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Abstract and Figures

This article differentiates between descriptive and explanatory factors to develop a typology and a theory of stakeholder and public engagement. The typology describes different types of public and stakeholder engagement, and the theory comprises four factors that explain much of the variation in outcomes (for the natural environment and/or for participants) between different types of engagement. First, we use a narrative literature search to develop a new typology of stakeholder and public engagement based on agency (who initiates and leads engagement) and mode of engagement (from communication to coproduction). We then propose a theory to explain the variation in outcomes from different types of engagement: (1) a number of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional contextual factors influence the outcomes of engagement; (2) there are a number of process design factors that can increase the likelihood that engagement leads to desired outcomes, across a wide range of sociocultural, political, economic, and biophysical contexts; (3) the effectiveness of engagement is significantly influenced by power dynamics, the values of participants, and their epistemologies, that is, the way they construct knowledge and which types of knowledge they consider valid; and (4) engagement processes work differently and can lead to different outcomes when they operate over different spatial and temporal scales. We use the theoretical framework to provide practical guidance for those designing engagement processes, arguing that a theoretically informed approach to stakeholder and public engagement has the potential to markedly improve the outcomes of environmental decision-making processes.
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>^ Top-down!one-way!communication!and/or!consultation/"%.8+8%1%.#",3",.,#,+#%5"
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A^ Top-down!deliberation!and/or!co-production/"%.8+8%1%.#",3",.,#,+#%5"+.5"4%5"
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D^ Bottom-up!one-way!communication!and/or!consultation/"%.8+8%1%.#",3",.,#,+#%5"
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6"
Box!1:!Examples!of!different!types!of!participation!
Top-down!one-way!communication!and/or!consultation:"<+.("5%-,3,&.J1+2,.8"7&5,%3"-'%+#%"
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N$%"4,#%'+#6'%"'%9,%0%5",."#$%"*'%9,&63"3%-#,&."6.5%'"e-&.#%]#f"3$&03"$&0"#$%"&6#-&1%3"&)"
3#+2%$&45%'"+.5"*674,-"%.8+8%1%.#"+'%"+))%-#%5"7("Z1+,.4("4&-+4["3&-,&J%-&.&1,-?"-64#6'+4"
+.5",.3#,#6#,&.+4"-&.#%]#3"0,#$,."0$,-$",#",3"%.+-#%5^"C]+1*4%3"&)"3*%-,),-"-&.#%]#6+4")+-#&'3"
#$+#"1+("3,8.,),-+.#4("+))%-#"#$%"36--%33"&)"+."%.8+8%1%.#"*'&-%33",.-465%"#$%"%],3#%.-%"&)"+"
*+'#,-,*+#&'("-64#6'%"+.5")&'1%'"%]*%',%.-%3"&)"%.8+8%1%.#"Z0$%#$%'"36--%33)64"&'"
6.36--%33)64["+.5"+9+,4+74%"'%3&6'-%3^"G&'"#$%3%"'%+3&.3?",#",3".%-%33+'("#&"#+2%"#,1%"#&")644("
6.5%'3#+.5"#$%"4&-+4"-&.#%]#",."0$,-$"%.8+8%1%.#",3"#&"7%"%.+-#%5?"#&"5%#%'1,.%"0$+#"#(*%"
&)"%.8+8%1%.#"+**'&+-$",3"+**'&*',+#%?"+.5"%.+74%"#$%"5%3,8."&)"+.("*'&-%33"#&"7%"
%))%-#,9%4("+5+*#%5"#&"#$%"-&.#%]#^"
"
Design"
"
N$%"4,#%'+#6'%"'%9,%0%5",."#$%"*'%9,&63"3%-#,&."6.5%'"e5%3,8.f"3$&03"$&0"+".617%'"&)"
*'&-%33"5%3,8.")+-#&'3"-+.",.-'%+3%"#$%"4,2%4,$&&5"#$+#"%.8+8%1%.#"4%+53"#&"5%3,'%5"
&6#-&1%3?"+-'&33"+"0,5%"'+.8%"&)"3&-,&J-64#6'+4?"*&4,#,-+4?"%-&.&1,-"+.5"7,&*$(3,-+4"-&.#%]#3^"
V."*+'#,-64+'?"%.8+8%1%.#"*'&-%33%3"#$+#"3(3#%1+#,-+44("'%*'%3%.#"'%4%9+.#"*674,-"+.5"
3#+2%$&45%'",.#%'%3#3"+.5"*'&9,5%"#'+.3*+'%.#"&**&'#6.,#,%3"#&",.)46%.-%"&6#-&1%3"7+3%5"&."
164#,*4%"2.&04%58%"3&6'-%3"+'%"1&'%"4,2%4("#&"5%4,9%'"7%.%),-,+4"%.9,'&.1%.#+4"+.5"3&-,+4"
&6#-&1%3?"+-'&33"+"0,5%"'+.8%"&)"-&.#%]#3^";%+3&.3")&'"#$,3"+'%"#$+#/"%.8+8%1%.#"-+."
)+-,4,#+#%"4%+'.,.8"+.5"-$+.8%3",."+##,#65%3"+.5"9+46%3"+1&.83#"*+'#,-,*+.#3"#$+#"1+2%"
+--%*#+.-%"&)"&6#-&1%3"1&'%"4,2%4(`"%.8+8%1%.#"-+."4%+5"#&"7%##%'",.)&'1%5"5%-,3,&.3"56%"
#&"+"0,5%'"'+.8%"&)",.)&'1+#,&.",.*6#3"+.5"2.&04%58%"%]-$+.8%`"+.5"%.8+8%1%.#"-+."
,.-'%+3%"#$%"4,2%4,$&&5"#$+#"5%-,3,&.3"+'%",1*4%1%.#%5?"7%-+63%"#$%"5%-,3,&.",3"1&'%"
'%4%9+.#"#&"3#+2%$&45%'".%%53"+.5"*',&',#,%3"+.5"#$%"5%-,3,&.",3"1&'%"4,2%4("#&"'%)4%-#"#$%"
9,%03"&)"#$&3%"0$&"$+9%"#&",1*4%1%.#",#^"V5%+44("+44"+))%-#%5"*+'#,%3"3$&645"7%"'%*'%3%.#%5"
3&1%$&0?"#&"5%9%4&*"3$+'%5"8&+43"+.5"-&J*'&56-%"&6#-&1%3"7+3%5"&."#$%"1&3#"'%4%9+.#"
3&6'-%3"&)"2.&04%58%?"76#")&'"+44"*+'#,%3"#&"7%",.9&49%5",."5,+4&86%"1+(".&#"+40+(3"7%"
)%+3,74%^"
"
+ +
13"
"
!
Figure!2:"!"#$%&'("&)"*+'#,-,*+#,&."#$+#"%]*4+,.3"$&0"#$%"&6#-&1%3"&)"3#+2%$&45%'"+.5"*674,-"%.8+8%1%.#",."
%.9,'&.1%.#+4"1+.+8%1%.#"+'%"%]*4+,.%5"7("-&.#%]#?"*'&-%33"5%3,8.?"#$%"1+.+8%1%.#"&)"*&0%'"5(.+1,-3"+.5"
3-+4+'"),#^"
+
+
Power"
"
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*+'#,-,*+.#3"+.5"#$%,'"%*,3#%1&4&8,%3",^%^"#$%"0+("#$%("-&.3#'6-#"2.&04%58%"+.5"0$,-$"#(*%3"
&)"2.&04%58%"#$%("-&.3,5%'"9+4,5^"j&&'"1+.+8%1%.#"&)"*&0%'"5(.+1,-3",3"&.%"&)"#$%"1+c&'"
'%+3&.3")&'"%.8+8%1%.#")+,4,.8"#&"5%4,9%'"&6#-&1%3^"j'&)%33,&.+4")+-,4,#+#,&."+.5"1%5,+#,&."
-+."3,8.,),-+.#4("'%56-%"#$%"4,2%4,$&&5"&)"-&.)4,-#"+.5"0$%'%"-&.)4,-#3"$+9%"+4'%+5("3#+'#%5?"
-+."$%4*"'%56-%"&'"'%3&49%"-&.)4,-#3"#$'&68$"%.8+8%1%.#"0,#$"+.5"1+.+8%1%.#"&)"*&0%'"
5(.+1,-3"7%#0%%."*+'#,-,*+.#3^"V#",3".%-%33+'("#&",1*4%1%.#"#$%"5%3,8.",."+"0+("#$+#"
%.36'%3"*&0%'"5(.+1,-3"+'%"%))%-#,9%4("1+.+8%5?"3&"#$+#"#$%"9+46%"&)"%9%'("*+'#,-,*+.#g3"
-&.#',76#,&.",3"'%-&8.,3%5"+.5"%9%'(&.%",3"8,9%."+."%a6+4"&**&'#6.,#("#&"-&.#',76#%^"
"
Scalar+fit+
"
Q6#-&1%3")'&1"%.8+8%1%.#"+'%"$,8$4("3-+4%J5%*%.5%.#"&9%'"3*+-%"+.5"#,1%^"B&.#%]#6+4"
9+46%3?"36-$"+3"*'%)%'%.-%3")&'"&.%"&*#,&."&'"+.&#$%'?"1+("-$+.8%"&9%'"3$&'#"#,1%3-+4%3?"76#"
#$%"%]#%.#"#&"0$,-$"%.8+8%1%.#"Z9,+"5%4,7%'+#,&.["3$+*%3"#$%"9+46%3"&)"*+'#,-,*+.#3",3"$,8$4("
5%*%.5%.#"&."#$%"#%1*&'+4"3-+4%3"&9%'"0$,-$"%.8+8%1%.#"&--6'3^"V#",3"#$%'%)&'%".%-%33+'("#&"
1+#-$"#$%"4%.8#$"+.5")'%a6%.-("&)"%.8+8%1%.#"#&"#$%"8&+43"&)"#$%"*'&-%33?"'%-&8.,3,.8"#$+#"
-$+.8%3",."5%%*4("$%45"9+46%3"Z#$+#"1+("7%"+#"#$%"'&&#"&)"+"-&.)4,-#["+'%"4,2%4("#&"#+2%"4&.8%'"
#$+."-$+.8%3",."*'%)%'%.-%3?"0$,-$"1+("7%",.)46%.-%5"&9%'"3$&'#%'"#,1%3-+4%3"#$'&68$"
Challenging
Context
Conducive
In terms of existing participation culture, former experiences of engagement and available resources
Hierarchical, closed/limited or ad
hoc representation
Design
Systematic representation and
transparent, structured
opportunities to engage
Un-managed power dynamics and
(some) participants unable to
contribute knowledge or influence
outcomes
Power
Power dynamics effectively
managed to give all participants
equal opportunities to contribute
knowledge and influence
outcomes
Late and poorly matched
Scalar Fit
Early and well matched to
temporal and spatial scale
Likelihood of delivering beneficial outcomes
14"
5%4,7%'+#,&.^"N$%"%]#%.#"#&"0$,-$"%.8+8%1%.#"4%+53"#&"5%3,'%5"&6#-&1%3"+43&"5%*%.53"6*&."
1+#-$,.8"%.8+8%1%.#"#&"#$%"3*+#,+4"3-+4%3"+#"0$,-$"5%-,3,&.3"+'%"7%,.8"1+5%^"=#+2%$&45%'"
+.5"*674,-"%.8+8%1%.#"163#"7%"&'8+.,3%5"+.5"-&.56-#%5"+#"+"3*+#,+4"3-+4%"#$+#",3"'%4%9+.#"#&"
#$%",336%?"+.5"#$%"c6',35,-#,&.3"&)"+6#$&',#,%3"&'",.3#,#6#,&.3"#$+#"-+."#+-24%",#^"!43&?"%-&4&8,-+4"
3-+4%3?"3*+#,+4"&'"#%1*&'+4?".%%5"#&"7%"+55'%33%5"+**'&*',+#%4(^"=&1%"%-&4&8,-+4"*'&-%33%3"
-+."#+2%"+"9%'("4&.8"#,1%"+.5"-&.-%'."164#,*4%"8%.%'+#,&.3?"76#"9%'(")%0"*%&*4%"&9%'+44^"
Q#$%'"%-&4&8,-+4"*'&-%33%3"1+("-&.-%'."+"3,8.,),-+.#".617%'"&)"*%&*4%?"76#"#$%"%-&4&8,-+4"
*'&-%33"1,8$#"7%"+4#%'%5",."+"9%'("3$&'#"#,1%^"G&'"%.8+8%1%.#"#&"5%4,9%'"5%3,'%5"&6#-&1%3?"
'%*'%3%.#+#,&."&)"3#+2%$&45%'",.#%'%3#3"+.5"5%-,3,&.J1+2,.8"*&0%'".%%53"#&"1+#-$"+"3*+#,+4"
3-+4%"'%4%9+.#"#&"#$%"3-+4%"&)"#$%",336%3"7%,.8"-&.3,5%'%5^"V."#$,3"0+(?"#$&3%"0,#$".+#,&.+4"
,.#%'%3#3"+.5"5%-,3,&.J1+2,.8"*&0%'"0,44"7%",.9&49%5",.".+#,&.+4"5%-,3,&.3"76#"4&-+4"+-#&'3"
0,44"7%"%1*&0%'%5"#&"%.8+8%",.",336%3"+#"3-+4%3"1&'%"'%4%9+.#"#&"#$%,'",.#%'%3#3^""
!
Conclusion!
V."#$,3"*+*%'?"0%"5,3#,.86,3$"7%#0%%."#$%"5%3-',*#,&."&)"5,))%'%.#"#(*%3"&)"3#+2%$&45%'"+.5"
*674,-"%.8+8%1%.#"+.5"#$%")+-#&'3"#$+#"%]*4+,."0$(",."#$%&'("%.8+8%1%.#"0&'23^"N$,3"$%4*3"
%]*4+,."0$("%.8+8%1%.#",."#$%")&'1"&)"#&*J5&0."-&116.,-+#,&."-+.",."3&1%"-&.#%]#3"
+-$,%9%",#3"8&+43"36--%33)644(?"0$,4%"1&'%"7&##&1J6*?"-&J*'&56-#,9%"*'&-%33%3"3&1%#,1%3")+,4"
#&"+-$,%9%"#$%,'"8&+43^"N$%"#(*%"&)"%.8+8%1%.#?",."#%'13"&)",#3"+8%.-("+.5"1&5%?"5&%3".&#"
.%-%33+',4("*'%5,-#"#$%"&6#-&1%3"&)"%.8+8%1%.#^"V."#$,3"4,8$#?"0%"'%c%-#".&'1+#,9%"+33%'#,&.3"
#$+#"%.8+8%1%.#"3$&645"+40+(3"+,1"#&"7%"e+3")+'"6*"#$%"4+55%'"+3"*&33,74%f?"#&"63%"!'.3#%,.g3"
Z>dMd["4+55%'"+.+4&8(?",."0$,-$"1&'%"#&*J5&0."+.5"-&116.,-+#,9%")&'13"&)"%.8+8%1%.#"
+'%"+3361%5"#&"'%*'%3%.#"e#&2%.,31f?"e#$%'+*(f"+.5"e1+.,*64+#,&.f^"T("'%*6'*&3,.8"#$%"
+.+4&8("&)"+"e0$%%4"&)"*+'#,-,*+#,&.f?"0%"+'86%"#$+#"+44"#(*%3"&)"%.8+8%1%.#"3$&645"7%"
+9+,4+74%")&'"63%?"76#"#$%,'"3%4%-#,&."+.5"+**4,-+#,&."3$&645"7%"7+3%5"&."+"#$%&'%#,-+4"
6.5%'3#+.5,.8"&)"e0$+#"0&'23f?",."#%'13"&)"5%3,'%5"&6#-&1%3")'&1"%.8+8%1%.#^""
U.5%'3#+.5,.8"0$("3#+2%$&45%'"+.5"*674,-"%.8+8%1%.#",3"4,2%4("#&"0&'2"&'".&#?",."#$%&'(?",3"
%33%.#,+4"#&"3%4%-#"#$%"1&3#"'%4%9+.#"#(*%"&)"%.8+8%1%.#")&'"+"8,9%."*6'*&3%3"+.5"-&.#%]#?"
)'&1"#$%"0$%%4"&)"&*#,&.3",."G,86'%">^"N$%"#$%&'%#,-+4")'+1%0&'2",."G,86'%"A"$%4*3"%]*4+,."
0$("#$%3%"5,))%'%.#"#(*%3"&)"%.8+8%1%.#"1+("4%+5"#&"5,))%'%.#"&6#-&1%3^"!**4(,.8"#$,3"
#$%&'(?"0%"1+2%"#$%")&44&0,.8"'%-&11%.5+#,&.3")&'"*'+-#,-%/"
N+2%"#,1%"#&")644("6.5%'3#+.5"4&-+4"-&.#%]#"#&"5%#%'1,.%"#$%"+**'&*',+#%"#(*%"&)"
%.8+8%1%.#"+**'&+-$"+.5"+5+*#",#3"5%3,8."#&"#$%"-&.#%]#"
X%#"+44"+))%-#%5"*+'#,%3",.9&49%5",."5,+4&86%"+3"3&&."+3"*&33,74%?"#&"5%9%4&*"3$+'%5"
8&+43"+.5"-&J*'&56-%"&6#-&1%3"7+3%5"&."#$%"1&3#"'%4%9+.#"3&6'-%3"&)"2.&04%58%"
<+.+8%"*&0%'"5(.+1,-3?"3&"%9%'("*+'#,-,*+.#g3"-&.#',76#,&.",3"9+46%5"+.5"+44"$+9%"+."
%a6+4"&**&'#6.,#("#&"-&.#',76#%"
<+#-$"#$%"4%.8#$"+.5")'%a6%.-("&)"%.8+8%1%.#"#&"#$%"8&+43"&)"#$%"*'&-%33?"
'%-&8.,3,.8"#$+#"-$+.8%3",."5%%*4("$%45"9+46%3"Z#$+#"1+("7%"+#"#$%"'&&#"&)"+"-&.)4,-#["
+'%"4,2%4("#&"#+2%"4&.8%'"#$+."-$+.8%3",."*'%)%'%.-%3"
<+#-$"#$%"'%*'%3%.#+#,&."&)"3#+2%$&45%'",.#%'%3#3"+.5"5%-,3,&.J1+2,.8"*&0%'"#&"#$%"
3*+#,+4"3-+4%"&)"#$%",336%3"7%,.8"-&.3,5%'%5"
15"
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4%+53"#&"+.",.-'%+3%",."#'63#"+.5"1&'%"*&3,#,9%"0&'2,.8"'%4+#,&.3$,*3?"+"#$%&'%#,-+44("
,.)&'1%5"+**'&+-$"#&"3#+2%$&45%'"+.5"*674,-"%.8+8%1%.#"$+3"#$%"*&#%.#,+4"#&"1+'2%54("
,1*'&9%"#$%"&6#-&1%3"&)"5%-,3,&.J1+2,.8"*'&-%33%3^""
"
!
Acknowledgements!and!conflict!of!interest!
"
N$+.23"#&"#0&"+.&.(1&63"'%9,%0%'3?"K&1"Y+42%'"+.5"E+-"=0+'#")&'"3688%3#,&.3"#$+#",1*'&9%5"#$%"1+.63-',*#^"
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C6'&*%+."U.,&.o3"I&',h&."A\A\"'%3%+'-$"+.5",..&9+#,&."*'&8'+11%"6.5%'"8'+.#"+8'%%1%.#"O&"MRRF\R^";%%5"
,3"B$,%)"Q*%'+#,.8"Q)),-%'"&)"G+3#"N'+-2"V1*+-#?"+"#'+,.,.8"-&1*+.("#$+#",3"-$+.8,.8"$&0"'%3%+'-$%'3"8%.%'+#%"
+.5"3$+'%"2.&04%58%?"3&"#$%,'",5%+3"-+."-$+.8%"#$%"0&'45^"
!
!
References!!
"
!.3%44"B^?"X+3$"!"ZA\\S["B&44+7&'+#,9%"X&9%'.+.-%",."N$%&'("+.5"j'+-#,-%^"E&6'.+4"&)"j674,-"!51,.,3#'+#,&."
;%3%+'-$"+.5"N$%&'(">S/LFDJLR>"
!'1,#+8%"K?"5%"H&q";B?"<&'',3"<?"C50+'53"NY?"X%'4+2"!P?"I+44";V?"I6,#%1+"K?"V3&.";?"H,9,.83#&.%"K?"<+-K&.+45"
X?"<,'61+-$,"O"ZA\>L["=-,%.-%r*&4,-("*'&-%33%3")&'"#'+.37&6.5+'("0+#%'"8&9%'.+.-%^"!17,&"FF/DLDJDMM"
!'.3#%,."!"Z>dMd["!"4+55%'"&)"-,#,h%.3$,*"*+'#,-,*+#,&.^"E&6'.+4"&)"#$%"!1%',-+."V.3#,#6#%"&)"j4+..%'3"AM/A>Mr
ADD"
!63#,."KC"ZA\\F["j+'#.%'3$,*3?".&#"*'&c%-#3s"V1*'&9,.8"#$%"%.9,'&.1%.#"#$'&68$"-&44+7&'+#,9%"'%3%+'-$"+.5"
+-#,&.^"I61+."Q'8+.,h+#,&."MD/F>dJFD\"
T+44+'5"IH?"T%432("E<"ZA\>\["j+'#,-,*+#&'("+-#,&."'%3%+'-$"+.5"%.9,'&.1%.#+4"4%+'.,.8/"V1*4,-+#,&.3")&'"
'%3,4,%.#")&'%3#3"+.5"-&116.,#,%3^"C.9,'&.1%.#+4"C56-+#,&.";%3%+'-$">M/M>>JMAR"
T+61%,3#%'";G?"H%+'("<;"Z>ddR["Y',#,.8".+''+#,9%"4,#%'+#6'%"'%9,%03^";%9,%0"&)"8%.%'+4"*3(-$&4&8(">/D>>"
T%,%'4%"NB"ZA\\A["N$%"t6+4,#("&)"=#+2%$&45%'JT+3%5"K%-,3,&.3^";,32"!.+4(3,3"AA/RDdJRFd"
T%44?"=^? @+..%'?";^?"Q68$#&.?"C^!^?"C1%'(?"=^T^?"H&-2?"P^"+.5"B&4%?"H^"ZA\>>["Defra+NE0109+Social+Research+
Evidence+Review+to+Inform+Natural+Environment+Policy^"G,.+4"j'&c%-#";%*&'#"#&"#$%"K%*+'#1%.#")&'"
C.9,'&.1%.#?"G&&5"+.5";6'+4"!))+,'3^"j&4,-("=#65,%3"V.3#,#6#%^"K%)'+?"H&.5&.^ "
T%'-&9,#-$"E"ZA\\R["<%5,+#,&."=6--%33"&'"G+,46'%/"!"=%+'-$")&'"#$%"C463,9%"B',#%',+^"B+'5&h&"E&6'.+4"&)"B&.)4,-#"
;%3&46#,&."R/ASd"
T%9,.8#&."K"ZA\>A["N$%"'%7,'#$"&)"%.9,'&.1%.#+4,31/"8'+33'&&#3"+-#,9,31")'&1"#$%"3*&##%5"&04"#&"#$%"*&4+'"
7%+'^"V34+.5"j'%33^"
T4,-$+'32+"<?"V3+233&."P?";,-$+'53&."N?"Y6"BE"ZA\>>["B&.#%]#"5%*%.5%.-("+.5"3#+2%$&45%'",.9&49%1%.#",."CV!/"
#$%"5%-,3,9%"'&4%"&)"*'+-#,#,&.%'3^"E&6'.+4"&)"C.9,'&.1%.#+4"j4+..,.8"+.5"<+.+8%1%.#"LF/DDRJDLF""""
T&&#$"!?"I+43%#$"X"ZA\>>["Y$("#$%"*674,-"#$,.23".+#6'+4"'%3&6'-%3"*674,-"*+'#,-,*+#,&."*'&-%33%3")+,4/"!"-+3%"
3#65("&)"T',#,3$"B&4617,+"-&116.,#,%3^"H+.5"U3%"j&4,-("AS/SdSJd\M"
T&(#%"IB"ZA\\L[";%)'+1,.8"K%1&-'+-(/"X&9%'.+.-%?"B,9,-"!8%.-(?"+.5"j&4,#,-3^"j674,-"!51,.,3#'+#,&.";%9,%0"
ML/LDMJLFM"
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... Building on these arguments, studies have determined the role of effective process design (Reed et al., 2018), including several factors that are important to increase legitimacy and reliability of collaborative processes (e.g. Beierle and Cayford, 2002;Buchy and Hoverman, 2000;Reed, 2008;Sheppard and Meitner, 2005). ...
... As discussed earlier by e.g. Reed et al. (2018), Mellqvist (2017), collaborative processes, including such processes as LRAs must be adapted to the specific local context and process goals. Even though the LRA-process is designed to focus on collaborative and democratic aspects of landscape planning, a disadvantage is that it is difficult to guarantee that all possible stakeholders are represented. ...
... It is impossible to engage everyone who lives or works in an area. This also points back to the importance of an effective process design (Reed et al., 2018), where the LRA can work as a satisfying tool for illustrating the different interests and values in forests. However, all kinds of collaborative processes are time consuming and this specific LRA shows that it is important to reflect over the chosen area. ...
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Today's societies face significant ecological and societal challenges, including climate change and economic crises. In this context, forests can be a useful resource for new innovations and products. However, increased out-take of forest resources can raise the pressure on common forest resources and increase already existing conflicts between e.g. forestry and production versus conservation. Herein, the objective of this paper was to explore a collaborative process, namely landscape resource analysis (LRA), as a tool to identify a variety of values and sometimes conflicting interests and to improve communication about these among different stakeholders by using maps and GIS. The method was applied to a small forest area, Norra Klarälvsdalen, in Värmland County, Sweden. The area hosts a variety of forest owners, firms and companies in different sectors and several voluntary organisations with interest in the local forest. The study showed that LRA in combination with GIS has the potential to add value to collaborative processes in local planning and forest decision making processes. Even though it is difficult to guarantee broad representation in collaborative processes, the LRA served to identify a wide range of values and conflicting interests among the local participants including as well immaterial, e.g. cultural ecosystem services, as material and monetary values in the forest area. It also served as a tool for social learning and put focus on local citizens perspectives and experiences in addition to ‘experts’ of forest landscapes.
... In this study, we define fishers' engagement as the continuous involvement in participation, in a dynamic inherent to an adaptive co-management system [6]. Engagement have been characterized in three ways [7]: (i) who initiates or leads the process (top-down or bottom-up, herein called agency), (ii) the motivations and results that drive engagement (pragmatic, normative, or to increase confidence in decision-making processes), and (iii) the flow of information and knowledge between public agencies and social actors. ...
... The description of participation in steps assumes that the highest levels are the most desirable in any participatory process. However, for Reed et al. [7], participatory processes at the top of the ladder can also have undesirable results, when important aspects such as context, objectives, and the ability of social actors to influence the results are not considered. In this context, an analogy to a "participation wheel" has been preferred, for it stresses the legitimacy of different engagement degrees and adjusts participation expectations regarding the preferred techniques and objectives [9]: "(.) the wheel promotes the appropriate level of community involvement to achieve clear objectives, without suggesting that the aim is always to climb to the top of the ladder" (p. ...
... The analysis model adopted by Reed et al. [7] aims to explain engagement through a distinction between descriptionrepresented by the engagement typeand explanation of factors that generate engagement variations. According to this approach, four broad typologies ranging from communication to co-production are proposed ( Table 1). ...
Article
Promoting fishers' engagement in the management of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) is crucial to enable governance strategies. In this article, the process of engaging small-scale fishers was analyzed in two initiatives carried out in Right Whale Environmental Protection Area (RWEPA), Santa Catarina state, Brazil: (i) the formulation of the Management Plan; and (ii) the execution of a community integration project for small-scale fishers. The expectation for the initiatives was to obtain diversified and wide participation of small-scale fishers in order to reduce social participation asymmetries in the management of the MPA, and to strengthen relations with organizations and leaders and small-scale fishing communities in RWEPA. The mobilization of small-scale fishers in both initiatives was carried out continuously around the fishing huts and with fisherfolk organizations, seeking to respect the existing organizational structures and leaderships of RWEPA. Data from fisher participation were collected through documentary analysis, open and semi-structured interviews, and participant observation carried out between October 2016 and June 2019. Fishers' engagement was analyzed based on the following categories proposed by Reed and collaborators 2018: context, power, design and, scalar fit. Through those categories it was possible to verify that, although methodological issues have affected the engagement of small-scale fishers in the initiatives, their historical and cultural context were highly relevant, as well as power relations among stakeholders. It is essential that initiatives associated with profound changes in the way stakeholders think and act are analyzed as an integral part of a long-term process. In this context, both initiatives represented an important step to increase the participation of small-scale fishers in RWEPA management. The results can be used to guide the engagement of fisher communities in MPA initiatives.
... In addition, game-based approaches supporting decision-making processes about common resources and services are a means to involve all stakeholders: those making and/or influencing the decision as well as those affected by the decision ( Reed et al., 2018 ;Dietz and Stern, 2008 ). At the least, game-based approaches can include the opinions and worldviews of all stakeholders. ...
... Welldesigned game-based approaches should also flatten the hierarchical relationships between involved stakeholders ( Zhou, 2014 ), enhance the internalization of extrinsic motivation to participate ( Ryan and Deci, 2017 ), facilitate reflection ( Jean et al., 2018 ), and create space for emotions Zhou, 2014 ). These aims are widespread in the literature on participatory decision-making processes ( Reed et al., 2018 ;Gray et al., 2018 ), and not specific to game-based approaches. We have reviewed this literature in an earlier paper, and refer to for details. ...
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Serious games, gamification, or game-based interventions are increasingly used as tools to aid participatory decision-making processes, but their evaluation is often not very rigorous. Therefore, it is still unclear whether game-based interventions are really beneficial. We focused on the following overarching question: how effective are game-based interventions specifically designed to support decision-making processes. We used an illustrative case to reflect on this question. Using a published framework proposing that design processes of game-based interventions and their evaluation are intertwined, we designed simultaneously (1) a game-based intervention, specifically a card game and a workshop structure in which this card game is to be used, and (2) its evaluation procedure, formulating evaluation questions and proposing measure instruments based on the literature. We pre-tested the evaluation procedure in a small pilot study with 10 students. We illustrate the use of the design framework for an intervention to generate objectives in a decision-making process about sustainable wastewater management. Through our illustrative case, we identify future research opportunities about designing game-based interventions and evaluating their effectiveness. We found that it is possible to address the dual challenge of game-based interventions for participatory decision-making processes: (1) designing an informative and engaging game-based intervention without telling participants what to think and (2) designing a tailored evaluation procedure. Designing the game-based intervention and its evaluation simultaneously is valuable, because both are strongly intertwined. However, conducting the evaluation is demanding and requires the collaborative efforts of scientists, including across disciplinary boundaries. For instance, the data collection effort could be distributed among different research groups to increase sample size. This would allow including control treatment(s) and covering the variation span of the confounding factors more broadly. All material is made openly available to foster collaborative future research.
... The per capita disposable wage income of rural residents increased from 5022 RMB in 2016 to 6974 RMB in 2020. The gross output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery increased from 10.0647873 billion RMB in 2016 to 13.778217 billion RMB in 2020. At the same time, the gross output value of agricultural, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery was on the rise. ...
... Zhang et al. studied the influence of social capital on villagers' participation activities in rural environmental governance, and their research results showed that rural social norms, social trust and social networks all had a significant impact on residents' participation in governance behavior [12]. Reed et al. believe that in areas without a specific culture, residents lack a sense of cultural identity, resulting in a lower probability of their participation in environmental governance [13]. The fourth focus is the environmental governance training factor. ...
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Based on a survey of 2343 rural residents in China, this paper adopts a binary logistic regression model as the analytical tool to study the impact of rural residents’ social network and sense of responsibility regarding their participation in environmental governance. The results show that the cost, frequency and scope of social network activities have positive and significant influences on resident participation in rural environmental governance. The cost of a social network is conducive to building a rural social network, enhancing the connection of interests and promoting the formation of a rural community. Extending social network objectives from family members to villagers can improve the cultural identity and emotional identity of rural residents. The increase in the frequency of social network activities can not only enhance trust among residents, but also reduce the cost of environmental governance mobilization. The scope of a social network acts as an inhibitor whereby social interaction beyond the scope of rural areas will reduce identification with rural emotions. The four dimensions, including responsibility cognition, responsibility will, responsibility emotion and responsibility behavior have significant influences on resident participation in rural environmental governance. Residents’ sense of responsibility plays the role of an introverted driving force for them to take part in rural environmental governance, which itself helps to overcome “non-participation” behaviors of “rational smallholders” to a certain extent. Furthermore, it endows rural environmental governance with resilience. So, it is of significance to enhance rural residents’ social networks and to improve rural residents’ cognition of collective responsibility.
... Also, understanding the engagement experiences will offer feedback to improve and continue the work in this field because this is the first systematization in the country on this topic. The engagement is approached from an adaptation of the typology included in the theory of participation of the stakeholder and public engagement proposed by Reed et al. (2018). This is based on the agency (who initiates and leads engagement) and mode of engagement (from communication to co-production). ...
Article
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Honduras' underdevelopment of the higher education system, national economic constraints, and low investment in science and technology (S&T) have created significant challenges in training, employing, and retaining its science workforce, resulting in what is known as “brain drain” in literature. There are no official statistics of Honduran scientists who have established their residency abroad, nor the Honduran scientific diasporas (HSD); however, various diaspora networks provide evidence of their existence and engagement in their home country. This study takes an empirical approach and explores experiences of networking and engagement of the HSD for the development of Honduras. Methodologically, a qualitative approach and a phenomenological design were used. The data were collected through documentary review and semi-structured interviews with 21 key respondents from three identified HSD networks: Honduras Global (HG), the Organization of Women in Science for the Developing World, Honduras National Chapter (OWSD Honduras), and the Alumni Association of the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School (AGEAP-Zamorano). The holistic analysis of HSD's engagement provides evidence of existing registry gaps. Neither the S&T agents nor the Honduras Foreign Policy have identified, mapped, and characterized Honduran scientists' emigration patterns. Evidence suggests the willingness of the HSD to transfer knowledge, build bridges, and facilitate access to world-class research practices to their peers residing in Honduras and interact with broader sectors of the Honduran society.
... Firstly, understanding the political context and associated power relations is crucial (Krott, 2012;Ojanen et al., 2021). Therefore, stakeholders or decision-makers who might be interested to be engaged, and who are relevant/influential should be identified systematically (e.g. via stakeholder analysis) and power dynamics should be effectively managed (Evans and Cvitanovic, 2018;Reed et al., 2018b). Even in cases where power analyses are not included in a study, it helps to inwardly change the perspective and consider possible expectations of policy clients from time to time. ...
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Recent publications are critical about the impact that forest governance research has on halting tropical deforestation. They suggest more engagement of scientists with decision-makers in order to increase research impact. But current theories of science communication point out that engagement with decision-makers and independence of researchers occur at the expense of each other, which is an impediment to analytical science. In our commentary we compile how the authors of recent publications deal with this dilemma and pose the question if possibly enhanced impact can justify or necessitate more engagement. We show that the assumption whereas more impact can be generated through more direct engagement is mostly based on essays, comments, or reviews and hardly on empirical findings. In a Special Focus we therefore use the existing data set of (Karcher et al., 2021) for a first quantitative empirical evaluation on the subject and show that more direct engagement is not necessarily related to more impact. We conclude that more specific empirical research is needed that comparatively assesses researchers' independence for different modes of engagement. This needs to consider different policy contexts and levels as well as stages of research projects and should rely on standardized measures to evaluate their success. For the moment, we provide a number of recommendations that can help to navigate the dilemma between engagement and independence. They include awareness raising within the scientific community, clear and transparent specification of the different roles that researchers can play, links with independent scientific reviewers, diversification of funding sources, and consideration of power and interests of policy-makers which can be study objects and research partners at the same time.
... SAcc initiatives show mixed results so far. Greater access to information alone is not enough to trigger public officials to action and improve governance outcomes (Fox, 2015;Georgiadou, Lungo, & Richter, 2014;Hernández et al., 2019;McGee & Gaventa, 2010;Reed et al., 2018). ''Whether and how new information is used to further public objectives depends upon its incorporation into complex chains of comprehension, action, and response" (Fung et al., 2007, p. 53). ...
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Mining can cause harm to both human health and ecosystems. Regulators in low-income countries often struggle to enforce decent environmental standards due to financial, technical, and personal capacity constraints and political capture. In such settings, social accountability strategies are often promoted through which citizens attempt to hold governmental and private actors directly to account and demand better governance. However, social accountability initiatives are rarely effective. We demonstrate how political ecology analysis can inform social accountability theory and practice by identifying the power structures that define the potentials and limits of a social accountability strategy. We study the coal mining area of Hwange in Western Zimbabwe, where mining not only supplies coal to power plants and factories of multinational companies but also pollutes the Deka River. Together with local community monitors, we implemented the first citizen science project conducted in Zimbabwe and identified the sources and extent of the pollution. The scientific data strengthened the community monitors’ advocacy for a cleaner environment and empowered them in their exchanges with the companies and the environmental regulator. However, only some of their demands have been met. The political ecology analysis, spanning from the local to transnational levels, reveals why local social accountability initiatives are insufficient to spring the low-accountability trap in a state captured by a politico-military elite, and why corporate governance regimes have not been successful either. We argue that pro-accountability networks are more effective when they include complementary players such as multinational enterprises, provided their responsible procurement approach moves from a corporate risk management to a developmental logic.
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Both within science and society, transdisciplinary approaches are increasingly employed to address today’s sustainability challenges. Often transdisciplinary research processes are structured in three core phases: a) problem identification and formation of a common research object; b) co-production of solution-oriented and transferable knowledge; c) embedding co-produced knowledge through transdisciplinary reintegration. In all phases of this ideal-typical model, the involvement of non-academic actors is essential to meet the challenges of real-world problems, and of transformative research practices. Despite existing guidance for the core transdisciplinary process, its initiation often remains an uncharted area because of its strong context dependency. Based on a concrete transdisciplinary case study addressing sustainability transformation in Transylvania, we bring together our learned experience with initiating a transdisciplinary process using a research-driven approach. To this end, we introduce the notion of Phase 0, as an initiating phase prior to beginning an ideal-typical transdisciplinary process. Within Phase 0, we propose three empirically and literature informed sub-phases: Sub-Phase 0.1) selecting the case study; Sub-Phase 0.2) understanding the case study context from a transdisciplinary perspective; Sub-Phase 0.3) fostering premises for coming together. We outline the general rationale behind these sub-phases, and we illustrate how we carried out each sub-phase in practice. By deriving cross-cutting lessons from the three sub-phases, we enhance the practice of transdisciplinary sustainability research with the aim to leverage its transformative potential.
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We examine how contextual factors affect farmer perspectives on collaborative environmental management in Arizona, Nebraska, and Pennsylvania, U.S., through a qualitative and comparative study. In doing so, we explore how contextual factors identified in foundational collaborative environmental governance research play out specifically in three agricultural cases. Findings from this study reveal four key cross-case themes from farmer perspectives on collaboration: (1) prior participation, (2) flexible agenda, (3) willingness to learn, and (4) agency influence. Further, we find positions that are more open or closed on each theme are shaped by three contextual factors: farmer interdependence with non-farmers, the nature of salient water resource issues, and protection from versus vulnerability to regulatory agencies. These findings are useful for guiding future collaborative forums aiming to elicit farmer participation in environmental management.
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Microplastic pollution is increasingly recognised as a global environmental challenge which stems from the rapid growth of the use of petrochemical-derived plastic. As researchers and practitioners face a myriad of environmental challenges, oceanic microplastic pollution has so far dominated interest. However, airborne microplastics present an increasing environmental and public health concern. There is currently a need for research addressing this emerging challenge, and at the same time, the lack of knowledge and consensus regarding airborne microplastics presents an obstacle to action. The purpose of this study is to utilise a participatory Structured Decision-Making (SDM) approach to understand the perspectives of a range of stakeholders involved in the microplastics landscape, and subsequently refine common research priorities and knowledge gaps to advance the field. Through two participatory workshops, we first defined shared objectives of stakeholders and then negotiated best courses of action to achieve these objectives based on discussion between stakeholders and facilitators. The qualitative approach taken has enabled the full, complex and multidisciplinary aspects of the research into airborne microplastic pollution to be considered. Our findings highlight some important potential consequences of airborne microplastic pollution, including impacts on human health, and the need for more interdisciplinary research, and collaborative, integrated approaches in this area. As a result of the first workshop, five fundamental objectives on the theme of airborne microplastics were identified. As a direct consequence of this, participants identified 84 actions split across eight themes, which are outlined later in this paper.
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This study was commissioned by the Department for International Development (DFID) to assess the existing body of evidence on corruption. The resulting Evidence Paper aims to be an authoritative assessment of the literature on corruption. The study acts as a key source of synthesised knowledge for staff, helping inform policy narratives and programme design.
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Contemporary markets and societal norms externalise many ecosystem services important for a sustainable future. A range of external legal, market, social protocol and other mechanisms, referred to as ‘societal levers’, constrain or otherwise influence the behaviour of resource managers, and the expectations and assumptions of the society within which they operate. These ‘societal levers’ have progressively institutionalised evolving societal values, influencing markets and other choices. We use the STEEP (social, technological, economic, environmental and political) framework to explore case studies of societal transitions, analysing how emergent concerns become shared and ultimately transformed into ‘levers’, shifting societal norms. Emerging concerns become influential only when they are shared across societal sectors, and when broader implications are realised across multiple dimensions of the STEEP framework. We propose and advocate use of a ‘ripple effect’ of values as a means to direct and accelerate the pace at which environmental concerns shape mainstream societal norms and structures, and become institutionalised in the form of ‘societal levers’.
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This article attempts to shed new light on prevailing puzzles of spatial scales in multi-level, participatory governance as regards the democratic legitimacy and environmental effectiveness of governance systems. We focus on the governance re-scaling by the European Water Framework Directive, which introduced new governance scales (mandated river basin management) and demands consultation of citizens and encourages ‘active involvement’ of stakeholders. This allows to examine whether and how re-scaling through deliberate governance interventions impacts on democratic legitimacy and effective environmental policy delivery. To guide the enquiry, this article organizes existing—partly contradictory—claims on the relation of scale, democratic legitimacy, and environmental effectiveness into three clusters of mechanisms, integrating insights from multi-level governance, social-ecological systems, and public participation. We empirically examine Water Framework Directive implementation in a comparative case study of multi-level systems in the light of the suggested mechanisms. We compare two planning areas in Germany: North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. Findings suggest that the Water Framework Directive did have some impact on institutionalizing hydrological scales and participation. Local participation appears generally both more effective and legitimate than on higher levels, pointing to the need for yet more tailored multi-level governance approaches, depending on whether environmental knowledge or advocacy is sought. We find mixed results regarding the potential of participation to bridge spatial ‘misfits’ between ecological and administrative scales of governance, depending on the historical institutionalization of governance on ecological scales. Polycentricity, finally, appeared somewhat favorable in effectiveness terms with some distinct differences regarding polycentricity in planning vs. polycentricity in implementation.
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Engaging local stakeholders is a central feature of many biodiversity conservation and natural resource management projects globally. Current literature on engagement predominantly focuses on individual case studies or specific geographical contexts, making general conclusions regarding the effect of these efforts on conservation outcomes difficult. We reviewed evidence from the peer-reviewed and grey literatures related to the role of stakeholder engagement (both externally-driven and self-organized engagement) in biodiversity conservation at the local scale using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. We critically appraised and extracted data using mixed methods for case studies (n = 82) and meta-analyses (n = 31) published from 2011 to 2015. We conducted an inductive thematic analysis on background literature references published from 2000 to 2016 (n = 283). The quantitative analysis assessed multiple variables, and yielded no significant results, but suggested a possible relationship between success in producing attitudinal change towards conservation and four engagement factors. Our qualitative analysis identified six dimensions of engagement processes that are critical for successful outcomes when a project is externally-driven, and suggests that understanding of governance and social-cultural context plays an important role in all types of stakeholder engagement efforts. Finally, we reflect on the effectiveness of relying primarily on evidence available from published literature to understand links between conservation and stakeholder engagement, in particular with regard to self-organized engagement.
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Effectiveness of participation in environmental governance is a proliferating assertion in literature that is also reflected in European legislation, such as the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). The Directive mandates participatory river basin management planning across the EU aiming at the delivery of better policy outputs and enhanced implementation. Yet, the impact of this planning mode in WFD implementation remains unclear, though the first planning phase was completed in 2009 and the first implementation cycle by the end of 2015. Notwithstanding the expanding body of literature on WFD implementation, a rather scattered single case study approach seems to predominate. This paper reports on implementation of the WFD in three case studies from Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom, reflecting three substantially different approaches to participatory river basin management planning, on the basis of a comparative case study design. We ask if and how participation improved the environmental standard of outputs and the quality of implementation. We found an increasing quality of outputs with increasing intensity of local participation. Further, social outcomes such as learning occurred within dialogical settings, whereas empowerment and network building emerged also in the case characterized mainly by one-way information. Finally, one important finding deviant from the literature is that stakeholder acceptance seems to be more related to processes than to outputs.