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EFFECTS OF MEDICINE BALL TRAINING ON PHYSICAL FITNESS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

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Medicine balls provide an effective means of improving muscular power, endurance and functional fitness. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of medicine ball training on physical fitness in primary school children. A total of 60 (26 girls) primary school children aged 10-12 voluntarily participated in this study. The physical fitness of the children was estimated by the following tests: standing broad jump, vertical jump, bent-arm hang, sit-ups, push ups, medicine ball tests. The experimental group had twice per week medicine ball training on nonconsecutive days for 12 weeks under monitored conditions in school. Compared with the initial testing, there was a significant (p<0.05) improvement in both jump tests. In the medicine ball tests the ANOVA revealed a statistically significant difference between groups pre-to post-training (p<0.05) in Backward Overhead Medicine Ball Throw. There were significant differences (p<0.05) between the initial and final testing for the flexed arm hang, push ups and sit ups in both groups. Findings from the present study indicate that medicine ball training instructed by qualified professionals can result in significant improvements in selected physical fitness components in children, and is a costeffective and time efficient method for promoting physical activity in school-based programs.
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FACTA UNIVERSITATIS
Series: Physical Education and Sport Vol. 15, No 1, 2017, pp. 185 - 193
DOI: 10.22190/FUPES1701185T
Original research article
EFFECTS OF MEDICINE BALL TRAINING ON PHYSICAL
FITNESS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
UDC 796.015-053.2
Nebojša Trajković1, Dejan Madić1, Slobodan Andrašić2,
Zoran Milanović3, Danilo Radanović1
1Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
2Faculty of Economics, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
3Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Niš, Serbia
Abstract. Medicine balls provide an effective means of improving muscular power,
endurance and functional fitness. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of
medicine ball training on physical fitness in primary school children. A total of 60 (26 girls)
primary school children aged 10-12 voluntarily participated in this study. The physical
fitness of the children was estimated by the following tests: standing broad jump, vertical
jump, bent-arm hang, sit-ups, push ups, medicine ball tests. The experimental group had
twice per week medicine ball training on nonconsecutive days for 12 weeks under monitored
conditions in school. Compared with the initial testing, there was a significant (p<0.05)
improvement in both jump tests. In the medicine ball tests the ANOVA revealed a statistically
significant difference between groups pre- to post-training (p<0.05) in Backward Overhead
Medicine Ball Throw. There were significant differences (p<0.05) between the initial and
final testing for the flexed arm hang, push ups and sit ups in both groups. Findings from
the present study indicate that medicine ball training instructed by qualified professionals
can result in significant improvements in selected physical fitness components in children,
and is a costeffective and time efficient method for promoting physical activity in school-
based programs.
Key words: exercise, physical education, impact, fitness
Received February 25, 2017 / Accepted May 12, 2017
Corresponding author: Zoran Milanović
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Niš, Serbia, Ĉarnojevića 10a St., 18000 Niš,
Republic of Serbia
Phone: +381 18 510-900 • E-mail: zoooro_85@yahoo.com
186 N. TRAJKOVIĆ, D. MADIĆ, S. ANDRAŠIĆ, Z. MILANOVIĆ, D. RADANOVIĆ
INTRODUCTION
Physical activity is related to numerous benefits and has the potential to improve the
quality of life for school children (Naylor & McKay, 2009; Ortega, Ruiz, Castillo, &
Sjostrom, 2008). Moreover, physical fitness during childhood has been identified as a strong
predictor of current and future health status (Smith et al., 2014). However, the usual school
day lasts 89 hours and in most cases, a great amount of this time is composed of sedentary
activities. In addition to the hours spent in school, children in numerous countries spend
almost half of each calendar year in school. Therefore, schools are responsible for a large
amount of the children’s time and have the potential to provide children an opportunity to
fulfill their daily physical activity needs (Janssen & Leblanc, 2010).
The importance of improving the physical fitness of children has prompted the
development of novel and creative approaches that provide an opportunity for all children to
participate in regular, healthful physical activity (Faigenbaum & Mediate, 2006). While
children have traditionally been encouraged to participate in aerobic activities such as
jogging and swimming, a compelling body of scientific evidence supports participation in
appropriately designed youth resistance training programmes that are supervised and
instructed by qualified professionals (Lloyd et al., 2014). Additionally, the aforementioned
authors stated that youth who do not participate in activities that enhance muscle strength and
motor skills early in life may be at increased risk for negative health outcomes later in life.
Whereas different modes of resistance training such as weight machines and free weights
have proven to be safe and effective for children, medicine balls have become very popular in
schools, fitness centers, and sport training facilities (Faigenbaum & Mediate, 2008). One of
the most important benefits of medicine ball training is that it conditions the full body instead
of separate parts. In general, 140 to 160 beats per minute is the average heart rate response to
medicine ball training (Faigenbaum & Mediate, 2006). It was reported that resistance training
with medicine balls can be an effective method of conditioning for school age youth during
physical education (Faigenbaum & Mediate, 2006). However, one other study showed that
untrained boys and girls (8 years old) who trained twice per week for 8 weeks using child-
sized medicine balls, did not demonstrated significant improvements in 1RM chest press
strength as compared with the control group (Faigenbaum et al., 2007). Obviously, more
school-based interventions concerning medicine ball training are needed.
While enjoyment in physical education classes and improvement in motor skill ability
are the most important outcomes of children in physical education, the amount of time
during which children are engaged in moderate and vigorous physical activity is also
important for the quality of physical education. Medicine balls provide a unique type of
resistance that can be used for an unlimited number of exercises that can be performed at
different movement speeds. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effects
of medicine ball training on physical fitness in primary school children.
METHODS
Participants
A total of 60 (26 girls) primary school children aged 10-12 voluntarily participated in this
study. The children’s characteristics are presented in Table 1. Prior to the enrolment in the
study, parents reported their child’s health history and current activity status through a
questionnaire and only healthy, active children from 10 to 12 years old were chosen. All the
Effects of Medicine Ball Training on Physical Fitness in Primary School Children 187
children had the same two classes per week and were not involved in additional strenuous
training during this study. Participants were excluded if they had a chronic pediatric disease or
had an orthopedic condition that would limit their ability to perform exercises. Participants
were excluded if they had missed two consecutive classes for the duration of the study. The
study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Sport and Physical
Education in Niš, and written informed consent was obtained from both parents and children.
Table 1 Basic anthropometric characteristics of the study participants;
Values are means (±SD)
Age (y)
Body height (cm)
Body weight (kg)
BMI(kg/m2)
Experimental group (30)
11.6±1.01
152.75±7.78
46.16±11.50
19.59±3.46
Control group (30)
11.4± 1.2
151.99±7.18
48.06±12.78
20.67±4.84
Procedures
Children’s anthropometric and fitness measurements were performed early in the
morning, after at least 12 h of fasting and 24 h from the last high-intensity exercise effort.
All measurements were repeated at the same time of day as close as possible to the resting
condition. Measurements were taken in early-October (a month after the beginning of the
school year) and in late December. All study procedures took place at a school athletic
facility. The same researchers tested and trained the same participants and the fitness tests
were performed in the same order with identical equipment, positioning, and technique. All
of the participants took part in one introductory session during which time proper form and
technique on each fitness test were reviewed and practiced. During this session, research
assistants demonstrated proper testing procedures and participants practiced each test. After
the training program, the participants were instructed to perform the tests in the same order
as they did before the training program.
Participants were asked not to perform any vigorous physical activity the day before
or the day of any study procedure. Height was measured on a wall-mounted stadiometer to the
nearest 0.5 cm. Weight was measured on a calibrated beam balance platform scale to the
nearest 0.1 kg. Before each testing, the participants performed a standard 20-minute warm-up.
The standard warm up protocol consisted of 10 min of warm up running and 10 min of
dynamic stretching and 5 x 30m of running exercises.
Physical fitness of children was estimated by the following tests: standing broad jump,
vertical jump, bent-arm hang, sit-ups, push ups, medicine ball tests. Most of the tests are
briefly described in Bala, Krneta, & Katić (2010).
Sit-ups with crossed arms: The participant lies on his back, knees bent, arms crossed
on the chest, and performs sit-ups, feet held fast by an assistant. The number of
correctly executed sit-ups in 60 s is recorded.
Bent-arm hang: The participant grips the bar, fingers on top and thumb underneath,
pulls up (chin above the bar) and holds the position as long as possible without resting
the chin on the bar. Time is measured in 0.1-s units.
Push Ups: The participant assumes a prone position on the floor with hands placed
under or slightly wider than the shoulders, fingers stretched out, legs straight and
slightly apart, and toes tucked under. The participant pushes up off the floor with his
arms until his elbows are straight while keeping the legs and back straight. The back
should be kept in a straight line from head to toes throughout the test. Then, the
188 N. TRAJKOVIĆ, D. MADIĆ, S. ANDRAŠIĆ, Z. MILANOVIĆ, D. RADANOVIĆ
participant lowers his body using the arms until the elbows bent at a 90° angle and the
upper arms are parallel to the floor. This movement is repeated as many times as
possible, finishing when the participant stops, when the participant does not perform
the push up completely or when the participant does not maintain the right position.
This test assesses upper-body muscular endurance (Castro-Piñero et al., 2009).
Standing broad jump: The participant jumps with both feet from the reversed side of
Reuter’s bounce board onto a carpet with scale. The jumping distance (in cm) is
recorded.
Vertical jump (VJ): For the standing reach, while wearing their normal footwear,
children were requested to stand with their feet flat on the ground, extend their arm and
hand, and mark the standing reach height while standing at a 90° to a wall. Children
were encouraged to fully extend their dominant arm to displace the highest vane
possible to determine their maximum standing reach height. The measurement of the
standing reach height allowed for a calculation of the relative jump heights on each of
the jumping tasks (absolute jump height (cm) standing reach height (cm) = relative
jump height) (Sheppard, Gabbett, & Reeberg Stanganelli, 2009). Jumps were
measured using a basketball backboard marked with lines 1 cm apart. Vertical jumps
started from a standing position with the hands at shoulder level and arms raised from
the start position without an extra swing. All of the tests were invigilated by the same
observer who was situated on chair placed 2 m from the backboard. Jumps were
recorded as the best of 3 attempts (Stanganelli, Dourado, Oncken, Mançan, & da
Costa, 2008).
Medicine Ball Tests
Upper-body explosive strength was estimated using an overhead medicine ball throw,
seated medicine ball throw and lying medicine ball throw. Medicine ball throws were
performed using the 2-kg rubber medicine balls (Tigar, Pirot, Serbia). All of the participants
were introduced to the testing during a familiarization session. The skin of the medicine ball
was lightly dampened (magnesium carbonate) to leave an imprint on the floor where first
contact was made and to ensure precise measurement of the throwing distance. Distance was
measured from the base of the bench to the closest edge of the medicine ball imprint.
Backward Overhead Medicine Ball Throw (BOMBT): The athlete holds a medicine
ball with arms straight in front of the body and, following a countermovement, flexes
at the hips and knees before extending forcefully backward to throw the ball over the
head.
Overhead medicine ball throw (MEDS): The test was conducted with players standing
one step behind a line marked on the ground facing the throwing direction, with a 3-kg
medicine ball held in both hands behind the head. Players were instructed to plant the
front foot with the toe behind the line and to throw the medicine ball overhead as far
forward as possible. Each throw was measured from inside the line, to the nearest
mark made by the fall of the medicine ball. Throwing distance was measured to the
nearest 1 cm, with the greatest value obtained from 3 trials used as the overhead throw
score (Gabbett & Georgieff, 2007).
Lying medicine ball throw (MEDL): The participants were instruct to lay down on
their backs and held a 3-kg medicine ball on the floor above their head with the arms
fully extended. The shoulders were on the zero-line. The throwing action was similar
Effects of Medicine Ball Training on Physical Fitness in Primary School Children 189
to that used for a soccer throw-in. The ball was thrown forward as vigorously as
possible, while the head was kept on the floor. The best of the consecutive trials was
recorded as the final result (to the nearest 1 cm) (Tomljanovic, Spasic, Gabrilo,
Uljevic, & Foretic, 2011).
Training program
Table 2 PE class and Medicine ball training
Experimental program
warm up
PE unit
medicine ball exercise
medicine ball games (additional challenges)
cool down
The experimental group had twice per week medicine ball training on nonconsecutive
days for 12 weeks under monitored conditions. A physical fitness specialist discussed and
demonstrated proper medicine ball training procedures during one week, and children had
an opportunity to ask questions. The duration of the medicine ball exercise was recorded,
with session typically lasting 15-20 minutes. Besides these sessions, usual physical education
classes were performed. Each class consisted of a warm-up period (5-8 minutes), medicine
ball training (10 15 min) and PE unit phase (15 to 20 minutes), following 5 minutes of cool
down. During the warm-up period the participants performed a series of six to ten low to
moderate intensity exercises with a 1-2 kg leather medicine ball. During the medicine ball
phase, the participants performed a variety of medicine ball exercises that progressed from
simple to complex as their competence and confidence improved. The various medicine ball
conditioning exercises included: lower body (e.g., underhand squat, over and behind head
throw), upper body (e.g., shoulder press, medicine ball slams and throws), stability (e.g.,
single leg toss), reaction (e.g., wall chest pass). Most medicine ball exercises involved lifting
and throwing. Within each category, the exercises progress from the least challenging to the
most challenging. Level one and level two exercises are the easiest to perform, whereas level
five and level six exercises are the most complex and are specifically designed to elicit
maximum muscle fiber recruitment while challenging cognitive abilities (Faigenbaum &
Mediate, 2006). A summary of the medicine ball training program is in Table 3.
Table 3 Medicine ball games training program between week 1 and week 12.
Medicine ball games guidelines
Week 1-4
Week 5-8
Week 9-12
Load
1 kg
2 kg
2 kg
No. exercise
2-4
2-4
3-5
No. reps per game
10-20
12-25
12-25
Rest interval
2-3 min
2-3 min
2-3 min
Frequency
2 x per week
2 x per week
2 x per week
The participants in the control group did not perform a specific program but attended
their regular PE class twice per week during the study period and participated in the same
traditional PE activities under the guidance of a PE teacher.
190 N. TRAJKOVIĆ, D. MADIĆ, S. ANDRAŠIĆ, Z. MILANOVIĆ, D. RADANOVIĆ
Statistical analysis
Descriptive data were calculated for all the variables. Group differences at baseline were
evaluated using independent sample t-tests. Normality assumptions for all data before and
after the intervention were checked respectively with KolmogorovSmirnov tests. A two-way
repeated measure ANOVA (2 × 2) was used to test for interactions and main effects for time
(initial vs. final) and group (experimental vs. control) on the dependent physical fitness
variables. Statistical analyses were conducted in SPSS (SPSS, Version 18.0, Chicago; IL).
Statistical significance was established a priori at p < 0.05 to test the hypothesis that the
experimental group would be more effective than the control in improving physical fitness
measures in children.
RESULTS
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has shown that data were normally distributed. An
independent sample t test revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups
for all variables prior to the training. Compared with pretraining, there was a significant (p <
0.05) improvement in both jump tests (Table 4). However, the group that participated in the
medicine ball training program made significantly greater gains compared to the control
group (p < 0.05).
In the medicine ball tests, the ANOVA revealed a statistically significant difference
between groups pre- to post-training (p < 0.05) in BOMBT. There were no significant
differences (p >0.05) between the initial and final testing for the overhead medicine ball throw
in the control group (Table 4).
Table 4 Mean ± SD results of different parameters: strength, jumping, and throwing
performance before the experimental period (initial) and after the 12-week
experimental period (final).
Experimental group
EF
Control group
EF
Initial
(Mean ± SD)
Final
(Mean ± SD)
Initial
(Mean ± SD)
Final
(Mean ± SD)
VJ
30.29±4.65
36.16± 6.59*
1.029
32.88± 3.09
35.57± 4.08*
0.743
SBJ
136.65±20.68
145.56± 20.56*
0.432
136.66± 19.48
140.70± 17.59*
0.217
MEDL
4.56± 0.72
5.02± 0.65*
0.670
4.40± 0.69
4.61± 0.65*
0.313
MEDS
6.72± 1.13
7.19± 0.91*
0.458
7.35± 1.09
7.00± 1.00
-0.334
BOMBT
6.04± 0.69
6.55± 0.69*
0.739
6.38± 0.71
6.55± 0.72*
0.237
Bent arm hang
30.03±13.67
37.53± 14.14*
0.540
29.75± 14.47
31.23±13.37*
0.106
Push ups
10.90± 2.50
15.03± 3.07*
1.475
11.53± 3.27
13.80± 3.42*
0.678
Sit ups
30.00± 5.86
34.13± 6.65*
0.658
32.10± 6.51
34.86± 5.25*
0.466
* Significantly different from initial, p<.05; Significantly different from control, p<.0.5.
There were significant differences (p<0.05) between the initial and final testing for
flexed arm hang, push ups and sit ups in both groups. However, significant interaction
between groups (p < 0.05) was found only for bent arm hang and push ups.
Effects of Medicine Ball Training on Physical Fitness in Primary School Children 191
DISCUSSION
The present study investigated the effects of a medicine ball training program on
physical fitness in primary school children. The primary finding of this study was that
regular participation in a progressive medicine ball training program produced greater
improvement in physical fitness than traditional physical education lessons in primary school
children after 12 weeks of training. Significant improvement was observed for the medicine
ball group in both jumping tests compared to the control group. These results demonstrate that
specific medicine ball training, as part of the overall physical education process, can be
considered a useful tool for the improvement of jumping ability. Several studies involving
children have noted significant improvements in the long jump and vertical jump, following
resistance training (Falk & Mor, 1996; Lillegard, Brown, Wilson, Henderson, & Lewis, 1997;
Ignjatovic, Markovic, & Radovanovic, 2012). According to Falk & Tenebaum (1996) boys
and girls can increase their strength by about 30-50% during the first eight weeks of resistance
training. The present results are comparable with these findings as the progressive medicine
ball exercises resulted in significant gains in lower and upper body strength.
Compared with initial testing, there was a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in all
medicine tests following the 12-week medicine ball training. Faigenbaum & Mediate (2006)
stated that resistance training with medicine balls can be an effective method of conditioning
for school age youth during physical education. Related studies with high school children that
lasted only 6 weeks, found an increase in the medicine ball throw of 19%. (Faigenbaum &
Mediate, 2006) After a similar study (Faigenbaum et al., 2007), with a combined resistance
training program and medicine ball throws, the authors found an increase of 14%, and in a 12-
week study (Szymanski, Szymanski, Bradford, Schade, & Pascoe, 2007), the authors found an
increase of 10% in the medicine ball throws. The increases observed in our study were in line
with expected increases. Additionally, Ignjatovic et al. (2012) found significantly greater
gains in all medicine ball throw tests compared with the controls (p<0.01) in young female
athletes following medicine ball training. In addition, the medicine ball group made
significantly greater gains in bench and shoulder press power than the control group (p<0.05).
One of the findings from our study was that there was a significant improvement in the bent
arm hang, sit ups and push ups in both groups. However, the medicine ball group made
significantly greater gains in the bent arm hang and push ups (p<0.05). Performance gains in
the sit up test following medicine ball training were particularly notable since the training
intervention included only one exercise specifically designed to enhance core strength.
However, it is possible that the performance of other movements with proper exercise
technique contributed to these findings.
A novel finding from the present investigation was that 10-15 min of medicine ball
training performed twice per week resulted in significantly greater gains in physical fitness
measures than normally achieved with standard PE in children. Since both groups participated
in the same traditional PE lessons during the study period, such differences in fitness
performance are likely due to the specific training adaptations that resulted from medicine ball
training. However, some authors have noted significant gains in strength without significant
improvements in motor performance skills (Faigenbaum, Zaichkowsky, Westcott, Micheli, &
Fehlandt, 1993). Faigenbaum & Mediate (2006) explain this by the fact that programs that
include exercises on weight machines are less specific than the test and may be less likely to
enhance motor skills performance than programs characterized by more specific exercises that
involve body weight exercises, free weights and medicine balls.
192 N. TRAJKOVIĆ, D. MADIĆ, S. ANDRAŠIĆ, Z. MILANOVIĆ, D. RADANOVIĆ
CONCLUSION
Findings from the present investigation indicate that medicine ball training instructed by
qualified professionals can result in significant improvements in selected physical fitness
components in children, and is a costeffective and time efficient method for promoting
physical activity in school-based programs. Medicine ball training performed for 10-15
minutes resulted in significantly greater gains in physical fitness measures than gains normally
achieved with traditional physical education. Our findings, combined with positive feedback
from physical education teachers, indicated that medicine ball training can be an effective
and enjoyable part of promoting physical fitness in primary school children. Future studies
should focus on potential differences in training intensity as well as the long-term effects of
medicine ball training during childhood on physical activity habits and health-related
conditions in later life.
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EFEKTI TRENINGA SA MEDICINKOM NA FIZIČKI FITNES
KOD ŠKOLSKE DECE
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funkcionalnog 
            -12 godina

iz mesta, vertikalni skok, vis u zgibu, podizanje trupa, sklekovi, i testovi bacanja medicinke.
Eksperimentalna grupa je imala dva puta nedeljno trening sa medicinkom u toku 12 nedelja, pod

            
g programa (p <0,05) kod testa bacanje medicinke iza
             
sklekova i podizanja trupa kod obe grupe. Nalazi iz ove studije pokazuju da trening sa medicinkom uz
in          


Kljuĉne reĉi: vebanje, 
... In addition, it has also conveyed that, medicine ball games as weighted or heavy pleasurable ball games and exercises can enhance muscular strength, cardiovascular fitness and facilitate sports performance in youth exercise program [12]. According to , medicine ball games (MBG) defined as weighted or heavy ball used enthusiastically for improving the physical fitness among players specifically in conditioning and strengthening exercises [13]. ...
... This findings of present study were in line with a study by Trajković et al. (2017), confirming that there is a significant improvement in muscular strength after the medicine ball training session among the netball players [12]. The regular training using medicine ball seemingly affects the conditioning for young students [18]. ...
... This findings of present study were in line with a study by Trajković et al. (2017), confirming that there is a significant improvement in muscular strength after the medicine ball training session among the netball players [12]. The regular training using medicine ball seemingly affects the conditioning for young students [18]. ...
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Abstract-- Youth girls in South East Asia are eager to play netball at schools, however, a majority of them are overweight and obese with a poor fitness level. This study aimed to determine the effect of medicine ball games (MBG) on muscular strength and 𝑉 ̇O2max as well as abdominal fat among overweight and obese netball players. Fifty overweight and obese volunteers (14-16years, BMI≥26.8kg.m-2) randomly divided into; MGB and control groups. Pre and post-test assessed muscular strength (Push-up), 𝑉𝑂̇ 2max (Bleep-Test) and abdominal fat (WHR). MBG group completed 8 weeks MBG training program; three times/weekly, 60 minutes per session. Results showed a significant improvement in muscular strength (p= 0.001) and abdominal fat (p= 0.001) in MBG group, while no significant differences in 𝑉 ̇O2max (p=0.69) observed between two groups. Therefore, various types of enjoyable MBG can strongly be suggested for overweight and obese netball players to enhance muscular strength and reduce abdominal fat mass. However, further studies are needed to investigate various type of MBG program on other physiological factors and body composition profile in this population.
... Recent studies show that medicine ball training has benefits for physical fitness (Trajković, Madić, Andrašić, Milanović, & Radanović, 2017;Boyaci & Afyon, 2017), selfperceived and actual motor competence (Duncan, Jones, O'Brien, Barnett, & Eyre, 2018), working memory (Jansen, Scheer, & Zayed, 2019), as well as acute cardio metabolic responses (Faigenbaum et al., 2018) in children. Contrary to the abovementioned studies, one study showed non-significant improvements in 1RM chest press strength as compared to the control group (Faigenbaum et al., 2007). ...
... Faigenbaum & Mediate (2006) stated that exercising with a medicine ball can be a very effective method for improving motor abilities of school children during physical education classes. Related studies (Trajković et al., 2017;Pržulj et al., 2020) involving the same population lasting 12 weeks showed an improvement in motor abilities, so increases observed in this study were consistent with the expected results. Trajković et al. (2016) have found improvement in motor abilities of school children who were included in the gymnastics program. ...
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The aim of this study was to determine and to compare the effects of different exercise programs on motor abilities in primary school children. A total of 60 (30 boys and 30 girls) primary school children, aged 12 years ± 6 months voluntarily participated in this study. Motor abilities were assessed by the following variables: the squat jump, long jump, bent-arm hang, sit-ups, push-ups, sprint 30m, T-test, handgrip, and medicine ball throw tests. All groups had regular physical education classes twice a week and one hour of additional physical activity, with the experimental groups exercising with a medicine ball (E1) following a developmental gymnastics program (E2) during the 12 weeks. The ANCOVA showed statistically significant differences between the groups (p<0.05) in most motor abilities tests in favor of both experimental groups, with slightly better results in favor of the E1 group compared to E2. The results of this research show that exercise with a medicine ball and developmental gymnastics can lead to significant improvements in motor abilities among primary school children.
... Medicine balls provide a unique type of unguided resistance that can be used for an unlimited number of exercises performed at different movement speeds. Training with medicine balls has been found to enhance health-and skill-related components of physical fitness in children (41), adolescents (17) and young female athletes (24). ...
... Our intent was to provide descriptive cardiometabolic data for MBIT and establish preliminary cardiometabolic references values for a child-specific MBIT protocol. Due to reported adaptations from medicine ball training in younger populations (17,24,41), we hypothesized that MBIT would elicit a moderate to vigorous cardiometabolic stimulus in children. ...
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Medicine ball interval training (MBIT) has been found to be an effective exercise modality in fitness programs, yet the acute physiological responses to this type of this exercise in youth are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute cardiometabolic responses to MBIT in children. Fourteen children (mean age 10.1 ± 1.3 yr) were tested for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) on a treadmill and subsequently (> 48 hours later) performed a progressive 10 min MBIT protocol of 5 exercises (EX): standing marches (EX1), alternating lunges (EX2), squat swings (EX3), chest passes (EX4) and double arm slams (EX5). A 2.3 kg medicine ball was used for all trials and each exercise was performed twice for 30 sec with a 30 sec rest interval between sets and exercises. Participants exercised while connected to a metabolic system and heart rate (HR) monitor. During the MBIT protocol, mean HR significantly (p<0.05, η² = 0.89) increased from 121.5 ± 12.3 bpm during EX1 to 178.3 ± 9.4 bpm during EX5 and mean VO2 significantly (p<0.05, η²= 0.88) increased from 15.5 ± 2.9 ml × kg⁻¹ × min⁻¹ during EX1 to 34.9 ± 5.1 ml × kg⁻¹ × min⁻¹during EX5. Mean HR and VO2 values during MBIT ranged from 61.1% to 89.6% of HRpeak and from 28.2% to 63.5% of VO2peak. These descriptive data indicate that MBIT can pose a moderate to vigorous cardiometabolic stimulus in children.
... Medicine balls provide a unique type of unguided resistance that can be used for an unlimited number of exercises performed at different movement speeds. Training with medicine balls has been found to enhance health-and skill-related components of physical fitness in children (41), adolescents (17) and young female athletes (24). ...
... Our intent was to provide descriptive cardiometabolic data for MBIT and establish preliminary cardiometabolic references values for a child-specific MBIT protocol. Due to reported adaptations from medicine ball training in younger populations (17,24,41), we hypothesized that MBIT would elicit a moderate to vigorous cardiometabolic stimulus in children. ...
... Medicine balls provide a unique type of unguided resistance that can be used for an unlimited number of exercises performed at different movement speeds. Training with medicine balls has been found to enhance health-and skill-related components of physical fitness in children (41), adolescents (17) and young female athletes (24). ...
... Our intent was to provide descriptive cardiometabolic data for MBIT and establish preliminary cardiometabolic references values for a child-specific MBIT protocol. Due to reported adaptations from medicine ball training in younger populations (17,24,41), we hypothesized that MBIT would elicit a moderate to vigorous cardiometabolic stimulus in children. ...
... Medicine balls provide a unique type of unguided resistance that can be used for an unlimited number of exercises performed at different movement speeds. Training with medicine balls has been found to enhance health-and skill-related components of physical fitness in children (41), adolescents (17) and young female athletes (24). ...
... Our intent was to provide descriptive cardiometabolic data for MBIT and establish preliminary cardiometabolic references values for a child-specific MBIT protocol. Due to reported adaptations from medicine ball training in younger populations (17,24,41), we hypothesized that MBIT would elicit a moderate to vigorous cardiometabolic stimulus in children. ...
... Attualmente viene giocato con palle da 20 libbre per gli uomini e da 16 libbre per le donne, rientra tra le attività del CrossFit, che riconosce una delle modalità di lancio più diffuse nel gioco, l'underhand throw, come simile al clean o al kettlebell swing (Glassman, 2003) 8 Un recente studio effettuato su bambini tra i 10 e i 12 anni dimostra che l'inserimento nelle lezioni di educazione fisica del lavoro di lanci con palle zavorrate comporta un miglioramento significativo nel miglioramento delle capacità condizionali ( Trajković et al. 2017) Secondo Faigembaum et al. (2018) un periodo di allenamento con palla zavorrata comprendente anche dei lanci induce modificazioni significative nell'efficienza cardiovascolare in un gruppo di bambini. (Flanagan & Unholz, 2017) ...
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La palla medicinale vede la luce al tempo dei Persiani che utilizzavano la vescica degli animali riempita di sabbia, poi nell'Antica Grecia con Ippocrate e con i Gladiatori nell'Antica Roma, passando nel rinascimento con "De arte gymnastica" di Girolamo Mercuriale. In tempi più recenti il prof. Roberts ha coniato la denominazione medicine balls per il fatto che l'utilizzo oltre a "rinvigorire Il corpo" aveva altri benefici effetti collaterali (Smallwood, 2015). Nei programmi di allenamento e di condizionamento fisico delle varie discipline sportive le gestualità di lancio trovano ampio spazio per quello che riguarda il lavoro per gli aspetti coordinativi (Mediate P. Numero di ripetizioni, velocità esecutiva, durata del recupero, difficoltà esecutiva, carico, similitudine o meno con l'esercizio di gara, orientano l'obiettivo. Le esercitazioni possono venire eseguite in forma globale (con coinvolgimento di arti inferiori, tronco e arti superiori) o analitica (con coinvolgimento solo degli arti superiori). Secondo van den Tillaar & Marques (2013) i lanci con la palla zavorrata vengono utilizzati dagli atleti che praticano il tiro del giavellotto, il baseball e la pallanuoto, ma anche, con attrezzi di vario peso, dai giovani sportivi in genere. Inoltre, sembra esserci correlazione tra la prestazione nel lancio dorsale della palla medicinale e la capacità di esprimere forza esplosiva nei soggetti che praticano football, indicando una similitudine nel modello gestuale (Mayhew et al. 2005). Altresì, l'inserimento nel programma di allenamento di lanci con la palla zavorrata migliora sensibilmente il tiro nella pallamano (Raeder et al. 2015) e rientra nei programmi di core stability dei giovani che praticano il nuoto (Amaro et al. 2017), il tennis (Kovacs, 2010) e il baseball (Szymanski, 2010).
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The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a 12-week training program on the motor performance of 6- to 8-year-old prepubertal boys (n = 14). Each subject participated in a 40-min session twice a week, which included three sets of upper body strength exercises (1 to 15 repetitions/ set), unregimented lower body strength exercises, coordination, balance, and martial arts skills. The control group included 15 prepubertal boys in the same age range. All subjects were pre- and posttested on 20-s sit-ups, seated ball put, standing broad jump, sit-and-reach flexibility, 6 × 4-m shuttle run, and a coordination task. The experimental group improved significantly (p < .05) more than the control group in the sit-ups and in the long jump. Both groups improved (p < .05) in the coordination task. No significant changes were observed in body weight, seated ball put, flexibility, and shuttle run. A twice-weekly training program seems to improve performance in selected motor tasks in 6- to 8-year-old boys.
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The effectiveness of a twice-a-week strength training program on children was evaluated in 14 boys and girls (mean age 10.8 yrs) who participated in a biweekly training program for 8 weeks. Each subject performed three sets of 10 to 15 repetitions on five exercises with intensities ranging between 50 and 100% of a given 10-repetition maximum (RM). All subjects were pre- and posttested on the following measures: 10-RM strength, sit and reach flexibility, vertical jump, seated ball put, resting blood pressure, and body composition parameters. The subjects were compared to a similar group of boys and girls (n = 9; mean age 9.9 yrs) who were randomly selected to serve as controls. Following the training period, the experimental group made greater gains in strength (74.3%) as compared to the control group (13.0%) (p < 0.001), and differences in the sum of seven skinfolds were noted (−2.3% vs. +1.7%, respectively, p < 0.05). Training did not significantly affect other variables. These results suggest that parti...
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As parents, teachers, coaches, and fitness professionals, we all have the shared responsibility of encouraging children and teenagers to be physically active on most, if not all, days of the week. With this objective in mind, we must strive to provide boys and girls with enjoyable experiences that increase their confidence in their abilities to be physically active. Along with other types of physical activity, medicine ball training can be a safe, effective, and fun method of developing and enhancing health-related fitness, physical competence, and positive attitudes about physical activity in children and adolescents. Because medicine balls come in a variety of shapes and sizes, qualified fitness professionals can design medicine ball programs for youth with differing needs, goals, and abilities.