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Expert System for Problems of Teeth and Gums

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Our gums (gingiva) act as a significant barricade in guarding our teeth and their neighboring support structures. A tiny known fact is that gum disease is the foremost cause of tooth loss in grown persons. Healthy, strong, teeth are reliant on on healthy gums. The core culprit for gum problems is bacteria in dental plaque. The bacteria in plaque yield harmful toxins that generate an inflammatory process that happens in the gum tissue. If left for a sufficient period of time, bacterial plaque causes hurt to our teeth as well as our gums. In this paper, we present a knowledge based system that help people with teeth and gums problems to diagnose their problems and get recommendation for the treatment. This expert system was designed and implemented using SL5 Object language for knowledge based system.
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International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS)
ISSN: 2000-000X
Vol. 1 Issue 4, June 2017, Pages:198-206
www.ijeais.org 198
Expert System for Problems of Teeth and Gums
Mahmoud J. Abu Ghali, Mohammed N. Mukhaimer, Mohammed K. Abu Yousef, Samy S. Abu Naser
Department of Information Technology,
Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology,
Al-Azhar University, Gaza, Palestine
abunaser@alazhar.edu.ps
Abstract: Our gums (gingiva) act as a significant barricade in guarding our teeth and their neighboring support structures. A tiny
known fact is that gum disease is the foremost cause of tooth loss in grown persons. Healthy, strong, teeth are reliant on on healthy
gums. The core culprit for gum problems is bacteria in dental plaque. The bacteria in plaque yield harmful toxins that generate an
inflammatory process that happens in the gum tissue. If left for a sufficient period of time, bacterial plaque causes hurt to our teeth
as well as our gums. In this paper, we present a knowledge based system that help people with teeth and gums problems to
diagnose their problems and get recommendation for the treatment. This expert system was designed and implemented using SL5
Object language for knowledge based system.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, knowledge based system, SL5 Object.
1. INTRODUCTION
The most common gum problem is gingivitis. Gingivitis is defined as inflammation of the gums. Signs of gum inflammation
include bleeding during tooth-brushing, swollen-looking gums, and red gums. Healthy gums generally appear firm, coral-pink, and
do not bleed with stimulation. Gums can appear dark from pigmentation in certain ethnic populations, and this is considered normal.
The second most common gum problem is gum disease, also called "periodontitis. Periodontitis exhibits similar signs to
gingivitis except it also can result in gum tissue and jawbone loss. The damage of periodontitis is particularly concerning in that the
loss of gum tissue and bone loss cannot be recovered. Periodontitis typically progresses over time and may not produce painful
symptoms until the disease reaches the later stages of damage. Unfortunately, this explains why gum disease is the leading cause of
tooth loss[10,11].
A common adult gum problem is gum recession. Gum recession is when the root of the tooth becomes exposed as gum pulls
away from its original attachment. This could be a result of gum disease as the jawbone surrounding the teeth is lost. Wherever
jawbone is lost, gums will follow, and this exposes the root of the tooth. Exposed roots can be sensitive to temperature, are more
prone to decay, and can present a cosmetic concern. Other causes for gum recession include teeth grinding, use of chewing tobacco,
brushing too aggressively, hereditary weak gums, orthodontic treatment, or trauma.
Another gum problem is a gum abscess (or "periodontal abscess"). It presents as a blister or a bump in the gum that contains pus.
It is caused by a bacterial infection that takes place in a deep gum pocket and causes pain and swelling.
A less common gum problem is oral cancer. Oral cancer can occur on all soft-tissue structures within the mouth. On the gums, it
may appear as a red or white patch or a sore that does not heal [10].
2. KNOWLEGE BASED SYSTEM
In artificial intelligence (AI), a knowledge based system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a
human expert.[1] Knowledge based system are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, represented
mainly as ifthen rules rather than through conventional procedural code.[2] The first knowledge based system were created in the
1970s and then proliferated in the 1980s [3]. Knowledge based system were among the first truly successful forms of artificial
intelligence software [4-8].
A knowledge based system is divided into two subsystems: the inference engine and the knowledge base. The knowledge base
represents facts, rules and objects. The inference engine applies the rules to the known facts to generate new facts. Inference engines
can also include explanation and debugging subsystems [9].
3. ADVANTAGES OF KNOWLEGE BASED SYSTEM
The goal of knowledge-based systems is to make the critical information required for the system to work explicit rather than
implicit.[31] In a traditional computer program the logic is embedded in code that can typically only be reviewed by an IT specialist.
With a knowledge based system the goal was to specify the rules in a format that was intuitive and easily understood, reviewed, and
International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS)
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even edited by domain experts rather than IT experts. The benefits of this explicit knowledge representation were rapid development
and ease of maintenance.
Ease of maintenance is the most obvious benefit. This was achieved in two ways. First, by removing the need to write
conventional code, many of the normal problems that can be caused by even small changes to a system could be avoided with
knowledge based system. Essentially, the logical flow of the program (at least at the highest level) was simply given for the system,
simply invoke the inference engine. This also was a reason for the second benefit: rapid prototyping. With a knowledge based
system shell it was possible to enter a few rules and have a prototype developed in days rather than the months or year typically
associated with complex IT projects.
A claim for expert system shells that was often made was that they removed the need for trained programmers and that experts
could develop systems themselves. In reality, this was seldom if ever true. While the rules for a knowledge based system were more
comprehensible than typical computer code, they still had a formal syntax where a misplaced comma or other character could cause
havoc as with any other computer language. Also, as knowledge based system moved from prototypes in the lab to deployment in
the business world, issues of integration and maintenance became far more critical. Inevitably demands to integrate with, and take
advantage of, large legacy databases and systems arose. To accomplish this, integration required the same skills as any other type of
system [32].
4. KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AND REASONING (KR)
KR is the field of artificial intelligence dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system
can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language. Knowledge
representation incorporates findings from psychology about how humans solve problems and represent knowledge in order to design
formalisms that will make complex systems easier to design and build. Knowledge representation and reasoning also incorporates
findings from logic to automate various kinds of reasoning, such as the application of rules or the relations of sets and subsets [1,3[.
Examples of knowledge representation formalisms include semantic nets, systems architecture, frames, rules, and ontologies.
Examples of automated reasoning engines include inference engines, theorem proofers, and classifiers
Our knowledge based system uses SL5 Object language to represent the teeth and gums problems [12,45]. There are many
questions described in the program, which are 13 questions answered by the patient B yes or no and through them lies the control of
the quality of the disease and the quality of treatment.
5. GUMS PROBLEMS:
Black matter secretes acid substances that damage the gum tissue and cause swelling, redness and ease of blood bleeding. It is
worth mentioning that gingivitis occurs without feeling any pain until the condition worsens and lead to late stages of tooth decay
and fall The accumulation of plaque on the teeth without removing them daily leads to the formation of a more solid material called
lime and cannot be removed by brush teeth and the only way to escape from these calcareous deposits is through special devices at
the dentist It is worth mentioning that the accumulation of lime is usually near the gum hurts and causes The spacing of the gums
from the teeth and then the tooth decay and fall [10-11].
Symptoms of Gums problems:
Breath or bad taste, inhalation of teeth and the emergence of some spaces between them Redness of the gums, swelling and ease
of blood bleeding, especially when brushing teeth and sometimes when waking up from sleep The appearance of a white substance
between teeth and gum called pus.
International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS)
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Figure 1: The figure presents the expert system for Tooth Problems.
6. LITERATURE REVIEW
Knowledge Based System (KBS) is software that follows the decision-making skill of a human expert. KBS is aimed to solve
complicated problems by thinking about the knowledge which is represented mainly as if Conditions then rules rather than
through conventional programming languages [12-30]. There are many Knowledge Based System designed to diagnose some
diseases like: Ear, hearing, Endocrine, skin [33-44, 46-47]. However there is no special knowledge based system specializes in teeth
and gum disease offered free. In this paper we designed and developed a new knowledge based system related to teeth and gum
disease to help people diagnosing the disease related to teeth and gum pain they face.
7. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The suggested KBS is capable of diagnosing several teeth and gum diseases of different stages of the human life starting by
asking the patient many questions based on their pain symptoms as in figure 3. This KBS gives the patient clear idea about the
disease and the diagnosis of his/her pain. At the end, the proposed KBS provides recommendation of how to treat the disease. Figure
2 shows the main screen of the KBS Figure 3 shows a question type of Yes or No related with the disease and Figure 4 shows the
diagnosis and recommendation about the disease.
International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS)
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Figure 2: The figure presents the screen expert system.
Figure 3: The figure presents the male infertility diseases.
Figure 4: The figure presents the result.
8. SYSTEM EVALUATION
In this step a preliminary test was carried out by patients suffering from teeth and gum pain problems. All patients who tested this
expert system were satisfied and very comfortable with it.
9. CONCLUSION
In this paper, a new knowledge based system was developed and presented for helping patients in diagnosing their teeth and gum
pain problems. The expert system currently covers the several teeth and gum diseases. Patients can get the diagnosis faster than the
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traditional way so they can save their time and effort. The system was developed using SL5 Object expert system language with an
simple user interface to use so patients can use this system easily without any complication.
10. EXPERT SYSTEM SOURCE CODE
! This is a demo
! Written By Mahmoud Jamal
!
ATTRIBUTE Did you have an injury that knocked out a tooth? COMPOUND YES, NO
ATTRIBUTE Do you have pain that is specific to one tooth? COMPOUND YES, NO
ATTRIBUTE Have you broken or chipped a tooth or is the tooth loose in its socket? COMPOUND YES, NO
ATTRIBUTE Do you feel pain when you eat cold foods or liquids? COMPOUND YES, NO
ATTRIBUTE Do you have redness or swelling around one or more teeth in your gums or in your face? COMPOUND YES, NO
ATTRIBUTE Do you have redness and swelling in large areas of your gums or is the skin inside your mouth peeling?
COMPOUND YES, NO
ATTRIBUTE Do you have headaches pain near your ear headaches or do you hear a cracking sound when you bite? COMPOUND
YES, NO
ATTRIBUTE start SIMPLE
INSTANCE the domain ISA domain
WITH start := TRUE
INSTANCE the application ISA application
WITH title display := introduction
WITH conclusion display := Conc
WITH simple query text := "
*
is
*"
INSTANCE introduction ISA display
WITH wait := TRUE
WITH delay changes := FALSE
WITH items [1 ] := textbox 1
INSTANCE textbox 1 ISA textbox
WITH location := 10,10,800,350
WITH pen color := 0,0,0
WITH fill color := 255,0,0
WITH justify IS left
WITH font := "Arial"
WITH font style IS bold
WITH font size := 14
WITH text :="
Tooth Problems Expert System
Written By Mahmoud Jamal Abu Ghali And his Team
This Expert system is wriiten in Simpler Level 5 Object (SL5 Object) that
Demonstarte the use of some of the System calsses, Instances, Rules, etcc.
This Expert System diadnoses Tooth Problems throgh a dialogue between the
System and the End User.
The Conclusion of the finding is displayed and a recommend is given for the End User
to diadnoses the Diseases."
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INSTANCE Conc ISA display
WITH wait := TRUE
WITH delay changes := FALSE
WITH items [1] := title textbox
WITH items [2 ] := diagnosis textbox
WITH items [3 ] := recommend textbox
INSTANCE title textbox ISA textbox
WITH location := 20,10,800,70
WITH pen color := 0,0,0
WITH fill color := 255,2550,0
WITH justify IS center
WITH font := "Arial"
WITH font style IS bold
WITH font size := 14
WITH text := " The Conclusion of the Tooth Problems Expert System"
INSTANCE diagnosis textbox ISA textbox
WITH location := 20,110,800,130
WITH pen color := 0,0,0
WITH fill color := 255,255,255
WITH justify IS left
WITH font := "Arial"
WITH font size := 12
WITH text :=" --===--"
INSTANCE recommend textbox ISA textbox
WITH location := 20,280,800,130
WITH pen color := 0,0,0
WITH fill color := 255,255,255
WITH justify IS left
WITH font := "Arial"
WITH font size := 12
WITH text :=" --===--"
RULE R0
IF start
THEN ASK Did you have an injury that knocked out a tooth?
RULE R1
IF Did you have an injury that knocked out a tooth? IS YES
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := " You have TOOTH LOSS. "
AND text OF recommend textbox := "DENTAL EMERGENCY
See your dentist or go to the emergency room right away. Keep the tooth moist.
It's best to keep the tooth in your mouth until you get to the dentist or emergency room. The tooth may be saved."
RULE R2
IF Did you have an injury that knocked out a tooth? IS NO
THEN ASK Do you have pain that is specific to one tooth?
RULE R3
IF Do you have pain that is specific to one tooth? IS YES
THEN ASK Have you broken or chipped a tooth or is the tooth loose in its socket?
RULE R4
IF Do you have pain that is specific to one tooth? IS NO
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THEN ASK Do you have redness or swelling around one or more teeth in your gums or in your face?
RULE R5
IF Have you broken or chipped a tooth or is the tooth loose in its socket? IS YES
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := " Your pain may be from a FRACTURED, CRACKED or LOOSE TOOTH."
AND text OF recommend textbox := "Save any pieces of the tooth, wrap them in a cool,
moist cloth and see your dentist as soon as possible. "
RULE R6
IF Have you broken or chipped a tooth or is the tooth loose in its socket? IS NO
THEN ASK Do you feel pain when you eat cold foods or liquids?
RULE R7
IF Do you feel pain when you eat cold foods or liquids? IS YES
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := " Your pain may be from a CAVITY. "
AND text OF recommend textbox := "Make an appointment to see your dentist. Proper brushing and flossing
along with fluoride rinses and coatings, as suggested by your dentist, may prevent tooth decay. "
RULE R8
IF Do you feel pain when you eat cold foods or liquids? IS NO
THEN ASK Do you have redness or swelling around one or more teeth in your gums or in your face?
RULE R9
IF Do you have redness or swelling around one or more teeth in your gums or in your face? IS YES
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "You may have a dental ABSCESS or an INFECTION in a tooth gums or other tissues"
AND text OF recommend textbox := "URGENT See your dentist or doctor right away."
RULE R10
IF Do you have redness or swelling around one or more teeth in your gums or in your face? IS NO
THEN ASK Do you have redness and swelling in large areas of your gums or is the skin inside your mouth peeling?
RULE R11
IF Do you have redness and swelling in large areas of your gums or is the skin inside your mouth peeling? IS YES
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "You may have an infection such as TRENCH MOUTH, GINGIVITIS or PERIODONTITIS.
A rare drug reaction, STEVENS-JOHNSON REACTION, may also cause this."
AND text OF recommend textbox := "See your dentist or doctor right away. You may be given antibiotics to stop the
infection. Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen, may relieve discomfort.
Many of these infections can be prevented with proper dental care, such as brushing and flossing regularly."
RULE R12
IF Do you have redness and swelling in large areas of your gums or is the skin inside your mouth peeling? IS NO
THEN ASK Do you have headaches pain near your ear headaches or do you hear a cracking sound when you bite?
RULE R13
IF Do you have headaches pain near your ear headaches or do you hear a cracking sound when you bite? IS YES
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "Your pain may be from TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT (TMJ) syndrome, a condition
that affects
the jaw."
AND text OF recommend textbox := "Try relaxing your jaw when you are tense or nervous. Stop chewing gum. Try a mild
anti-inflammatory medicine, such as ibuprofen. If you don't get better, see your dentist."
RULE R14
IF Do you have headaches pain near your ear headaches or do you hear a cracking sound when you bite? IS NO
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "--- "
AND text OF recommend textbox := "For more information, please talk to your doctor or your dentist. If you think the
problem is serious, call your doctor or your dentist right away."
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END
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... While fatigue could due to physiological states, medical conditions, psychiatric disorders or medical prescriptions [60,61] Equally pain and coldness feeling to the bones in cold weather were reported symptoms of 'OSUPETAI' and clinically are explained by some theories which have not yet pinpoint the actual cause of the situation: one theory explaining that inactiveness due to cold weather lower blood circulation to organs and bones hence pain and weakness to the joints; and the other theory explaining that barometric pressure changes in cold weather may have an effect to the tendons, muscles, scar tissue or exposed nerves of the bone, that results into bones and joints pain especially to those people with arthritis [62,63] Tonsillitis was another reported manifestation of the health condition; whereas, common virus or bacteria are the clinical causes of the illness [64][65][66]. Swelling of the tooth gum was also recognized as a symptom of 'OSUPETAI'; whereas, the underlying causes include poor dental hygiene and periodontal infections particularly with [67,68]. Lastly, but not least one-sided headache in cold weather was reported as the symptom of 'OSUPETAI' and it is a clinical sign of migraine where its pathogenesis is suggested to represent vascular phenomenon or a neurovascular disturbance, relating to changes in brain and genes [69][70][71] Furthermore, MSPs reported causes or risk factors of 'OSUPETAI'; whereby, the most common risk factor was sexual intercourse between infected partners who could either be a virgin woman, a woman in her menstrual cycle, a prostitute men or women. ...
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Background: Flora used by Maasai practitioners (MSPs) in traditional medicine (TM) and food system (FS) were investigated in Monduli District, Arusha, Tanzania. The objective of this study was to document the knowledge on flora used by MSPs in their FS and TM against gout-related and other ailments. Methods: Ethnobotanical knowledge held by 21 MSPs was investigated following standard approaches. Guided field walk, free listing, rigorous individual-interviews and local market surveys were employed to obtain information. Use value (UV) index, relative frequency of citation (RFC), specific RFC (RFCs), fidelity level (FL) and informant consensus factors (ICF) matrices were involved to determine the knowledge on flora used in Maasai FS and TM against gout-related and other ailments. Results: A total of 101 plant species in 83 genera and 47 families, used in Maasai FS and TM were recorded. Food, food processing or storage, and medicinal plant (MPs) flora accounted 29, 32 and 80 species respectively. MPs treated more than 38 ailments. A high proportion of plants recovered, was trees 45.19%; while 88.79% were retrieved from the wild habitat. Roots were mostly used part (30.73%); preparations were made from fresh or dry material and 44-species involved decoction in meat broth or stock. The frequently route of delivery was oral, 85.19%. About 37.5% of the MPs were used to treat joints’ pain or inflammation (ICF = 0.52) whereas, mostly used was Rapanea melanophloeos (FL = 1.00; RFCs = 0.29) followed by Withania somnifera (FL = 0.5; RFCs = 0.24). Withania somnifera frequently used against other gout-related ailments. Vangueria infausta and Olea europaea subsp. Africana uses in FS ranked the highest. Conclusion: The study area is very rich in flora biodiversity, and the flora is an integral part of the indigenous foods’ and health care systems. The flora is exposed to various destructive anthropogenic activities; thus, integrated conservation measures are required. The rich ethnobotanical knowledge held by MSPs, requires an in-depth study and documentation. Investigations of flora used in the FS, and TM, with high FL, and RFCs could contribute to future nutraceuticals and drug discovery against gout and other ailments.
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This research included the design of a preliminary expert system that helps farmers and specialists diagnose and provide appropriate advice on grape diseases. In addition, knowledge management used in the expert system was discussed. One of the essential elements of this research was to find the appropriate language for the diagnosis of grapevine and the current status in the knowledge base. Expert systems have been used to be able to effectively implement consultation and production rules to capture knowledge. The expert system was developed using CLIPS with the Delphi language interface. The expert system produced good results in the analysis of grape cases that have been tested and enable the system to determine the correct diagnosis in all cases..
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Expert systems are a rapidly emerging technology in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), having an immense impact on human healthcare. The main objective of a medical expert system is to help medical professionals in arriving at correct diagnostics. Information gathering is an important part of disease diagnosis, and traditional methods of diagnosis are very time-consuming and require a high level of expertise. Expert systems are computer systems that attempt to imitate the ability of human diagnostic decision-making. They employ knowledge about diseases and facts about patients as data and suggest diagnoses by using machine-learning methods. Expert systems offer suggestions to physicians/area experts in order to improve the expert’s ability and increase the consistency and quality of diagnostics. This type of system is also very helpful for patients who are unable to reach a doctor due to cost, being in a remote area, or feeling too ashamed to discuss their circumstances with a doctor. The expert system also helps to improve decision quality, reduce cost, and maintain consistency, reliability, and speed of diagnosis. There are various learning-based expert systems for different diseases, developed to help doctors and to serve in disease diagnosis. This chapter discusses important existing expert systems for human disease diagnosis in detail. It also provides a brief evaluation of various techniques used in the development of expert systems.
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