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Rice bran oil (RBO) is gaining popularity among other traditionally used cooking oils because of its better cooking quality, prolonged shelf life and well-balanced fatty acid composition as well as the presence of many antioxidant components. RBO has lower viscosity and relatively high smoke point, which make it as healthy cooking oil. RBO is rich in vitamin E (both tocopherols and tocotrienols) and bioactive phytonutrients, which include phytosterols, γ-oryzanol, squalene and triterpene alcohols. All of these compounds exhibit high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolaemic, antidiabetic and anticancer activities. The dietary intake of RBO has been reported to lower the levels of blood cholesterol, blood pressure and blood glucose and can help to reduce inflammation and symptoms of metabolic syndrome. RBO helps to boost the immune system and prevent the process of premature ageing and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Because of its cardiac-friendly phytochemicals and antioxidant potentials, RBO has been categorized as healthy edible oil for human consumption and has attained the status of “heart-healthy oil”. As per scientific evidences, it is suggested that a daily intake of 50 g of RBO besides dietary and lifestyle modifications may be considered enough to attain its beneficial effects in reducing the risk of chronic diseases, in particular the cardiovascular diseases. This chapter discusses the nutritional and phytochemical components of RBO, their mechanism of action as well as health benefits in the prevention and management of chronic diseases.
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N.Venkatachalapathy Editors
Brown Rice
135© Springer International Publishing AG 2017
A. Manickavasagan et al. (eds.), Brown Rice,
Chapter 9
Nutritional andHealth Benets ofRice
Bran Oil
AmanatAli andSankarDevarajan
Rice bran oil (RBO) is gaining popularity among other traditionally used cooking
oils because of its better cooking quality, prolonged shelf life and well-balanced
fatty acid composition as well as the presence of many antioxidant components.
RBO has lower viscosity and relatively high smoke point, which make it as healthy
cooking oil. RBO is rich in vitamin E (both tocopherols and tocotrienols) and bioac-
tive phytonutrients, which include phytosterols, γ-oryzanol, squalene and triterpene
alcohols. All of these compounds exhibit high antioxidant, anti-inammatory, hypo-
cholesterolaemic, antidiabetic and anticancer activities. The dietary intake of RBO
has been reported to lower the levels of blood cholesterol, blood pressure and blood
glucose and can help to reduce inammation and symptoms of metabolic syndrome.
RBO helps to boost the immune system and prevent the process of premature age-
ing and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Because of its cardiac-friendly phy-
tochemicals and antioxidant potentials, RBO has been categorized as healthy edible
oil for human consumption and has attained the status of “heart-healthy oil”. As per
scientic evidences, it is suggested that a daily intake of 50 g of RBO besides dietary
and lifestyle modications may be considered enough to attain its benecial effects
in reducing the risk of chronic diseases, in particular the cardiovascular diseases.
This chapter discusses the nutritional and phytochemical components of RBO, their
mechanism of action as well as health benets in the prevention and management of
chronic diseases.
A. Ali (*)
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences,
Sultan Qaboos University, POB 34, Al-Khoud 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
S. Devarajan
Nutrition & Dietetics Program, Department of Human Sciences, University of Arkansas at
Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff 71601, Arkansas, USA
Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most widely available and popularly consumed
cereal grains, which is regarded as the staple food for more than 50% of world’s
population. More than 90% of world’s rice is consumed in Asia, the highest amount
in China. The global per capita consumption of rice has increased over the past
years from 50 to 65kg perannum. The worldwide rice consumption during the year
2015–2016 has been estimated to be 478.441 million metric tonnes, whereas the
United States Department of Agriculture estimates that the world’s rice production
during the year 2016–2017 will be about 481.5 million metric tons (Statistica 2016).
Out of top 11 rice producing countries in the world, 10 are from Asia. China and
India rank the top of the list and contribute over 25% and 23%, respectively, of the
world’s rice production. The milling of paddy can yield about 70% of rice (endo-
sperm). The outer layer of rice grain (pericarp) is called the bran that constitutes
about 10% of the rough rice grain. Depending on the rice variety and type of extrac-
tion, the yield of RBO may be between 18% and 22% (Sayre and Saunders 1990).
The crude RBO is mainly obtained through the solvent extraction process. To
produce the edible grade vegetable oil, it is then rened and processed further either
chemically or physically to meet the standards of specications. The quality of RBO
is, however, affected by the processing steps that are applied during the rening of
RBO, which can affect the retention/availability of oryzanol and various other bioac-
tive components in the commercial rened RBO.The process of rening may con-
sists of acid degumming, centrifugation, clarication, bleaching, deodorization and
winterization (Rajam etal. 2005). Chemical rening of crude RBO yields better prod-
uct in terms of colour, cloud point and other physical characteristics (Danielski etal.
2005; Rajam etal. 2005). Although the chemical rening is preferred over physical
rening, it can lead to signicant losses in some minor bioactive components in the
rened oil (Patel and Naik 2004; van Hoed etal. 2006; Prasad etal. 2011). The oryza-
nol content of RBO extracted from the bran of 18 different Indian paddy cultivars
ranged from 1.63% to 2.72% (Krishna etal. 2001). The presence of higher quantities
of γ-oryzanol in the physically rened oil may help to improve its oxidative stability.
The γ-oryzanol-rich RBO possesses strong antioxidant activity that helps to protect
the body cells from the damaging effects of very-low-density lipoproteins (Xu etal.
2001). Based on its high antioxidant potential, RBO has been categorized as valuable
edible oil for human consumption (Bopitiya and Madhujith 2014).
Physiochemical Characteristics andCooking Properties
RBO is the most available and very-well-studied rice product. RBO is a pale yellow,
translucent and odourless, having pleasant mild nutty avour with lightly sweet
neutral taste. The vegetable oils are good sources of unsaturated fatty acids. RBO
A. Ali and S. Devarajan
contains 38.4% oleic acid, 34.4% linoleic acid and 2.2% α-linolenic acid. The satu-
rated fatty acids present in RBO are 2.9% stearic acid and 21.5% palmitic acid
(Sayre and Saunders 1990). RBO is free from trans fats. Although the RBO contains
only small amounts of α-linolenic acid, it is sufcient enough for the de novo syn-
thesis of other omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid
(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in tissue phospholipids as compared to
other vegetable oils. The proportionate amount of fatty acids in RBO, however, may
vary with the extraction process (cold or hot extraction).
Because of the presence of high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and many bioac-
tive components, vegetable oils differ in their fatty acid compositions and therefore
behave differently when heated. The typical fatty acid composition, lower viscosity
and relatively high smoke point (~254 °C), makes it versatile for different types of
cooking. RBO can be used for sautéing, grilling and marinades and can also be of
great value in salad dressings. RBO is considered as perfect cooking oil for stir-
frying or deep-frying (Sayre and Saunders 1990) because it takes less time to pre-
pare foods and can save the energy as well. The foods cooked at high temperatures
appear to absorb less oil, almost 15% less during frying (Mishra and Sharma 2014).
Foods cooked in RBO have better taste and avour and likely to be less oily during
eating. It has a high storage stability, as its various bioactive components and vita-
min E contents act as antioxidant and protect it not only from oxidation and rancid-
ity but also are responsible for its higher thermal stability (Bergman and Xu 2003;
Fang et al. 2003; Mezouri and Eichner 2007). The presence of γ-oryzanol and
γ-tocotrienol in RBO may play a protective role on the availability of α-tocopherol
in deep-frying (Hamid etal. 2014).
Bioactive Components ofRBO
RBO presents several advantages over other cooking oils due to the presence of
many bioactive antioxidant components such as tocopherols, γ-oryzanol and tocot-
rienols, which are responsible for its oxidative stability and health benets (Kim and
Godber 2001; Wilson etal. 2000). The crude RBO encompasses a rich unsaponi-
able fraction (~5%), which consists of sterols (43%), triterpene alcohols (28%),
4-methyl-sterols (10%) and other less polar components (Sayre and Saunders 1990;
Mezouri and Eichner 2007; Macchar etal. 2012). The total phenolic content (TPC)
of RBO can vary depending upon the rice varieties and oil extraction process. The
extracts obtained from two Sri Lankan rice varieties (BG 400 white, and LD 365
red) exhibited dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity. No pro-oxidant
activity was observed in the RBO extracts when tested even at the highest level
(Bopitiya and Madhujith 2014).
The phytosterols in RBO include β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, squa-
lene and γ-oryzanol. γ-Oryzanol is often recognized as the most active component
of RBO and consists of a mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols
(Metwally etal. 1974; Norton 1995; Akihisa et al. 2000; Lloyd etal. 2000; Fang
9 Nutritional andHealth Benets ofRice Bran Oil
etal. 2003; Patel and Naik 2004). The amount of γ-oryzanol in crude RBO can vary
between 1% and 2% depending on the extraction method. During the chemical
rening process, it is neutralized and can be transferred to soap stock. The use of
physical rening process under light conditions may however be able to preserve
most of γ-oryzanol (Krishna etal. 2001). Other vegetable oils do not contain the
cardioprotective γ-oryzanol, and therefore RBO is regarded as the heart-friendly oil.
Rice brain oil is also a rich source of vitamin E (both tocopherols and tocotrienols).
It contains variable quantities of tocotrienols, especially β- and γ-tocotrienols, but it
is naturally very rich in tocopherols (Rukmini and Raghuram 1991; Rogers etal.
1993). Vitamin E not only helps to boost immunity but also has anti-mutagenic
γ-Oryzanol has similar functions as vitamin E for growth promotion, capillary
functions in the skin, improved blood circulation and stimulation of hormonal
secretions (Luh etal. 1991; Bergman and Xu 2003; Fang etal. 2003). γ-Oryzanol
has structural similarities to cholesterol and may compete with it for the binding
sites and may increase the faecal excretion of cholesterol and its metabolites
(Mäkynen etal. 2012; Kota etal. 2013). γ-Oryzanol has also been reported to help
in the inhibition of gastric acid secretion and can decrease the postexercise muscle
fatigue (Szcześniak etal. 2016). An ideal edible oil should contain saturated, mono-
unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in proportions of 1:1.5:1 ratio to meet
the recommended intake of fatty acids. However, this is not the case in practical
terms as all the edible oils differ in their fatty acid composition. The RBO has
almost similar ratio of fatty acids as recommended by the WHO and AHA for low-
ering the blood cholesterol levels (Lai etal. 2012; Friedman 2013). The polyunsatu-
rated fatty acids (PUFA) in RBO exert greater hypolipidaemic activities as compared
to other vegetable oils containing linoleic acid and therefore may help to lower the
cardiovascular risk (Friedman 2013). Studies, however, suggest that cholesterol-
lowering properties of RBO could mainly be due to its unsaponiable fraction of
bioactive components rather than because of its fatty acid composition (Abumweis
etal. 2008; Liang etal. 2014).
Signicance ofRBO in Human Health
RBO is gaining popularity as compared to other traditionally used cooking oils
(such as corn oil, sunower oil, safower oil, canola oil, olive oil, etc.) because of
its better cooking characteristics, prolonged shelf life and well-balanced fatty acid
composition as well as the presence of a number of bioactive substances. RBO is
commonly used in many Asian cultures, where it is regarded as “premium edible
oil”. In Japan, RBO is commonly known as a “heart oil”, whereas in Western coun-
tries, it has attained the status of a “healthy food” (CAC 2003). It is also now becom-
ing popular in the USA and other parts of the world because of its relatively low
price and many health benets (Liang etal. 2014).
A. Ali and S. Devarajan
The rate of mortality due to cardiovascular events in the Asian and Far Eastern
Asian countries is much lower than the Europeans and North Americans, which
may be attributed to their dietary patterns. The diets in the Asian and Far Eastern
Asian countries are generally low in saturated fatty acids, are poor in cholesterol
and are rich in rice and legume-based vegetable proteins. The hypocholesterolaemic
properties of vegetable oils are associated with their unsaturated fatty acids con-
tents, mainly oleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic. In general, RBO has been
shown to have the potential to lower cholesterol, blood pressure and blood glucose
level and can help to reduce inammation and symptoms of metabolic syndrome. It
may help in weight loss and therefore in controlling obesity. RBO has been shown
to be effective in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD)
risk factors if consumed as part of a healthy diet (Zavoshy etal. 2012). It may also
help to boost the immune system and prevent diabetes, cardiovascular diseases,
cancer and premature ageing (Manosroi etal. 2012a, b). RBO has therefore a great
potential in the development of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products (Ammar
etal. 2012). RBO relieves the menopausal symptoms, increases the cognitive func-
tion and may lower the incidence of allergic reactions (Mehdi etal. 2015).
Health Benets ofRBO
Anti-hyperlipidaemic andHypocholesterolaemic Effects
The data from numerous studies have shown that the intake of RBO reduced the
plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cho-
lesterol (LDL-C) and increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)
levels in rodents, rabbits, non-human primates and humans (Cicero and Derosa
2005; Lai et al. 2012; Macchar et al. 2012; Shakib et al. 2014; Devarajan et al.
2016a). The mechanism of action of RBO on lipid metabolism is however not yet
conclusive. The presence of appreciable amounts of unsaponiable fractions (triter-
pene alcohols, phytosterols, γ- oryzanol and tocotrienols) in RBO have been shown
to have benecial effects on lipid metabolism in terms of their antioxidant, hypolipi-
daemic and anti-atherogenic properties (Lee et al. 2005; Tabassum etal. 2005;
Macchar etal. 2012; Hota etal. 2013; Dhavamani etal. 2014). The specic bioac-
tive components in RBO were responsible for its anti-hyperlipidaemic properties,
whereas the particular fatty acids (mono- and polyunsaturated) seem to have some
impact (Nicolosi etal. 1991; Rong etal. 1992). The phytosterols, in particular the
ss-sitosterol and 4-desmethylsterols and not the 4,4-dimethylsterols in RBO, have
been shown to reduce the plasma TC and LDL-C levels. These phytosterols may
either affect the absorption of dietary cholesterol from the gut or may enhance the
attachment of cholesterol to bile acids, which are then excreted in the faeces (Vissers
etal. 2000).
9 Nutritional andHealth Benets ofRice Bran Oil
The data from earlier studies on rats indicated that rats fed diets containing RBO
at 10% level for 8 weeks showed lower plasma TC, LDL-C and VLDL-C and
increased HDL-C levels, while no changes in TG were observed on cholesterol-
containing or cholesterol-free diets (Sharma and Rukmini 1986). Feeding RBO also
reduced the liver cholesterol and TG levels. An increased excretion of neutral sterols
and bile acids in the faeces was also observed (Sharma and Rukmini 1986, 1987).
RBO showed better results for liver lipids as compared to groundnut oil. A further
decrease in serum TC levels was observed when RBO was supplemented with
γ-oryzanol at 0.5% level in the diet (Seetharamaiah and Chandrasekhara 1988,
1989). Seetharamaiah and Chandrasekhara (1990) examined the effects of
γ-oryzanol on the biliary secretion and faecal excretion of cholesterol, phospholip-
ids and bile acids in male albino rats. They didn’t observe any change in bile ow
and its composition when rats were fed control diet supplemented with 0.5%
γ-oryzanol. However, supplementation of high-cholesterol diet with γ-oryzanol
indicated increased bile ow and total bile acid excretion with simultaneous 20%
decrease in cholesterol absorption. These results suggest that γ-oryzanol and some
other components in the unsaponiable fraction of RBO such as tocotrienols and
tocopherols can increase the faecal excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols
(Sharma and Rukmini 1986; Seetharamaiah and Chandrasekhara 1989).
Adding phytosterols to hypercholesterolaemic rat diets, in particular the cyclo-
artenol, signicantly reduced both the plasma cholesterol and triglycerides (Rukmini
and Raghuram 1991). Supplementation of RBO with γ-oryzanol appeared to be
strongly associated with alleviating the cardiovascular disease risk factors, espe-
cially when the rats were fed a high-fat diet (Edwards and Radcliffe 1994; Radcliffe
etal. 1997). The rats fed γ-oryzanol supplemented diet also showed 25% reduction
in cholesterol absorption as compared to control. The rats fed diet containing 10%
rened RBO showed signicantly lower serum total, free esteried and (LDL +
VLDL) cholesterol values as compared to those fed 10% groundnut oil diet. RBO
also exhibited an increase in HDL-C levels. Purushothama etal. (1995) studied the
impact of long-term feeding of RBO on lipids and lipoprotein metabolism in rats.
The rats fed RBO showed lower levels of plasma TC, LDL-C and VLDL-C, TG and
phospholipids as compared to those fed on peanut oil. However, only the rats receiv-
ing 20% RBO in their diet, showed a 20% increase in high-density lipoprotein cho-
lesterol (HDL-C) level, as compared to rats fed on peanut oil (Purushothama etal.
The hypolipidaemic response of RBO has also been studied in non-human pri-
mates (Nicolosi et al. 1991). The use of RBO or its blends at 20–25% of total
energy intake as dietary fat showed signicant reduction in the serum TC, LDL-C
and apolipoprotein-B level. Ausman etal. (2005) reported that the lipid-lowering
properties of physically rened RBO (PRBO) may be attributed to decreased cho-
lesterol absorption and not to the hepatic cholesterol synthesis. They suggested
that a reduction in fatty streak formation, the early signs of atherosclerosis with
PRBO, may be due to its non-triglyceride fraction. Wilson and his colleagues
(2007) not only compared the cholesterol-lowering potential of various vegetable
oils but also compared the impact of various individual bioactive components of
A. Ali and S. Devarajan
RBO such as trans-ferulic acid and γ-oryzanol as compared to RBO alone in hypo-
cholesterolaemic hamsters. They fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD) to hamsters as
control group and compared the effect of feeding HCD with 10% RBO, HCD plus
0.5% trans-ferulic acid and HCD with 0.5% γ-oryzanol. The serum LDL + VLDL
and total plasma cholesterol levels after 10 weeks reduced considerably in experi-
mental groups fed on diet with 10% RBO, diet containing 0.5% trans-ferulic acid
and diet containing 0.5% γ-oryzanol as compared to control group (Wilson etal.
2007). The animals fed on diets containing γ-oryzanol and RBO showed signi-
cant reduction in plasma lipid hydroperoxides and triglycerides. The results indi-
cated that γ-oryzanol might have potentiated the lowering of plasma LDL and
VLDL levels and may also help to raise the HDL cholesterol level as compared to
trans-ferulic acid.
The cholesterol-lowering efcacy of RBO is much superior to that is apparently
judged based on its fatty acid composition. This may be associated with the pres-
ence of other bioactive constituents, mainly γ-oryzanol in RBO (Moldenhauer etal.
2003). The naturally occurring γ-oryzanol and vitamin E synergistically work to
scavenge the free radicals and thereby protect the cells from oxidative stress
(Kennedy and Burlingame 2003). Different mechanisms have been suggested about
the anti-atherogenic action of RBO. γ-Oryzanol is considered as the possible funda-
mental component of RBO due to its anti-atherosclerotic action. It inhibits the intes-
tinal absorption of cholesterol, increases the bile ow and accelerates the excretion
of cholesterol in the faeces (Kanbara etal. 1992; Cicero and Gaddi 2001). Tsuji
etal. (2003) studied the effects of hypocholesterolaemic diets containing RBO and
different concentrations of γ-oryzanol on serum cholesterol levels in rats. They
observed that the reduced TC level in rats fed on RBO is attributed to the antioxi-
dant properties of γ-oryzanol. The data from the animal model studies conrm the
anti-hyperlipidaemic properties of γ-oryzanol and its overall impact to lower the
CVD risk.
RBO inClinical Trials onHumans
The early studies of Suzuki and Oshima (1970) reported the anti-hyperlipidaemic
properties of RBO in healthy young Japanese women. The study showed that the
daily use of 60 g of a blend of RBO and safower oil (70:30) was more effective in
lowering the plasma TC levels; even only after 7 days of treatment, the RBO and
sunower oils, when given either alone or in different proportionate combinations,
were not that effective. The data from various studies in which RBO was given for
4–14 weeks period indicated that the RBO at a dose level up to 50 g/day was effec-
tive in reducing the TC, LDL-C, TG and apolipoprotein levels with a simultaneous
increase in HDL-C concentrations (Suzuki and Oshima 1970; Raghuram et al.
1989; Lichtenstein etal. 1994; Qureshi etal. 1997). In young female volunteers,
who daily consumed ve eggs for seven consecutive days, the blended oil exerted
the hypocholesterolaemic effects. In addition to this, a signicant association was
9 Nutritional andHealth Benets ofRice Bran Oil
observed with increased levels in plasma HDL-C (Tsuji etal. 1989). Ishihara and
his colleagues (1982) evaluated the impact of γ-oryzanol supplementation on 40
women with postmenopausal syndrome. Treatment with 300mg of γ-oryzanol/day
for 4–8 weeks showed a signicant decrease in plasma TC, LDL-C and TG levels
with a simultaneous increase in HDL-C concentration in hyperlipoproteinaemic
subjects. The plasma lipid peroxide was also lower in subjects who had previously
elevated levels. No particular changes in liver and renal functions or no other side
effects were observed.
These results were subsequently conrmed in another study, in which 12 mod-
erately nonobese hyperlipoproteinaemic subjects were asked to substitute their
usual cooking oils with RBO.It was observed that the patients who received RBO
showed 16% and 25% decrease in plasma TC and 32% and 35% reduction in
plasma TG after 15 and 30 days of treatment, respectively, as compared to control
group (Ishihara 1984). Raghuram etal. (1989) also observed that the subject with
higher baseline levels of TC and TG showed faster and greater decrease in lipid
levels on RBO.Similar results were observed in both hypercholesterolaemic and
hypertriglyceridaemic patients, when they were given 300 mg/day of γ-oryzanol
for 3 months without any side effects (Yoshino etal. 1989). Lichtenstein et al.
(1994) conducted a comparative double-blind Latin-square design study on
elderly people for a period of 32 days to evaluate the effects of various edible oils
(rice bran, canola, corn or olive oil) on their plasma lipid prole. They, however,
did not observe any statistically signicant differences in the plasma TC and
LDL-C concentrations in subjects, who consumed the RBO-, canola oil- or corn
oil-enriched diets.
The results of a double-blind 12-week-long clinical trial on hypercholesterolae-
mic human subjects, who were given a supplement of tocotrienol-rich fraction that
was obtained from specially processed RBO, together with a standard National
Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step-1 diet, indicated a signicant decrease
in plasma TC and LDL-C levels as compared to control. The serum apolipoprotein
B, lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)), platelet factor 4 and thromboxane B2 also decreased sig-
nicantly as compared to baseline levels (Qureshi etal. 1997). The combined treat-
ment of NCEP Step-1 diet and tocotrienol-rich fraction of RBO resulted in 25%
reduction in plasma LDL-C levels (Qureshi etal. 2002). The tocotrienol treatment
decreased the Lp(a) plasma levels, whereas neither the NCEP Step-1 diet nor any
anti-hypercholesterolaemic drugs showed such impact. It appears that the RBO and
its bioactive components may be able to safely improve the plasma lipid prole in
hypercholesterolaemic patients. The data from various clinical trials clearly indi-
cates that the consumption of RBO-rich diets can signicantly improve the levels of
HDL-C in hypercholesterolaemic human subjects (Berger etal. 2004).
Rajnarayana and his colleagues (2001) gave 75ml of RBO thrice daily as the
cooking medium with breakfast, lunch and dinner to nine healthy human volunteers,
aged between 42 and 57 years for a period of 50 days. They observed that the vol-
unteers who consumed RBO showed signicantly lower levels of lipid peroxides,
triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and TC.They suggested that the bioactive components
of RBO have antioxidant and lipid-lowering activities. Most and his colleagues (2005)
A. Ali and S. Devarajan
evaluated the effects of defatted rice bran and RBO in an average American diet on
the blood lipid prole of moderately hypercholesterolaemic persons. They observed
that the consumption of RBO-containing diet signicantly decreased the LDL-C
level by 7%, whereas HDL-C level remained unchanged. They concluded that RBO
and not the bre in diet lowered cholesterol in healthy, moderately hypercholester-
olaemic adults that may be associated with the bioactive unsaponiable components
of RBO (Most etal. 2005). Kuriyan etal. (2005) in a crossover study design assessed
the consumption of RBO and rened sunower oil in hyperlipidaemic human sub-
jects for a period of 3 months. They observed that RBO as the main cooking oil
signicantly reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels as compared to sun-
ower oil in hyperlipidaemic human subjects.
The most potent and commonly used class of drugs to prevent dyslipidaemia are
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors
(statins). Statins are effective in decreasing the rate of mortality from coronary
artery disease, the incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascu-
lar diseases (Shah and Goldne 2012). However, a number of adverse effects have
been reported with the use of statins including asymptomatic increases in liver
transaminases and myopathy (Björnsson et al. 2012; Maji et al. 2013; Castilla-
Guerra etal. 2016; Gurwitz etal. 2016). Shakib etal. (2014) compared the effects
of RBO versus statins on blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) and
serum lipid proles in patients with type 2 diabetes. The RBO group was given a
low-calorie diet, and the patients consumed 30 g/day RBO as salad dressing. They
also used RBO as the main cooking oil for 6 months. The patients in atorvastatin
group received a low-calorie diet together with 40 mg/day of atorvastatin drug for
6 months. The diabetic and moderately hyperlipidaemic patients showed signi-
cant increases in the fasting and postprandial blood glucose, HbA1C and liver
transaminase (alanine transaminase ALT and aspartate transaminase AST) levels
on atorvastatin, whereas there was a reduction in all these parameters in RBO
group. Signicant reductions were however observed after 6 months in lipid prole
levels, blood urea, serum uric acid and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in
patients in both the RBO and atorvastatin groups. They concluded that the use of
RBO together with dietary modications may be effective in lowering the fasting
and postprandial blood glucose, HbA1c and serum lipid levels, reduce the TC/
HDL-C ratio and therefore may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. They
also observed that RBO has anti-inammatory properties and may exert a hypouri-
caemic action. Based on their ndings, Shakib etal. (2014) suggested that RBO
may be used as a safe alternative natural hypolipidaemic agent in place of atorvas-
tatin. Atorvastatin may induce side effects in some patients who show intolerance
to statins. Chithra etal. (2015) evaluated the anti-atherogenic effects of Njavara
RBO (NjRBO) on atherosclerosis by modulating the enzymes and genes involved
in lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). They hypothesized
that NjRBO possesses anti-atherogenic properties that may modulate the lipid
metabolism by up- regulating the genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport
and antioxidative defence mechanisms through the induction of gene and protein
expression of paraoxonase 1 (PON1).
9 Nutritional andHealth Benets ofRice Bran Oil
The quality of most of the published studies is generally poor because of rela-
tively low number of study participants and shorter durations, which were not suf-
cient enough to draw statistically valid conclusions. It has therefore been suggested
that more randomized clinical trials with large number of study subjects and longer
experimental time periods should be warranted to validate these ndings and to
conrm whether the RBO can be regarded as safe and efcacious in long-term treat-
ments for mild to moderate hyperlipoproteinaemias. The consumption of a blend of
RBO and safower oil (70:30) together with other lifestyle changes has been shown
to help in lowering blood lipid prole and inammatory biomarkers such as oxi-
dized LDL and high sensitivity C-reactive proteins (hs-CRP) in hyperlipidaemic
patients (Upadya etal. 2015). They concluded that this strategy may in turn help to
prevent lifestyle diseases. The results of a recent meta-analysis indicated that con-
sumption of RBO reduced the LDL-C and TC concentrations and had favourable
effects on HDL-C concentrations in men. No considerable changes were however
observed related to other lipid prole components. They concluded that the con-
sumption of RBO may help in prevention and control of CVD (Jolfaie etal. 2016).
Hypoglycaemic andAntidiabetic Effects
The tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of RBO has been shown to act as an antioxidant
to effectively decrease the glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) in diabetic rats
(Wan Nazaimoon and Khalid 2002). Supplementation of RBO helped to improve
the glycaemic control and lipid prole in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats
(Chen and Cheng 2006). It has been proposed that γ-oryzanol may play an effective
role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (Ohara etal. 2009). It has
been shown that γ-oryzanol can regulate the secretion of insulin and blood glucose
levels by normalizing the liver enzyme activities and therefore may lower the risk of
hyperglycaemia induced by high-fat diets (Son etal. 2011). Ghatak and Panchal
(2012a) studied the hypoglycaemic potential of γ-oryzanol in streptozotocin-
induced diabetic rats having an elevated serum glucose level of 340–400 mg/dL.
They observed a decline in the serum glucose levels of rats within 2–4 h after the
administration of oryzanol at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg BW.
The data from the animal models as well as from the clinical trials on human
diabetic patients indicated the blood glucose-lowering potential of tocotrienol-rich
fraction (TRF) of RBO (Siddiqui etal. 2010). Tocotrienols in RBO are considered
to lower blood TC concentrations by inhibiting the HMG-CoA reductase activity in
the biosynthetic pathways of cholesterol metabolism (Houston et al. 2009).
Tocotrienols have cardioprotective properties by improving the postischaemic ven-
tricular functions and reducing the myocardial infarction (Vasanthi etal. 2012). The
bioactive components and antioxidants present in RBO as well as its oleic acid and
conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) contents may help to boost the metabolic rate, regu-
late the blood glucose and lipid prole, reduce inammation, lose weight and con-
trol obesity (Ros 2003; Zhao et al. 2004). Shakib and his colleagues (2014)
A. Ali and S. Devarajan
concluded from their study that the use of RBO together with dietary modications
may be effective in lowering the fasting and postprandial blood glucose and glyco-
sylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels.
The dietary components can moderately help the dyslipidaemic patients to
reduce the risk of cardiac diseases. In order to reduce or to maintain an adequate
cholesterolaemia, the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) of the National Cholesterol
Educational Program (NCEP) suggests to introduce four portions of soy proteins
(25 g/day), 2 g/day of phytosterols and 10–25 g/day of vegetable soluble bres (like
psyllium, guar gum, pectin, oats) in the daily diet (Kris-Etherton etal. 2002). Cicero
and Derosa (2005) reviewed the available data on the pharmacology and toxicology
of rice bran and its main components including RBO, specically to its potential
efcacy in reducing the CVD risk. The use of RBO can be considered as an appro-
priate dietary strategy that may help to reduce the liver lipid contents and therefore
may be useful in treating non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which appear to be associ-
ated with metabolic syndrome and CVD (Marchesini etal. 2003). The pigmented
rice berry bran oil (RBBO) may have benecial effects on diabetes by reducing the
oxidative stress. It was suggested that the bioactive components of RBO can play a
role in the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus (Posuwan etal. 2013).
Ghatak and Panchal (2012b) observed that γ-oryzanol content in RBO was effective
in ameliorating the neuropathic pain in diabetic patients. They suggested that due to
its γ-oryzanol content, the RBO can favourably affect diabetic neuropathy.
RBO has been shown to inhibit high insulin response due to its polyphenols
(Chou etal. 2009). In addition to this, its high MUFA content may also help to indi-
rectly decrease the hyperinsulinemia (Li et al. 2005). The American Diabetes
Association recommends that in order to improve their hyperlipidaemia and to pre-
vent heart-related diseases, the diabetic patients should consume those vegetable
oils, which contain high amounts of oleic acid (Lai etal. 2012). The polyphenols,
tocotrienols and y-oryzanol fractions of RBO may therefore help to alleviate the
endothelial dysfunction and subsequently reduce the insulin resistance (Manila
etal. 2014). Insulin resistance leads to abnormal lipid metabolism increasing the
risk of CVD in diabetic patients. RBO, because of its optimal fatty acid composition
and constituent bioactive components, which have high absorption capacity in the
gastrointestinal tract, can not only inhibit the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and
block the synthesis of cholesterol analogues but can also increase the excretion of
its metabolites from the body and thus may reduce the incidence of cardiovascular
diseases. One of the mechanisms of diabetes aetiology is the increased apoptosis of
insulin-secreting cells. RBO has been shown to indirectly inhibit the caspase inacti-
vation and thereby may lead to inhibition of β-cell apoptosis, which can reduce the
chances of diabetes. Caspases are a family of endoproteases (cysteine-aspartic
proteases, cysteine aspartases or cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases),
which play essential roles in the programmed cell death and inammation (McIlwain
etal. 2015). RBO can suppress the progression of diabetes and therefore can be
helpful in developing the dietary strategies in the prevention and management of
diabetes. RBO can also help to promote the blood circulation, regulate the endo-
crine and autonomic functions and support the growth and development in humans
9 Nutritional andHealth Benets ofRice Bran Oil
and animals. Substitution of RBO or canola oil (CO) for sunower oil was shown to
attenuate the lipid disorders in postmenopausal type 2 diabetic women. They
observed that RBO was more effective in improving the lipid prole as compared to
canola oil (Salar etal. 2016). It is evident that consuming RBO can improve the
plasma lipid prole; however its mechanism of action on diabetic hyperlipidaemia
and the development of diabetes are still not clear. It should therefore be further
explored for its potential health benets in the management and control of hypergly-
caemia and diabetes.
Effects ofRBO onOxidative Stress andCancer Risk
Mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to excessive production of reactive oxygen spe-
cies (ROS) and free radicals, which are produced as a result of certain metabolic
abnormalities. They cause cellular damages through the oxidation of proteins lipids
and DNA and therefore result in oxidative stress and progression of various chronic
diseases (Giacco and Brownlee 2010; Kaneto etal. 2010; Waly etal. 2010; Ju and
Zullaikah 2013). Polyphenols play an important role in modulating the differen-
tially regulated pathways in endothelial cells and thus can help in maintaining the
vascular homeostasis. The published data underlines the signicance of phytochem-
icals in inhibiting the pathways that activate the nuclear transcription factor-kappa
B (NF-κB) that is linked to a variety of inammatory diseases (Surh etal. 2001;
Bellik etal. 2012). Polyphenols protect the endothelial cells against various stimuli
by downregulating the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (Suganya etal. 2016).
The scientic data suggests that certain food ingredients and phytochemical antioxi-
dants can prevent digestive disease processes, may improve the mitochondrial func-
tions and may prevent or slow down the progression and development of age-related
neurodegenerative diseases (Ellis etal. 2016; Serani and Peluso 2016).
The distinctive properties of RBO and its high antioxidant potential can better
help to prevent cellular lipid and protein oxidation (Iqbal etal. 2004; Rajnarayana
etal. 2001; Hsieh etal. 2005). Hagl etal. (2016) concluded that rice bran extracts
including RBO have great nutraceutical potential in the prevention of mitochondrial
dysfunctions and may attenuate the oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases.
It has been shown that that tocotrienols exhibit stronger antioxidant activity than
tocopherols, which is attributed to their high capacity to donate phenolic hydrogen
to various free radicals. The γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3) component of RBO can induce the
expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in human cancer
cells and can promote the tumour cell apoptosis via cascade reactions (Kannappan
etal. 2010a). The y-T3 has also been shown to affect the cell signalling pathways
through the induction of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and can sensitize the
tumour cells to chemotherapeutic agents for apoptosis (Kannappan etal. 2010b).
The y-T3 has also been reported to induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in
human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells (Sun etal. 2009). The palmitic and
A. Ali and S. Devarajan
linoleic acids have also been shown to induce the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress
and apoptosis in hepatoma cells (Zhang etal. 2012).
Shih etal. (2011) reported that RBO showed preventive effects in delaying the
colon carcinogenesis. They observed higher hepatic antioxidant status including the
glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels as well as the
superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, in RBO-fed rats. They concluded that
this higher antioxidant status in RBO-fed rats might be responsible in delaying the
carcinogenesis. The inclusion of RBO in rat diets can improve their antioxygenic
potential and may protect against oxidative stress (Rana etal. 2004). MUFA and
conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) present in RBO can also exert antitumour effects.
CLA has been shown to ameliorate the inammation-induced colorectal cancer in
mice through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-y)
(Evans etal. 2010). RBO has therefore the potential to play an important role as
antitumour food on apoptosis through three different pathways: (1) by inducing
death of receptors activating caspase cascade reactions, (2) by blocking JAK-STAT
signal pathways by inducing SHP-1 and (3) by blocking mtDNA mutation from
oxidative stress by ROS.All these pathways ultimately lead to tumour cell apopto-
sis (Liang etal. 2014). The oral intake of RBO in rats indicated benecial effects on
stress response and on learning and memory functions. A decrease in the stress-
induced behavioural and neurochemical changes was also observed (Mehdi etal.
2015). It is suggested that the various bioactive components of RBO may exert
synergistic effect in combating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and may there-
fore help in the prevention of cellular oxidative damage, which needs to be studied
Health Benets ofRBO Blends
The blends of RBO with other less expensive vegetable oils are now gaining a
greater popularity as cooking media because of their cost-benet ratio and health
benets. Blending RBO with other vegetable oils such as olive oil, groundnut oil,
sunower oil and sesame oil has been shown to improve the quality of blends in
terms of their physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition, antioxidant
potential and invivo antioxidant status (Choudhary etal. 2015; Umesha and Naidu
2015; Devarajan etal. 2016b). Rats fed on high-cholesterol and cholesterol-free
diets showed signicantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of TC, TG and LDL-C and
increased level of HDL-C in animals when they were given RBO blends (containing
either safower oil or sunower oil in 70:30 ratio). The RBO blends also showed a
reduction in liver cholesterol and TG concentrations and increased the excretion of
neutral sterols and bile acids in faeces (Sunitha etal. 1997). The higher contents of
tocopherols and tocotrienols in RBO also improved the oxidative stability of these
oil blends. Thus blending of RBO with other oils can not only improve the plasma
lipid prole but may also result in economic advantages (Sunitha etal. 1997).
9 Nutritional andHealth Benets ofRice Bran Oil
Koba (1997) studied the cholesterol-lowering ability of different blends of RBO
and safower oil in rats. No signicant differences were observed in the serum and
liver cholesterol levels among rats when fed different oil blends. However, the
HDL-C level of rats fed the RBO-containing diets (especially in rats fed higher
proportions of RBO) was higher than that of rats fed only safower oil. The HDL-
C- to-TC ratio, a desirable outcome for CVD risk factor, also improved (Koba etal.
2000). The additional improvement in lipid metabolism by RBO-safower oil
blends cannot be explained based on their fatty acids or plant sterols composition
because the blending of RBO with sunower oil did not exert the same anti-
hypercholesterolaemic properties (Sugano and Tsuji 1997). The cholesterol-
lowering abilities of RBO diet was greater than that anticipated from its constituent
fatty acids. Accinni etal. (2006) evaluated the supplementation effects of γ-oryzanol,
tocotrienols, niacin and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on oxidative stability,
lipid prole and inammatory responses in volunteers with abnormal blood lipid
levels. During a 4-month trial period, all groups given different dietary supplements
showed improvement in their blood lipid prole, and the best prole was in patients
with γ-oryzanol-supplemented diet. Feeding blended oils to rats containing RBO,
sesame oil and coconut oil with balanced fatty acid composition helped to lower
their serum and liver lipids (Reena and Lokesh 2007).
The blends of RBO with soybean oil, in particular with palm oil, have also been
shown to further reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolaemic women
(Utarwuthipong et al. 2009). In a double-blind, controlled, randomized parallel
group study, Malve and his colleagues studied the LDL-cholesterol-lowering activ-
ity of a blend of RBO and safower oil (8:2) in patients with hyperlipidaemia
(Malve etal. 2010). The control group included the patients who continued to use
the same oil, which they were using before. At the end of a 3-month trial, 82% of
the patients from the group who consumed the blend of RBO and safower oil (8:2)
had LDL levels <150 mg/dL as against 57% in the control group. They concluded
that the substitution of usual cooking oil with RBO and safower oil (8:2) blend was
helpful in reducing the LDL-C levels and shifting the patients to lower lipid risk
category. This may also be due to their improved fatty acid composition and bioac-
tive components, as they showed better antioxidant and anti-inammatory effects
(Choudhary et al. 2013). The incorporation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into RBO through
lipase-catalysed inter-esterication has been shown to offer health benets (Chopra
and Sambaiah 2009). Because of their proven cholesterol-lowering potential, the
plant sterols are added to different food products to enhance their potential to
decrease the blood LDL-cholesterol levels (Scoggan etal. 2008). The consumption
of a plant sterol-based spread derived from RBO as a part of normal diet proved
effective in reducing plasma lipid levels in mildly hypercholesterolaemic individu-
als (Eady etal. 2011). Daily consumption of RBO-modied milk (containing 18 g
RBO for 5 weeks) signicantly decreased TC level and tended to decrease LDL-C
level in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, no signicant inuence on insulin
resistance was observed (Lai etal. 2012).
A. Ali and S. Devarajan
Both sesame oil and RBO are known for their optimum unsaturated fatty acids
and antioxidants contents. In a randomized dietary approach study, a blend of 20%
unrened cold-pressed lignans-rich sesame oil and 80% physically rened
γ-oryzanol-rich RBO as cooking oil in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients was
studied on 300 hypertensive patients. Sesame oil-RBO blend was supplied to hyper-
tensive patients, and they were asked to consume it as the only cooking oil.
Signicant reduction in blood pressure was observed in hypertensives treated with
the blend RBO and sesame oil. TC, LDL-C, TG and non-HDL-C levels reduced,
while HDL-C levels increased signicantly in these patients after 60 days use of
sesame oil-RBO blend. It was suggested that consuming a blend of sesame oil and
RBO had a signicant antihypertensive and lipid-lowering effect (Devarajan etal.
In another study, Devarajan and his colleagues (2016b) determined the anti-
hyperglycaemic potential of the blend of sesame oil and physically rened RBO
(20:80) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sesame oil-RBO blend was supplied to
the T2DM patients, and they were asked to consume it as the regular cooking oil in
place of any other edible oils for 8 weeks. At wk. 4 and wk. 8, the T2DM patients
treated with sesame oil-RBO blend showed signicant reduction in fasting and post-
prandial glucose (p < 0.001). HbA1c, TC, TG and LDL-C levels were also signi-
cantly reduced, while HDL-C level signicantly increased at wk. 8 in T2DM
patients treated with the sesame oil-RBO blend. It was concluded that the use of
sesame oil-RBO blend lowers hyperglycaemia and improves lipid prole in patients
with T2DM.
Uses ofRBO inBaking, Pharmaceutical andCosmetic
The recent trends in the baking industry indicate a reduction in the use of fats and
oils as well as to replace the plastic fats with liquid vegetable oils (Chung and
Pomeraz 1983; Kamran etal. 2005). It has been recommended that not only the total
amount of fat be lowered in high-fat baked products but also the animal fats should
be replaced with polyunsaturated vegetable oil products (Salz 1982). The RBO can
maintain its nutritive quality even at high temperatures and can be used to make
margarine and shortening to be used in baking industry. Rened RBO has been
shown to replace the bakery shortening in bread preparation. Kaur etal. (2012)
concluded that bakery shortening can successfully be replaced with rened RBO
(up to 50%) in bread making with improved baking qualities.
The phytonutrients in RBO can have the potential application in the context of
their utility as functional ingredients for the development of nutraceuticals and
nutritional supplements to ght against many disease conditions (Jariwalla 2001).
Squalene, a bioactive compound in RBO, is easily absorbed by the skin and keeps it
soft, supple and smooth. RBO has anti-inammatory properties and has been shown
9 Nutritional andHealth Benets ofRice Bran Oil
to reduce the effects of menopause like hot ashes. The nano-emulsions based on
the bioactive components of RBO have been shown to improve the skin health
(Daniela etal. 2011; Wuttikul and Boonme 2016). Rigo etal. (2015) demonstrated
that the nano-encapsulation of RBO showed protective properties to prevent and
repair the skin damages caused by excessive exposure to UV-B radiation.
Safety and Toxicological Aspects ofRBO
Since the RBO is categorized as healthy cooking oil, its chemical and nutrient com-
position, nutrient quality and toxicological safety are required to be assessed appro-
priately. RBO did not show any mutagenicity when tested by bacterial reverse
mutation in Ames mutagenicity assays (Polasa and Rukmini 1987). The bioactive
components of RBO did not reveal any toxicity and carcinogenicity in invivo assays
in mice and rats (Tamagawa etal. 1992). On the other hand, they markedly inhibited
the inammation and tumour-promoting effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphobol-13-
acetate (TPA) in mice (Yasukawa etal. 1998). Nutritional and toxicological studies
did not show any abnormalities in animals fed with either RBO or groundnut oil. No
side effects were also observed in adults and children even at high doses of phytos-
terols from the RBO as they are poorly absorbed and can effectively be excreted via
biliary route (Becker etal. 1993; Weststrate and Meijer 1998).
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel however showed its con-
cerns about the presence of contaminants such as pesticides residues in RBO used
for cooking and recommends that the level of these contaminants should not exceed
the currently allowed safe limits. The CIR Expert Panel has concluded that the rice-
derived ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices being used and
the concentrations as described in their safety assessment (Anonymous 2006). RBO
is used in cosmetics as a skin-conditioning and surfactant-cleansing agent. RBO
was not found to be a sensitizer and was negative in ocular toxicity assays and Ames
assay. Its component such as γ-oryzanol was also found to be negative in bacterial
and mammalian mutagenicity assays. Oral carcinogenicity studies done on compo-
nents of rice bran (phytic acid and γ-oryzanol) were negative. The phytochemical
bioactive components of RBO can be a new source of cosmetic raw materials. The
cosmetic formulations, for example, gels and creams, which contain the rice bran
bioactive compounds such as ferulic acid, γ-oryzanol and phytic acid, showed better
clinical anti-ageing activities (Manosroi et al. 2012a, b). Oluremi et al. (2013)
observed that the crude RBO may contain some heavy metals, and therefore it
should be rened to reduce the Fe and Cu overloads, as they may appear in higher
quantities than recommended by the CODEX range. Araghi etal. (2016) evaluated
the toxicity and safety aspects of RBO in chicken embryo model. They demon-
strated that RBO showed no especial toxicity in chicken embryo model, and
therefore it might be regarded as safe for human consumption. In view of its safety,
hypolipidaemic and hypoglycaemic activities, the RBO is considered as good alter-
native and valuable source of edible oil.
A. Ali and S. Devarajan
The rate of diabetes with associated risk of CVD is continuously on the increase
worldwide (IDF 2015). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex multifacto-
rial condition that is caused by inappropriate dietary and lifestyle patterns and
inheritance factors (Waly et al. 2010; Tuomilehto and Schwarz 2016). T2DM is
characterized by insulin resistance and is often accompanied with cardiovascular
disease risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension (Hanley
et al. 2002; Semple 2016). Dietary strategies are considered as the rst line of
defence in the prevention and management of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and
cancers. RBO with its excellent fatty acid composition and bioactive antioxidants
has demonstrated benecial effects to improve the plasma lipid prole in rodents,
rabbits, non-human primates and humans. Consumption of RBO has been shown to
have a direct relationship with its antihypertensive, antidiabetic, lipid-lowering and
anti-carcinogenic properties (Wilson etal. 2000 2007; Most etal. 2005; Salar etal.
2016; Dhavamani etal. 2014; Devarajan etal. 2016a, b; Szcześniak etal. 2016).
Because of its well-balanced and richness of unsaturated fat, bioactive components
and versatile cooking properties, RBO has gained popularity as healthy cooking oil.
Vast majority of scientic data greatly augments the importance of RBO and its
signicant physiological action in health and diseases. Although RBO has unique
physiological and biological properties, the clear cut mechanisms of RBO and its
bioactive components on health and diseases still need to be elucidated. As evi-
denced from several observational and animal studies, it is well documented that the
RBO has an imperative role in the prevention, management and control of chronic
diseases, and therefore RBO would certainly be a valuable dietary addition as func-
tional food in everyday diet.
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A. Ali and S. Devarajan
... However, the number of unsaponifiable compounds varies due to a variety of factors, one among which is depending on the method of refining used to obtain pure oil from crude RBO (Rukmini and Raghuram 1991). These bioactive compounds in RBO help extend the shelf-stability of RBO, help protect against rancidity and play a role in imparting heat stability (Ali and Devarajan 2017;Mezouari and Eichner 2007). The RBO has oxidation stability of about 2-2.5 times groundnut oil (Ahmad Nayik et al. 2015). ...
... The MUFA and PUFA consist of oleic acid (35%) and linoleic acid (40%). The small quantity of α-linolenic acid present in RBO can help in the formation of ω-3 PUFA like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), by aiding the de novo synthesis in tissue phospholipids (Ali and Devarajan 2017). The typical fatty acid composition of RBO contributes to its unique characteristics like lower viscosity and relatively elevated smoking point (∼254 °C). ...
Rice bran, a primary by-product from the rice processing industries, containing 10–15% oil, attracts significant attention from consumers due to its many health-promoting effects. The extraction methodology used is one of the most critical factors affecting the quality and yield of oil from rice bran. Using solvents is the current commercial process for rice bran oil extraction, which has its setbacks. It is challenging and expensive, and there is a risk of traces of solvent residue in the oil. Emerging combination extraction technologies offer zero to minimal solvent residues or chemical deformation while considering increasing environmental and energy footprint. Emerging combination processing technologies include new-age methods like supercritical fluid extraction, sub-critical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction, ohmic heating, and microwave-assisted extraction. These techniques have been reported to extract oil from rice bran, improving extraction efficiency and quality. These techniques demonstrate solid prospects for future applications. The present review discusses and compares these emerging technologies for oil extraction from rice bran commercially.
... Rice bran oil contains a phytonutrient that works as an antioxidants, vitamin E, γ-orthzanol, phytosterols, and squalene. Based on the content, rice bran oil is helpful for health, primarily related to preventing cholesterolrelated diseases (Ali and Devarajan, 2017;Mingyai et al., 2017). ...
Rice bran oil (RBO) and catfish oil (CFO) have high unsaturated fatty acids that are good for health. Mayonnaise products are made mostly from oil. Adding catfish oil and rice bran oil to the mayonnaise will add nutritional value to the product. This study aimed to determine the effect ratio of CFO:RBO on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of mayonnaise. This research used a completely randomized design with one factor, that is ratio of RBO:CFO (74:0, 66.6:7.4, 59.2:14.8, 51.8:22.2 and 44.4:29.6) (% w/w). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance method and continued by Duncan's multiple range tests (α=0.05). The research showed that the ratio of RBO:CFO significantly affected chemical and sensory characteristics but not physical characteristics. Mayonnaise in the % ratio of RBO:CFO = 59.2%:14.8% was the best formula. The selected mayonnaise has foaming capacity, foaming stability, total phenol, moisture, ash, protein, fat, and calorie content of 6.127%, 98.844%, 0.863%, 16.089%, 0.441%, 0.718%, 90% and 718.92 kcal/100 g, respectively. Panelists indicate their level of preference for the color, aroma, texture, and overall mayonnaise at a preference value between 3.067- 3.867.
... In addition, vegetable oils such as olive oil [16], almond, and sunflower seed oil [17] eventually become the green solvent of choice for many researchers in order to satisfy the need for a solvent that is ideal for lycopene, protect it from oxidation, and have no negative health effects. Along with the trend of utilizing food industrial waste, rice oil, also known as rice bran oil (RBO), a vegetable oil recovered as a by-product of rice production is high in bioactive phytonutrients including phytosterols, -oryzanol, squalene, and triterpene alcohols, as well as vitamin E (both tocopherols and tocotrienols) which contribute to high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic and anticancer activities [18]. ...
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The lycopene pigment found abundantly in tomato peels has been proven to own antioxidant capacity and reduce risks of getting cancers. The present study aimed to investigate effects of enzymatic pretreatment to assist lycopene extraction from tomato peels using rice bran oil (RBO) as a green solvent. The peels were pretreated using Viscozyme L at different concentrations (0.5–2.5%), different incubation temperatures (30–70 °C), and incubation durations (30–150 min). The enzyme-assisted extraction conditions for lycopene from tomato peels were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box–Behnken design with three levels of design factors (− 1, 0, and + 1). Pretreated peels were then extracted for 30 min at 25 °C using rice bran oil at a solid/oil ratio of 1:20 (w/v). Lycopene concentration were concurrently analyzed using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography system. The optimal extraction condition was 1.4% Viscozyme L incubated at 52 °C for 92 min resulted in a rice bran oil sample containing the highest concentration of lycopene (0.75 mg lycopene/100 ml rice bran oil or 399.6 mg lycopene/100 g dried tomato peels). Lycopene extraction using RBO along with Viscozyme L assistance could be a friendly extraction method to utilize the tomato-processing waste. RMS has been an effective tool for determining the optimal lycopene extraction conditions required to achieve a lycopene-containing oil product with both health and economic potential.
... Fruit and berry oils are characterized by gentle processing (e.g., no refining and cold pressing), unique aroma, health-promoting attributes, low production yields, and high prices. It was demonstrated that despite the low content of 18:3 n-3 FA in rice bran oil, the amount is sufficient for biosynthesizing n-3 FAs, particularly EPA and DHA, resulting in prolonged shelf life compared to the common oil [45]. Wheat germ oil had the highest atherogenic index at 0.29. ...
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Dietary lipids derived from plants have different compositions of individual fatty acids (FA), providing different physical and chemical properties with positive or adverse health effects on humans. To evaluate the nutritional value and assess the FA composition of various plants, the atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity (TI) indices were calculated and reviewed for nine different categories of fats and oils. This included common oils, unconventional oils, nut oils originating from temperate regions, Amazonian and tropical fats and oils, chia seed oil, traditional nuts originating from temperate regions, unconventional nuts, seeds, and fruits, and their products. The main factors influencing fatty acid composition in plants are growth location, genotype, and environmental variation, particularly temperature after flowering, humidity, and frequency of rainfall (exceeding cultivar variation). The lowest AI was calculated for rapeseed oil (0.05), whereas the highest value was obtained for tucuman seeds (16.29). Chia seed oil had the lowest TI (0.04), and murumuru butter had the highest (6.69). The differences in FA composition and subsequent changes in the lipid health indices of the investigated fats and oils indicate their importance in the human diet.
... Oleic acid (C18:1; 42%), linoleic acid (C18:2; 32%), and palmitic acid (C16:0; 20%) are the three main fatty acids in RBO and represent about 90% of the total fatty acids in RBO [11,12]. Even though RBO has small proportion of α-linolenic acid, it is sufficient for de novo synthesis of other ω3-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in tissue phospholipids [15]. ...
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This trial was performed to determine the effect of rice bran oil (RBO) inclusion in diets of broiler chickens on performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters, meat quality, antioxidant activity, liver lipid content, and liver histological structure. The 35-day feeding trial was conducted on 240 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens, allocated to four treatment groups with six replicates each. RBO was examined at different inclusion levels, 0% (control), 1% (RBO1%), 1.5% (RBO1.5%), and 2% (RBO2%) in a completely randomized design. The results showed that at the end of the trial (35 days) the RBO supplementation had positive effects (p < 0.001) on the productivity parameters, but the feed intake was linearly decreased due to RBO inclusion. In addition, RBO supplementation linearly improved (p < 0.05) the dressing percentage, breast yield, immune organs relative weights, and meat glutathione concentration, while it decreased (p < 0.01) the abdominal fat yield and meat crude fat, triglycerides, cholesterol, and Malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in broiler’s meat. Moreover, serum total protein, globulin, and high-density lipoprotein contents improved noticeably (p < 0.01) due to offering an RBO-supplemented diet, but serum total lipids, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations linearly reduced (p < 0.01). The RBO supplementation augmented (p < 0.05) the phagocytic index, phagocytic activity, and antibody titer compared to control. On the other hand, RBO inclusion had no effect on the breast, thigh, or abdominal fat color parameters. Moreover, RBO supplementation reduced (p < 0.01) the content of total saturated FA (SFA), but increased (p < 0.01) the content of total monounsaturated FA (MUFA), and polyunsaturated FA in both breast and thigh meat. Chemical analysis of the liver tissue samples revealed that the inclusion of RBO linearly reduced (p < 0.05) hepatic cholesterol, triglyceride, and MDA contents. Histologically, the lipid percentage and number of lipid droplets (p < 0.01) were markedly lessened in the RBO-supplemented groups. The histological structure of the liver asses by light and electron microscope were normal in all groups without any pathological lesions. It is concluded that RBO could be used as a valuable ingredient in broiler chickens’ diets to stimulate the growing performance and immune status, enhance the antioxidant activity and blood lipid profile, augment liver function, and improve the nutritive value of the meat.
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Plant-based (PB) meat alternatives are developing due to the consumer’s demand, especially those who are mainly health-concerned. Soy proteins (SP) are commonly used as the main ingredients for PB meat analogues; however, SP may have adverse effects on the cognitive function and mood of humans. This study aimed to use grey oyster mushroom (GOM) and chickpea flour (CF) as an alternative source of SP to prepare emulsion-type sausages (ES). The effect of different hydrocolloids and oil on the quality of sausage was also investigated. The sausage was prepared using different concentrations of GOM and CF (20:20, 25:15, and 30:10 w/w). The GOM to CF ratio 25:15 was selected for the ES based on protein content, textural properties, and sensory attributes. The result indicated that sausage containing konjac powder (KP) and rice bran oil (RBO) provided a better texture and consumer acceptability. The final product showed higher protein (36%, dry basis), less cooking loss (4.08%), purge loss (3.45%), higher emulsion stability, and better consumer acceptability than the commercial sausage. The best recipe for mushroom-based ES is 25% GOM, 15% CF, 5% KP, and 5% RBO. In addition, GOM and CF could be an alternative option to replace SP in PB meat products.
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Modification of vegetable oils is carried out to make them suitable according to their specific end use as most of the vegetable oils in original forms do not meet the recommended dietary allowance of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids. Vegetable oils are modified using a variety of techniques including hydrogenation, interesterification, fractionation, and blending. However, blending is the most widely accepted method for improving the physicochemical properties, nutritive value and oxidative stability of vegetable oils because it is simple, cost-effective, non-destructive, and does not involve chemical treatments. Blending vegetable oils with contrasting fatty acid compositions or blending omega 3 fatty acids and antioxidants rich minor oils with major oils are two common strategies to formulate blends. Blended oil with balanced fatty acids could play substantial role in improving the consumers’ health. However, while designing vegetable oil blends, it is important to keep in mind the intended application of the formulated blend, consumer’s demands and also food laws. This review paper covers the literature related to blending of vegetable oils with a focus on effect of vegetable oils blending on their physicochemical and nutritional properties, health benefits and utility in food industries.
Rice bran oil (RBO) has been a popular choice of cooking oil in several Asian countries for decades, and the interest in RBO is fast growing in Western countries due to the high levels of hearty unsaturated fats and other components beneficial to health. Further knowledge of unsaturated fatty acid content and composition in rice lines will assist in improving the quality of rice bran processing by allowing robust extraction of rice bran for oil production. The studies focused on the RBO composition of rice lines with beneficial genotypes are scarce. Accordingly, we investigated the total bran lipid content and composition of three of the most abundant, healthy, unsaturated fatty acids that freely exist in RBO: oleic, linoleic, and α‐linolenic acids in nine parental lines (two male sterile lines and seven male lines) and seven hybrid rice lines, by utilizing an efficacious organic extraction to collect RBO and by developing a user‐friendly reverse‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodology. Our results showed that the hybrid lines had the highest oil content (F ratio = 7.2017, p value = 0.0019), while the male lines had the highest levels of two of the three free unsaturated fatty acids analyzed (linoleic acid, x¯ = 212.801 mg and oleic acid, x¯ = 48.132 mg). Oil weight was negatively correlated with α‐linolenic acid (r = −0.6535, p value <0.0001). All three free unsaturated fatty acids were positively correlated. Our samples' natural variation in lipid content suggests that some rice lines are more suitable for oil production.
Rice Bran Oil (RBO) is an abundant food source in Indonesia. RBO contains high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and rich in antioxidants. However, clinical trials on this material are still very limited. This research aims to assess the differences of effect of rice bran oil (RBO) and olive oil (OO) on lipid profile alteration of hypercholesterolemia junior high school teachers. This study used a quasi-experimental method with a non-randomized pre-test and post-test design. A total of 28 junior high school teachers in the Tamalanrea District of Makassar City who experienced hypercholesterolemia were recruited in this study and were divided into 2 groups. The two groups were at different research locations and received different interventions. The intervention group was given rice bran oil (30 ml/day) while the control group was given olive oil (30 ml/day) for 30 days. The pair t test was used to determine the difference in lipid profile before and after giving RBO and OO. The analysis was continued by comparing the results in the two groups using the independent t test. The level of confidence was set at 95% with a significance value less than 0.05 (p <0.05). After giving RBO for 30 days, the results were a decrease in total cholesterol by 4.59%, triglycerides by 15.8%, LDL by 4.87%, but HDL levels also decreased, although in insignificant amounts (3.41%). Meanwhile, giving OO as a control reduced total cholesterol by 5.04% and triglycerides by 28.2%. In addition, there was also a slight increase in HDL levels by 0.45%, in contrast to LDL levels which did not show any difference at all. At the end of the study of the four lipid profile parameters observed, significant improvements were observed in the reduction of total cholesterol and triglyceride levels significantly after administration of RBO and OO (p <0.05). The results also showed that there was no significant difference between RBO and OO on changes in lipid profile (p> 0.05). From this study, we can conclude that rice bran oil and olive oil have the same effect in improving lipid profiles by significantly lowering total cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Rice waste is one of the agricultural wastes that increased every year. Consequently, rice waste is ideal renewable resources for the production of nanomaterials as a substitute for harmful chemicals. Thus, a researcher in the major rice-producing areas developed eco-friendly sustainable perspective to replace the common practices for rice waste Management. Furthermore, the researcher needs to understand that rice waste assisted fabrication is a cost-effective, eco-friendly sustainable nanoparticle. The chapter considers the types and composition of rice waste, the various process involved in the production of sustainable nanomaterials and their applications in biological and biomedical, environmental, and agri-food sectors was discussed.
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The health benefits of plant food-based diets could be related to both integrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms exerted by a wide array of phytochemicals present in fruit, vegetables, herbs and spices. Therefore, there is mounting interest in identifying foods, food extracts and phytochemicals formulations from plant sources which are able to efficiently modulate oxidative and inflammatory stress to prevent diet-related diseases. This paper reviews available evidence about the effect of supplementation with selected fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and their extracts or galenic formulation on combined markers of redox and inflammatory status in humans.
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Objective: Rice Bran Oil (RBO) is extracted from the outer layer of rice. Little information is available regarding its safety. The present study was conducted to assess its safety in chicken embryo model. Materials and methods: RBO was injected on day 4 of incubation of chickens. The tissues and serum samples were collected. Oxidative stress parameters in the liver, kidney and brain and biochemical parameters of serum were measured. The deformities were also investigated. Results: The changes in the liver enzymes activity were not statistically significant. There was significant decrease and increase in lipid peroxidation and glutathione level, respectively. It is suggested that RBO is a natural antioxidant source. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) also decreased. No abnormal findings were observed in the chickens. Conclusion: No toxic effect was observed following RBO administration in chicken embryos. This study showed that RBO is not a safety concern.
In this report we conducted a same kind of experiment as in the previous report in order to reconfirm the characteristic aspect that amongst the blend oils of rice bran oil and safflower oil the one blended in the ratio 70:30 had a distinctly higher effectiveness for lowering cholesterol level and contrarily the one of the ratio 50:50 had a lower effectiveness than the effectiveness of each original pure oil. In addition a series of blend oils of rice bran oil and sunflower oil instead of safflower oil were also served for the purpose of ascertaining whether the sunflower oil acts similar role or not. A total number of ninety healthy young girls were divided into nine groups and daily took 60g of each oil blended in next ratios for 7 days. R-100: Rice bran oil 100% Sf-100: Safflower oil 100% Sf-15: Rice bran oil 85%, Safflower oil 15% Sf-30: Rice bran oil 70%, Safflower oil 30% Sf-50: Rice bran oil 50%, Safflower oil 50% Sn-100: Sunflower oil 100% Sn-15: Rice bran oil 85%, Sunflower oil 15% Sn-30: Rice bran oil 70%, Sunflower oil 30% Sn-50: Rice bran oil 50%, Sunflower oil 50% As shown in the Figure 1, the effectiveness for lowering cholesterol level was highest in the blend oil Sf-30, showing a value -26% in comparison with the pre-experimental level, that is higher than the value of the rice bran oil -18% or of the safflower oil -14%. On the other hand the effectiveness of Sf-50 was -12%, showing the lowest value and even lower than the values of both original oils. These aspects are the very same as the results obtained in the previous report. Blending oils of sunflower oil with rice bran did not result in the same way, though their fatty acid compositions are fairly alike. The more the content of the sunflower oil in the blending, the more closely resemble to the effectiveness of the sunflower oil as seen in the Figure 2. Accordingly, the characteristic nature seen in the case of blending safflower oil with rice bran may be derived from their unsaponifiable matters.
High levels of depression during adolescence may contribute to the risk for future depression later in life. This study examined the relationship between the developmental timing of depressive symptoms, and brain structural outcomes in late adolescence. In a prior work, we examined longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms in 243 adolescents (121 males and 122 females), and identified four subgroups: a normative group with stable low levels of depression, two groups with declining symptoms, and one group with increasing symptoms. For the current paper, diffusion-weighted MRI images were acquired at the final wave of the study, and used to perform white matter tractography and brain network analysis. The four depression trajectory groups were tested for differences in brain connectivity variables. This revealed differences in several frontal and temporal regions. The groups that had experienced elevated depression symptoms in early adolescence differed from the normative group in a greater number of areas than the group who had experienced depression later. Affected tracts corresponded to areas of white matter that are still maturing during this period, particularly frontolimbic regions. These findings support the proposition that the timing and duration of depression symptoms during adolescence are associated with brain structural outcomes.
Introduction: Given the substantially increasing geriatric population, the need for evidence-based strategies to address the medical and societal consequences of these demographic trends has never been greater. In this context, statins for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) provide substantial potential social value by improving health and survival. However, using statins for primary prevention in older adults presents a clinical dilemma. Even though compelling evidence exists supporting statins for secondary prevention in individuals older than 75 years with clinical ASCVD, the same cannot be said for primary prevention. In this Viewpoint, we describe existing evidence on the benefits of statins for primary prevention in older adults, uncertainties about risks, and the need for a randomized trial before non–evidence-based prescribing patterns become irreversibly incorporated into practice.
Pectin and its several modified forms have shown remarkable impact in therapeutic use against various cancers. In the present study, pectin, an anionic polysaccharide isolated from Musa paradisiaca is employed for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at ambient temperature conditions. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using microscopic and spectroscopic studies and its anti-cancer potential was evaluated in mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Apoptosis induction was evident from increase in sub-G1 population studied using flow cytometry analysis. DNA damage followed by cell death in pectin mediated gold nanoparticles (p-GNPs) treated cells was measured by Comet assay. Uptake of p-GNPs by cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) was analyzed using FE-SEM which revealed the presence of p-GNPs as aggregates over the surface of cells with loss in cellular integrity compared to control cells.
There are a number of arguments in support of earlymeasures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), aswell as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low-and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a concerning health problem because of its increasing prevalence. Vegetable oils such as rice bran oil may improve blood lipids, risk factors for CVD. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and quantify the effects of rice bran oil on lipid profiles in humans. Literature databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Proquest, Ovid, and Google Scholar) were systematically searched until the end of November 2015, with no restrictions regarding study design, time, or language. The variables extracted for the meta-analysis included low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-C, apoA, apoB, Lp(a), TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C. From 415 identified articles, 11 randomized controlled trials met the eligibility criteria and were included in our review. Rice bran oil consumption resulted in a significant decrease in concentrations of LDL-C (-6.91 mg/dl, 95% CI, -10.24 to -3.57; p<0.001) and TC (-12.65 mg/dl; 95% CI, -18.04 to -7.27; p<0.001). The increase in HDL-C levels were considerable only in men (6.65 mg/dl; 95% CI, 2.38-10.92; p=0.002). Results of our meta-analysis provided no evidence of a significant effekt of rice bran oil on other lipid profile components. In conclusion, consumption of rice bran oil can reduce LDL-C and TC concentrations, which may lead to prevention and control of CVD. It also has favorable effects on HDL-C concentrations in men. However, changes related to other lipid profile components are not considerable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.