFU/sample)
% reduction in bacteria compared to C
24
(untreated fabric) (bacteriostatic effect)
C
24
1.72 10
10
12 (10 washes) 6.5 10
9
62.2
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laundry cycles, the percentage reduction in growth of Escherichia coli was above 84
per cent.
In both the cases (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), above 80 per cent
bacteriostatic efcacy was observed even after 20 domestic washing cycles, indicating that
the bacteriostatic effect is durable.
3.5 Eect of antimicrobial on fabric properties
As shown in Table XIV, the various fabric properties have been compared between
untreated and treated. The results are self-explanatory and do not show any signicant
change in fabric properties.
4. Conclusions
The application of 6 gms/litre zinc pyrithione is adequate to get antibacterial effect above 90
per cent, on 100 per cent cotton fabric at 80 per cent pick up followed by drying at 130 to
140°C. However, to get durable effect, it is recommended to use zinc pyrithione along with
binder. The application is simple and can be carried out on stenter as per the recipe
mentioned in Section 2.
There is no adverse effect of zinc pyrithione chemical on fabric properties as shown in
Table XIV.
The antimicrobial textiles developed in this work can earn huge export earnings as
the antimicrobial textiles market size is estimated to be valued at US$497.4m in 2015
and is projected to reach US$1,076.1m by 2026, at a CAGR of 7.4 per cent from 2016 to
2026 as per the report published in www.marketsandmarkets.com.Thisnish is in
high demand in the Asia-Pacic region, Middle-East and Africa, South and North
America and Europe because of increasing end-use applications, such as medical
textiles and apparel. The medical applications are the largest segment of the
antimicrobial textiles market such as, surgical supplies, curtains, beddings and
upholstery items.
Table XIII.
Percentage reduction
of Escherichia coli
Sample
Recovered bacteria after 24-h
contact time (CFU/sample) % reduction compared to C
24
(bacteriostatic effect)
C
24
1.04 10
10
12g 2.25 10
7
99.78
After 20 washes 1.61 10
9
84.52
Table XII.
CFU values against
Escherichia coli
Sample 10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
CFU/sample
C
24
TNT TNT TNT TNT TNT 104 1.04 10
10
12g TNT TNT 225 14 ––2.25 10
7
After 20 washes TNT TNT 650 450 161 5 1.61 10
9
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References
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Finishing, Society of Dyers and Colourists, Bradford, pp. 351-371.
Gao, Y. and Cranston, R. (2008), Recent advances in antimicrobial treatments of textiles,Textile
Research Journal, Vol. 78, pp. 60-72.
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Cambridge.
Table XIV.
Comparison of fabric
properties between
untreated and treated
dyed cotton
S.No. Parameters Untreated dyed fabric Treated dyed fabric
1Colour fastness to washing
Change in colour 4 to 5 4 to 5
Staining on adjacent fabric 4 to 5 4 to 5
2Colour fastness to rubbing
Staining on adjacent fabric
Wet rubbing 4 to 5 4 to 5
Dry rubbing 4 to 5 4 to 5
3Colour fastness to perspiration
Acidic
Change in colour 4 to 5 4
Staining on adjacent fabric 4 to 5 4 to 5
Alkaline
Change in colour 4 to 5 4 to 5
Staining on adjacent fabric 4 to 5 4 to 5
4Colour fastness to light >3>3
Change in colour
5Tensile strength (Newtons)
Warp 256 259
Weft 197 192
6Tear strength (Newtons)
Warp 37.85 38.14
Weft 38.96 39.45
Development
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textiles
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for biomedical applications: I: synthetic organic compounds,Chemistry Journal of Moldova,
Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 14-32.
Corresponding author
Anil Kumar Jain can be contacted at: anilkumarjain220561@gmail.com
For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website:
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... Consequently, we can deduce that the temperature effect can be less significant than the other parameters; 40°C is sufficient to have a reasonable fixation rate. This result is in concordance with other researches which studied padding treatment of cotton using zinc pyrithione at ambient temperature and obtaining good efficiencies (Jain and Tesema 2017;Shahidi and Wiener 2012). ...
... All treated samples showed inhibition zones but with different diameters values ( Figure 11). The presence of zinc pyrithione in the cotton fabric conferred it an excellent antibacterial effect; this result is in accordance with earlier researches revealing the importance of the antibacterial properties of zinc pyrithione (Farouk et al. 2014;Imirzalioglu et al. 2014;Jain and Tesema 2017). Figures 9 and 10 show an increase of the antibacterial effect with the total fixed zinc pyrithione on the fabrics. ...
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Antimicrobial, rot proofing and hygiene finishes
  • I Dring
Dring, I. (2003), "Antimicrobial, rot proofing and hygiene finishes", in Heywood, D. (Ed.), Textile Finishing, Society of Dyers and Colourists, Bradford, pp. 351-371.
Chitosan und seine Derivate für die Textilveredlung
  • D Knittel
  • E Schollmeyer
Knittel, D. and Schollmeyer, E. (1988), "Chitosan und seine Derivate für die Textilveredlung", Textilveredlung, Vol. 33 Nos No. 3/4, pp. 67-71.
Zinc Pyrithione process to impart antimicrobial properties to textiles
  • C E Morris
  • C M Wech
Morris, C.E. and Wech, C.M. (1984), "Zinc Pyrithione process to impart antimicrobial properties to textiles", US Patent No US4443222 A.
Antimicrobial Finishes for Textiles, presented at the Chemical Principles of Textile Finishing Short Course
  • J Rajan
Rajan, J. (1999), Antimicrobial Finishes for Textiles, presented at the Chemical Principles of Textile Finishing Short Course, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.