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Abstract and Figures

Covering roughly 17 square km (4,200 acres), Griffith Park represents one of the most significant reserves of natural habitat in the central Los Angeles Basin and the largest contiguous expanse of open space in the eastern Santa Monica Mountains. The study area covers all of Griffith Park and adjacent openspace west to State Route 101 and north to State Route 134. Here I provide information on 430 native or naturalized plant taxa reported from Griffith Park, including 326 naturally-occurring natives and 104 naturalized non-natives. Most of these taxa are vouchered with herbarium specimens, and I provide additional lists for unvouchered specimens and those documented only by photographs, as well as vouchered taxa for which there exists some question as to the origin of their occurrence within the park. The species richness of the park flora may becompared to that of the nearby Verdugo Mountains (585 native or naturalized taxa)and the Santa Monica Mountains/Simi Hills (875-1005 taxa). This represents thefirst full treatment of the native plant species of Griffith Park, and it provides abaseline of diversity for what is arguably the most significant area of open spacein the central Los Angeles Basin, informing and encouraging future investigation and documentation of the flora of the Los Angeles area.
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Crossosoma Volume 41, Numbers 1 & 2 2015
Flora of Grifth Park, Los Angeles, California
Daniel S. Cooper.................................................................................... 1
Errata to volume 40.2...................................................................................... 87
Photograph: Calystegia macrostegia (probably C.m. subsp. intermedia), taken
13 May 2010 by Dan Cooper while on Cahuenga Peak, with Burbank and the base
of the Verdugo Mountains in the background. Three subspecies of C. macrostegia
have been collected in Grifth Park, but much remains to be learned about their
distribution. Cahuenga Peak is the park’s highest point and the tallest peak in the
eastern Santa Monica Mountains. One of the most productive areas of the park
for native forbs, it also supports a large population of Arctostaphylos glandulosa
subsp. mollis and Pickeringia montana on a high plateau.
Published March 2017
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 1
Daniel S. Cooper
Cooper Ecological Monitoring, Inc.
255 Satinwood Ave., Oak Park, CA 91377
ABSTRACT: Covering roughly 17 km2 (4,200 acres), Grifth Park represents
one of the most signicant reserves of natural habitat in the central Los Angeles
Basin and the largest contiguous expanse of open space in the eastern Santa
Monica Mountains. The study area covers all of Grifth Park and adjacent open
space west to State Route 101 and north to State Route 134. Here I provide
information on 430 native or naturalized plant taxa reported from Grifth Park,
including 326 naturally-occurring natives and 104 naturalized non-natives. Most
of these taxa are vouchered with herbarium specimens, and I provide additional
lists for unvouchered specimens and those documented only by photographs, as
well as vouchered taxa for which there exists some question as to the origin of
their occurrence within the park. The species richness of the park ora may be
compared to that of the nearby Verdugo Mountains (585 native or naturalized taxa)
and the Santa Monica Mountains/Simi Hills (875-1005 taxa). This represents the
rst full treatment of the native plant species of Grifth Park, and it provides a
baseline of diversity for what is arguably the most signicant area of open space
in the central Los Angeles Basin, informing and encouraging future investigation
and documentation of the ora of the Los Angeles area.
KEYWORDS: Grifth Park, Los Angeles, Historical, Extirpation
Study Area
One of the largest municipal parks in the world, Grifth Park covers roughly
17 km2 (4,200 acres) at the far eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains and
features rugged canyons, ridges and rocky outcrops. It is situated within the
coastal lowlands of the Los Angeles Basin, one of the botanical “black holes”
recently identied as being in need of botanical exploration and documentation
(Soza et al. 2000). I have dened the Grifth Park study area to extend from
Cahuenga Pass, north and east to the edge of the Los Angeles River channel, and
south and east to the urban edge of Hollywood/Los Feliz, roughly bounded on the
south by Los Feliz Boulevard and Franklin Avenue (Figure 1). This includes the
entire park property (City of Los Angeles, Department of Recreation and Parks),
Hollywood Reservoir and surrounding open space and utility easements (Los
Angeles Department of Water and Power), Forest Lawn Memorial Park, and areas
of private property mainly at the northwestern edge of the park.
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Figure 1: The location and relationship of the Grifth Park study area.
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 3
The peaks of Grifth Park include Cahuenga Peak (555 m/1,821’), which is
located along a ridge separating the Los Angeles coastal plain from the interior
San Fernando Valley and which continues southeast, terminating at the Grifth
Observatory just south of Mt. Hollywood (495 m/1,625’). The lowest elevations
at the base of the park are just over 120 m. Most of the park’s drainage ows
to the Los Angeles River and southeast toward Long Beach, but waters in the
southwestern corner of the park ow into Ballona Creek, which reaches Santa
Monica Bay to the southwest at Playa del Rey. The topography of Grifth Park
is steeper on the north ank than the south, with the north and west slopes of
Cahuenga Peak and Burbank Peak descending more than 400 meters down to the
Los Angeles River in a distance of roughly one kilometer.
The park’s geology is complex, with several northwest-trending faults, and includes
both sedimentary deposits as well as exposed rock outcrops (Neuerburg 1953).
Soil types over much of the park have not been formally mapped or described,
but that of the far western area, east to Cahuenga Peak, has been classied as
the Topanga-Mipolomol-Sapwi association: “30 to 75% slopes, derived from
sandstone, shale and slate; well-drained and non-hydric” (Soil Survey Staff
2016), or more generally, the “Lower, Middle, and Upper Topanga Formations”
(SMMNRA 2007). This association is more widespread to the west, starting in the
vicinity of Topanga Canyon and is separated from that in the park by much older
rock in the vicinity of Sepulveda Pass, including the “Santa Monica Formation”
(SMMNRA 2007). Areas of more recent sedimentary shale uplifted from the
basin oor dominate the southeastern corner of the park and feature exposed
strata of soft, blocky, whitish rock. These sedimentary soils, detrital sediments
of the Lindero Canyon, Monterey, and Modelo Formations, extend west across
the northern slope of the Santa Monica Mountains well into the San Fernando
Valley to the Simi Hills (SMMNRA 2007). Localized but signicant areas of
non-sedimentary soils include area of igneous rock with granitic outcrops in
the Mt. Hollywood/Grifth Observatory area and appear at the far northeastern
edge of the park, just above the Los Angeles River plain and east of Forest Lawn
Cemetery. Smaller, conglomerate areas of sedimentary breccia are described
as being comparatively barren, with a thin cover of soil that supports a sparse
chaparral cover (see Figure 9 in Neuerberg 1953). Finally, small areas of coarser
alluvial soils and, to a limited extent, sand, are found on former alluvial areas
at the base of the park, notably at the extreme northern edge adjacent to the Los
Angeles River.
Because the central ridge of the park intercepts cool, moist air coming off the
Pacic Ocean most of the year, the southern ank of the park and its peaks tend
to stay cooler during hot summer days than the northern and eastern inland
ank. The average August high temperature is 26°C (79°F) for West Hollywood,
versus 31°C (88°F) for Burbank (U.S. Climate Data 2016). High temperatures
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in portions of the eastern Santa Monica Mountains can exceed 37°C (100°F)
in late summer and fall, particularly in interior canyons where coastal air ows
are blocked (CDFG 2006). During winter this pattern is reversed as the ocean
moderates temperature extremes, resulting in higher winter temperatures on the
coastal slope. The average low December temperature is 10.5°C (51°F) at West
Hollywood, versus 5.0°C (41°F) for Burbank.
Annual precipitation in the Los Angeles Basin averages 15 inches per year but
is highly variable, with dry years receiving less than half of this rainfall and wet
years receiving nearly double this amount. As with temperature, rainfall patterns
are variable even within the park, as rainfall at slightly higher elevations tends to
be greater than at the oor of the basin. Annual precipitation ranges from 18 to
22 inches at peaks in the eastern Santa Monica Mountains (CDFG 2006). During
spring and early summer, a predictable onshore ow results in an inversion layer,
with coastal fog moving inland and remaining through the morning and often all
day, obscuring the tops of the park’s peaks and central ridge. This may explain the
persistence of certain cool-weather plant species at upper elevations in the park,
such as manzanita (Arctostaphylos sp.) at roughly the level of densest fog (see
Vasey et al. 2014; author, pers. obs.).
Natural Communities of Grifth Park
Dozens of vegetation communities have been mapped within Grifth Park and
the eastern Santa Monica Mountains (AIS/ESRI 2007). The park’s vegetation is
strongly dominated by shrubland habitats, notably by expanses of high, dense
chaparral. As is the case over much of California, tall, evergreen chaparral and
low, deciduous coastal sage scrub habitats in the park are diverse at multiple
scales and often often show no single dominant species. The natural plant
communities are most intact (i.e., have the fewest non-native species) on higher
ridges and on the western ank of the park, which feature a mix of ceanothus
(Ceanothus megacarpus, C. spinosus), chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum),
birch-leaf mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus betuloides), sumacs (Malosma
laurina, Rhus ovata, R. integrifolia), scrub oak (Quercus berberidifolia), black
sage (Salvia mellifera), toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), California sagebrush
(Artemisia californica), California buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum), blue
elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. caerulea), California sunower (Encelia
californica), western poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum), chaparral mallow
(Malacothamnus fasciculatum) and sticky monkeyower (Mimulus aurantiicus).
These species vary in abundance based on elevation, slope, aspect, and
microclimate; but in general, large and dense chaparral species (e.g., chamise,
ceanothus, mountain-mahogany and scrub oak) dominate at highest elevations,
with coastal scrub species (e.g., sagebrush, sages, California buckwheat, blue
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 5
elderberry, and California sunower) dominating the lower slopes.
Native woodland associations are relatively uncommon compared to areas
of similar elevations in the central and western Santa Monica Mountains and
consist largely of just two tree species, southern California black walnut (Juglans
californica) and coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), with small stands of western
sycamore (Platanus racemosa) in moister canyons. Riparian communities are
very poorly developed and limited to patches of willow, mainly Salix lasiolepis,
blue elderberry, and mulefat (Baccharis salicifolius). There are no riparian
woodlands or extensive riparian scrub in the park. Non-native woodlands are
largely dominated by eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) and pines (Pinus spp.), and
all appear to have been planted over the years rather than naturalized from areas
outside the park.
Herbaceous communities are scattered through all habitats within the park and
are dominated by non-natives, often including non-native bromes (Bromus spp.)
and other Mediterranean grasses, laree (Erodium spp.) and tocolote (Centaurea
melitensis), but small (<0.1 ha) areas of native forbs do exist. These stands
deserve mention because of their signicant contribution to the diversity of the
native ora, if not for their extent (see Cooper 2011). One association occurs
on clay lenses that form atop non-clay soils, typically along ridgelines and at
rock outcrops. Most are on shaded, north-facing slopes or are associated with
seasonally moist areas where these heavy soils stay wet through the spring. They
provide important habitat for geophytes such as chocolate lily (Fritillaria biora),
golden-stars (Bloomeria crocea), Catalina mariposa-lily (Calochortus catalinae),
sanicles (Sanicula spp.), and blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium bellum) in the park.
By mid-spring, non-native grasses have largely invaded these communities, and
they become almost indistinguishable from other grassy/weedy openings in scrub.
Another native forb association occurs on steeper, eroding ridges where soil is
thin and competition with non-natives is apparently reduced. These areas also
support a distinctive community of native annuals, including Turkish rugging
(Chorizanthe staticoides), pincushions (Chaenactis spp.), bushy spikemoss
(Selaginella bigelovii) and Los Angeles gilia (Gilia angelensis). Areas of rock
outcrops support several locally scarce species including “moss gardens,”
which support a variety of delicate annuals on moss and fern-covered pockets
within sandstone outcroppings, including Cleveland’s shooting-stars (Primula
clevelandii), California saxifrage (Micranthes californica), peninsular onion
(Allium peninsulare), and various ferns and native grasses. Areas of these moss
gardens that are rich in clay may support rare clay-associated species such as
Johnny jump-up (Viola pedunculata), while thinner soil within the outcrops feature
more rock-associated taxa like mountain fringepod (Thysanocarpus lacinatus).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
A third important and distinct microhabitat of the park includes the high plateau
that includes Cahuenga Peak and Burbank Peak, located above and just west of the
iconic Hollywood sign, which supports a large expanse of Eastwood’s manzanita
(Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. mollis), which co-occurs with higher-elevation
shrubs like chamise and chaparral pea (Pickeringia montana) on a northwest-
facing exposure.
Lastly, the northern base of the park, roughly traced by Forest Lawn Drive, is
worth noting as a key microhabitat, as it represents the historic southern edge of
what was the broad oodplain of the Los Angeles River as it owed through the
east San Fernando Valley. While the river, including the soft-bottomed, lushly-
vegetated stretch, has been completely encased in cement levees here and is
not treated in this ora, areas of relict vegetation remain within the park. Taxa
associated with sandy or gravelly washes that may be found locally here include
scalebroom (Lepidospartum squamatum), California croton (Croton californicus)
and annual buckwheat (Eriogoum gracile var. gracile). Patches of cane cholla
(Cylindropuntia californica var. parkeri) in this area were also presumably
associated with the Los Angeles River wash.
Several canyons with consistent, often year-round water, including Royce
Canyon, Spring Canyon, Brush Canyon, and Fern Canyon, allow various rushes
(Juncus sp.), cardinal monkeyower (Erythranthe cardinalis) and even aquatic
species, including watercress Nasturtium ofcinale, to occur in an otherwise arid
environment. However, these wetland areas are extremely small (<< 1 ac)) and
are even more restricted or entirely absent in dry years.
Various oristic curiosities of Grifth Park, compared with the rest of the Santa
Monica Mountains, include an apparent absence of more coastal shrubs such as
purple sage (Salvia leucophylla) and ashy-leaf buckwheat (Eriogonum cinereum),
as well as the lack of several perennial herbs that become locally common farther
west in the Santa Monicas, e.g., pitcher sage (Salvia spathacea). Several lower-
foothill shrubs and trees, such as hairyleaf ceanothus (Ceanothus oliganthus),
white alder (Alnus rhombifolia), and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophylla) are rare
or absent, while other higher-elevation taxa such as American yellowrocket
(Barbarea orthoceras) are present, though highly localized. A handful of species
are known in the entire Santa Monica Mountains/Simi Hills only from Grifth
Park and vicinity, notably cane cholla (Cylindropuntia californica) and giant
blazing-star (Mentzelia laevicaulis); others are particularly common here, such as
red-gland spurge (Euphorbia melanadenia) (Prigge and Gibson 2013).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 7
Botanical Investigation of Grifth Park
Plant collectors working in Grifth Park during the rst three decades of the
20th Century include Carl Epling (133 known vouchered specimens), Ernest
Braunton (54 specimens), and Fredrica “Freda” Detmers (32 specimens). The rst
rangewide treatement of the ora of the Santa Monica Mountains appeared as a
comprehensive checklist by Raven and Thompson in 1966 (Raven and Thompson
1966). Since then, oristic knowledge of the range has been further rened in
both the scientic (Raven et al. 1986, Wishner 1997) and the popular literature
(McAuley 1996). Both Raven et al. (1986) and McAuley (1996) made frequent
references to “Grifth Park” in their treatments of the Santa Monica Mountains
ora. However, information on the abundance or ecology of particular species
across this range and detail on local habitat preferences was sparse until 2013,
when Prigge and Gibson produced a fully updated treatment of all vouchered taxa
from the range. Still, only a handful of sites in the range have species checklists
(e.g., Muns 1983), and these are mainly for the larger state parks in the western
and central ranges. The far eastern portion of the range where Grifth Park is
located, east of Sepulveda Pass, has long been less well-known, botanically (de
B. Prigge).
Prior to 2007, a synthesis of the park’s ora had been limited to a single unpublished
checklist (Brusha 2003). Following a major re in May 2007, public interest in
documenting the park’s natural resources increased, resulting in a comprehensive
habitat management plan with associated species inventories released two years
later (Cooper and Mathewson 2009), and research on ora and fauna here has
continued since then (Cooper 2011, Bonebrake and Cooper 2014). Today, nearly
1,000 specimens have been vouchered for the park (Consortium of California
Herbaria 2016), including more than 200 by Cooper since 2007. Most Grifth
Park plant collectors were active in the rst decades of the 20th century. Fewer
than 30% of the vouchered specimens from the park have been collected since
1970, most of these by Cooper. The UCLA herbarium houses the most Grifth
Park specimens (260), followed by University of California, Riverside (249) and
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden/Pomona College (217).
The following lists are based on my hundreds of eld hours spent in Grifth Park
since 2007, combined with my own research using online databases and visits
to local herbaria to conrm specimen identity. Starting in 2007, I have made a
concerted effort to collect all native species in the park, initially while working
on a habitat management plan for the Los Angeles Department of Recreation and
Parks (Cooper and Mathewson 2009). During this same time period (2007 to
2010), Jorge Ochoa, a city of Los Angeles employee interested in local botany, was
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
also working in the park and would exchange photographs of discoveries. Finally,
a rare plant survey initiated in 2010 and nancially supported by neighborhood
groups added substantially to our knowledge of key localities for plant diversity
in the park (Cooper 2011).
The main list (Appendix A) includes only taxa for which there exists a vouchered
specimen in a herbarium that is a member of the Consortium of California
Herbaria. All specimens I have personally collected have been deposited at the
University of California Riverside Herbarium for verication and vouchering by
Andrew Sanders. To locate other specimens, I relied on Calora (2016) and the
Consortium of California Herbaria (2016) database, searching under the following
names: Grifth Park, Barham, Cahuenga, Ferndell/Fern Dell, Hollywood, Los
Feliz, Vermont, and Western Avenue. Following Roberts (2008), I have cited
the most recent specimen for each species, to encourage others to search for and
voucher (or photograph) taxa known only from early material.
In cases where a species proved difcult to voucher locally for various reasons,
I conrmed identication of fresh or pressed material by local experts Andrew
Sanders Barry Prigge, Art Gibson, and Tarja Sagar (often in the eld). Certain
difcult-to-collect species, such as cacti and very large succulents such as Agave
americana were similarly left un-vouchered but were photographed; I include
these and other taxa known from the park but documented only by photographs on
a second, “supplemental list” (Appendix B), separate from the main list.
I considered “excluded taxa” to be vouchered specimens for which some doubt
exists as to their occurrence in the park, and have placed these in a third list
(Appendix C). These include species that have been collected but that are not
native or not yet naturalized in the park. Others on this list have possibly been
misidentied. These should not be confused with presumably valid records of
species that are considered extirpated in the park, which are generally included in
the main list, and most of which I examined and photographed with their original
I have not treated strictly ornamental species, many of which were treated by
Brusha 2003, “lawn weeds” that have not expanded to natural habitat, or taxa
native to California but likely represented in Grifth Park only by introduced
individuals, such as valley oak (Quercus lobata), unless they are represented by
an existing specimen in a herbarium, in which case I treat them in the excluded
species list. I included in the main list plants that are not naturally-occurring
but which are found growing in a wild state away from their presumed point of
introduction, and are therefore naturalized, such as Nevin’s barberry (Berberis
nevinii). Aquatic species known from specimens but likely to have been collected
along the Los Angeles River are generally treated in the excluded species list.
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 9
Even though much of this area is technically within the political boundaries
of Grifth Park, this habitat is isolated from the study area by Interstate 5, is
comprised of entirely different vegetation (riparian and freshwater marsh), and
has not been botanically explored in many decades.
As with any study involving historical collections from urban areas or areas that
have experienced dramatic changes in land use, deciphering label information
may be challenging. Plants listed as having been collected nearly a century ago
could have been found in the study area or along the once-wild Los Angeles River
bed at the park’s border. My research located at least one important collecting
area, Providence (a.k.a. “Providencia”) Ranch that would have been adjacent
to the park. According to several label annotations and early maps, Providence
Ranch apparently included lands that have since been developed as Forest Lawn
Memorial Park, near the base of Cahuenga Peak along the Los Angeles River.
However, specimens from this area must to be treated with caution, as this ranch
extended north across the eastern San Fernando Valley to the base of the Verdugo
Mountains and would have included extensive alluvial fan scrub habitat and
potentially other habitats not historically or currently found in Grifth Park.
I follow Soza et al. (op cit.) for abundance data, as follows:
Scarce: Apparently rare, documented at only one or two, relatively
localized and often historic occurrences, and with relatively few plants
at any given site;
· Infrequent: Documented at only a few (3-6), often widely-scattered
occurrences, and with relatively few plants at any given site;
· Occasional: Documented at several (7-20) clustered or scattered
occurrences, though generally with numerous plants at any given site;
· Frequent: Documented at many ( >20), generally widely-scattered
occurrences, and usually common at any site where present;
· Common: Documented at almost any location within the habitat(s)
occupied by a given taxon, generally with numerous individuals present
at most locations.
Taxonomy and nomenclature generally follow the most recent version of the
Jepson Manual (Baldwin et al. 2012), which has resulted in family reassignments
and name changes for many groups including Lotus, Brassicaceae, Polemoniaceae,
and Scrophulariaceae. For common names, I used Calora (Calora 2016) as a
guide, occasionally substituting more commonly-heard names where appropriate.
Due to ongoing taxonomic changes and uncertainty over historical collections as
well as the continuous establishment of “new” non-natives in the park, assigning
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
a number to the total ora of Grifth Park will always be a moving target. This
list provides information through 2016 on 326 native species plus an additional
104 naturalized non-natives that have been collected or reliably reported in and
around the park (Appendices A and B).
Considerable extirpation has apparently occurred in the Grifth Park ora,
and I found evidence for 46 native taxa known only from historical (pre-1960)
collections in Grifth Park, exclusive of the Los Angeles River1 (Table 1), which
represents 14% of the total known ora for the study area. These extirpations
have occured across several familes, with Asteraceae leading the list (8 extirpated
species), followed by Brassicaceae (5 extirpated species), and Papaveraceae and
Polemoniaceae with 4 each. Of course, these are also some of the most species-
rich families, so further analysis is needed to reveal patterns of extirpation.
Table 1. Presumed extirpated native taxa of Grifth Park with year last collected
(see text).
Family Species Last Collected
APIACEAE Apiastrum angustifolium 1925
APIACEAE Bowlesia incana 1925
APIACEAE Osmorhiza brachypoda 1925
ASTERACEAE Achyrachaena mollis 1928
ASTERACEAE Ericameria linearifolia 1942
ASTERACEAE Ericameria parishii 1958
ASTERACEAE Gutierrezia californica 1902
ASTERACEAE Lasthenia californica 1924
ASTERACEAE Leptisyne bigelovii 1926
ASTERACEAE Monolopia lanceolata 1861
ASTERACEAE Pseudognaphalium
ramosissimum 1902
BORAGINACEAE Cryptantha muricata 1925
BRASSICACEAE Boechera californica 1925
BRASSICACEAE Caulanthus heterophyllus 1924
BRASSICACEAE Caulanthus lasiophyllus 1930
BRASSICACEAE Erysimum capitatum
var. capitatum 1931
BRASSICACEAE Turritis glabra 1928
CLEOMACEAE Peritoma arborea 1930
1Species possibly recently extirpated are not included in this gure, such as Heliotropium curassavi-
cum var. oculatum and Brodiaea terrestris subsp. kernensis. Those in need of more study in the park
to determine correct taxonomy, such as Galium nuttallii var. nuttallii and Lemna spp., are also omitted.
Refer to the “Excluded Species” list (Appendix C) for additional taxa reported from the park.
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 11
Family Species Last Collected
CRASSULACEAE Dudleya multicaulis 1925
DATISCACEAE Datisca glomerata 1902
FABACEAE Lupinus formosus 1928
GENTIANACEAE Zeltnera venusta 1908
GROSSULARIACEAE Ribes californicum
var. hesperium 1925
LAMIACEAE Stachys rigida var. rigida 1902
MONTIACEAE Calandrinia breweri 1928
ONAGRACEAE Eremothera boothii
subsp. decorticans 1928
OROBANCHACEAE Castilleja applegatei
subsp. martinii 1931
OROBANCHACEAE Castilleja exserta 1925
PAPAVERACEAE Dendromecon rigida 1925
PAPAVERACEAE Escholzia caespitosa 1930
PAPAVERACEAE Meconella denticulata 1928
PAPAVERACEAE Platystemon californicus 1925
PHRYMACEAE Diplacus brevipes 1925
PLANTAGINACEAE Penstemon centranthifolius 1931
PLANTAGINACEAE Plantago erecta 1925
POLEMONIACEAE Leptosiphon liniorus 1902
POLEMONIACEAE Linanthus dianthiorus 1925
POLEMONIACEAE Microsteris gracilis 1925
POLEMONIACEAE Saltugilia splendens 1931
RANUNCULACEAE Delphinium parryi subsp. parryi 1926
RANUNCULACEAE Ranunculus californicus 1903
SOLANACEAE Solanum americanum 1925
CYPERACEAE Carex triquetra 1928
POACEAE Agrostis pallens 1936
POACEAE Bromus laevipes 1925
POACEAE Elymus glaucus subsp. glaucus 1946
Table 2 lists species known from just one or two small populations in the park,
sometimes just a handful of individuals, and includes those that may be possibly be
extirpated, as they have not been refound in recent years. While the locations are
scattered around the park, a few names appear more than once, including Royce
Canyon, which includes the moss gardens on the north-facing slope south of the
stream; Western Canyon/One-Mile Tree, an important, and fairly undisturbed,
clay lens just west of Western Canyon Road near a pullout roughly one mile up
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
the road from Fern Dell; and Cahuenga-Burbank Peak, the highest ridge in the
eastern Santa Monica Mountains.
Table 2. “Scarce” native taxa of Grifth Park, known only from one or two
populations in study area; excludes cryptic species (e.g., certain grasses) and
those for which more work is needed (e.g., Camissoniopsis; see text).
Family Species Known Locations
EQUISETACEAE Equisetum hyemale
subsp. afne Ferndell
PTERIDACEAE Pellaea mucronata Mt. Hollywood
AMARANTHACEAE Amaranthus blitoides Vic. Hollywood Res.
APIACEAE Sanicula tuberosa Royce Cyn.
APOCYNACEAE Funastrum cynanchoides
var. hartwegii Vic. Hollywood Res.
ASTERACEAE Achillea millefolium Royce Cyn., Boys Camp
Cyn. Hill
ASTERACEAE Ambrosia confertiora Skyline Trail
ASTERACEAE Ambrosia psilostachya Edge of Roosevelt Golf
ASTERACEAE Ericameria pinifolia Mt. Hollywood
ASTERACEAE Grindelia camporum Oak Cyn., Coyote Cyn.
ASTERACEAE Heterotheca sessiliora Northern edge/
subsp. fastigiata Forest Lawn Dr.
ASTERACEAE Lepidospartum Northern edge/
squamatum Forest Lawn Dr.
ASTERACEAE Solidago velutina
subsp. californica Brush Cyn.
BORAGINACEAE Pectocarya linearis Burbank Peak utility road
BORAGINACEAE Plagiobothrys collinus Burbank Peak utility road
BRASSICACEAE Barbarea orthoceras Royce Cyn., Mt. Bell
BRASSICACEAE Draba cuneifolia Western Cyn./One-Mile
CARYOPHYLLACEAE Silene antirrhina Western Cyn./One-Mile
CHENOPODIACEAE Chenopodium Vermont Cyn./ “Tennis
californicum Court Cyn.”
CONVOLVULACEAE Convolvulus simulans Western Canyon/One-Mile
FABACEAE Astragalus gambelianus Royce Canyon, Cahuenga
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 13
Family Species Known Locations
FABACEAE Lupinus excubitus
var. hallii Vermont Cyn.
FABACEAE Pickeringia montana
var. montana Cahuenga-Burbank Peak
FABACEAE Trifolium microcephalum Fern Cyn.
FAGACEAE Quercus durata
var. gabrielensis Spring Cyn.
FAGACEAE Quercus wislizenii
var. fructescens Vermont Cyn./ “Tennis
Court Cyn.”; Cahuenga-
Burbank Peak
HELIOTROPACEAE Heliotropium curassavicum
var. oculatum Ferndell
LAMIACEAE Trichostema lanatum Northernedge/Travel
LOASACEAE Mentzelia laevicaulis Brush Cyn.
MONTIACEAE Calandrinia ciliata Skyline Tr.
MONTIACEAE Calyptridium
monandrum Skyline Tr., Cahuenga-
Burbank Peak
ONAGRACEAE Clarkia unguiculata Northern edge/ Forest
Lawn Dr.
ONAGRACEAE Epilobium canum
subsp. latifolium Northern edge/Forest
Lawn Dr.
OXALIDACEAE Oxalis californica Cahuenga Peak
PHRYMACEAE Erythrante cardinalis Brush Cyn., Spring Cyn.
POLEMONIACEAE Allophyllum glutinosum Vermont Cyn.,
Fern Cyn.
POLEMONIACEAE Gilia capitata
subsp. abrontanifolia Vermont Cyn.
POLYGONACEAE Eriogonum cithariforme Royce Cyn.
PRIMULACEAE Primula clevelandii
var. clevelandii Royce Cyn.
RANUNCULACEAE Ranunculus hebecarpus Royce Cyn.
RANUNCULACEAE Thalictrum fendleri Royce Cyn.
RHAMNACEAE Ceanothus oliganthus
var. oliganthus Vista del Valle Rd.
ROSACEAE Holodiscus discolor Vista del Valle Rd.
SALICACEAE Populus fremontii Northern edge/Oak Cyn.
SAPINDACEAE Acer macrophyllum Northern edge/near
Victory Blvd.
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Family Species Known Locations
SAXIFRAGACEAE Lithophragma afne Royce Cyn., Oak Cyn.
SAXIFRAGACEAE Micranthes californica Royce Canyon, Mt. Bell
SOLANACEAE Nicotiana quadrivalvis Vermont Cyn./“Tennis
Court Cyn.”
VIOLACEAE Viola pedunculata Royce Cyn.
AMARYLLIDACEAE Allium haematochiton Mt. Hollywood
AMARYLLIDACEAE Allium peninsulare Royce Cyn., Mt. Bell
JUNCACEAE Juncus balticus Brush Cyn.
JUNCACEAE Juncus macrophyllus Spring Cyn.
JUNCACEAE Juncus rugulosus Spring Cyn.
JUNCACEAE Juncus textilis Brush Cyn., Oak Cyn.
LILIACEAE Calochortus clavatus
var. gracilis Mt. Chapel
LILIACEAE Fritillaria biora
var. biora Western Cyn./One-Mile
POACEAE Aristida adscensionis Western Cyn.
Comparison with Nearby Ranges
The scrub vegetation in Grifth Park shows strong afnities with that of the
nearby Verdugo Mountains, San Rafael Hills, and lower San Gabriel Mountains,
which are geographically closer than the western Santa Monica Mountains.
Conspicuously, wild canterbury-bells (Phacelia minor) is abundant in early spring
in the park as it is in the hills to the north, and yet it is much less common farther
west in the Santa Monicas.
Table 3 lists taxa known from elsewhere in the eastern Santa Monica Mountains
(i.e., west of Grifth Park/Cahuenga Pass to Sepulveda Pass) but not from Grifth
Park; however, since recent eldwork and collection in this area has been almost
non-existent, future exploration of the remaining large areas of open space such
as Franklin Canyon and Stone Canyon may yield additional signicant records.
Similarly, a thorough review and re-collection of the ora of the soft-bottomed
stretches of the Los Angeles River adjacent to Grifth Park (“Glendale Narrows”)
could add dozens of species, including natives, to the total ora of the area.
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 15
Table 3. Additional species known from eastern Santa Monica Mountains (east
of Sepulveda Pass) but unknown in Grifth Park Study Area, with latest year
Family/ Collected
Species Location Collector (Herbarium)
Woodwardia mbriata “c. 2 mi. west of Laurel Cyn. in
canyon north of Mulholland Dr.” Kiefer 1966 (LA)
Equisetum telmateia
subsp. braunii Nichols Cyn. L.L. Keifer 1966 (LA)
Daucus pusillus Coldwater Cyn. Munz 1920 (POM)
Perideridia parishii
subsp. latifolia Laurel Cyn. Peirson n.d. (RSA)
Tauschia hartwegii Mulholland Dr. near Beverly Glen W.O. Griesel 1936 (LA)
Psilocarphus brevissimus Laurel Cyn. Peirson n.d. (RSA)
Symphyotrichum greatae Benedict Cyn. Peirson n.d. (RSA)
Cryptantha clevelandii Mulholland Dr. near Beverly Glen
Blvd. Griesel 1936 (LA)
Polycarpon depressum Stone Cyn. M. Hilend 1935 (LA)
Cornus sericea
subsp. occidentalis Laurel Cyn. Peirson n.d. (RSA)
Euphorbia serpyllifolia Laurel Cyn. Peirson n.d. (RSA)
Acmispon wrangelianus lower Franklin Cyn. D.S. Cooper 2009 (UCR)
Astragalus trichopodus
var. phoxus Deervale-Stone Cyn. Park D.S. Cooper 2012 (UCR)
Rupertia physodes Stone Cyn. O.A. Plunkett 1932 (LA)
Trifolium albopurpureum Laurel Cyn. E.S. Spalding 1923 (POM)
Vicia americana Laurel Cyn. Davidson n.d. (POM)
Salvia leucophylla2 Mulholland Dr. 300 yards west of
Beverly Glen Cyn. N. Haller 1953 (UCSB)
Eriodyction parryi Franklin Cyn. B.C. Templeton 1930 (RSA)
2A 1927 specimen from “Universal City” (s.n., LA) is potentially within the Grifth Park study area,
but it has no other information (including collector). Since the species is widely planted, I have opted
to omit this record. The species becomes common in the western Santa Monica Mountains, but its
current natural eastern distributional limit is unclear.
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Family/ Collected
Species Location Collector (Herbarium)
Eriodyction trichocalyx Franklin Cyn. near Mulholland
Dr. B.C. Templeton 1930 (RSA)
Clarkia epilobioides Coldwater Cyn. P.A. Munz and
R.D. Harwood 1920 (POM)
Cordylanthus rigidus Laurel Cyn. D.S. Cooper 2011 (UCR)
Pedicularis densiora Laurel Cyn. F. Detmers 1929 (RSA)
Antirrhinum coulterianum Laurel Cyn. Unknown 1903 (UC)
Leptosiphon parviorus Mulholland Dr. near Beverly Glen
Blvd. W.O. Griesel 1936 (LA)
Clematis ligusticifolia Bel-Air Cyn. H.L. Bauer 1932 (RSA)
Carex barbarae Laurel Cyn. Eastwood 1906 (CAS)
Epipactis gigantea Cahuenga Pass near Woodrow
Wilson Dr. P.H. Raven 1959 (LA)
Bromus arizonicus Beverly Glen Blvd. at
Mulholland Dr. O.H. Kappler 1943 (LA)
Poa secunda Woodrow Wilson Dr., 1.2 mi. east
of Laurel Cyn. P.H. Raven 1959 (LA)
A recent treatment of the ora of the Verdugo Mountains/San Rafael Hills just
northeast of the park (422 native taxa, including historical collections; Soza et al.
2013) allows for a full comparison with Grifth Park, and a comparison of native
species extirpated from each range provides important conservation insights.
While nearly 100 more native taxa are known from the Verdugos than occur or
occurred historically at Grifth Park, fully 96% of the currently- or historically-
known taxa in Grifth Park also occur or occurred in the Verdugos. A total of 312
native taxa (285 extant and 27 extirpated) of the 326 total for Grifth Park are
shared with the Verdugos. Interestingly, the percentage of extirpated (native) taxa
in Grifth Park (14%) appears to be lower than that of the Verdugos, where 97
of 423 taxa, or 23%, are known only from early records. While it is not possible
to analyze these extiratpion rates statitstically, and this obviously does not count
species that disappeared before they could be collected, this lower percentage
is puzzling, given the much smaller size and greater, more long-term isolation
of Grifth Park from adjacent, larger open space compared to the Verdugo
Mountains. Table 4 presents a summary of patterns of extirpation in the Verdugos
and Grifth Park. Of particular interest are the seven taxa considered extirpated in
both Grifth Park and the Verdugos, as these may suggest broader factors at work,
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 17
including loss of native pollinators and climate change, and they may warrant
conservation attention: Ericameria linearifolia, Zeltnera venusta, Castilleja
exserta subsp. exserta, Penstemon centranthifolius, Plantago erecta, Leptosiphon
liniorus, and Ranunculus californicus. While it is impossible to prove, several
other taxa extirpated from Grifth Park (see Table 1) yet unknown from the
Verdugos actually may have been been present in the Verdugos in the recent past
but not collected, including such locally rare and declining native forbs such as
Achyrachaena mollis, Lasthenia californica, and Microsteris gracilis.
Table 4. Comparison of patterns of species presence/absence between Verdugo
Mountains (see Soza et al. 2013) and Grifth Park (species believed extirpated in
the park denoted by asterisk).
Achillea millefolium X
Achyrachaena mollis* X
Adiantum jordanii X
Agoseris grandiora X
Allium peninsulare X
Allophyllum glutinosum X
Amaranthus blitoides X
Ambrosia confertiora X
Asclepias fascicularis X
Aristida ascencionis X
Astragalus gambelianus X
Barbarea orthoceras X
Boechera californica* X
Brodiaea terrestris subsp. kernensis*? X
Bromus laevipes* X
Calochortus catalinae X
Calystegia macrostegia subsp. arida X
Calystegia macrostegia subsp. cyclostegia X
Camissoniopsis intermedia X
Camissoniopsis robusta X
Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta* X
Ceanothus megacarpus var. megacarpus X3
Convolvulus simulans X
Cuscuta subinclusa X
Delphinium patens subsp. hepaticoideum X
Dudleya multicaulis* X
unknown in
from GP;
from GP and
3Apparently always marginal in Verdugos, so perhaps better treated as “unknown” here (see Soza et
al. 2013).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Epilobium brachycarpum X
Eremothera boothii subsp. decoritans* X
Ericameria palmeri var. pachylepis X
Ericameria linearifolia X
Eriogonum cithariforme X
Galium nuttallii var. nuttallii X
Geranium carolinianum X
Grindelia camporum X
Heliotropium curassavicum var. oculatum*? X
Holodiscus discolor X
Juncus balticus X
Lasthenia californica* X
Lemna minuta X
Leptosiphon liniorus* X
Leptosyne bigelovii* X
Lupinus excubitus var. hallii X
Madia gracilis X
Mentzelia laevicaulis X
Micropus californicus X
Microsteris gracilis* X
Monolopia lanceolata* X
Navarretia atractyloides X
Nicotiana quadrivalvis X
Nuttallanthus texanus X
Oxalis californica X
Penstemon centranthifolius* X
Peritoma arborea* X
Phacelia hubbyi X
Phacelia viscida X
Phoradendron serotinum
subsp. macrophyllum X
Platago erecta* X
Primula clevelandii subsp. clevelandii X
Psilocarphus tenellus X
Ranunculus californicus* X
Ribes californicum var. hesperium* X
Rumex salicifolius X
Saltugilia splendens* X
Sanicula bipinnata X
Solanum americanum* X
Stachys rigida var. rigida* X
Stephanomeria diegensis X
from GP;
unknown in
from GP;
from GP and
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 19
Thalictrum fendleri X
Trifolium ciliolatum X
Trifolium microcephalum X
Trifolium willdenovii X
Viola pedunculata X
Zeltnera venusta* X
The proportion of native vs. non-native ornaturalized taxa from the two ranges is
similar, (28% non-native for Verdugos verus 24% non-native for Grifth Park4).
Despite being roughly 1/8 the size of the Verdugo Mountains/San Rafael Hills,
Grifth Park supports or historically supported 77% of the natives known from
the larger range. Notably, up to 50 native taxa known from Grifth Park have
never been found in the Verdugos (Table 4), which is probably reective of the
former’s afnity with the rest of the Santa Monica Mountain range versus the San
Gabriel Mountains.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The Los Angeles Department of Recreation and
Parks granted me permission to conduct eldwork in Grifth Park starting in
2007, and has been highly supportive of ongoing research here. This project was
made possible through the nancial support of the Los Angeles Parks Foundation,
Franklin Hills Residents Association, Los Angeles/Santa Monica Mountains
Chapter of the California Native Plant Society, Los Feliz Improvement Association,
The Oaks Homeowners Association, Greater Grifth Park Neighborhood
Council, and Friends of Grifth Park. Special thanks are due to Gerry Hans and
George Grace (Grifth Park Natural History Survey) for shepherding this project
to completion and to Albert Torres, Chief Ranger, Grifth Park, for facilitating
access to the park. Gerry Hans, Jay Sullivan, Tarja Sagar (NPS), and Tony Valois
(NPS) assisted in eld searches and identication help, and Jorge Ochoa, formerly
with Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks, provided photographs
of key species and answered countless emails about the location and status of
plant species in the park. Andrew C. Sanders (UCR), Arthur C. Gibson (UCLA),
Barry Prigge (UCLA), and Richard Fisher (City of Los Angeles) assisted in plant
identication and provided needed encouragement during the course of the study.
Michael Long aided in editing the manuscript to conform to current nomenclature.
4 I made an effort to be consistent with the analysis by Soza et al. (2013) when determining whether a
non-native taxa is naturalized; for example, they also omit common, established groups like eucalyp-
tus that are known only from planted individuals.
from GP;
unknown in
from GP;
from GP and
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
I thank Michelle Cloud-Hughes, Justin Wood, Nick Jensen, and Fred Roberts for
helpful comments that greatly improved the manuscript.
AIS (Aerial Information Systems, Inc.) and ESRI (Environmental Systems
Research Institute. 2007. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. Santa
Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Photo Interpretation Report.
Submitted to Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, May 23,
Baldwin, B. G., D. H. Goldman, D. J. Keil, R. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H.
Wilken, editors. 2012. The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California.
Second edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Bonebrake, T.C. and D.S. Cooper. 2014. A Hollywood drama of buttery
extirpation and persistence over a century of urbanization. Journal of Insect
Conservation 18(4):683-692.
Brusha, R.F. 2003. Native and exotic ora of Grifth Park (unpublished checklist).
“Source: Bill Eckert. Transcribed and edited by R.F. Brusha”, May 2003.
CDFG (California Department of Fish and Game), California Native Plant
Society, T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. Evens. 2006. Vegetation Classication of the
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area and Environs in Ventura
and Los Angeles Counties, California. Submitted to National Park Service,
January 2006.
Calora. 2016. Website. Online at:
Consortium of California Herbaria. 2016. Data provided by the participants of the
Consortium of California Herbaria.
(accessed 2015).
Cooper, D.S. 2011. Rare plants of Grifth Park, Los Angeles, California.
Fremontia 38(4):18-24.
Cooper, D.S. and P. Mathewson. 2009. Grifth Park wildlife management plan
(Final). Unpublished report submitted to the Los Angeles Dept. of Recreation
and Parks by Cooper Ecological Monitoring, Inc., Contract No. 2930. Jan. 22,
2009. 94 Pp, incl.appendices.
Inaturalist 2016. Website. Online at
McAuley, M. 1996. Wildowers of the Santa Monica Mountains. Canyon
Publishing Company, Canoga Park, California.
Muns, B. 1983. Flora of Topanga State Park. Unpublished booklet.
Nelson, J.B. 2012. Stachys, pp. 858-859 in The Jepson Manual of Vascular Plants
of California. Second edition (Baldwin et al. eds.). University of California
Press, Berkeley, California.
Neuerburg, G.J. 1953. Geology of the Grifth Park area, Los Angeles County,
California. Special Report 33, Department of Natural Resources, State of
California. September 1953.
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 21
Prigge, B. and A. Gibson. 2013. A naturalist’s ora of the Santa Monica
Mountains and Simi Hills, California. Unpublished manuscript. http://www.
Raven, P.H., and H.J. Thompson. 1966. Flora of the Santa Monica Mountains,
California. Univ. of California, Los Angeles (unpublished report). June 1966.
Revised 1977 by D.S. Verity.
Raven, P.H., H.J. Thompson, B.A. Prigge. 1986. Flora of the Santa Monica
Mountains. Second Edition. Southern California Botanists, Special
Publication 2.
Roberts, F.M., Jr. 2008. The Vascular Plants of Orange County, California: An
Annotated Checklist. F.M. Roberts Publications, San Luis Rey, California.
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area (SMMNRA). 2007. Geology
of the Santa Monica Mountains (unpublished map).
Soil Survey Staff. 2016. Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States
Department of Agriculture. Web Soil Survey. Available online at https:// Accessed 2016.
Soza, V.L., S. Boyd, and A.C. Sanders. 2000. Phytogeographic “black holes” in
southern California botany, a geographic information systems (GIS) model
based on herbarium collections of two representative genera, Camissonia and
Salvia. Botany 2000 Conference, Portland, Oregon, 6-10 Aug. 2000. Abstract.
Soza, V.L., L. Gross, S. Boyd and N. Fraga. 2013. Vascular ora of the
Verdugo Mountains and San Rafael Hills, Los Angeles County, California.
Crossossoma. 39(1&2):1-140.
U.S. Climate Data. 2016. Website. Available online at:
Vasey, M.C., V.T. Parker, K.D. Holl, M.E. Loik, and S. Hiatt. 2014. Maritime
climate inuence on chaparral composition and diversity in the coastal range
of central California. Ecology and Evolution 4(18):3662-3674.
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Data from herbaria at the following institutions were used: CAS (California
Academy of Sciences), CDA (California Department. of Food and Agriculture),
JEPS (Jepson Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley), UCLA (University
of California, Los Angeles), POM (Pomona Herbarium at RSA); RSA (Rancho
Santa Ana Botanic Garden), SBBG (Santa Barbara Botanic Garden), SD (San
Diego Natural History Museum), UC (University Herbarium, University of
California, Berkeley), UCR (University of California, Riverside), and UCSB
(University of California, Santa Barbara). All are part of the Consortium of
California Herbaria, with data available online (Consortium of California Herbaria
2016). Specimens of established/native species vouchered only in the small
herbarium at the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area (“SAMO”)
have not been critically examined and are listed here if a recognizable photo also
exists (e.g., in iNaturalist).
Non-native species are marked with an asterisk (*). Underlined species have yet
to be collected or photographed in recent years, and may be extirpated. Special-
status species (see Cooper 2011) are marked with a cross (†) symbol.
Selaginella bigelovii Underw., bushy spikemoss. Perennial herb. Frequent at
seeps on rock faces throughout park; also appearing on hard-packed soil
along ridges (e.g., on ridge north of One-Mile Tree), which presumably allow
water to collect and linger in winter and early spring. Epling 6215, 25 Jan
1925 (UCLA).
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. pubescens Underw., hairy brackenfern.
Perennial herb. Infrequent, scattered populations: upper Spring Canyon;
lowermost Boy’s Camp Canyon adjacent to golf course parking lot; a small
drainage on the south face of Mt. Lee above end of Deronda Dr.; and Fern
Canyon. Plants in more developed areas of the park (e.g., Bird Sanctuary,
Vermont Canyon) may have been planted as part of an old water feature here,
or they may be naturally-occurring, or both. Cooper s.n., Mar 2008 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 23
Dryopteris arguta (Kaulf.) Maxon, coastal woodfern. Perennial herb. Frequent
in deep shade, including in the understory of mature chaparral, especially in
mesic spots such as seeps and amid boulders in seasonal drainages. Cooper
514-49, 23 May 2014 (UCR).
Equisetum hyemale L. subsp. afne (Engelm.) Calder & Roy L. Taylor, common
horsetail. Perennial herb. Scarce; occurs in permanently wet areas of lower
Fern Dell (Western Canyon). Ritter s.n., 21 Apr 1931 (UCR).
Polypodium californicum Kaulf., California polypody. Perennial herb. Frequent
at mesic rock outcrops, including exposed/sunny locations that stay wet
through winter and spring, and especially numerous at “moss gardens” in the
park. Cooper 510-48B, 10 May 2010 (UCR).
Adiantum jordanii Müll. Hal., California maiden-hair fern. Perennial herb.
Infrequent and in variable numbers from year to year, probably depending
on timing of winter rains.Many appeared in several side canyons along Oak
Canyon Trail in February 2012, but were scarce/absent in subsequent years.
Occurs year-round at water in Spring Canyon and at a seep along Lower
Beacon Trail east of Fern Canyon. Cooper 212-9, 13 Feb. 2012 (UCR).
Aspidotis californica (Hook.) Nutt. ex Copel., California lacefern. Perennial herb.
Occasional on rock outcrops and steep, eroding places on the eastern slope of
the park, including near the summit of Mt. Bell , upper Boy’s Camp Canyon,
and along the ridge above Vista del Valle Drive north of Mt. Hollywood.
Braunton 419, 4 June 1902 (DS).
Pellaea andromedifolia (Kaulf.) Fée, coffee fern. Perennial herb. Frequent in
shady areas within chaparral, typically on boulder outcrops or in thin, often
rocky soil. Cooper, s.n., 12 May 2008 (UCR).
Pellaea mucronata (D.C. Eaton) D.C. Eaton var. mucronata bird’s-foot fern.
Perennial herb. Scarce; observed in 2011 only in a crevice on a rocky slope
on the southern ank of Mt. Hollywood, just north of the tunnel over Mt.
Hollywood Road; possibly more common historically. Epling 6226, 1 Jan
1925 (LA).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) Yatsk., Windham & Wollenw. goldback fern.
Perennial herb. Frequent throughout park, found on most shaded roadcuts
and rocky outcrops, ubiquitous at seeps. Epling 6216, 1 Jan. 1925 (LA).
Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt., California bay. Tree. Frequent
only in both Western and Vermont canyons in the south-central section of the
park; locally elsewhere such as the Crystal Springs area where the population
is possibly augmented by planted landscape trees. Cooper 20170211-02,
11Feb 2017 (UCR) [in preparation].
Sambucus nigra L. subsp. caerulea (Raf.) Bolli, blue elderberry. Large shrub.
Common throughout park. Carlson s.n., 26 Apr 1918 (CAS).
Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson, mat amaranth (Prostrate pigweed). Annual.
Scarce; collected recently in area cleared for weed abatement adjacent to
Wonderview Place west of Hollywood Reservoir. Cooper 514-58, 19 May
2014 (UCR).
Chenopodium berlandieri Moq., pitseed goosefoot. Annual. Occasional in fuel
modication zones and other highly disturbed, often eroding soils. Cooper
813-49, 8 Aug 2013 (UCR).
Chenopodium californicum (S. Watson) S. Watson. California goosefoot. Annual.
Scarce; recently discovered by Miguel Ordeñana in the upper portion of a
side canyon just east of Vermont Canyon north of the tennis courts, where
10-20 plants are growing in loose soil directly along a hiking trail and in the
adjacent oor of the drainage. Cooper 25 April 2016 (UCR) [specimen in
*Chenopodium murale L., nettleleaf goosefoot. Annual. Infrequent, but probably
overlooked; mainly seen in sandy debris basins. Cooper 315-23, 22 Mar
2015 (UCR).
*Salsola australis R. Br., Russian thistle. Annual. Common invasive weed
in burned areas, particularly on sedimentary/clay soils, and often forming
a monoculture in disturbed areas. After the May 2007 re, entire hillsides
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 25
sprouted with this species. However, fewer emerged in subsequent years,
indicating the often temporary nature of its invasion. M.V. Hood 44-124-k,
8 Oct 1944 (LA).
Malosma laurina (Nutt.) Nutt. ex Abrams, laurel sumac. Large shrub. Common
throughout park, though less so in mesic areas. M. Hilend and K. Kinsel s.n.,
9 Mar 1929 (LA, “W of Hollywood Lake”).
Rhus aromatica Aiton, fragrant sumac (skunkbrush). Small shrub. Occasional
along seasonal drainages, particularly at seeps at lower elevations along base
of park. J.T. Howell 3364, 2 Mar 1968 (CAS).
Rhus integrifolia (Nutt.) Brewer & S. Watson, lemonadeberry. Large shrub.
Common on lower slopes throughout park, mainly on coastal/southern ank
of park. Carlson s.n., 24 Apr 1918 (CAS).
Rhus ovata S. Watson, sugar bush. Large shrub. Frequent but scattered throughout
park, rarely forming thickets. Braunton 389, 4 June 1902 (DS).
Toxicodendron diversilobum (Torr. & A. Gray) Greene, western poison oak.
Common throughout, particularly along drainages, at seeps, and on northern
exposures. Epling s.n., 18 May 1925 (LA).
*Anthriscus caucalis M. Bieb., bur-chervil. Annual. Frequent weed in understory
of oak woodland and in disturbed riparian areas. A. Mayers s.n., 14 May 1978
Apiastrum angustifolium Nutt., mock parsley. Annual. No extant occurrences
known; to be looked for in gravelly soil within coastal sage scrub. Epling s.n.,
18 May 1925 (LA).
Bowlesia incana Ruiz & Pav., hoary bowlesia. Annual. No extant occurrences
known. Epling 6521, Mar 1925 (LA).
*Conium maculatum L., poison hemlock. Biennial herb. Frequent weed along
drainages and mesic sites (e.g., Brush Canyon); particularly robust after re.
Cooper 514-56, 19 May 2014 (UCR).
*Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Britton & P. Wilson, marsh parsley. Annual.
Scarce; recently collected at an “urban seep” (leaky spigot) just south of
Forest Lawn Drive, and found in a similar situation at Hollywood Reservoir.
Cooper 614-22, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Lomatium lucidum (Torr. & A. Gray) Jeps., shiny biscuitroot. Perennial herb.
Occasional on rocky soil at highest elevations in park at Burbank/Cahuenga
Peak; possibly encouraged by recent re. Cooper 409-18, 30 Apr 2009
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Osmorhiza brachypoda Torr., California sweet-cicely. Perennial herb. No extant
occurrences known in the park, though fairly common in oak woodland just
west of Cahuenga Pass in the vicinity of Laurel Canyon. Epling s.n., 25 Apr
1925 (LA).
Sanicula arguta J.M. Coult. & Rose, sharptooth blacksnake root (Snakeroot).
Perennial herb. Occasional in mesic, grassy areas on clay soil, particularly on
southern slope of Royce Canyon. Cooper 20100409-30A, 9 Apr 2010 (UCR).
Sanicula bipinnata Hook. & Arn., Poison sanicle. Perennial herb. Infrequent in
grassy areas on clay or loamy soil, often with Sanicula arguta, but much
rarer. Cooper 20100409-27, 9 Apr 2010 (UCR).
Sanicula crassicaulis Poepp. ex DC., Pacic blacksnakeroot (Pacic sanicle).
Perennial herb. Frequent in clay soil, often on roadcuts and other openings
in coastal sage scrub and woodland; far more common than other Sanicula
species in park. Cooper 20100409-24, 9 Apr 2010 (UCR).
Sanicula tuberosa Torr., turkey pea. Perennial herbaceous geophyte. Scarce;
found recently only on the moss gardens of Royce Canyon. Cooper 313-53,
17 Mar 2013 (UCR).
Tauschia arguta (Torr. & A. Gray) J.F. Macbr., southern tauschia. Perennial herb.
Frequent in scrub throughout park; essentially replaces Sanicula crassicaulis
in rockier/better-drained soil and along roadcuts through chaparral. Cooper
309-2.2, 6 Mar 2009 (UCR).
Asclepias fascicularis Decne., narrow-leaf milkweed. Perennial herb. Infrequent
in grassy/open areas throughout park. Cooper 514-10, 23 May 2014 (UCR).
Funastrum cynanchoides (Decne.) Schltr. var. hartwegii (Vail) Krings, climbing
milkweed. Suffruticose perennial. No extant occurrences known, but recently
found near Runyon Canyon to the west (de B. Prigge). The cited collection
suggests that the population near the reservoir may still still exist, as it persists
elsewhere within the urbanized Los Angeles Basin (e.g., San Jose Hills, pers.
obs.). Wishner 24041 21 Aug 1996 (LA, “Ridge E of Mulholland terminus
and W of Hollywood Reservoir”).
*Hedera helix L., English ivy. Liana. Occasional along drainages at urban edge of
the park, e.g. Coolidge Canyon and Brush Canyon. Cooper 614-74, 26 June
2014 (UCR).
Achillea millefolium L., common yarrow. Perennial herb. Scarce; two occurrences
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 27
known, each with a few individual plants; both occurrrences from remote,
grassy openings in chaparral on the northern slope of the park (upper Royce
Canyon and upper Boys Camp Canyon). L. Wedberg 9332, 17 May 1954
Achyrachaena mollis Schauer, blow wives. Annual. No extant occurrences
known. This joins a long list of native annuals that have apparently vanished
or are now extremely rare in Grifth Park. Howell 3357, 2 Mar 1928 (CAS).
Acourtia microcephala DC., sacapellote (perezia). Perennial herb. Frequent in
scrub throughout park, often occurring in dense stands on one slope, and
absent across wide areas nearby. Especially abundant along western edge of
park in the vicinity of Hollywood Reservoir. Purer s.n., 8 May 1931 (SD).
*Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M. King & H. Rob., sticky snakeroot
(eupatory). Suffruticose perennial. Common near water throughout park,
including along drainages, near sprinkler heads, etc. Extensively invasive,
it now forms pure stands along certain drainages, including upper Spring
Canyon, where it seems to preclude the establishment of native ora. H.
Daniels, Foster s.n., 1 Feb 1952 (CDA).
Agoseris grandiora (Nutt.) E Greene. California dandelion. Perennial herb.
Scarce; single individual collected recently on eastern ank of Beacon Hill,
south of Fern Canyon. Cooper 514-12A, 19 May 2014 (UCR).
Ambrosia acanthicarpa Hook., annual bur-sage. Annual. Frequent in sandy soil,
particularly at northeastern corner of park (Skyline Trail, Forest Lawn Dr.),
where it is probably a relict of the historical Los Angeles River ora. Cooper
610-66, 13 June 2010 (UCR).
Ambrosia confertiora DC., weakleaf bur-ragweed. Perennial herb. Scarce;
known recently from two disturbed, low-elevation sites: a small patch along
Skyline Trail, and a vacant lot south of Hollywood Reservoir, the latter
possibly being at or near an earlier (1959) collection. Cooper 614-15, 4 June
2014 (UCR).
Ambrosia psilostachya DC., western ragweed. Perennial herb. Scarce; known
from un-irrigated edge of lawn at Wilson-Harding Golf Course. Cooper 614-
13, 12 June 2014 (UCR).
Artemisia californica Less., California sagebrush. Small shrub. Common
throughout park, particularly at lower elevations on southern face of park.
Purer s.n., 11 Feb 1931 (SD).
Artemisia douglasiana Besser, mugwort. Perennial herb. Common along
drainages and at seeps throughout park. Cooper 610-60A, 6 June 2010 (UCR).
Artemisia dracunculus L. wild tarragon. Suffruticose perennial. Occasional in
sandy areas, especially along drainage bottoms and on steep, eroding hillsides
on the southern and southeastern corner of the park such as near Vermont
Canyon. Cooper 711-85, 22 Jul 2011 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Baccharis pilularis DC., chaparral broom (Coyotebush). Large shrub. Common at
lower elevations, particularly on coastal/southern ank of park. A. Davidson
1452, Oct 1905 (POM; “Hollywood Hills”).
Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers., mule fat. Large shrub. Frequent at seeps
and springs throughout the park; common along lower portions of drainages,
particularly in debris basins. A.M. Johnson s.n., 17 Feb 1928 (LA).
*Bidens pilosa L., common beggar’s-tick. Annual. Occasional at irrigation lines
along Forest Lawn Drive at the northern edge of the park; the status of this
and other species of Bidens in the park is unknown, but it is presumably a
locally common weed. Cooper 912-74, 6 Sept 2012 (UCR).
Brickellia californica (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray, California bricklebush. Small
shrub. Common throughout park, though not forming pure stands. G.L.
Moxley 1075b, 16 Oct 1921 (GH).
Brickellia nevinii A. Gray, Nevin’s bricklebush. Small shrub. Fairly common on
rocky sites, including roadcuts, ridgelines and very steep slopes. Cooper 911-
111, 27 Sept 2011 (UCR).
*Centaurea melitensis L., tocolote. Annual. Common weed along trail edges and
at disturbed sites. Braunton 494, 24 June 1902 (UC).
Chaenactis artemisiifolia (A. Gray) A Gray, white pincushion. Annual. Infrequent
on steep, eroding ridges, mainly on upper slopes of south-draining canyons
along the main ridge of the park, e.g., upper Western Canyon. Ewan s.n., 25
May 1929 (POM).
Chaenactis glabriuscula DC. var. glabriuscula, yellow pincushion. Frequent in
open patches on ridges and eroding slopes, including along edges of footpaths,
particularly where underlain by rocky soil. Braunton 248, 1 Apr 1902 (UC).
Cirsium occidentale (Nutt.) Jeps. var. californicum, cobwebby thistle. This
species is frequent in coastal scrub and chaparral throughout park; the
distribution of the two varieties is not known. L.S. Rose 46247, 24 Jul 1946
(CAS, “S. slope of Cahuenga Peak”).
Cirsium occidentale (Nutt.) Jeps. var. occidentale, cobwebby thistle. This species
is frequent in coastal scrub and chaparral throughout park; the distribution of
the two varieties is not known. Braunton 247, 1 Apr 1902 (UC).
Corethrogyne laginifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt., California-aster. Suffruticose
perennial. Common throughout park, particularly along trails and road edges.
Cooper s.n., 9 Nov 2011 (UCR).
Deinandra fasciculata (DC.) Greene, clustered tarweed. Annual. Frequent
throughout park, appearing in midsummer, often at the edges of footpaths.
Particularly common in hard-packed clay and ne soils. Cooper 20100308-
34A, 8 Mar 2010 (UCR).
*Dimorphotheca sinuata DC., Cape marigold. Annual. Occasional; possibly
seeded where it occurs along reroads, e.g., Skyline Trail and in the vicinity
of Aberdeen Canyon, so unknown whether actually naturalized, or just
introduced at multiple locations. Cooper, 415-20, 22 Mar 2015 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 29
Encelia californica Nutt., California brittlebush (Bush sunower). Small shrub.
Common in coastal sage scrub at lower elevations, especially on southern
ank of park. Purer s.n., 8 May 1931 (SD).
Ericameria linearifolia (DC.) Urbatsch & Wussow, linear-leaved goldenbush.
Shrub. No extant occurrences known; apparently collected at the
“planetarium” (= Grifth Observatory). F. Collins s.n., 27 Feb 1942 (POM).
Ericameria palmeri (A. Gray H.M. Hall) var. pachylepis (H.M. Hall) G. Nesom.
Palmer’s goldenbush. Shrub. Infrequent on sandy and eroding soil at the
lowest elevations, as along Forest Lawn Drive (former Los Angeles River
wash area). Cooper s.n., 5 Apr 2008 (UCR).
Ericameria parishii (Greene) H.M. Hall, Parish’s goldenbush. Small shrub. No
extant occurrences known; specimen label notes: “roadside in chaparral on
granite soil just north of Mt. Hollywood, elev. 1250’, 10/22/58”. If correctly
labeled, this represents one of just two known specimens from the Santa
Monica Mountains, neither of which appears to be from an extant population
(Prigge and Gibson 2013); this species tends to occur at higher elevations
than Grifth Park, so it possible it was a relictual occurrence that is now
extirpated. Thompson 1811, 22 Oct 1958 (RSA).
Ericameria pinifolia (A. Gray) H.M. Hall, pine-bush (Pine goldenbush). Small
shrub. Scarce; a single large plant discovered just west of the Mt. Hollywood
overlook in October 2011 (DC) appears to be the sole occurrence in the
park and perhaps in the entire eastern Santa Monica Mountains. A puzzling
specimen, the foliage is particularly pale and grayish, but the inorescences
key to E. pinifolia (de B. Prigge). Cooper 1011-118, 10 Oct 2011 (UCR).
*Erigeron bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, asthmaweed. Annual. Probably occasional
near irrigation lines and on disturbed soil. Cooper 813-44, 8 Aug 2013 (UCR).
Erigeron canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Canadian horseweed. Annual. Occasional,
mainly in disturbed areas at base of park. Cooper 1108-19, Nov 2008 (UCR).
Erigeron foliosus Nutt. var. foliosus leafy eabane (Fleabane aster). Perennial
herb. Frequent throughout park, usually in grassy openings in scrub on rocky
slopes, but also in deep shade of riparian zones. Cooper s.n., 12 May 2008
Eriophyllum confertiorum (DC.) A. Gray var. confertiorum, golden yarrow.
Suffruticose perennial. Common throughout park, particularly on roadcuts,
ridgelines, and other eroding sites. Epling s.n., May 1925 (LA).
*Gamochaeta pensylvanica (Willd.) Cabrera, Pennsylvania everlasting. Annual.
Scarce; known recent collection in open area of roadside near Grifth
Observatory. Cooper 315-30, 28 Mar 2015 (UCR).
Grindelia camporum E. Greene, common gumplant. Perennial herb. Scarce;
known from just two locations on the northwestern edge of the park, both
on heavy clay soils at lower elevations (Oak Canyon Trail and “Coyote
Canyon” just south of Barham Boulevard) where it grows with various
clay-associated annuals and grasses. L.S. Rose 46223, 21 Jul 1946 (CAS,
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
“N. end of Hollywood Reservoir”). This specimen has been identied as
both Grindelia camporum var. bracteosa and G. hirsutula (Consotrium of
California Herbaria 2016); as Prigge and Gibson (2013) write, Grindelia
camporum formerly was also called forms of G. hirsutula, G. robusta, or G.
bracteosa, but most populations from across western North America have
been collapsed into one species without recognizing varieties or subspecies,
and G. hirsutula is still recognized but has been narrowly redened.”
Gutierrezia californica (DC.) Torr. & A. Gray, California matchweed. Suffruticose
perennial. No extant occurrences known. Braunton 570, 1 July 1902 (UC).
Hazardia squarrosa (Hook. & Arn.) Greene var. grindelioides (DC.) W.D. Clark,
saw-toothed goldenbush. Small shrub. Frequent in coastal scrub and chaparral
throughout park, but fairly localized away from Mt. Hollywood, where it is
locally common. A.M. Johnson 2675, 11 Nov. 1927 (LA).
*Hedypnois cretica (L.) Dum.-Cours., Crete-weed. Annual. Frequent weed, often
occurring on compact soil at edges of trails and roads. A. Roos s.n., 17 May
1954 (UCR, “Hollywood”).
Helianthus annuus L., common sunower. Annual. Infrequent, mainly at
disturbed sites at lower elevations such as the mouth of Oak Canyon in the
vicinity of Travel Town. J.I. Carlson s.n., 24 Apr 1918 (CAS, “Hollywood”).
Heterotheca grandiora Nutt., telegraph weed. Biennial herb. Widespread and
common weedy native, often along roadsides. G.W. Fisher s.n., 8 Feb 1948
(RSA, “Hollywood Reservoir”).
Heterotheca sessiliora (Nutt.) Shinners subsp. fastigiata (Greene) Semple,
sessileower false goldenaster (Erect goldenaster). Perennial herb. Scarce;
known from a a single small occurrence near the mouth of Oak Canyon
adjacent to Forest Lawn Cemetery, where it occurs on a gravelly slope that
was probably the historical southern bank of the Los Angeles River. Cooper
810-95, 26 Aug 2010 (UCR).
*Hypochaeris glabra L., smooth cat’s-ear. Annual. Common weed throughout
park, all habitats, including fairly remote, undisturbed sites. Cooper 409-17,
30 Apr 2009 (UCR).
Isocoma menziesii (Hook. & Arn.) G.L. Nesom var. vernoniodies (Nutt.)
G.L. Nesom, Menzies’ goldenbush. Small shrub. This species (variety not
determined) is frequent at lower elevations on southwestern edge of park,
especially in the vicinity of Hollywood Reservoir, continuing west toward
Cahuenga Pass. It does not appear to occur, or is at least very uncommon,
on the northern and eastern edges of the park and within the park interior,
including on ridges, and may be associated with coastal moisture -- a
distribution similar to Baccharis pilularis, Rhus integrifolia, and other
coastal-slope taxa. F. Grinnell, Jr. s.n., 9 Sep 1917 (DS).
Lasthenia californica Lindley, California goldelds. Annual. No extant
occurrences known. Oster s.n., 27 Apr 1924 (POM, “Foothills N, between
Vermont and Western Ave – Los Angeles”).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 31
Lepidospartum squamatum (A. Gray) A. Gray, scalebroom (Nevada broomsage).
Scarce, persisting locally along Forest Lawn Drive, where it is probably a
relict of the historical Los Angeles River wash and is now largely protected
from disturbance such as mowing and disking by growing along fencelines.
Cooper 810-97, 26 Aug 2010 (UCR).
Leptosyne bigelovii (A. Gray) A. Gray. Bigelow’s tickseed. Annual. No extant
occurrences known. O.A. Plunkett s.n., 20 Mar 1926 (LA; as Coreopsis
Loga laginoides (Hook. & Arn.) Moreeld, California cottonrose. Annual.
Occasional on rocky, open sites, including on compacted soil along small
footpaths through scrub. Cooper 409-3.3, 30 Apr 2009 (UCR).
*Loga gallica (L.) Coss. & Germ., narrowleaf cottonrose. Annual. Frequent
along edges of trails and other compacted soil. Cooper 509-09, 30 May 2009
Madia gracilis (Sm.) D.D. Keck, slender tarweed. Annual. Occasional; restricted
to clay or compacted soils, particularly in shaded or moist sites where
surrounding grasses remain green well into spring. Cooper 510-47B, 10 May
2010 (UCR).
Malacothrix saxatilis (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray var. tenuifolia (Nutt.) A. Gray,
cliff-aster. Perennial herb. Frequent on steep, eroding sites throughout park.
Cooper 1011-124, 5 Oct 2011 (UCR).
*Matricaria discoidea (Less.) Porter, pineapple weed. Annual. Occasional on
well-used trails and reroads throughout the park, occasionally invading
more natural areas. Cooper 315-16, 3 Apr 2015 (UCR).
Monolopia lanceolata Nutt., common monolopia. Annual. No extant occurrences
known. This localized annual appears to have been collected just once in the
park, and like several other now-scarce annuals, this very early collection
comes from an era when the landscape would have been essentially wild and
comprised of large ranchos. Ordinarily, such a record might be considered
hypothetical, but the location description seems to t Cahuenga Peak, which
has rocky, eroding habitat that seems suitable. W.H. Brewer 185, 12 Feb 1861
(UC, “high rocky ridge east of Cahuenga Pass”).
Pseudognaphalium biolettii Anderb., two-toned everlasting (Rabbit tobacco).
Perennial herb. Frequent throughout park, scattered through coastal scrub and
xeric chaparral. Cooper 514-52, 23 May 2014 (UCR; as “Pseudognaphalium
Pseudognaphalium californicum (DC.) Anderb., California everlasting (Ladies’
tobacco). Perennial herb. Common, particularly along roadsides, roadcuts,
and other somewhat disturbed sites. A.M. Johnson 118, 16 Feb 1928 (LA).
Pseudognaphalium microcephalum (Nutt.) Anderb., Wright’s cudweed (White
everlasting). Frequent throughout park, scattered through scrub and chaparral
habitats and along roadcuts and reroads. It is possible that P. beneolens also
occurs. Cooper 1011-123, 5 Oct 2011 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Pseudognaphalium ramosissimum (Nutt.) Anderb., pink everlasting (Cudweed).
Perennial herb. No extant occurrences known. Apparently rare in Los Angeles
County, with mainly early specimens scattered across Los Angeles Basin/
Channel Islands, it appears to be mainly conned to sandy, coastal strand
habitats, at least in southern California. The cited specimen from 1902 is
likely correct, particularly considering that the northern and eastern edges of
the park would have included the sandy wash of the Los Angeles River, where
it might have occurred. If it were to be found again, the powerline right-of-
way along Forest Lawn Drive would be a logical area for its rediscovery,
probably in late summer when it owers. Braunton 643, 1 Aug 1902 (UC).
Pseudognaphalium stramineum (Knuth) Anderb., cotton-batting plant. Annual.
Photographed recently along Skyline Trail, and may be widespread in the
park. No effort has been made to search for and identify it to date. Braunton
237, 1 Apr 1902 (UC).
Psilocarphus tenellus Nutt., wooly-marbles (Slender woolyheads). Annual.
Occasional along edges of trails, often on coarse soil where rainfall typically
collects but drains after a few days, such as One-Mile Tree and the western
base of Caheunga Peak. Cooper 315-10, 3 Mar 2015 (UCR).
Ranesquia californica Nutt., California chicory. Annual. Frequent in scrub and
chaparral, particularly in some disturbed areas such as openings in scrub or
roadsides, often on loose or well-drained soil. Like Brickellia californica,
Pseudognaphalium californica, or Hazardia squarrosa, this species occurs
widely as a sub-dominant, not generally forming pure stands. Cooper 514-50,
23 May 2014 (UCR).
Senecio accidus Less. var. douglasii (DC.) B.L. Turner & T.M. Barkley, bush
senecio (Douglas’s ragwort). Small shrub. Infrequent in loose soil in coastal
scrub at lower elevations, as near Roosevelt Golf Course and in the right-of-
way along Forest Lawn Drive, in what was once the Los Angeles River wash.
Typically occurs singly, with individuals widely scattered, unlike in intact
alluvial wash habitat where it can form small stands. Cooper s.n., 5 Apr 2008
*Senecio vulgaris L., common groundsel. Annual. Common weed throughout
park, including in remote, undisturbed habitats such asthe summit of
Cahuenga Peak, Royce Canyon rock outcrops, etc. Cooper 409-35, 14 Apr
2009 (UCR).
*Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., milkthistle. Annual or perennial herb. Scarce
weed; collected recently at small debris basin on north side of Fern Dell
picnic area. Cooper 614-33, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Solidago velutina DC. subsp. californica (Nutt.) Semple, California goldenrod.
Perennial herb. Scarce; known only from Brush Canyon, along the stream
near the small waterfall about midway up the drainage from the park entrance.
Cooper 712-46, 22 July 2012 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 33
Stephanomeria diegensis Gottlieb, San Diego milk aster. Annual. A small, whitish
annual Stephanomeria is frequent throughout the park in early spring; local
material has been recently identied as this species, but its abundance in the
park is uncertain. The similar Stephanomeria exigua Nutt. subsp. coronaria
(Greene) Gottlieb may yet be discovered in the park or, material collected
may be re-identied as this species, as it has been documented in the Santa
Monica Mountains and in the nearby Verdugo Mountains (Soza et al. 2013).
Prigge 16131, 20 Oct 2011 (LA).
Stephanomeria virgata Benth. subsp. virgata, tall wirelettuce. Annual. Frequent
in openings in scrub, particularly in sandy soil, as along Forest Lawn Drive
and along Boys Camp Canyon. Cooper 911-114, 27 Sept 2011 (UCR).
Uropappus lindleyi (DC.) Nutt. Lindley’s Silverpuffs. Annual. Frequent;
occurrences of this species have been conrmed from a gravelly slope adjacent
to Forest Lawn Cemetery (cited specimen), but this or a similar species occurs
widely wherever native forbs are present. The relationship between it and
Stebbinsoseris heterocarpa (Nutt.) Chambers and the distribution of both in
the park remain unclear. Prigge and Gibson (2013) recognize the local plants
as two stable hybrids, Uropappus ×lindleyi and Microseris xheterocarpa,
and write in their treatment of M. ×heterocarpa, “in many places treated
as Stebbinsoseris heterocarpa, [it] is an allotetraploid interspecic hybrid
between Microseris douglasii and M. ×lindleyi (= Uropappus ×lindleyi), itself
an interspecic hybrid with one parent also being a species of Microseris.”
Cooper s.n. 5 Apr 2008 (UCR).
Venegasia carpesioides DC. canyon sunower. Small shrub. Formerly unknown
from Grifth Park (see Raven and Thompson 1966), recent eldwork has
revealed this shrub to be occasional in canyons on the northwestern slope
of the park, as along Sennett Canyon, where it is numerous, at a seep
atop Cahuenga Peak, and along Mt. Hollywood Road near the top of the
Toyon Canyon Landll, adjacent to upper Royce Canyon. Though common
in coastal-draining canyons in the western Santa Monica Mountains, it
apparently becomes more localized to the east. Cooper s.n., 9 Apr 2008
*Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray, golden crownbeard.
Annual. Infrequent and local, persisting along the 134 Freeway (DSC, pers.
obs.) and locally elsewhere on the extreme northern base of the park. Cooper
813-42, 8 Aug 2013 (UCR).
Xanthium strumarium L. cocklebur. Annual. Locally common in constructed
debris basins in the park. Cooper 614-32, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
(†)*Berberis nevinii A. Gray, Nevin’s barberry. Shrub. Frequent near Grifth
Observatory on the ridge between Vermont and Western canyons; scattered
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
occurrences elsewhere, including lower Brush Canyon and near the Toyon
Canyon Landll. The oldest plants appear to have been planted, possibly from
natural occurrences in the region, but almost certainly were not themselves
naturally occurring in the park, as suggested by their strong association with
roads and landscaped areas. This species is readily dispersed by birds, and
most “off-trail” occurrences are young, small shrubs, often just downslope of
established stands, as opposed to the larger, older plants along roads and near
vista points. Soza et al. 1060, 16 Nov 2000 (SBBG).
Amsinckia intermedia Fisch. & C.A. Mey, common ddleneck. Annual.
Occasional and highly variable from year to year, depending on rainfall.
Often in small, scattered colonies on trail edges and roadsides (e.g., at Cedar
Grove, Mt. Hollywood, and along roadsides near Bee Rock and Royce
Canyon) and in sandy debris basins. It occurs amid non-native grasses and
weeds, so it seems unlikely that competition with these plants accounts for
its local rarity. Bristly, small-owered individuals that had been identied as
A. menziesii [e.g., Epling 6446, Mar 1925 (LA)] are likely A. retrorsa Suksd.
(de A.C. Sanders), with A. menziesii conned to extreme northern California.
Review of all Amsinckia specimens from the park is recommended. Cooper
10100323-05B, 23 Mar 2010 (UCR).
Cryptantha intermedia (A. Gray) Greene, intermediate cryptantha (Popcorn-
ower). Annual. Frequent after sufcient late winter rains along trails and
roadsides, roadcuts, tiny open patches within coastal sage scrub, and on
exposed ridgelines. Cooper 510-52B, 10 May 2010 (UCR).
Cryptantha micromeres (A. Gray) Greene, pygmyower cryptantha. Annual.
Probably occasional, occurring in rockier, more gravelly soils than C.
intermedia, which appears to favor eroding patches of sedimentary soils and
ne clay; identied from material collected recently in burned areas and on
steep, semi-disturbed sites, especially the hard-packed soil along footpaths.
Cooper 410-56A, 23 Apr 2010 (UCR).
Cryptantha microstachys (A. Gray) Greene, Tejon cryptantha. Annual. Probably
occasional in similar habitat as C. micromeres. Cooper 210-56A, 23 Apr 2010
Cryptantha muricata (Hook. & Arn.) A. Nelson & J.F. Macr. Pointed cryptantha.
Annual. No extant occurrences known; four early collections; it may persist
locally, particularly following res. Epling s.n., 25 Apr 1925 (LA).
Pectocarya linearis Ruiz & Pavón) DC., sagebrush combseed. Annual. Scarce;
recently collected along utility road at western base of Cahuenga Peak, where
it was locally common in spring 2015. Cooper 315-9, 3 Mar 2015 (UCR).
Pectocarya penicillata (Hook. & Arn.) A. DC., winged pectocarya (Winged
combseed). Annual. Infrequent; numerous along the high ridge connecting
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 35
Cahuenga and Burbank peaks, with scattered occurrences elsewhere on rocky
ridges and outcroppings (e.g., just east of the Ford Amphitheater). J.T. Howell
3560, 20 Mar 1928 (JEPS).
Plagiobothrys collinus (Phil.) I.M. Johnson, Cooper’s popcorn-ower. Annual.
Scarce; known from a very small population of unknown variety along a dirt
utility road at the northern base of Burbank Peak, where a variable number of
plants grow on compacted soil directly in the roadbed and its edges. Cooper
315-8, 3 Mar 2015 (UCR).
*Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., mouse-ear cress. Perennial herb. Infrequent;
recently observed in grassy patches in rock outcrops at the Royce Canyon
“moss gardens”, but probably more widespread. Cooper 313-52, 17 Mar
2013 (UCR).
Barbarea orthoceras Ledeb., winter cress. Perennial herb. Scarce; occurs in
“moss gardens” on the southern slope of Royce Canyon and the northern
slope of Mt. Bell. Apparently more of a foothill/montane species in the
region, it occurs in the park at an unusually low elevation. Cooper 20100409-
26, 9 Apr 2010 (UCR).
Boechera californica (Rollins) Windham & Al-Shehbaz, California rockcress.
Perennial herb. No extant occurrences known. Epling s.n., 25 Apr 1925 (LA;
as “Arabis sparsiora var. californica”).
*Brassica tournefortii Gouan, Saharan mustard (Asian mustard). Annual.
Scarce but probably increasing; recently collected along access road around
Hollywood Reservoir, where it is established locally, and also seen in the
vicinity of Commonwealth Nursery. Cooper 413-58, 22 Apr 2013 (UCR).
*Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., shepherd’s purse. Annual. Frequent lawn
weed, spreading into nearby disturbed and even native habitats. Cooper
20170211-01, 11 Feb 2017 (UCR) [in preparation].
Cardamine oligosperma Nutt.,Little western bittercress. Annual or biennial.
Infrequent but locally numerous in “moss gardens” and on rocky/sandy
areas, particularly in “splash zones” of boulders and along trails where water
collects and supports patches of native annual vegetation in late winter/early
spring. Cooper 211-8, 13 Feb 2012 (UCR).
Caulanthus heterophyllus (Nutt.) Payson, slender-pod jewelower. Annual. No
extant occurrences known. The specimen cited was collected along with
several presumed extirpated species, with the label notation “N(orth?).
bet(ween?) Vermont and Western (avenues), hills chaparral”; another early
collection lists “oor of Vermont Canyon, Grifth Park”. H.M. Oster s.n., 30
Apr 1924 (RSA).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Caulanthus lasiophyllus (Hook. & Arn.) Payson, California mustard. Annual.
No extant occurrences known. One early collection “near the summit of Mt.
Hollywood”, with one noting an elevation of 1,657’, which is near the actual
1,640’ elevation of the peak. The label on the cited specimen adds “common
in moist soil of open slope”, which could describe the western slopes of the
peak, which are often rich with native forbs. J.A. Ewan 2354, 3 May 1930
Draba cuneifolia Torrey & A. Gray, wedgeleaf draba. Annual. Scarce. Discovered
in February 2015 along the ridge just southwest of One-Mile Tree, growing
near several other locally-scarce annuals, including Scutellaria tuberosa and
Silene antirrhina. G. Hans s.n., January 2015 (UCR) [specimen in prep.].
Erysimum capitatum (Douglas ex Hook.) Greene var. capitatum, western
wallower. Biennial herb. No extant occurrences. Its abundance and
conspicuousness in the nearby San Gabriel Mountains suggests that it is
extirpated. D. Bullock 16034, 10 Jul 1931 (RSA).
*Lepidium didymum L., lesser swinecress. Annual. Presumably a common lawn
weed; its distribution in wildland areas of the park is unknown. Raven 13818,
1 Mar 1959 (CAS).
*Lepidium strictum (S. Watson) Rattan, prostrate peppergrass. Annual. Scarce;
recently collected in open, hard-packed dirt of trail edge on southwestern
ank of Mt. Hollywood. Cooper 315-29, 28 Mar 2015 (UCR).
*Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv., sweet alyssum. Suffruticose perennial. Frequent
weed throughout park, mainly around irrigation. W.O. Griesel s.n., 16 May
1936 (LA, “Hollywood Hills”).
*Sisymbrium orientale L., Oriental hedge mustard. Annual or perennial herb.
Frequent along roadsides and in grassy openings and woodland and scrub,
appearing in late winter. Cooper 315-26, 22 Mar 2015 (UCR).
Thysanocarpus laciniatus Nutt., mountain fringepod. Annual. Infrequent on
rock outcrops, particularly at seeps, as along Camp Canyon Road near the
northeastern corner of the park and in “moss gardens” elsewhere. Cooper s.n.
7 Apr 2008 (UCR).
Turritis glabra L., tower mustard. Biennial herb. No extant occurrences known.
The sole early collection was from the “oor of Vermont Canyon”, an area
that has been extensively altered since. J.T. Howell 3453, 20 Mar 1928 (CAS).
*Centranthus ruber (L.) DC., red valerian. Perennial herb. Infrequent on rock
faces and similar habitats, mainly along Vista del Valle Road and in lower
Brush Canyon; occurs widely along roadcuts in adjacent residential areas. A.
Mayers s.n., 14 Apr 1978 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 37
Lonicera subspicata Hook. & Arn. var. denudata Rehder, southern (Santa Barbara)
honeysuckle. Liana, sometimes a scandent shrub. Frequent in chaparral and
coastal sage scrub, particularly in somewhat mesic sites. Braunton 471, 11
June 1902 (DS).
Symphoricarpus mollis Nutt., creeping snowberry. Small shrub. Frequent in
understory of mesic chaparral and woodland, including walnut and sumac
scrub. Cooper 20100326-11B, 26 Mar 2010 (UCR).
*Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L., four-leaved allseed. Annual. Common on
hard-compacted roadbeds, trails, lawns, and other disturbed areas, even far
from the urban edge. Cooper 510-58C, 13 May 2010 (UCR).
Silene antirrhina L., sleepy catchy. Annual. Scarce; known only from one
collection, in coastal sage scrub southwest of One-Mile Tree on the western
edge of Western Canyon. This inconspicuous annual may be more common
and simply overlooked. Cooper 410-53B, 19 Apr 2010 (UCR).
*Silene gallica L., common catchy. Annual. Frequent in disturbed, often grassy
patches within native scrub habitat. Epling s.n., 25 Apr 1925 (LA).
Silene laciniata Cav. subsp. laciniata cardinal catchy. Perennial herb. Frequent
on rocky sites throughout park, typically on shady, north-facing exposures.
Epling s.n., 15 May 1925 (LA).
*Spergula arvensis L., corn spurry. Annual. Scarce; recently collected along
utility road at western base of Cahuenga Peak, where it was locally common
in spring 2015. Cooper 315-11, 3 Mar 2015 (UCR).
*Stellaria media (L.) Vill., common chickweed. Annual. Common in understory
of chaparral and woodland, particularly on moist soil, where it tends to form
thin mats by late winter. Epling 6441, Mar 1925 (LA).
*Atriplex semibaccata R. Br., Australian saltbush. Suffruticose perennial.
Infrequent along hard-packed trails and other disturbed sites. L.C. Wheeler
158, 25 Sep 1931 (POM, “Los Feliz Blvd. at Los Angeles River”).
Crocanthemum scoparium Nutt., rush-rose. Suffruticose perennial. Frequent
though inconspicuous when not in bloom, most common on recent burns on
thin, well-drained or rocky soil, occurring locally in unburned areas, as along
very steep, worn footpaths. Braunton 444, 11 June 1902 (UC).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Peritoma arborea (Nutt.) H.H. Iltis, bladderpod. Shrub. No extant occurrences
known. Collected on a “hillside” in Grifth Park in June 1930 (see cited
specimen below), this species was likely part of the relictual Los Angeles
River wash ora, represented by several alluvial fan scrub species, but is now
almost certainly extirpated as a naturally-occurring species. It is occasionally
used for revegetation projects in the area (e.g., a roadcut along the Glendale
Freeway through Glendale). A. Eatherton s.n. (as Cleome isomeris”), May
1930 (RSA).
Calystegia macrostegia (Greene) Brummitt subsp. arida (Abrams) Brummitt,
southern California morning glory (Island false bindweed). Perennial herb
or vine. Probably infrequent; known from two areas of sandy soil, one along
Forest Lawn Drive in what was historically the Los Angeles River wash
along the northern base of the park, and one on the eastern side of Hollywood
Reservoir. Cooper s.n., 19 Sept 2011 (UCR).
Calystegia macrostegia (Greene) Brummitt subsp. cyclostegia (House)
Brummitt, coast morning glory (Island morning glory). Perennial herb or
vine. The species is common in all habitats at all elevations, including burns
and disturbed areas; however, the subspecic identity of individual plants is
unknown except for a handful of collections. Epling s.n., 15 May 1925 (LA).
Calystegia macrostegia (Greene) Brummitt subsp. intermedia (Abrams)
Brummitt, south coast morning-glory (Island false bindweed). Status
unknown. Mullins 249, 13 May 1931 (RSA).
Convolvulus simulans Perry, clay bindweed. Annual. Scarce; discovered in a
small area of moist, heavy clay soil near One-Mile Tree in April, 2010 by T.
Sagar, but not found here in subsequent years. This species is nearly unknown
elsewhere in the Santa Monica Mountains and was not included by Wishner
(1997). This occurrence is therefore is highly signicant. Interestingly, an
early collection [A. Davidson 2337, s.d. (RSA)] is labeled as being from
“Brumholly Hill”, which may be near present-day Brunholly Drive, located
not far from the 2010 collection. Cooper 410-53A, 19 Apr 2010 (UCR).
Cuscuta californica Hook. & Arn., chaparral dodder. Parasitic annual. Dodder is
common in the park by late spring, and two similar-appearing species have
been collected in the park; more study is needed to determine the status of
each. Recently identied from material on square-leaf goldenbush (Hazardia
squarrosa) in scrub just north of Commonwealth Avenue, and presumably
widespread in the park. Cooper 614-30, 26 Jun 2014 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 39
Cuscuta subinclusa Durand & Hilg., canyon dodder. Parasitic annual.
Identied from material collected on Eriogonum fasciculatum in
2011 at Mt. Hollywood in the vicinity of Commonwealth Nursery.
See note on above species. Cooper 315-27, 22 Mar 2015 (UCR).
Crassula connata (Ruiz & Pav.) A. Berger, pygmy-weed. Annual. Frequent in
at, hard-packed areas of soil where rainfall collects briey, often occurring
in mats of dozens or hundreds of individuals. P.H. Raven and H.J. Thompson
15074, no date (LA; “Mt. Hollywood”).
Dudleya lanceolata (Nutt.) Britton & Rose, lanceleaf liveforever. Succulent
perennial herb. Frequent on steep rocky or stony soils and rock outcrops,
and extremely variable throughout the park in terms of ower color and leaf
width and length. Interestingly, several other species of Dudleya occur in the
Santa Monica Mountains, but this appears to be the only one in the eastern
Santa Monica Mountains, east of Sepulveda Pass. Kline s.n., 1 June 1924
Dudleya multicaulis (Rose) Moran, many-stemmed live-forever. Perennial herb.
No extant occurrences known. Specimens from 1905 and 1924 include
material from the area (see cited specimen). This species is typically found
on shallow patches of soil atop boulders, often within grassland or chaparral,
a habitat that still exists in the park. Upon examination of the material at
RSA, several were presumably incorrectly labeled, including “Tehachapi”,
lending a degree of uncertainty to all local collection locales. More recent
eldwork has revealed it to be restricted to a narrow band of low hills from
southeastern Los Angeles County east of San Gabriel Valley, east to extreme
southwestern San Bernardino County and south into northwestern San Diego
County. However, as undeveloped clay hills were once contiguous across
the Los Angeles Basin, I have retained it on the main list until these early
collections are shown to be in error. H.M. Oster s.n., 27 Apr 1924 (RSA,
“Foothills N, between Vermont and Western Ave.”).
Marah macrocarpa (Greene) Greene, wild cucumber. Perennial herb. Common
throughout park, all habitats except areas of major soil disturbance. Epling
s.n., 18 May 1925 (LA).
Datisca glomerata (C. Presl) Baill., Durango root. Perennial herb. No extant
occurrences known. One early collection from the “n(orth) side of Grifth
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Park.” It is possible that it occurred in lower Sennett/Royce Canyon, both
now highly modied by Forest Lawn Cemetery. This species occurs along
rocky canyons, and these would have been the major drainages on the north
slope of the park. Braunton 478, 13 June 1902 (UC).
Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw. subsp. mollis (J.E. Adams) P.V. Wells,
Eastwood’s manzanita. Large shrub. One of the “agship species” of Grifth
Park, a sizable, geographically isolated population of this large shrub cloaks
the high plateau between Cahuenga and Burbank Peak, where hundreds
of plants occur with chamise as a co-dominant. A 2007 burn thinned out
portions of this stand, resulting in a more diverse array of shrub species,
but the manzanita recovered strongly. Scattered plants also occur in mixed
chaparral on steep, granitic ridges just north of Mt. Hollywood, extending
downslope to the east toward Vista del Valle Road This subpopulation is
recovering following the 2007 re. Otherwise, despite much searching,
the species has not been located on the other peaks in the park, such as Mt.
Chapel and Mt. Bell. ` (DS).
Croton californicus Muell. Arg., California croton. Suffruticose perennial.
Infrequent; locally numerous in powerline right-of-way and other at, sandy
areas along Forest Lawn Drive on the northern base of the park. Cooper 610-
69, 13 June 2010 (UCR).
Croton setiger Hook., turkey mullein (doveweed). Annual. Infrequent; occurs in
late summer and fall in same areas as Croton californicus along Forest Lawn
Drive, and more widely in sandy areas elsewhere, including along Vista del
Valle Drive and in “fuel modication zones” around houses. Cooper 614-43,
26 June 2014 (UCR).
*Euphorbia maculata L., spotted spurge. Annual. Occasional; mostly a lawn
weed, collected recently at debris basin at lower Brush Canyon Cooper 614-
39, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Euphorbia melanadenia (Torr.) Millsp., red-gland spurge. Perennial herb.
Infrequent; locally numerous on exposed slopes in the vicinity of Mt.
Hollywood, but not documented elsewhere. Cooper 1011-117, 10 Oct 2011
*Euphorbia peplus L., petty spurge. Annual. Frequent weed in disturbed areas,
often in understory of shady woodland and scrub, but also around irrigation.
Cooper 510-57C, 10 May 2010 (UCR).
Euphorbia polycarpa (Benth.) Millsp., smallseed spurge. Perennial herb.
Frequent on open, gravelly soil in several parts of the park, including ridges
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 41
around Hollywood Reservoir and above One-Mile Tree. M. Morris s.n., 11
Mar 1929 (RSA).
*Euphorbia terracina L, carnation spurge. Infrequent along roads and in other
disturbed areas; apparently a recent invader, now established widely in the
Los Angeles Basin. Cooper 313-56, 7 Mar 2013 (UCR).
*Ricinis communis L., castor bean. Large shrub. Invasive shrub of disturbed
soil, frequent at lower elevations and associated with drainages, but also
observed forming thickets on slopes post-re, where it represents a serious
pest. It is periodically treated/controlled along trails in the park. Even minor
soil modication, such as trampling by hikers, dogs and bicycles, can result
in infestations that are difcult to eradicate. T.E. Hesketh s.n., 7 Feb 1948
*Acacia baileyana F. Muell. Cootamundra wattle. Tree. Scarce; naturalized at
Coolidge Canyon adjacent to Tregnan Golf Academy, where it covers several
acres, but has not strayed widely in the park. Material collected from this
occurrence in 2014 has been identied as the similar A. dealbata (de A.
Gibson), and additional Acacia species may yet prove to be naturalized in the
park. Cooper 614-76, 26 Jun 2014 (UCR).
Acmispon americanus (Nutt.) Rydb., Spanish clover. Annual. Infrequent in sandy,
open areas, including along Forest Lawn Drive and on the upper slopes of
Fern Canyon. Cooper s.n., 30 May 2008 (UCR).
Acmispon glaber (Vogel) Brouillet var. glaber, deerweed. Suffruticose perennial.
One of the most abundant plants in the park, it is particularly common along
footpaths, so may seem especially common. Epling s.n., May 1925 (LA).
Acmispon maritimus (Nutt.) D.D. Sokoloff var. maritimus, coastal bird’s-foot
trefoil. Annual. Abundant on recent burn at Coolidge Canyon/Beacon Hill,
and probably widespread in the park on recently-disturbed sites. Cooper
20100409-31, 9 Apr 2010 (UCR).
Acmispon strigosus (Nutt.) Brouileet, strigose bird’s-foot trefoil (Bishop’s lotus).
Annual. Infrequent and local, emerging in early spring on steep, rocky, and
eroding areas, such as the high ridgeline between Burbank and Cahuenga
Peak and at the edge of a debris basin in Vermont Canyon, both of which
burned in 2007. Cooper 409-1.1, 22 Apr 2009 (UCR).
Amorpha californica (Nutt.) var. californica, California false indigo. Occasional
in shady, protected spots, as along canyons, including Fern Canyon, and in
the understory of walnut woodland at Beacon Hill. Often occurs in clusters
of several plants, but absent from large areas of seemingly suitable habitat.
Cooper 413-61, 22 Apr 2013 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Astragalus gambelianus E. Sheld., Gambel’s milkvetch. Annual. Scarce; a tiny
population of approximately 10 plants occurs in loamy soil on a bench along
the south side of the stream in upper Royce Canyon; a second population
recently found near the base of a large cross sculpture on the ridgeline above
Ford Amphitheater just west of Cahuenga Pass, where a moderate amount
of foot trafc and clearing provides just enough bare ground for it to thrive.
Cooper 10100409-28A, 9 Apr 2010 (UCR).
Lathyrus vestitus Nutt. var. vestitus, Pacic pea. Perennial herb. Frequent vine
climbing over chaparral and scrubby oak woodland, most common on
northern exposures. The taxonomy of this species has been repeatedly revised,
and the local form is now known as var. vestitus; two other named forms have
been vouchered, subsp. laetiorus and subsp. laevicarpus. Cooper s.n., 5 Apr
2008 (UCR).
Lupinus bicolor Lindl., miniature lupine. Annual. Frequent in early spring
on sandy soil at lower elevations, as in the vicinity of Aberdeen Canyon,
particularly in somewhat disturbed sites such as former burns, re road
edges, etc. Cooper 315-14, 3 Mar 2015 (UCR).
Lupinus excubitus M.E. Jones var. hallii (Abrams) C.P. Smith, grape soda
lupine (Hall’s bush-lupine). Shrub. Scarce; known positively from a single
occurrence on a landslide on a grassy slope above the Bird Sanctuary of
upper Vermont Canyon. This species, or L. longifolius (see below) may also
comprise a small population of bush-lupine on the north side of Mt. Lee,
as well as to a very old individual above Deronda Drive, south of Mt. Lee.
Cooper 20100409-33, 10 Mar 2010 (UCR).
Lupinus formosus Greene, summer lupine. Perennial herb. No extant occurrences
known. Reportedly collected twice in the park, once from “Vermont Canyon,”
an area that has been subjected to signicant land use change in the past
century. J.T. Howell 3473, 20 Mar 1928 (UC).
Lupinus hirsutissimus Benth., stinging lupine. Annual. Common following the
2007 burn in the southeastern corner of the park, this species is otherwise
local, mainly restricted to areas of soil disturbance within chaparral. A.
Eatherton 15992, May 1930 (RSA).
Lupinus longifolius (S. Watson) Abrams, Pauma bush-lupine (Watson’s bush-
lupine). Shrub. Status uncertain; possibly includes the bush-lupines found
on Mt. Lee (see L. excubitus var. hallii). From B. Prigge (pers. comm. 2011):
“As for the perennial lupines of Grifth Park, I think there are two species for
sure: the herbaceous perennial Lupinus formosus and a shrubby one that has
been called either L. excubitus (var.) hallii or L. longifolius”. Clearly, more
study is needed, particularly to determine whether an herbaceous perennial
lupine (i.e., L. formosus) persists in the park. Epling s.n., 15 May 1925 (LA).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 43
Lupinus sparsiorus Benth., Coulter’s lupine. Annual. The specimen could not
be located during a 2011 visit to RSA, and it is not known where in the
park it was collected, except that the label apparently notes “chaparral.” An
apparently natural population of several dozen plants was recently discovered
just outside the study area, along a rebreak at Hollywood Bowl west of
Cahuenga Pass (Cooper 2015). Anon. s.n., 11 Jul 1941 (RSA).
Lupinus succulentus Douglas ex K. Koch, arroyo lupine. Annual. Frequent in
late winter and spring in clay and other non-volcanic soils and in somewhat
disturbed sites at lower elevations at the perimeter of the park such as slopes
adjacent to houses cleared for weed abatement; much less frequent (absent?)
in intact habitat in the interior of the park. Cooper 610-72, 16 June 2010
Lupinus truncatus Nutt., collar lupine. Annual. Frequent in grassy openings in
coastal sage scrub, roadcuts, and areas that support patches of other native
forbs. J. Clizbe 16057, 6 May 1930 (RSA).
*Melilotus albus Medik., white sweet clover. Annual to perennial herb. Occasional
in moist, somewhat disturbed situations, as at the edges of picnic areas where
irrigation extends into wildland habitat, or in seasonal drainages, particularly
after a disturbance such as re. J. Clizbe s.n., 6 May 1930 (POM).
*Melilotus indicus (L.) All., sour clover. Annual. Presumably similar to above
species; the distribution of these two species has not been studied. Epling
s.n., 18 May 1925 (LA).
Pickeringia montana Nutt. var. montana, chaparral pea. Shrub. Scarce; a small
stand on the high plateau between Burbank and Cahuenga peaks has probably
expanded somewhat since a 2007 re. This occurrence is one of only a
handful in the Santa Monica Mountains (de B. Prigge), with the nearest
stand located far to the west in the Topanga Canyon area. Cooper 510-58A,
13 May 2010 [UCR; also collected by E. Braunton (Braunton 355, 27 May
1902) at “summit Cahuenga Mtns.” which may have been the same area
*Spartium junceum L., Spanish broom. Shrub. Occasional in the vicinity of
Hollywood Reservoir, possibly derived from early plantings for slope-
stabilization here. Cooper 614-60, 14 June 2014 (UCR).
Trifolium ciliolatum Benth., tree clover (Foothill clover). Annual. Infrequent
on clay or loamy soil in oak or black walnut woodland (e.g., Oak Canyon,
Coolidge Canyon). Cooper 410-59, 19 Apr 2010 (UCR).
*Trifolium hirtum All., rose clover. Annual. Scarce; established on a clay slope
at the edge of oak woodland at the western base of Cahuenga Peak at the end
of Primera Drive. Cooper 413-65, 22 Apr 2013 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Quercus agrifolia Née var. agrifolia, coast live oak. Tree. Common throughout
the park, the largest individuals are found in and around picnic areas near the
lower portions of the major drainages in the park, which were formerly low-
gradient streams favored by oaks. Closed-canopy oak woodland in its native
condition,i.e., with a largely native shrub/herb layer, is highly localized in
the park, found only in small scattered pockets, including along lower Brush
Canyon, lower Spring Canyon, and on the north slope of Mt. Lee. Several
former oak woodlands have been “augmented” with non-native plantings,
though they still retain elements of this natural community, for example at
the Bird Sanctuary in Vermont Canyon. R. Martinolich 3, 7 Apr 1991 (RSA).
Quercus berberidifolia Liebm., scrub oak. Large shrub. Frequent parkwide,
highly variable in terms of leaf shape and overall appearance, with leaves
varying from strongly indented and spine-tipped to nearly entire. Braunton
s.n., June 1902 (DS).
Quercus durata Jeps. var. gabrielensis Nixon & C.H. Muller, San Gabriel
Mountains leather oak. Large shrub. Scarce; restricted to Spring Canyon
downstream of Bee Rock on the northeast side of the park, where several
individuals occur in chaparral along the southern border of the Old Zoo
picnic area. A single, early collection of Quercus X grandindentata Ewan,
a hybrid between Q. durata var. gabrielensis and Q. engelmannii, is also
known from the park [Braunton 485, 11 Jun 1902 (POM)], but has not been
relocated. Cooper 514-06, 30 May 2014 (UCR).
Quercus wislizenii A. DC. var. frutescens, Engelm., interior live oak. Large
shrub. Scarce; occurs as a small grove of <10 individuals on a high slope just
east of Vermont Canyon, which burned in May 2007. Elsewhere, a single
individual was found recently on the high plateau between Burbank and
Cahuenga Peak (DSC), with more likely in this same area. Cooper 510-45,
13 May 2010 (UCR).
Zeltnera venusta (A. Gray) G. Mans., canchalagua. Annual. No extant
occurrences known. Now rather rare in the Los Angeles area, this striking
native wildower was collected a century ago and is probably extirpated in
the park. Minthorn s.n. 2 Aug 1908 (POM).
*Erodium moschatum (L.) L’Hér. Ex Aiton, whitestem laree. Annual. Probably
frequent in disturbed areas, but like most common weeds in the park,
overlooked. Epling s.n., May 1925 (LA).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 45
Geranium carolinianum L. Carolina geranium. Annual. Occasional on heavy clay
soil, larger populations of several dozen individuals have been encountered
in Oak, Fern and Coolidge canyons, typically within non-native grassland or
grassy woodland understory that has retained at least some native forb and
grass components. Cooper 20100326-23, 26 Mar 2010 (UCR).
Ribes aureum Pursh var. gracilimum (Coville & Britton) Jeps., golden currant.
Small shrub. Frequent at lower elevations throughout park, particularly along
broad, seasonal drainages and at seeps in coastal sage scrub. Epling 6522,
Mar 1925 (LA).
Ribes californicum Hook. & Arn. var. hesperium (McClatchie) Jepson, hillside
gooseberry. Small shrub. No extant occurrences known. Collected once in the
park. This species occurs locally west of the park on the north slope of the
eastern Santa Monica Mountains in the vicinity of Dixie Canyon in Sherman
Oaks (Cooper), so could yet be discovered somewhere in similar habitat of
shady oak-walnut woodland on shale. Epling s.n. 18 May 1925 (LA).
Ribes malvaceum Sm. var. viridifolium Abrams, chaparral currant. Small shrub.
Occasional in chaparral and coastal sage scrub throughout park, typically
scattered in low densities among much more common chaparral shrubs.
Epling 6277, 10 Feb 1925 (A)
Ribes speciosum Pursh, fuchsia-owered gooseberry. Small shrub. Frequent in
chaparral and oak woodland understory, particularly on shaded slopes and
seasonal streams. Epling s.n., 10 Feb 1925 (A).
Emmenanthe penduliora Benth. var. penduliora, whispering bells. Annual.
Frequent on recent burns and in other disturbed sites within coastal sage
scrub and chaparral. Epling s.n., 18 May 1925 (LA).
Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia (Benth.) Greene var. chrysanthemifolia, spotted
hideseed (Common eucrypta). Annual. Locally common following the 2007
burn, particularly in the understory of oak woodland and chaparral; lately
more localized but still widespread. Braunton 243, Apr 1902 (UC).
Nemophila menziesii Hook. & Arn. var. integrifolia Parish, baby blue-eyes.
Annual. Infrequent in scattered grassy pockets, including on a rugged slope
in upper Brush Canyon, a ridge between Mt. Lee and Cahuenga Peak, and a
roadcut near Mineral Wells; each area features patches of clay within well-
drained soil and with a thin cover of grasses and relatively high diversity
of other uncommon wildowers (e.g., Gilia angelensis and Madia gracilis).
Another recognized variety, menziesii, may also occur. J.T. Howell 3724, 18
Apr 1928 (JEPS).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Phacelia cicutaria Greene var. hispida (A. Gray) J.T. Howell, caterpillar phacelia.
Annual. Common in spring, large patches are found throughout in every
natural habitat, most commonly on somewhat rocky areas between shrubs
within chaparral and coastal sage scrub. Cooper 614-17, 4 Jun 2014 (UCR).
Phacelia distans Benth., common phacelia. Occasional on loose soil; most
common after wet winters;; particularly numerous in the vicinity of Cahuenga
Pass. Cooper 311-29, 21 Mar 2011 (UCR).
Phacelia grandiora (Benth.) A. Gray, large-owered phacelia. Annual. Bloomed
in profusion following the 2007 wildre in the southeastern sector of the
park; now rather uncommon, as is apparently normal for this species. M.V.
Hood 38-12, 30 May 1938 (LA).
Phacelia hubbyi (J.F. Macbr.) L.M. Garrison, Hubby’s phacelia. Annual.
Restricted to small, compact patches on eroding layers of sedimentary rock
at the extreme southeastern edge of the park on slopes south of Fern Canyon,
the largest population probably being directly above Grifth Park Drive near
the on-/off-ramps along Interstate 5. Cooper s.n., 10 May 2007 (RSA).
Phacelia minor (Harv.) Thell. Ex F. Zimm., wild caterbury bells. Annual. Frequent
after wet winters, particularly in burned openings and open, eroding, or rocky
patches of soil. Braunton 210, 13 Apr 1902 (UC).
Phacelia ramosissima Douglas ex Lehm. var. latifolia (Torr.) Cronquist, branching
phacelia. Perennial herb. Occasional in loose soil at lower elevations;
particularly common in the northeastern corner near the Los Angeles Zoo on
what appears to be an old alluvial bench of the Los Angeles River. Cooper
514-11, 23 May 2014 (UCR).
Phacelia viscida (Benth.) Torrey, sticky phacelia. Annual. Common throughout
2007 burn area in southeastern sector of park, though becoming less frequent
as vegetation recovers; large patch just north of Commonwealth Nursery.
Most local plants have rather pale blue owers, and so are presumably this
variety; however small numbers of white-owered plants, which have been
treated as var. albiora, occur on an eroding slope in the park just north of
Commonwealth Nursery/Cedar Grove along with individuals with more
typical blue owers. Purer s.n., 8 May 1931 (SD).
Pholistoma auritum (Lindl.) Lilja var. auritum, esta ower. Annual. Frequent
in the understory of oak woodland and mature chaparral, typically on moist,
shady slopes (e.g., Fern Canyon). J.I. Carlson s.n., 24 Apr 1918 (CAS).
Juglans californica S. Watson, Southern California black walnut. Tree or large
shrub. Locally common, forming a near-monoculture in Coolidge Canyon in
the extreme southeastern corner of the park, remaining common west through
Vermont and Western canyons, and occurring somewhat locally elsewhere,
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 47
mainly as a co-dominant within oak woodland and less commonly, as a
shrubby component of chaparral and sumac-dominated scrub. Large, old
trees along the northern base of the park in the vicinity of Forest Lawn Drive
and lower Oak Canyon may represent hybrids with cultivated, non-native
walnuts, which were frequent orchard trees of several varieties planted in the
early decades of modern settlement in the San Fernando Valley [e.g., Cooper
315-18, 3 Apr 2015 (UCR)]. Along the northern slope of the park, walnuts
are common on exposed slopes in the far northeast but are largely restricted
to canyons farther west and absent from the highest elevations in the park
(e.g., Cahuenga Peak), where they are replaced by higher-elevation chaparral
species, such as chamise. Braunton 535, 8 Jul 1902 (JEPS).
*Lamium amplexicaule L., henbit. Annual. Infrequent on disturbed soil,
photographed in 2008 by J. Ochoa near Fern Canyon. J.C. Dittes 28, 18 Feb
1990 (SFV).
*Marrubium vulgare L., horehound. Suffruticose perennial. Common weed,
mainly in disturbed areas such as along trails and re roads but also in
relatively pristine stands of scrub. Epling s.n., 18 May 1925 (LA).
Salvia apiana Jeps., white sage. Small shrub. Occasional in intact coastal sage
scrub at lower elevations in areas not too frequently disturbed by burns, as
on slopes of lower Brush Canyon and along Skyline Trail (unkown collector,
379, SAMO; iNaturalist 2744178). Interestingly, no natural occurrence of
purple sage (S. leucophylla) is known in the park, though it is a popular
native landscaping plant on the park’s periphery, particularly in and around
Hollywood Reservoir, and has been collected as close as “Universal City”
[unknown collector s.n., 7 May 1927 (LA)].
Salvia columbariae Benth., chia. Annual. Frequent, particularly after wet winters,
though nearly absent in dry years, on steep, rocky exposures and eroding
slopes where bare ground has been exposed to reveal patches of loose soil
free of invasive grasses, often along the edges of footpaths, where it occurs
in small colonies of up to several dozen individuals. Like many native
wildowers in the park, this species is not nearly as abundant as it is in nearby
foothills, e.g., the San Gabriel Mountains. Epling s.n., 15 May 1925 (LA).
Salvia mellifera Greene, black sage. Small shrub. Among the most abundant plant
species in the park, common except on the most disturbed sites and at the
highest elevations above approximately 1,600’, such as atop Cahuenga Peak,
where it is replaced by higher-elevation chaparral species such as manzanita
and chamise. J.P. Hill s.n., 11 Mar 1929 (RSA).
Scutellaria tuberosa Benth., Danny’s skull-cap. Perennial herb. Infrequent, in
part due to its being a re-follower, and known from three small, widely-
scattered locations: near One-Mile Tree in upper Western Canyon, upper
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Royce Canyon, and on the western slope of Mt. Hollywood, all in openings in
coastal sage scrub, typically in association with other native annuals. Cooper
509-16, 13 May 2009 (UCR).
Stachys rigida var. rigida Benth., rough hedge-nettle. Perennial herb. No extant
populations known. It might persist in the shady understory of walnut or oak
woodland on heavy clay soil, a situation not uncommon in the park. The
taxonomy of local Stachys with longer leaves and smaller, whiter owers
(as compared to all-pink oweres in S. bullata) has been in ux. Two local
collections have been made, one identied as S. ajugoides var. rigida
[Braunton 544, July 1902 (UC)], and the other S. rigida var. rigida [Epling,
s.n., May 1927 (LA)]. J.B. Nelson (2012) considered S. ajugoides var. rigida
an inactive name, distinct from S. ajugoides, and comprised of two forms:
S. rigida var. quarcetorum and S. rigida var. rigida. Of these two varieties,
Prigge and Gibson (2013) consider only S. rigida var. quercetorum to be
the only one in the Santa Monica Mountains. Rather then try to resolve this
here, I have listed Epling’s collection as the taxon known from the park until
more information is gathered. More then one taxon may be present; material
identied as S. ajugoides was collected recently from near Ernest E. Debs
Park [Cooper 411-16, 14 Apr 2011 (UCR)] and a mainly white-owered
Stachys occurs in similar habitat in the Whittier Hills to the east (pers. obs.).
Stachys bullata Benth., California hedge-nettle. Frequent throughout park in
shady situations, including oak woodland understory and along protected
canyon bottoms. N.K. Berg s.n., 26 Mar 1904 (UC).
Trichostema lanatum Benth., wooly blue curls. Small shrub. Scarce; two
individual plants photographed by J. Ochoa in spring 2008 on a north-facing
slope above Travel Town in lower Oak Canyon represent the sole known
occurrence of this distinctive genus in the park. The sole specimen notes
only “N(orth) side” of Grifth Park, so potentially came from the same area.
Braunton 382, 4 Jun 1902 (UC).
Mentzelia micrantha (Hook. & Arn.) Torr. & A. Gray, small-owered stickleaf.
Annual. Occasional on sandy patches of soil, including along eroding
ridgelines. Possibly encouraged by the 2007 re in the southeastern sector,
it was observed to be one of the earliest species to return to affected slopes,
along with Phacelia viscida, Acmispon maritimus and Calystegia macrostegia
(pers. obs.). Cooper 409-05, 14 Apr 2009 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 49
*Abutilon palmeri A. Gray, Palmer’s indian mallow. Perennial herb. A small
naturalized population is present along roadsides along Western Canyon Rd.
and Vermont Canyon Rd. Rochford 9, Apr 30 2016 (UCR).
Malacothamnus fasciculatus (Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray) Greene var. fasciculatus,
chaparral bush-mallow. Small shrub. Frequent in coastal sage scrub and open
chaparral at lower elevations in the park, occasionally forming solid stands,
particularly within the 2007 burn zone in Vermont Canyon. Braunton 220,
Apr 1902 (UC).
*Malva pseudolavatera Webb & Berthel, Cretan mallow. Shrub. Infrequent weed,
locally established at roadsides and other disturbed areas at the park’s border.
Cooper 315-21, 22 Mar 2015 (UCR).
Calandrinia breweri S. Watson, Brewer’s red-maids. Annual. No extant
occurrences known. Aside from the cited specimen, which notes “growing
on ‘burn’ in Vermont Cañon”, this species is unknown in the park and likely
extirpated. However, it has been collected recently in the nearby Verdugo
Mountains (Soza et al. 2013), so it may yet be discovered in rocky/sandy
areas such as on steep slopes along Vista del Valle Road within the 2007 burn
area. J.T. Howell 466, 20 Mar 1928 (JEPS).
Calandrinia ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) DC., red-maids. Annual. Scarce; a single
individual was found recently in a burn area along a sandy ridge upslope
(south) of Travel Town; otherwise known only from historical collections.
Cooper 2015-35, 13 Mar 2015 (UCR).
Calyptridium monandrum Nutt., pussy-paws. Annual. Scarce; a small number of
individuals have been recorded from just two areas of open, sandy soil: the
ridge upslope of Travel Town, where it grows with Calandrinia ciliata, and
on the high plateau between Burbank and Cahuenga peaks following a 2007
re, where it was found in 2009. F. Detmers s.n., 1 Apr 1931 (RSA).
Claytonia perfoliata Donn ex Willd. subsp. mexicana (Rydb.) John M. Mill. &
K.L. Chambers, miner’s lettuce. Annual. Common in shady, mesic situations,
or in more exposed sites where maintained by a seep or water source. A.M.
Johnson 122, 16 Feb 1928 (LA).
Eriodictyon crassifolium Benth., thick-leaved yerba santa. Shrub. Infrequent;
known from several small, scattered populations, including along a sandy
powerline right-of-way along Forest Lawn Drive, on sandy soil near
Commonwealth Nursery, and on loose soil on a ridge just north of Mt.
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Hollywood (DSC). Two varieties, crassifolium and nigrescens, may occur
locally. Cooper 614-20, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Mirabilis laevis (Benth.) Curran var. crassifolia (Choisy) Spellenb., wishbone
bush. Suffruticose perennial. Occasional on steep slopes, often in barren
patches of eroding soil and rock outcrops. Braunton 795, 6 Jan 1903 (UC).
*Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh., shamel ash. Tree. Infrequent in lower
portions of major canyons in park where naturalized; commonly planted
around picnic areas. R. Reifner 15-345, 23 Aug 2015 (CAS).
Camissoniopsis bistorta (Torr. & A. Gray) W.L. Wagner & Hoch, California
suncup. Annual. Status uncertain; the most recent collection is from the
Vermont Canyon area, from a slope of open, sandy soil used as a footpath.
Cooper 20100323-02, 23 Mar 2010 (UCR).
Camissoniopsis hirtella (Greene) W.L. Wagner & Hoch, Santa Cruz Island
suncup. Annual. Status uncertain; two recent collections (2009, 2013) are
from widely scattered sites, one near the summit of Cahuenga Peak, the other
from the northeastern base of the park near the Los Angeles Zoo. Cooper
309-04, 6 Mar 2009 (UCR).
Camissoniopsis ignota (Jeps.) W.L. Wagner & Hoch, Jurupa Hills suncup.
Annual. A single early collection from Grifth Park, exact location unknown,
should probably be re-examined in light of recent taxonomic changes, as this
species is not known from recent material from the park and is considered
“scarce” in the Verdugo Mountains (Soza et al. 2013). A. Davidson s.n., 9
Apr 1906 (RSA).
Camissoniopsis intermedia (P.H. Raven) W.L. Wagner & Hoch, intermediate
suncups. Annual. Known from several early collections from Grifth Park,
exact location unknown. This material should probably be re-examined, as
this species has not been identied in the nearby Verdugo Mountains (Soza et
al. 2013). A. Davidson 1449, 9 Apr 1906 (RSA).
Camissoniopsis micrantha (Spreng.) W.L. Wagner & Hoch, miniature suncup.
Annual. Occasional on sandy soil, occurring widely in park, mainly at lower
elevations. Cooper 412-20, 14 Apr 2012 (UCR).
Camissoniopsis robusta (P.H. Raven) W.L. Wagner & Hoch, robust suncup.
Annual. Presumably scarce; identied from material collected in sandy soil
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 51
along Forest Lawn Drive at the northern base of the park. Cooper 610-68, 13
Jun 2010 (UCR).
[General note regarding Camissoniopsis: This confusing genus of small,
yellow-owered annuals that typically occur on sandy, well-drained soil with
full sun exposure has recently undergone signicant revision, and characters
used by different keys/authors have resulted in the same specimen being
called two or more different names over the years. Of the various species of
Camissonia/Camissoniopsis that have been identied by various experts from
material collected in Grifth Park, there appear to be three “morphospecies”
in the park: a very large-owered, robust plant (cf. Camissoniopsis bistorta), a
tiny-owered plant (cf. C. micrantha), and intermediate forms that have been
variously identied as hirtella, ignota, intermedia, and robusta. Fruit shape
and structure appears to be variable within these named species, ranging from
straight to tightly-coiled fruits, to square to round ones, as is leaf size and
shape, amount of hairs on the leaves and ower parts, etc. Some listed taxa
appear to be the result of misidentications or labeling errors, including two
coastal dune species that do not occur inland (see Excluded Taxa, below).
More collecting and, preferably, careful photography of the plants around the
park in various phenological stages (owering, fruiting), is needed.]
Clarkia bottae (Spach) F.H. Lewis & M.E. Lewis, punchbowl godetia. Annual.
This [or the look-alike C. cylindrica subsp. cylindrica (see below)] is frequent
on exposed, often grassy slopes in late spring; C. bottae may be the more
common of the two, based on number of collections (6 vs. 1); however, more
study is needed. Cooper s.n., 5 Apr 2008 (UCR).
Clarkia cylindrica (Jepson) Harlan Lewis and M. Lewis subsp. cylindrica.
speckled clarkia. Known from a single early collection made the same day
as one of the above species (C. bottae); possibly frequent on exposed, often
grassy slopes in late spring, but more study is needed due to similarity to C.
bottae. Epling s.n., 25 Apr 1925 (LA).
Clarkia purpurea (Curtis) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr. Subsp. quadrivulnera
(Douglas ex Lindl.) F.H. Lewis & M.E. Lewis, winecup clarkia (four-spot).
Annual. Infrequent in openings within a variety of native scrub habitats, such
as grassy patches in sparse coastal sage scrub. Cooper 413-64, 22 Apr 2013
Clarkia unguiculata Lindl., elegant clarkia. Annual. Scarce; known from a small
occurrence in the understory of oak woodland, just south of Forest Lawn
Drive. A large-owered pink or white form in Brush Canyon appears to be
a cultivar, probably from a seed mix or an escapee from a garden nearby.
Cooper 315-17, 3 Apr 2015 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl, annual reweed. Annual. Scarce; recently
collected in ruderal site at mouth of Oak Canyon but otherwise unknown in
the park. Cooper 911-112, 27 Sept 2011 (UCR).
Epilobium canum (Greene) P.H. Raven subsp. canum, California fuchsia.
Suffruticose perennial. Frequent on rock outcrops and at seeps in native
scrub. Braunton 717, Oct 1902 (UC).
Epilobium canum (Greene) P.H. Raven subsp. latifolium (Hooker) P.H. Raven,
broad-leaved California fuchsia. Perennial herb. Scarce; known from a
single occurrence (c. 10 plants) on a gravelly slope adjacent to Forest Lawn
Cemetery at lower Oak Canyon. This species is typical at higher elevations,
especially in the San Gabriel Mountains, but oddly, it is not known from
the nearby Verdugo Mountains, nor westward in the Santa Monicas (de A.
Gibson; Soza et al. 2013). Cooper 810-94, 27 Aug 2010 (UCR).
Epilobium ciliatum Raf. subsp. ciliatum, fringed willow-herb. Perennial herb.
Occasional at permanent water, including pools along Fern Canyon and along
irrigation lines. Cooper s.n., Mar 2008 (UCR).
Eremothera boothii (Dougl.) W.L. Wagner & Hoch subsp. decorticans, shredding
evening-primrose. Annual. No extant occurrences known. A.M. Johnson
2800, 16 Feb 1928 (LA).
Eulobus californicus Torr. & A. Gray, mustard evening-primrose. Annual.
Frequent on loose soil, such as roadcuts and areas where somewhat sandy or
loose soil has been mechanically disturbed, typically in full sun. Epling s.n.,
18 May 1925 (LA).
Castilleja applegatei Fernald subsp. martinii (Abrams) T.I. Chuang & Heckard,
wavyleaf paintbrush. Parasitic perennial herb. No extant occurrences known.
M. Jensen s.n., 10 Jul 1931 (RSA).
Castilleja exserta (A. Heller) T.I. Chuang & Heckard subsp. exserta, purple owl’s-
clover. Parasitic annual. No extant occurrences known. Nothing is known
about where this species may have occurred in the park, but coastal-slope
populations in Los Angeles Co. have been widely extirpated, and it likely no
longer occurs in Grifth Park. Epling s.n., 25 Apr 1925 (LA).
Oxalis californica (Abrams) R. Knuth, California woodsorrel. Perennial herb.
Scarce; found once at a small seep on the east side of Cahuenga Peak, where
it was photographed in April 2010 (GH), but not found in subsequent years.
M. Morris s.n., 11 Mar 1929 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 53
Paeonia californica Nutt., California peony. Perennial herb. Frequent, but never
numerically abundant, in grassy openings in chaparral and coastal sage scrub.
Epling s.n., May 1925 (LA).
Dendromecon rigida Benth., bush poppy. Large shrub. No extant occurrences
known. This re-follower may yet prove irregularly present, as it is locally
common in the western Santa Monica Mountains and in the foothills of the
nearby San Gabriel Mountains in disturbed areas and former burns. Epling
s.n., 25 Mar 1925 (LA).
Eschscholzia caespitosa Benth., tufted poppy. Annual. No extant occurrences
known. Plants resembling this species, with small, yellowish owers, occur
on thin soil along dry ridges near Vermont and Fern canyons. However,
at least the Vermont Canyon plants were identied as E. californica (de
A.C. Sanders). J.A. Ewan 2242, 30 May 1930 (RSA, “E shoulder, Cahuenga
*?Eschscholzia californica Cham., California poppy. Perennial herb. The
popularity of this species in “wildower seed mix” calls into question the
origin of most plants in the park, which are occasional along trails and roads.
One recent collection from a fairly remote footpath on a high ridge east of
Bird Sanctuary may be wild plants. Cooper s.n., 5 Jun 2008 (UCR).
Meconella denticulata Greene, small-owered meconella. Annual. No extant
occurrences known. However, it is possible that future res will reveal a
population. One specimen is labeled “just north of Mt. Hollywood”, an area
that still supports quality scrub habitat. M. Hilend 127, 18 Apr 1928 (RSA).
Platystemon californicus Benth., cream cups. Annual. No extant occurrences
known. This species remains fairly common in the Santa Clarita area and on
the north slope of the San Gabriel Mountains; however, Los Angeles Basin
collections are mainly historical (c. 100 years old), indicating a signicant
local decline. Epling 6442, Mar 1925 (LA).
Diplacus brevipes (Benth.) G.L. Nesom [= Mimulus brevipes Benth.], slope
semaphore. Annual. No extant occurrences known. An early specimen
indicates it was found “near Cahuenga Peak, Brush Canyon”. Normally a
fairly conspicuous species, it may yet be located in arid coastal sage scrub on
gravelly soil along a lightly traveled footpath. Epling s.n., 2 May 1925 (LA).
Diplacus longiorus Nuttall [= Mimulus aurantiacus Curtis var. pubescens
(Torr.) D.M. Thompson], sticky monkeyower. Small shrub. Frequent in
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
scrub throughout, often at seeps on rocky outcrops, but also in arid chaparral
and scrub on various substrates. Epling s.n., 15 May 1925 (LA).
*?Diplacus puniceus Nutt. [= Mimulus aurantiacus Curtis var. puniceus (Nutt.)
D.M. Thompson], red bush monkeyower. Small shrub. Scarce; a handful of
plants have been located in upper Western Canyon. Given that this species
becomes rare west of the eastern San Gabriel Valley, and the historical and
ongoing species introductions in the park, the origin of these individuals
could be questioned. However, both are along rugged footpaths where no
sign of irrigation or other plantings exist. Grifth Park may simply be near
the western edge of the overlap zone between D. longiorus and D. puniceus.
Most “bush monkeyowers” in the park have deep orange owers typical of
those of central Los Angeles County, though paler yellow forms are frequent
toward the western side of the park, such as near Cahuenga Peak). Cooper
410-50A, 19 Apr 2010 (UCR).
Erythranthe cardinalis (Douglas ex Benth.) Spach [= Mimulus cardinalis
Douglas ex Benth.], scarlet monkeyower. Perennial herb. Scarce; known
from recent collections in just two canyons, upper Brush Canyon and upper
Spring Canyon, near pools of perennial water. Cooper 810-93, 27 Aug 2010
Erythranthe guttata (Fisch. ex DC.) G.L. Nesom [= Mimulus guttatus DC.],
seep monkeyower. Annual or perennial herb. Occasional in wet, sandy soil
along drainages, mainly in debris basins. G.B. Grant 788, Apr 1901 (UC; as
Mimulus nasutus”).
Antirrhinum kelloggii Greene, climbing snapdragon. Annual. Infrequent in
chaparral; conspicuous after the 2007 burn, as on a ridge in lower Fern
Canyon. Cooper 315-12, 3 Mar 2015 (UCR).
Collinsia heterophylla Buist, Chinese houses. Annual. Occasional at grassy seeps
where it grows with other native forbs. Known from three small, widely-
spaced populations on shaded, north-facing canyon slopes: along Boy’s
Camp Road, along a ridge north of One-Mile Tree, and along the utility road
along the northern base of Burbank Peak. Cooper s.n. 7 Apr 2008 (UCR).
Keckiella cordifolia (Benth.) Straw, heartleaf penstemon. Frequent in chaparral,
most abundant in mature, mesic chaparral on the northern slope of the park.
Braunton 550, July 1902 (UC).
Nuttallanthus texanus (Scheele) D.A. Sutton, blue toadax. Annual. Occasional
on sandy patches of soil, including within the 2007 burn west of Cahuenga
Peak. Cooper 409-3.1, 30 Apr 2009 (UCR; as “Linaria canadensis”).
Penstemon centranthifolius (Benth.) Benth., scarlet bugler. Suffruticose
perennial. No extant occurrences known. The lone specimen was taken in
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 55
“chaparral” in the park, but nothing further is known of its former extent. M.
Solomen s.n. 16 July 1931 (RSA).
Penstemon spectabilis Thurb. var. subviscosus (D.D. Keck) McMinn, showy
penstemon. Suffruticose perennial. Frequent but irregular from year to year
in granitic and other well-drained soil, as along ridges in the west, Vista del
Valle Road, and near Vermont Canyon, occasionally forming solid stands of
dozens of plants. Cooper 610-70, 6 Jun 2010 (UCR).
Plantago erecta E. Morris, dotseed plantain. Annual. No extant occurrences
known. This species joins several native annuals that appear to have been
extirpated from the park in recent decades. It might yet persist on a roadcut
through clay or loamy soil, where other wildowers and native forbs are
common and competition from non-native grasses is low. Epling s.n., Mar
1925 (LA).
*Plantago arenaria Waldst. & Kit., Indian plantain UCR216563 Scarce weed,
possibly a waif, in sandy soil along Forest Lawn Drive. Cooper 610-64A, 15
Jun 2010 (UCR).
*Veronica anagallis-aquatica L., water speedwell. Perennial herb. Scarce
at pooled water (natural seeps?) along the perimeter road at Hollywood
Reservoir. Cooper 413-62, 22 Apr. 2013 (UCR).
Platanus racemosa Nutt., western sycamore. Tree. Frequent as a naturally
occurring, large tree along major drainages, but scattered individuals are also
found throughout chaparral, often at seeps. Numerous individuals, likely
including cultivars, have been planted widely at picnic areas and elsewhere.
E. Benjamine 113, 17 Mar 1929 (RSA).
Eriastrum sapphirinum (Eastw.) H. Mason, sapphire wooly-star Annual.
Frequent along the hard-packed edges of footpaths and in at areas on
otherwise steep slopes and ridges where water collects but does not persist
long. G.R. Johnstone s.n., 14 Jul 1929 (RSA).
Gilia angelensis V.E. Grant, chaparral gilia. Annual. Infrequent in moist, loamy
patches of soil atop the highest ridges in the park, mainly between Cahuenga
Peak east across Mt. Lee toward Mt. Chapel, often in the grassy margins of
footpaths. On the eastern slope of Cahuenga Peak and Mt. Lee, it occurs with
Nemophila menziesii and Calochortus catalinae. Epling s.n., 15 May 1925
Gilia capitata Sims subsp. abrotanifolia (Nutt. ex Greene) V.E. Grant., globe
gilia. Annual. Scarce; currently known only from small area of upper Vermont
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Canyon on a landslide on the eastern slope of the Bird Sanctuary, where it
occurs in slightly bare patches within annual grassland. Braunton 238, Apr
1902 (UC).
Leptosiphon liniorus (Benth.) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson, ax-owered
linanthus. Annual. No extant occurrences known. This late-owering,
delicate annual should be looked for in grassy, wildower-rich areas from
late May on, after the bulk of blooming has ended. However, given the rarity
of these habitat types, this species may be extirpated in the park. Braunton
449, 13 Jun 1902 (UC).
Linanthus californicus (Hook. & Arn.) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson, prickly
phlox. Small shrub. Infrequent, with single individuals or small numbers in
widely-scattered locations, typically on steep, rocky/eroding slopes where
not crowded out by larger shrubs. M. Elmer s.n., 18 Jul 1929 (RSA).
Linanthus dianthiorus (Benth.) Greene, fringed linanthus. Annual. No extant
occurrences known. Epling s.n. Mar 1925 (LA).
Microsteris gracilis (Hook.) Greene, slender phlox. Annual. No extant occurrences
known. As is the case with other wildowers, this species, once apparently
fairly common and widespread, is largely restricted to the desert slope in the
county, the coastal populations having suffered major declines. Epling 6526,
Mar 1925 (LA).
Navarretia atractyloides (Hook.) Greene, holly-leaved navarretia. Annual.
Scarce; known from just two collections, one recent, in 2008, but not found
in subsequent years, despite searching. The last known location was a small,
sandy debris basin just south of Forest Lawn Drive northwest of the park
boundary. Braunton 477, 13 Jun 1902 (UC).
Navarretia hamata Greene subsp. hamata, hooked pincushionplant. Annual.
Infrequent, in scattered populations on hard-packed patches of well-drained
soil, often along the edges of footpaths (e.g., Cahuenga Peak, Skyline Trail
south of the Los Angeles Zoo) in association with Chorizanthe staticoides,
Eriastrum sapphirinum, Stylocline gnaphalioides, and other annuals. Cooper
510-44B, 13 May 2010 (UCR).
Saltugilia splendens (Dougl. ex H. Mason & A.D. Grant) L.A. Johnson, splendid
gilia. Annual. No extant occurrences known. The label on the only known
specimen from Grifth Park is simply annotated “chaparral”, but the mid-
summer date, July 10, suggests that it may bloom later than most annuals in
the park, and therefore could be overlooked in spring. The subspecies has not
been determined on the single known specimen. D. Bullock s.n., 10 Jul 1931
Chorizanthe staticoides Benth., Turkish rugging. Annual. Frequent on sandy
soil where competition from annual grasses and other plants is low. Often
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 57
found along footpaths on ridges and in pockets of loose soil on rock outcrops
throughout the park. Cooper 409-3.2, 30 Apr 2009 (UCR).
Eriogonum cithariforme S. Watson, cithara buckwheat. Annual. Scarce; restricted
to a few square meters of hard-packed soil at the Royce Canyon overlook
along Mt. Hollywood Road. Cooper s.n., 18 Oct 2011 (UCR).
Eriogonum elongatum Benth. var. elongatum, wand buckwheat. Suffruticose
perennial. Locally common on rocky outcrops and roadcuts, typically at
lower elevations, such as in the vicinity of Aberdeen Canyon, along Zoo
Drive, and near the mouth of Oak Canyon along Forest Lawn Drive. Cooper
711-78, 1 Jul 2011 (UCR).
Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth. var. foliolosum (Nutt.) S. Stokes ex Abrams,
California buckwheat. Small shrub. Presumably the form common in the park
as a sub-dominant component of coastal sage scrub and, to a lesser extent,
in chaparral, where it occurs on steeper, more barren sites. Epling 6505, Mar
1925 (LA).
Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth. var. polifolium (Benth.) Torr. & A. Gray,
California buckwheat. Small shrub. Status uncertain due to similarity to
above variety. Epling s.n., 25 Apr 1925 (LA).
Eriogonum gracile Benth. var. gracile, annual buckwheat. Annual. Infrequent;
known from areas of at, open, sandy soil from the vicinity of Oak Canyon
adjacent to Travel Town east along Forest Lawn Drive; south of here it may
be found on coarse, compacted soil along a footpath in upper Royce Canyon
where it grows with E. cithariforme. Cooper 610-62, 6 Jun 2010 (UCR).
*Polygonum aviculare L., prostrate knotweed. Annual or perennial herb.
Infrequent in highly disturbed and cleared areas mainly at border of park and
adjacent residential areas. Cooper 514-57, 19 May 2014 (UCR).
Pterostegia drymarioides Fisch. & C.A. Mey., threadstem. Annual. Infrequent
amid boulders and in rocky areas throughout park, such as the vicinity of
Burbank Peak, occasionally forming dense mats in early spring before drying
out and vanishing. Cooper s.n., 30 Apr 2009 (UCR).
*Rumex acetosella L., sheep dock. Perennial herb. No extant occurrences known.
Epling s.n., 25 Apr 1925 (LA).
*Rumex conglomeratus Murray, clustered dock. Scarce; small population in
lower Boys Camp Canyon at edge of Wilson-Harding Golf Course. Ewan
s.n., 28 June 1938 (LA; Los Angeles River at Los Feliz Blvd.).
*Rumex crispus L., curly dock. Perennial herb. Infrequent; scattered in disturbed
areas throughout park, such as small debris basins and in sandy soil along
drainages. Cooper 614-38, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Rumex salicifolius J.A. Weinm., willow dock. Perennial herb. Recently collected
in mesic scrub just north of Hollywood Reservoir, and probably more
widespread but overlooked in the park. Cooper 711-86, 22 Jul 2011 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Primula clevelandii (Greene) Mast & Reveal var. clevelandii, Padre’s shooting-
star. Perennial herb. Scarce; restricted to a single, dispersed poplation amid
the moss gardens of Royce Canyon south of the creek. The local form features
pure white petals with yellow centers, different from the rose-magenta form
that dominates farther west. Cooper 2020100409-30B, 9 Apr 2010 (UCR).
Clematis lasiantha Nutt. Liana. chaparral clematis. Infrequent; locally numerous
in small area on the northwestern slope of Mt. Hollywood; also along
lowermost Sennett Creek at Forest Lawn Drive and probably elsewhere.
Epling 25 Apr 1925 (LA).
Delphinium cardinale Hook., scarlet larkspur. Perennial herb. Occasional but
widespread late-blooming wildower in chaparral, often not conspicuous
until late spring (June) when its true abundance is clear. Often found on
rocky patches along roadcuts, and openings between shrubs in dense scrub.
M. Emler s.n. 18 Jul 1929 (RSA).
Delphinium parryi A. Gray subsp. parryi, Parry’s larkspur. Perennial herb. No
extant occurrences known. O.A. Plunket 52183, 22 Apr 1926 (LA).
Delphinium patens Benth. subsp. hepaticoideum Ewan, spreading larkspur.
Perennial herb. Scarce; two known occurrences, both in mesic, grassy patches
on rock faces where water seeps in late winter/early spring: the southern
slope of Royce Canyon (dozens of plants), and a handful at a seep along Boys
Camp Canyon in the northeastern corner of the park. Cooper 20100409-29,
9 Apr 2010 (UCR).
Ranunculus californicus Benth., California buttercup. Perennial herb. No extant
occurrences known. The rarity and possible absence of this species in the
park is difcult to explain. In nearby Debs Park (Highland Park, near South
Pasadena), it occurs on a mesic roadcut in heavy clay, in the understory
of oak-walnut woodland, a habitat not uncommon in the park (pers. obs.).
Braunton 814, Feb 1903 (UC).
Ranunculus hebecarpus Hook. & Arn., delicate buttercup. Annual. Scarce;
photographed by J. Ochoa in April 2008 on the south slope of Royce Canyon,
but otherwise unknown in the park. This species joins a list of scarce
wildowers that persist on the south slope of Royce Canyon, which serves as
an important refugium for native ora in the park/region. Epling 6510, Mar
1925 (LA).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 59
Ceanothus megacarpus Nutt. var. megacarpus, bigpod ceanothus. Large shrub.
Common; one of the most abundant and ubiquitous shrubs in the park, it
bursts into bloom with sprays of tiny white owers in mid-winter, allowing
its true abundance on hillsides to be known. It is dominant in mature chaparral
throughout the entire southern ank of the park at lower elevations, and also
on all but the most shaded north-facing slopes elsewhere. Its leaf size and
shape may be somewhat variable depdning on shade, age, and other local
conditions. G.B. Grant s.n., 21 Apr 1901 (DS).
Ceanothus oliganthus Nutt. var. oliganthus, hairy ceanothus. Large shrub.
Scarce; several early collections from, for example, Vermont Canyon, where
it is apparently extirpated. In 2014, a small population was found in mixed
chaparral in a steep canyon above Vista del Valle Road on the eastern ank
of the park (DSC). See note below for potential hybrids with C. spinosus.
Cooper 514-09, 23 May 2014 (UCR).
Ceanothus spinosus Nutt., greenbark ceanothus. Large shrub. Common; most
numerous on the southern and eastern ank of the park, but also north-facing
exposures, where it is a co-dominant in mixed chaparral. Like the preceding
species, its leaf size and shape can vary, with the longest leaves on young
stems. Plants with leaves approaching C. oliganthus in appearance, beingwide
and distinctly three-veined, but without tomentum on lower leaf surface,
have been observed and are presumed hybrids [labeled as Ceanothus sp.”
from upper Royce Canyon; Cooper 313-51, 17 Mar 2013 (UCR); Cooper
209-25.2, Feb 2009 (UCR).
Frangula californica (Eschsch.) A. Gray subsp. californica, California
coffeeberry. Frequent, particularly at lower elevations in the northeastern
corner of the park such as in the vicinity of Skyline Trail, including in areas
that have recently burned. Cooper 614-19, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Rhamnus ilicifolia Kellogg, holly-leaved redberry. Large shrub. Common in
scrub throughout park, though never forming pure stands and rarely dominant.
Braunton 483, Jun 1902 (UC).
Adenostoma fasciculatum Hook & Arn. var. fasciculatum, chamise. Large shrub.
Common; found virtually throughout the park with the exception of the
sedimentary soils of the southeast such as Beacon Hill and Coolidge Canyon.
Most dominant on the park’s highest slopes, such as Cahuenga Peak/Burbank
Peak and Mt. Lee; less frequent at lower elevations, but still persists in these
areas such as along the Skyline Trail, scattered through chaparral or even
coastal sage scrub. Epling s.n., 18 May 1925 (LA).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Cercocarpus betuloides Nutt. var. betuloides, birch-leaf mountain-mahogany.
Large shrub. Common, but never dominant, in mixed chaparral throughout
the park. As with chamise, least common in the sedimentary soils of
the southeast, though still found where dense stands of chaparral remain.
Braunton 542, Jul 1902 (UC).
Drymocallis glandulosa (Lindl.) Rydb. var. glandulosa, sticky cinquefoil.
Perennial herb. Occasional; widespread but local in mesic spots, including
along shaded roadcuts through oak woodland and around seasonal seeps in
grassy patches within chaparral; occasionally common, but never forming
solid stands, and apparently absent from large areas of the park. Cooper 610-
60B, 6 Jun 2010 (UCR).
Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindl.) M. Roem., toyon. Large shrub. Common
throughout park, found in virtually every habitat type, becoming dominant
in the tall, mesic scrub on the northern slope of the park (e.g., upper Oak
Canyon). F. Detmers s.n., 18 Jul 1929 (RSA).
Holodiscus discolor (Pursh) Maxim, creambush (Oceanspray). Small shrub.
Scarce; a single individual was photographed by J. Ochoa in May 2009 along
a very steep, slide-like drainage northeast of Mt. Hollywood, upslope of Vista
del Valle Road, in chaparral regenerating from the 2007 burn. Braunton 462,
13 Jun 1902 (UC).
Prunus ilicifolia (Nutt. ex Hook & Arn.) Walp. subsp. ilicifolia, holly-leaved
cherry. Large shrub. Infrequent in mature mixed chaparral, such as above
Brush Canyon and on slopes just north of Mt. Hollywood. Cooper 614-25,
26 Jun 2014 (UCR).
*Prunus ilicifolia (Nutt.) Walp. ssp. lyonii (Eastw.) Raven, Catalina cherry.
Tree. Occasional weed tree endemic to Channel Islands and widely planted
on mainland, naturalized and introduced at roadsides and irrigated areas, as
along Coolidge Canyon. Cooper 614-71, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Rosa californica Cham. & Schltdl., California rose. Small shrub. Infrequent at
larger seeps and springs throughout; particularly numerous along the far
eastern end of Skyline Trail and along Oak Canyon J.A. Ewan 3501, 25 May
1929 (LA).
Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schltdl., California blackberry. Small shrub. What is
presumably this species is infrequent in larger drainages throughout the
park. [Rubus pennsylvanicus has been collected once (see “Excluded Taxa”
below)] Cooper 212-10, 13 Feb 2012 (UCR).
Galium angustifolium Nutt. ex Gray subsp. angustifolium, narrow-leaved
bedstraw. Suffruticose perennial. Frequent in steep, eroding sites throughout,
such as along roadcuts. Cooper 1011-126, 5 Oct 2011 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 61
Galium aparine L., cleavers. Annual. Common in all habitat types, but most
common in shady, protected spots, such as in the understory of oak and
walnut woodland. Cooper 20100326-13A, 26 Mar 2010 (UCR).
Galium nuttallii A. Gray var. nuttallii, Nuttall’s bedstraw. Perennial herb. No
extant occurrences known, but there are several early collections from
Cahuenga Pass and the park, although the locations are vague. Recent
collections of plants at Grifth Park resembling this species have been
identied as G. porrigens, as has material from the Verdugo Mountains
(Soza et al. 2013), but the species is known farther west in the Santa Monica
Mountains. Epling s.n., Mar 1925 (LA).
Galium porrigens Dempster var. porrigens, climbing bedstraw. Suffruticose
perennial. Occasional in the understory of chaparral and scrubby woodland.
Cooper 412-23, 14 Apr 2012 (UCR).
Populus fremontii S. Watson subsp. fremontii, Fremont cottonwood. Tree.
Scarce; several mature trees are found at the mouth of Oak Canyon, just west
of Travel Town, where they occur along a narrow, shallow swale that retains
water during rainy periods. A handful of saplings were noted in 2014 (DSC)
in upper Spring Canyon. Cooper s.n., 5 Apr 2008 (UCR).
Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray ex Hook., black cottonwood. Tree.
Infrequent along wetter drainages, e.g., upper Brush Canyon and Sennett
Creek. Cooper 614-44, 26 Jun 2014 (UCR).
Salix exigua Nutt., narrow-leaved willow. Large shrub. Scarce; a small occurrence
recently found along lower Sennett Creek, adjacent to Forest Lawn Drive,
where either naturally-occurring, or naturalized from material planted as part
of Sennett Creek restoration project within Forest Lawn Cemetery. Cooper
614-61, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Salix laevigata Bebb, Red willow. Tree. Scarce; recently collected in lower
Sennett Canyon, where it was possibly introduced from plantings/restoration
upstream within Forest Lawn Memorial Park, though it is also native to the
region. Cooper 614-46, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Salix lasiolepis Benth., arroyo willow. Large shrub. Frequent in wetter drainages
throughout park, though rarely forming large stands. Cooper 614-45, 26 Jun
2014 (UCR).
Acer macrophyllum Pursh, bigleaf maple. Tree. Scarce; two (formerly three)
somewhat stunted trees occur on a granitic outcrop near Victory Boulevard
bridge over the Los Angeles River in the northeastern corner of park. This
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
species was presumably more common prior to the channelization of the
river. Cooper s.n. 10 May 2007 (UCR).
*?Acer negundo L., box elder. Tree. Scarce; trees appear to be naturalized in the
Bird Sanctuary (Vermont Canyon), Fern Dell, and adjacent to the Los Angeles
Zoo parking lot; the origin of these individuals is difcult to determine, as
they have been planted locally as street trees and continue to be used in
landscaping away from their native local stronghold in the foothills of the
San Gabriel Mountains. Cooper 813-47, 13 Aug 2013 (UCR).
Lithophragma afne A. Gray, San Francisco woodland-star. Perennial herb.
Scarce; two known occurrences, both in clay pockets in rock outcrops, and
neither consisting of more than a handful of individuals, including lower Oak
Canyon and along the southern slope of Royce Canyon (DSC). Epling 6046,
Mar 1925 (LA).
Micranthes californica (Greene) Small, California saxifrage. Perennial herb.
Scarce; two known occurrences, but fairly numerous at both; the southern
slope of Royce Canyon and on the northern face of Mt. Bell, in mesic, grassy
“moss gardens” within rocky outcrops, typically in association with Allium
peninsulare and Selaginella bigelovii. Cooper 209-14, 24 Feb. 2009 (UCR).
Scrophularia californica Cham. & Schltdl., California bee-plant (California
gwort). Perennial herb. Frequent but somewhat localized in chaparral
throughout park; most numerous at seeps and in dense chaparral, but also
occurs in recently burned, fairly weedy scrub as well. Epling s.n. 18 May
1925 (LA).
Datura wrightii Regel, Jimsonweed. Perennial herb. Frequent in areas of disturbed
and sandy soil, such as along roadsides. Cooper 1011-122, 6 Oct 2011 (UCR).
*Nicotiana glauca Graham, tree-tobacco. Large shrub. Frequent in all habitats as
a scattered shrub; the large, dense stands of this species typical of disturbed
sites of the Los Angeles Basin are infrequent in the park. Epling, s.n., 18 May
1925 (LA).
Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh, indian tobacco. Annual. Scarce; a single individual
was photographed in 2008 by J. Ochoa in side canyon of Vermont Canyon,
north of the tennis courts, growing in lightly-traveled roadbed within the
2007 burn zone. Epling s.n. 15 May 1925 (LA).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 63
*Salpichroa origanifolia (Lam.) Bailon, lily-of-the-valley vine. Perennial herb.
Occasional; established mainly at the southwestern corner of the park, where
it is recorded from several sites near Hollywood Reservoir and Vermont
Canyon. Cooper 614-16, 4 June 2014 (UCR).
Solanum americanum Miller, American black nightshade. Perennial herb. No
extant occurrences known. Epling s.n., May 1925 (LA).
Solanum douglasii Dunal, Douglas’ nightshade. Suffruticose perennial. Frequent
in shady, mesic sites throughout park. O.A. Plunkett s.n., 20 Mar, 1925 (LA).
Solanum xanti A. Gray, chaparral nightshade. Suffruticose perennial. Frequent
throughout park, in a variety of habitats. Specimens have been alternately
identied as the similar S. umbelliferum [(e.g., H. Mullins s.n., 27 Apr 1931
(RSA)], but there is likely only one native purple-owered nightshade in the
park, and we follow Prigge and Gibson (2013) in using xanti. A.M. Johnson
2779, 16 Feb 1928 (LA).
*Celtis australis L., European hackberry. Tree. Scarce; locally established along
Oak Canyon. Cooper s.n., 12 May 2008 (UCR).
Hesperocnide tenella Torr. western stinging nettle. Annual. Frequent in shady/
mesic areas, particularly under oaks and mature chaparral. Epling 6439 (LA).
Parietaria hespera Hinton var. hespera, western pellitory. Annual. Frequent in
early spring around bounders and in protected, rocky areas. Cooper 410-56B,
23 Apr 2010 (UCR).
Urtica dioica L. subsp. holosericea (Nutt.) Thorne, stinging nettle. Perennial
herb. Infrequent; most common along larger, wetter drainages such as, Royce
Canyon, Coolidge Canyon, etc. Unk. collector, 1 Apr 1980 (UCLA).
*Urtica urens L., dwarf nettle. Annual. Common in shady spots throughout park,
typically found at the edges of trails and in other high-disturbance zones.
Epling 6431, Mar 1925 (LA).
Verbena lasiostachys Link, western vervain. Perennial herb. Infrequent in a
variety of habitats along footpaths and in somewhat cleared areas, even on
dirt reroads themselves. Cooper 510-47C, 10 May 2010 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Viola pedunculata Torr. & A. Gray, Johnny-jump-up. Perennial herb. Scarce;
conned to a single population on the southern slope of Royce Canyon,
where it is found in small numbers amid grassy patches amid moss gardens
at rock faces along the slope. Likely much more widespread historically in
the park, as Comstock’s fritillary, the buttery for which this species is a host
plant, was once common in Vermont Canyon (Bonebrake and Cooper 2014),
but both the plant and the buttery appear to have been widely extirpated, the
latter entirely absent in the park. Epling 6447, Mar 1925 (LA).
Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M.C. Johnst. American mistletoe.
Parasitic shrub. Fequent on large sycamores (Platanus racemosa) along
major canyons in park, such as Oak Canyon, is probably best assigned to this
taxon. Cooper 20170211-03, 11 Feb 2017 (UCR) [in preparation].
Vitis girdiana Munson, desert wild grape. Liana. Infrequent at seeps on the north
side of the park, in upper Oak Canyon, and just northwest of Bee Rock, along
Vista del Valle Road, and along Forest Lawn Drive. Cooper 514-54, 19 May
2014 (UCR).
Allium haematochiton S. Watson, red-skinned onion. Perennial herb. Scarce; only
known population a small colony along the ridge south of the Mt. Hollywood
overlook, just north of the tunnel over Mt. Hollywood Drive, where several
dozen plants are growing on either side of a well-used footpath. J.T. Howell
3359, 2 Mar 1928 (LA).
Allium peninsulare Lemmon ex Greene var. peninsulare, peninsular onion.
Perennial herb. Scarce; two occurrences of this striking onion are known,
both in moss gardens on rocky slopes: a large population of dozens of plants
on the north-facing southern slope of Royce Canyon, and a much smaller
population on the north-facing slope of Mt. Bell. Similar habitats elsewhere
in the park, such as rock outcroppings and smaller moss gardens within lower
Brush Canyon, appear not to support this species. Cooper s.n. 5 Apr 2008
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 65
Lemna minuta Kunth, least duckweed. Perennial herb. No extant occurrences
known, but may persist at Fern Dell, the site of the original collection. A Lemna
sp. observed (DSC) in July 2014 in runoff-fed pools along the perimeter road
around Hollywood Reservoir awaits identication. L.C. Wheeler 7801, 28
Feb. 1961 (RSA; as “L. minuscula”).
Lemna valdiviana Phil., Valdivia duckweed. Perennial herb. No extant occurrences
known. The cited specimen’s collection location within park is not known.
However, a Lemna sp., which is extant in the park, awaits identication, so
this species is kept on the main list for now. F. Detmers s.n. 11 Nov. 1931
Bloomeria crocea (Torr.) Coville var. crocea, goldenstars. Perennial herb.
Infrequent in heavy clay and wet, rich soil on rock outcrops, as in the moss
gardens of Royce Canyon. This species seems to always occur in areas with
Dichelostemma capitatum, but it is much less numerous and widespread.
Cooper s.n., 4 May 2008 (UCR).
Brodiaea terrestris Kellogg subsp. kernensis (Hoover) T. Niehaus, dwarf
brodiaea. Perennial herb. Discovered May 2010 on Forest Lawn Cemetery
property adjacent to Grifth Park (GH), but presumably extirpated during
road construction in 2014. This lily occur(ed) on a small, at bench along
lower Royce Canyon, apparently where larger shrubs were removed at one
time, growing with Deinandra fasciculata, Bloomeria crocea, Sanicla arguta,
and other clay-loving species. Cooper, 510-48A, 10 May 2010 (UCR).
Chlorogalum pomeridianum (DC.) Knuth var. pomeridianum, soap plant.
Perennial herb. Infrequent in scattered small colonies on clay soil in scrub
throughout park. Cooper 614-36, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Dichelostemma capitatum (Benth.) Alph. Wood subsp. capitatum, blue dicks.
Perennial herb. Frequent both in dense coastal sage scrub and on open,
relatively undisturbed soil in a variety of habitats. This species will not
tolerate major soil disturbance such as grading and is therefore rarely found
along reroads, where it may also picked by people. Certain individuals atop
Mt. Bell are extremely pale, almost pure white. Epling 6507, Mar 1925 (LA).
Hesperoyucca whipplei (Torr.) Trel., chaparral yucca. Succulent shrub. Frequent
in scrub throughout park. T.B. Merson 20512, 1 Aug 1940 (RSA).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Carex triquetra Boott, triangular-fruit sedge. Perennial herb. No extant
occurrences known. Single early collection from Vermont Canyon; this
inconspicuous species may yet be discovered in the moss gardens of Royce
Canyon or similar mesic rocky habitat. J.T. Howell 3457, 20 Mar 1928 (LA).
Cyperus eragrostis Lam., tall atsedge. Perennial herb. Occasional near
perennially wet or moist areas, as along Royce Canyon. Cooper, 911-128, 30
Sep 2011 (UCR).
*Cyperus involucratus Rottb., umbrella sedge. Perennial herb. Scarce; established
at Coolidge Canyon and probably elsewhere at the urban edge. Cooper 614-
73, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
*Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb., shortleaf spikesedge. Perennial herb. Scarce;
collected recently at a leaky spigot in lower Sennett Canyon, just south of
Forest Lawn Drive. Cooper 614-21, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Sisyrinchium bellum S. Watson, blue-eyed grass. Perennial herb. Widespread but
infrequent and local on heavy clay, appearing within grassy patches, often
with natives and clay-loving invasives such as Avena fatua. Prefers locales
that remain moist through spring, though not associated with surface water or
springs per se. Cooper 20100323-05A, 23 Mar 2010 (UCR).
Juncus balticus Willd., Baltic rush. Perennial herb. Scarce; known from a large
seep along the streambank of lower Brush Canyon. Also pparently established
in a wet sump just north of Lake Hollywood where likely introduced as part
of habitat restoration following a landslide in the 1990s. Cooper 614-37, 26
June 2014 (UCR).
Juncus macrophyllus Coville, long-leaved rush. Perennial herb. Scarce; collected
recently at a pool of water in upper Spring Canyon. Cooper 810-92, 27 Aug
2010 (UCR).
Juncus rugulosus Engelm., wrinkled rush. Perennial herb. Scarce; collected
recently at a pool of water in upper Spring Canyon with J. macrophyllus.
Cooper 810-91, 27 Aug 2010 (UCR).
Juncus textilis Buchenau, basket rush. Perennial herb. Scarce; oa few plants at
Oak Canyon, where it is associated with runoff from neighboring Forest
Lawn Cemetery. Cooper 610-63, 6 Jun 2010 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 67
Calochortus catalinae S. Watson, Catalina mariposa lily. Perennial herb.
Occasional in heavy clay soil on upper slopes of Western and Brush Canyons,
and on the southeastern ank of the park south of Fern Canyon. C.B. Wolf 73,
3 Apr 1926 (RSA; “Cahuenga Pass”).
Calochortus plummerae Greene, Plummer’s mariposa lily. Perennial herb.
Frequent as scattered groups of plants along ridges and on steep, almost
eroding slopes in undisturbed coastal sage scrub and open chaparral
throughout in the park; largest population probably in the Mt. Lee-Cahuenga
Peak area. This species is typically associated with Eriogonum fasciculatum,
and often not far from Hesperoyucca whipplei. Cooper s.n. 12 May 2008
Fritillaria biora Lindl. var. biora, chocolate lily. Perennial herb. Scarce;
restricted to a small area of wet, heavy clay soil near One-Mile Tree, where
it grows on a grassy slope in openings between shrubs, including Artemisia
californica. No more than approximately50 individuals are present, many
fewer in dry years. J.T. Howell 3361, 2 Mar 1928 (CAS).
Toxicoscordion fremontii (Torr.) Rydb., Fremont’s star-lily. Perennial herb.
Infrequent on clay and loamy soil, often in grassy openings within scrub,
particularly on more remote, undisturbed slopes, often reached only via
footpath. M. Reynolds 112, 15 Apr 1937 (LA).
Agrostis pallens Trin., seashore bentgrass. Perennial herb. No extant occurrences
known. Stone s.n. 11 Apr 1936 (RSA).
Aristida adscensionis L. sixweeks threeawn. Annual. Scarce; recently discovered
along a short section of a ridgeline trail in upper Western Canyon, south of
Western Canyon Drive and northwest of the Grifth Observatory, growing
with Chaenactis artemisiifolia, Chorizanthe staticoides, and other species
typical of thin, eroding soil. Cooper 90316-09, 9 Mar 2016 (UCR).
*Avena barbata Pott ex Link, slender wild oat. Annual. Status unknown due to
similarity with A. fatua. H.A. Jensen 332, 4 Jun 1933 (RSA; “Hollywood
*Avena fatua L., wild oat. Annual. Frequent in open areas, particularly dominant
on clay and loamy soils. S. Pusateri s.n., 17 Jul 1941 (RSA).
*Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv., false brome. Annual. Recently
discovered in the park, apparently becoming established in disturbed areas
such as roadsides and debris basins. Cooper 315-28, 3 Mar 2015 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., California brome. Perennial herb. Possibly
scarce; this native has been recently collected in heavy clay soil along upper
Oak Canyon, near other clay-associated natives, such as Bloomeria crocea
and Madia gracilis. It may be more widespread in similar habitats, such as
as near One-Mile Tree and in upper Brush Canyon. Cooper 510-54, 10 May
2010 (UCR).
*Bromus diandrus Roth, pgut brome. Annual. Common in highly disturbed
sites; often forms a solid monoculture, particularly where brush-clearance
and disking have been done for fuel modication and weed abatement. Epling
6763, 18 Apr 1925 (LA).
*Bromus hordeaceus L., soft chess (Soft brome). Annual. Occasional at mesic
sites, such as clay lenses and at the edges of seasonal drainages. H.A. Jensen
284, 10 Apr 1930 (UC; “Hollywood Lake”).
Bromus laevipes Shear, woodland brome. Annual or perennial herb. No extant
occurrences known. Epling 6765, 18 Apr 1925 (LA).
*Bromus madritensis L. subsp. rubens (L.) Husn., red brome (Foxtail chess).
Annual. Like B. diandrus, this species occurs in highly disturbed areas
throughout the park, but is nowhere abundant. Epling 6764, 18 Apr 1925
*Bromus sterilis L., poverty brome. Annual. Collected once in the park along the
trail between Fern Dell and the observatory; its similarity to the abundant B.
tectorum renders its identication difcult in the eld, and it may well be a
common species. D. Tahara 69, 8 May 1975 (POM).
Elymus condensatus J. Presl., giant wild-rye. Perennial herb. Common; forms
solid stands at springs and seeps throughout park. This species often grows
in association with Toxicodendron diversilobum, Sambucus nigra subsp.
caerulea and other seep indicators virtually anywhere moist soil is present,
including seasonal drainages. Cooper 610-71, 16 Jun 2010 (UCR).
Elymus glaucus Buckley subsp. glaucus, blue wildrye. Perennial herb. No
extant occurrences known. L.S. Rose 46230, 21 Jul 1946 (CAS; “N end of
Hollywood Reservoir”).
*Ehrharta erecta Lam., panic veldtgrass. Perennial herb. Frequent in various
habitats, particularly along roads and trails, where it is presumably spread by
dogs and people. Cooper 614-68, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
*Festuca myuros L., tat-tail fescue. Presumably widespread in the park; recently
collected along roadside just north of Observatory. Cooper 315-31, 28 Mar
2015 (UCR).
Festuca octoora Walter, sixweeks fescue (slender fescue). Known positively
only from rocky coastal sage scrub along a steep footpath on the western
ank of Cahuenga Peak; possibly more widespread in park, in similar habitat.
F. Detmers s.n., 1 Apr 1931 (POM).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 69
*Festuca perennis (L.) Columbus & J.P. Sm., Italian ryegrass. Perennial herb.
Infrequent on clay and loamy soils, often growing with Avena spp. and native
forbs, and rarely forming extensive stands. “J.R.” s.n. 25 May 1936 (POM;
as “Lolium multiorum”).
*Hordeum murinum L. ssp. leporinum (Link) Arcang., foxtail barley. Scarce;
collected recently on oor of small debris basin at the north end of Ferndell
picnic area and at a similar site at “Coyote Canyon” just west of the park
boundary. Cooper 614-02, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
*Lamarckia aurea (L.) Moench, goldentop. Annual. Infrequent weed along hard-
packed roads and trails, rarely forming large infestations. Epling s.n. 15 May
1925 (LA).
Melica imperfecta Trin., chaparral melic. Perennial herb. Common; found in
a variety of substrates and conditions, from mesic seeps to rock outcrops,
seemingly with no preference in terms of aspect, soil, etc. Cooper 315-15, 3
Mar 2015 (UCR).
Muhlenbergia microsperma (DC.) Trin., littleseed muhly. Annual. Occasional
but widespread on steep, eroding sandstone outcrops, such as the south face
of Mt. Hollywood and east of the Ford Amphitheater, where it occurs in small
clumps in cracks in rock. Cooper 412-21, 14 Apr 2012 (UCR).
*Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov., fountaingrass. Perennial herb. Frequent
on roadsides and steep slopes where historically seeded. F. Detmers 16836,
18 Apr 1931 (POM, “Grifth Peak”).
*Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf., rabbit’s-foot grass. Occasional in clay/
loamy soil, especially in areas that retain moisture through winter and early
spring. Epling s.n., 15 May 1925 (LA).
*Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr., beardless rabbit’s-foot grass. Occasional at
leaky pipes and similar situations in disturbed areas; single recent collection
from Skyline Trail horse “guzzler”. Cooper 411-19, 15 Apr 2011 (UCR).
*Schismus barbatus (Loe. ex L.) Thell., Mediterranean grass. Recently observed
on hard, gravelly or sandy soil in openings in scrub where water collects
briey such as on the low ridge north of Commonwealth Nursery. Raven
13815, 1 Mar 1959 (LA).
Stipa coronata Thurb., Giant needlegrass. Perennial herb. Frequent on steep,
rocky slopes in chaparral and coastal sage scrub. Cooper s.n., 12 May 2008
Stipa lepida Hitchc., foothill needlegrass. Perennial herb. Status unclear, but
presumably frequent in scrub. F. Detmers s.n., 1 Apr 1931 (LA).
*Stipa miliacea (L.) Hoover, smilo grass. Perennial herb. Invasive along drainages
and disturbed areas. G.D. Wallace 1877, 17 Aug 1979 (RSA, “Hollywood”;
as Piptatherum miliaceum).
Stipa pulchra Hitchc., purple needlegrass. Perennial herb. Frequent on clay soil,
e.g., at One-Mile Tree in upper Western Canyon. Cooper 514-47, 30 May
2014 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
The following taxa are known from the park from photographs or repeated
observations through 2016, including images submitted to iNaturalist (iNaturalist
2016) and Calora (Calora 2016), which are listed by their unique observation
number (e.g., “iNaturalist 2744178”). There are still several taxa that occur or are
very likely to occur that could not be documented in time for publication of this
ora, including Geranium molle L., Micropus californicus Fisch & C.A. Meyer,
and a species of Vicia that had not been identied as of this writing. It is hoped
further investigation of the park will lead to these and others being vouchered as
part of the park’s known ora.
*Foeniculum vulgare Mill., fennel. Suffruticose perennial. Occasional weed
in disturbed areas as well as within intact scrub, though not forming large
monocultures as at more coastal sites (iNaturalist 2964083).
Asclepias eriocarpa Benth., indian milkweed. Perennial herb. Infrequent; occurs
in several areas along the northwestern border of the park (e.g., Coyote
Canyon), in lower Vermont Canyon, and probably elsewhere in semi-
disturbed areas at lower elevations (iNaturalist 4928071).
*Vinca major L., greater periwinkle. Occasional along drainages at urban-
wildand interface, mainly along urban edge along southern portion of park
(iNaturalist 2556381).
*Carduus pycnocephalus L., Italian thistle. Perennial herb. Common weed,
especially along road edges and at disturbed sites, particularly on loamy soil
(iNaturalist 2987519).
*Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Holub, Bristly ox-tongue. Perennial herb.
Infrequent weed, mainly disturbed sites, often on woodchips, mulch, and
where clippings have been dumped. Nearest collection: A.R. Van Dam 008,
16 May 2004 (UCR, “Franklin Canyon Park”).
*Lactuca serriola L. Prickly lettuce. Annual. Frequent weed throughout park,
particularly in disturbed sites. Nearest collection: P.H. Raven and H.J.
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 71
Thompson 14428, 18 Sep 1959 (JEPS, “Santa Monica Blvd. near Beverly
Glen Blvd.”).
Micropus californicus Fisch. & C.A. Meyer, slender cottonweed (Cottontop).
Annual. Infrequent on gravelly soils, such as at the Royce Canyon overlook
along Mt. Hollywood Road (specimen examined by A.C. Sanders),
where it grows along a footpath with Eriastrum sapphirinum, Eriogonum
cithariforme, Chorizanthe staticoides, and other species typical of thin,
compacted soil. Nearest collection: F.A. McFadden 3181, Apr 1931 (RSA,
“La Tuna Canyon”).
*Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum (L.) Hilliard & B.L. Burtt, Jersey cudweed.
Annual. Occasional in disturbed areas, including small debris basins
(iNaturalist 2987371).
*Sonchus oleraceus L., sow thistle. Annual. Frequent in highly disturbed areas,
often appearing quickly after soil disturbance (iNaturalist 2971863).
Stylocline gnaphaloides Nutt., everlasting nest straw. Annual. Photographed
along Skyline Trail (de A. Gibson) and reported along nearby Condor
Trail (J. Sullivan), this species appears to be locally common in at, hard-
packed patches of soil along reroads and trails, particularly where rainwater
collects. However, due to its similarity to Psilocarphus tenellus, its precise
distribution is not known at this time, and more collections are needed of
both inconspicuous, ephemeral asters to determine their true abundance
(iNaturalist 4921370).
Stephanomeria cichoriacea A. Gray, Fort Tejon milk aster (Chicoryleaf
wirelettuce). Perennial herb. Occasional on rock faces and very steep,
rocky sites, mainly in the Mt. Lee-Cahuenga Peak area, but locally at lower
elevations, such as near the tunnels between Mt. Hollywood and the Grifth
Observatory, and even on roadcuts in residential areas in the Beachwood
Canyon area. This large species blooms late, so is recognized rst by its
distinctive whitish-gray rosettes scattered amid rocks, appearing almost like
a succulent (iNaturalist 4928059).
*Echium candicans L. f., Pride-of-Madeira. Shrub. Locally established in scrub
at the urban edge south of the Hollywood Reservoir and possibly elsewhere.
Nearest collection: G. Vowels, s.n., 10 Mar 1968 (POM, Mulholland Dr.
between Laurel Canyon and Coldwater Canyon).
*Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, black mustard. Annual. Common on clay lenses and
other disturbed areas throughout park. (Calora Observation we927).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
*Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagr.-Fossat, shortpod mustard. Annual to short-
lived perennial. Common; this species occurs ubiquitously along roadsides,
footpaths, recent burns, and in other disturbed situations, particularly during
wet years (iNaturalist 2979918).
Nasturtium ofcinale R. Br., watercress. Perennial herb. Infrequent in permanent
streams (iNaturalist 4920399).
*Raphanus sativus L., wild radish. Annual. Frequent in heavy soils at the edge
of the park, typically in areas with major disturbance such as earth-moving,
tree-planting, etc. Nearest collection: M.N. Ackley 132, Apr 1928 (SBBG,
“Eagle Rock”).
Cylindropuntia californica (Torr. & A. Gray) F.M. Knuth var. parkeri (J.M.
Coult.) Pinkava, cane cholla. Succulent shrub. Infrequent; this distinctive
cactus occurs in small patches along the northeastern corner of the park. Its
western boundary in the park is near Travel Town, and individuals appear
on slopes south to Spring Canyon. It has recently been noted just west of
Cahuenga Pass in scrub surrounding the Hollywood Bowl (DSC), which
appears to mark its western limit in the Santa Monica Mountains (Prigge and
Gibson 2013; iNaturalist 2685261).
Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell, coastal pricklypear. Succulent shrub. This
taxon appears to be the only native “prickly pear” cactus in the park, forming
small, low stands in coastal scrub and in open patches within chaparral,
most commonly at lower elevations. Generally under one meter in height,
pads have cylindric, yellowish spines of variable length (e.g., iNaturalist
2556036). A related taxon more typical of coastal sites, Opuntia oricola, is
known from a single early collection made in “Hollywood” [A. Davidson
s.n., May 1916 (UC)]; at least two stands located on a steep slope south of
Hollywood Reservoir appear to have the tall, branching habit typical of O.
oricola, but this occurrence has not been collected/conrmed as pertaining
to this species.
*Opuntia cus-indica (L.) Mill., Indian-g. Succulent shrub. Occasional as
naturalized stands on arid hillsides, in particular near houses along the
southern ank of the park, but occasionally on fairly remote/inaccessible
slopes such as slopes north of Hollywood Reservoir (iNaturalist 2970393).
*Dipogon lignosus (L.) Verdc. Australian pea. Perennial vine. This highly
invasive vine with deep magenta owers has been observed recently in the
upper Vermont Canyon area between the Bird Sanctuary and the Grifth
Observatory and is apparently naturalized (iNaturalist 4928940).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 73
*Medicago polymorpha L., Bur clover. Annual. Presumably common around
landscaped areas, including irrigated lawns and roadsides (iNaturalist
Trifolium microcephalum Pursh., Small-headed eld-clover. Annual. Scarce; one
photographed in Fern Canyon in April 2008 (J. Ochoa; iNaturalist 4920425)
is the only record.
Trifolium willdenovii Sprengel, tomcat clover. Annual. Occasional in grassy
patches, typically on clay or loamy soil, particularly in the southeastern
corner of the park (iNaturalist 4921419).
*Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Hér. Ex Aiton, redstem laree. Annual. Probably
frequent in disturbed areas, but like most common weeds in the park,
overlooked. Unk. collector 2215 (SAMO); iNaturalist 2943462.
*Geranium molle L., dove’s-foot geranium. Annual. Frequent in grassy openings
in the park, including in remote areas rich in native forbs. Nearest collection:
R.L. Armacost s.n., May 1928 (POM, “Sawtelle”).
Heliotropium curassavicum L. var. oculatum (A. Heller) Tidestr., wild heliotrope.
Perennial herb. Scarce, and possibly extirpated; Known from just a single
occurrence in the park -- a tiny patch in a streambed along Western Canyon
just north of the Ferndell picnic area and just upstream of a small debris basin
was photographed 2 Jul 2008 (J. Ochoa; iNaturalist 4920391).
Mentzelia laevicaulis (Hook.) Torrey & A. Gray, Giant blazing star. Perennial
herb. Scarce; a handful of plants ower in late spring at the base of a scree
slope at “Bronson Caves”, an old rock quarry in lower Brush Canyon. This
rock-dwelling species occurs in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains and
locally in alluvial fan scrub and rocky habitats at the entire base of the range,
including at Big Tujunga Wash north of the Verdugo Mtns., but it is apparently
unknown farther west in the Santa Monica Mtns. (Prigge and Gibson 2013;
iNaturalist 2556158).
*Malva parviora L., cheeseweed. Annual. Occasional near irrigated/disturbed
areas of the park (iNaturalist 2990796).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Montia fontana L., Water montia. Annual. A small number were photographed
in early February 2015 at the moss garden at Royce Canyon (de T. Sagar),
growing amid grasses on patches of wet, heavy soil (iNaturalist 4919692).
*Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns& Anderb., xcarlet pimpernel. Annual.
Frequent trailside weed, invading native habitat along footpaths and in grassy
openings in native scrub and woodland (iNaturalist 2971581).
*Oxalis pes-caprae L. Bermuda buttercup. Perennial herb. Occasional weed,
typically on lawns or other irrigated areas (iNaturalist 2553158).
Papaver californicum A. Gray, re poppy. Annual. Occasional following the May
2007 burn, this species continues to show up sparingly on loose, often eroding
soil throughout the park, but it is much less common each year. Photographed
at Spring Canyon 6 Apr 2009 (DSC; iNaturalist 4919703).
Allophyllum glutinosum (Benth.) A.D. Grant & V. Grant, sticky gilia. Annual.
Scarce; photographed in two locations in early June 2008 (J. Ochoa;
iNaturalist 4920433): upper Fern Canyon and in Vermont Canyon (“canyon
next to Bird Sanctuary”).
*Portulaca oleracea L., common purslane. Frequent in highly disturbed areas,
such as cleared zones around houses at the edge of the park and within debris
basins (iNaturalist 2368014).
Thalictrum fendleri A. Gray, meadow-rue Perennial herb. Scarce; collected once
in 2007 (specimen examined by A.C. Sanders and discarded) along lower
Royce Canyon on Forest Lawn Cemetery, but not refound since and possibly
extirpated by recent construction (iNaturalist 4919728).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 75
Salix gooddingii C.R. Ball, Goodding’s black willow. Tree. Infrequent; local and
ephemeral in debris basins along larger creeks, e.g., lower Brush Canyon.
Nearest collection: L. Gross 2621, 6 Apr 2007 (RSA, “Burbank”).
*Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, tree-of-heaven. Tree. Frequent at lower
elevations, especially along the park’s eastern ank (iNaturalist 2943420).
*Tribulus terrestris L., puncture-vine. Annual. Infrequent in disturbed areas,
often on sandy soil (iNaturalist 1749294).
*Amaryllis belladonna L. naked lady. Perennial herb. Occasional on somewhat
disturbed slopes (especially fuel modication zones around houses), though
usually only after wet winters (iNaturalist 4023441).
*Washingtonia robusta H. Wendl., Mexican fan palm. Tree. Occasional invasive
in wet and disturbed areas, often arriving in mulch and quickly resprouting
(iNaturalist 2971928).
*Agave americana L., Century plant. Perennial herb. Occasional escapee on the
southern ank of the park including Western Canyon and in the vicinity of
Hollywood Reservoir, on rocky slopes. (Calora Observation in:2679049).
Calochortus clavatus S. Watson, Clubhair mariposa lily. Perennial herb. Scarce;
fewer than 10 individual plants were found in 2009 (GH) in a grassy opening
within low chaparral on the north slope of Mt. Chapel near the peak; however,
these plants do not appear annually. Grifth Park lies within the range of
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
both local varieties of this taxon (var. clavatus and var. gracilis Ownbey);
(iNaturalist 4919762).
Lilium humboldtii Roezl & Leichtlin ex Duch. subsp. ocellatum (Kellogg)
Thorne, Humboldt lily. Perennial herb. Occasional in deep shade along
streams in several drainages in park, with most individuals (dozens of plants)
in upper Brush Canyon (iNaturalist 4919721).
*Arundo donax L. Giant reed. Perennial herb. Infrequent in small patches in
the lowermost portions of canyons, including Western Canyon, but also in
disturbed areas such as atop Toyon Landll (iNaturalist 4739634).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 77
For a variety of reasons, I have excluded several taxa growing in the park from the
main list and the supplemental list, even though there are voucher specimens in
herbaria. Some were questionably collected in the park, or there exists some doubt
as to their identication, or they appear to persist only with supplemental water
at their presumed point of introduction. Because of the countless and ongoing
introductions of plants in the park, it is impossible to include all species one
might observe in the park on one list. For example, none of the many species of
eucalyptus in the park appear to have become widely naturalized, and none have
been vouchered. This group has therefore been left off of the prior lists and the
excluded taxa list. The excluded taxa list below includes:
1. Aquatic plants and other wetland obligates known from a specimen
labeled simply “Grifth Park”, but lacking enough detail to rule out
their having been collected along the Los Angeles River (not treated
here), a small portion of which lies within the park’s boundaries;
2. Plants known from early collections with vague location data (e.g.,
“near Cahuenga Pass”, “Hollywood Hills”) and otherwise unknown in
Grifth Park or vicinity;
3. Plants known only from early collections but essentially unknown
otherwise in the area. Several of these have been used in landscaping
or as part of wildower seed mixes over the years;
4. Vouchered taxa that are non-native and known either from a handful
of individuals in a very small area (i.e., “waifs”), or as an occurrence
that has not spread beyond what was likely their original introduction
location – in other words, established but not naturalized. These may
be very common numerically, even causing local “infestations”, but
only within a small, well-dened, and often highly disturbed area.
I include lawn weeds and those in highly modied habitats only if
represented by a vouchered specimen. Obviously some of these may
be moved to the main list should they become more widely naturalized
in the future.
As a rule, plants native to the Los Angeles area are not assigned an asterisk,
even if they are determined here to not be native to Grifth Park (see individual
The list below does not include possibly naturlized taxa observed that do not
appear to be clearly established at this time. These may become so in the
future, but for now they are left off the main and supplemental lists and are not
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
considered “excluded” because they have not been vouchered. Examples include:
Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R. Br. (along Wonderview Drive just north of Hollywood
Reservoir); Buddleja saligna Willd. (Vermont Canyon); Cortaderia selloana
(Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn. (shoreline of Hollywood Reservoir);
Grevillea robusta A. Cunningham ex R. Br. (Vermont and Western canyons);
Olea europaea L. (Western Canyon northeast of Fern Dell; Tropaeolum majus
L. (urban edge and around irrigated areas); Ulmus pumila L. (southeastern corner
of park); and Genista monspessulana (L.) L. Johnson (debris basin along Forest
Lawn Drive northwest of park).
Azolla liculoides Lam., Pacic mosquitofern. Aquatic annual or perennial herb.
Probably not collected in the park itself, but rather along the Los Angeles River,
where it is presumably still extant. Detmers s.n., 11 Nov 1931 (RSA).
*Pinus muricata D. Don, Bishop pine. Tree. Not a commonly planted landscape
tree in the area, and not naturalizing. Of the hundreds of individual conifers
of more than a dozen species planted in the park over the past century or
more, none appear to be truly naturalizing or persisting beyond their point of
introduction. B.C. Templeton s.n., 1 Oct 1936 (RSA).
*Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, camphortree. Tree. Waif; recently
collected in lower Brush Canyon. Cooper 614-35, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
*Schinus molle L., Peruvian pepper tree. Tree. Planted as an ornamental, possibly
naturalizing locally at the edges of wildland, such as at Fern Dell, but mainly
near roads/trails and not invasive. Cooper 614-29, 26 Jun 2014 (UCR).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 79
Baccharis douglasii DC., marsh baccharis. Suffruticose perennial. Most likely
collected along the Los Angeles River, where it is probably extirpated.
Braunton 644, August 1902 (DS).
*Cotula australis (Sieber ex Spreng.) Hook. f., Australian waterbuttons (Brass-
buttons). Annual. A weed of lawns and mesic areas; whether it persists in
natural habitats in the park is not known. Raven 13819, 1 Mar 1959 (CAS).
*Iva hayesiana A. Gray, San Diego marsh-elder. Perennial herb. Apparently
introduced as part of habitat “restoration”, a small population was found
in 2010 in a heavily landscaped, marshy sump just north of Hollywood
Reservoir. Cooper 610-75, 17 June 2010 (UCR).
Layia platyglossa (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) A. Gray, tidy-tips. Annual. Recently
collected in a small debris basin in upper Oak Canyon, but also reported
to occur in nearby upper Royce Canyon (J. Sullivan). As this species is
frequently used in re-vegetation projects, the provenance of the population(s)
in the park should be investigated. If it is indeed natural, and as rare as it
appears to be, it may be nearing extirpation in the park; most records in the
Los Angeles Basin are old (pre-1960) and from widely scattered locations.
It may well be restricted to very large open space areas in the region at this
time, such as the western Santa Monica Mountains, Gorman area, etc. Cooper
510-47A, 10 May 2010 (UCR).
Senecio californicus DC., California butterweed. Annual. Aside from an early
collection, this uncommon but conspicuous aster has not been detected in
the park, and since I could not locate the specimen in the collection at RSA,
I have excluded it from the main list. H.M. Oster 13769, 27 Apr 1924 (RSA,
“Foothills n. end of Vermont Ave.”).
*Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip., feverfew. Perennial herb. Scarce;
apparently a waif, collected recently at the base of the Royce Canyon,
possibly arriving via equestrians that frequent the area. Cooper 911-130, 30
Sept 2011 (UCR).
*Tragopogon porrifolius L. salsify. Perennial herb. One early collection; possibly
a waif. I.L. Ulberg s.n., 21 Apr 1949 (RSA).
*Tecoma capensis (Thunb.) Lindl., Cape honeysuckle Shrub. Locally persisting
at seeps adjacent to landscaped areas such as at the Old Zoo; generally near
roads, picnic areas, and other disturbed sites. Gross 2741, 16 May 2007
(RSA, “Burbank”).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
Cryptantha clevelandii E. Greene, common cryptantha. Known from a single
collection at “western border of park” (SAMO 350), this species is left off
the above lists for now until it can be critically examined and compared with
material of other local species.
Plagiobothrys nothofulvus (A. Gray) A. Gray, rusty popcorn ower. Annual.
The specimen cited could not be located in the UCLA herbarium in 2011,
and given the lack of records of this species in the park and only one other
known occurrence of the genus (see above), I have elected to assign this to
the Excluded Taxa list for now. Epling s.n. Mar 1925 (LA).
*Brassica rapa L., turnip. Annual. Known from a single early specimen so
considered a waif, but possibly widespread. P. Allen s.n., 6 Mar 1931 (RSA).
Tropidocarpum gracile Hook., dobie pod. Annual. No extant collections known.
Possibly extirpated by freeway/road development, but early date of specimen
and location detail is insufcient to include in the main list, which treats the
area east of Cahuenga Pass (see also Ribes indecorum). Davidson s.n., 10 Apr
1890 (RSA, “Cahuenga Pass”).
*Lonicera japonica Thunb., Japanese honeysuckle. Vine. Frequently planted
at the borders of the park, it is unclear whether this specimen was from an
established/naturalized population, as none are currently known. Mayers s.n.,
14 May 1978 (CSUSB)
*Tradescantia uminensis (Vell.) Conc., small-leaved spiderwort. Perennial
herb. Frequently planted at the borders of the park, it apparently persists
locally (e.g., just uphill of Ford Amphitheater, July 2014, DSC) but does not
appear to be naturalized. T.C. Fuller 6295, 8 May 1961 (CDA).
Calystegia purpurata (E. Greene) Brummitt, Pacic false bindweed. Perennial
herb. The lone collection appears to be one of just three known collections
from Los Angeles County. Questioned by AG, it could represent a
misidentication of the more common C. macrostegia, or a labeling error.
Without inspecting the specimen, however, its occurrence in the park is
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 81
probably best considered hypothetical until this species, which is more of a
northern and central California taxon, can be conrmed, ideally through re-
collection, however unlikely. Emery s.n., 5 Apr 1947 (SBBG).
*Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirt., Arabian pea. Perennial herb. Scarce;
a sizable population at Commonwealth Nursery and surrounding slopes,
including Cedar Grove likely originated as an escapee from the nursery;
fortunately it has not spread widely in the park, and it is excluded until its
status is better known. Cooper 20100323-06B, 23 Mar 2010 (UCR).
*Lotus corniculatus L., bird’s-foot trefoil. Perennial herb. Apparently a waif;
single recent collection along an irrigation line near Mineral Wells, but
apparently not spreading. Cooper 810-98, 26 Aug 2010 (UCR).
*Quercus ilex L., holly oak. Tree. Waif. Recently collected at lower Sennett
Canyon, just south of Forest Lawn Drive, and while widely planted in the
area, apparently not naturalizing. Cooper 614-42, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Ribes indecorum Eastw. white-owered currant. Shrub. Known from a very
early collection at “Cahuenga Pass”, but left off main list due to insufcient
location detail; it is possible this was collected along the Los Angeles River
wash at the northern base of the pass, and not in the mountains themselves.
Brewer 182, Feb 1861 (UC).
Phacelia parryi Torrey, Parry’s phacelia. Annual. Examination of this specimen
found it to be originally labeled Phacelia viscida,”probably correctly, and
subsequently annotated as P. campanularia”, a desert taxon which would
be out of range here. P. parryi is unrecorded in the eastern Santa Monica
Mountains and the Verdugo Mountains (de A. Gibson; Soza et al. 2013).
Mullins s.n., 27 Apr 1931 (RSA).
Phacelia longipes A. Gray, long-stalk phacelia. Annual. Known from a single,
early collection. A small, white-owered annual Phacelia sp. is fairly common
after wet winters on loose/eroding soil in black walnut woodland on the north
slope of the Santa Monica Mtns. a few miles west of the park along Laurel
Canyon Road and in the Repetto Hills at Mt. Washington (DSC), which have
been identied as P. longipes (de A.C. Sanders), suggesting this taxon may
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
occur locally at lower elevations in the eastern Santa Monica Mountains
and points east. However, others (including B. Prigge) have raised concerns
about these identications, as well as the appropriate features separating P.
longipes from small, white-owered P. viscida (cf. var. albiora), which also
occurs scattered among populations of more widespread blue-owered plants
in the park, especially just north of Commonwealth Nursery. More study is
clearly needed, and until the two taxa are sorted out, I have elected to keep P.
longipes off the main list. M. Hilend s.n., 30 Apr 1928 (LA).
Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth., tansy-leaved phacelia. Annual. Two specimens
collected in Grifth Park in 1961 were recently examined at the UCLA
herbarium, and while suggestive of this species, the similar P. distans could
not be conclusively ruled out (de B. Prigge). Epling 6503, Mar 1925 (LA).
*?Mentzelia lindleyi Torrey & A. Gray, Lindley’s blazing star. Annual. Fewer
than 10 known specimens exist for this species in southern California, three
of which, including the one cited here, were collected in 1930-31 in Grifth
Park. It was not included in recent treatments of the ora of the Santa Monicas
(Wishner 1997, Prigge and Gibson 2013), and it is probably best kept off the
main park list. As it was, and remains a popular “wildower” species to plant
in gardens, it is likely that these were taken from a cultivated source in or near
the park. A. Eatherton s.n., Apr 1930 (RSA).
Lythrum californicum Torrey & A. Gray, California loosestrife. Perennial herb.
An early specimen was almost certainly collected along the Los Angeles
River. Braunton 442, 13 Jun 1902 (UC).
*Ficus carica L., edible g. Large shrub. Scarce weed along drainages, as along
Coolidge Canyon in the southeastern corner of the park, but not widely
naturalizing as it is along the nearby Los Angeles River. Cooper 614-70, 26
June 2014 (UCR).
*Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Stapf, bottlebrush. Tree. Infrequent along wet
portions of the Los Angeles River, but not known as naturalized in the park.
R.E. Reifner, Jr. 07-100, 4 Mar 2007 (CDA).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 83
*Mirabilis jalapa L. var. jalapa, four o’clock. Perennial herb. Scarce, likely a
waif along Coolidge Canyon, where a bright pink-owered form occurs
along the creek. Cooper 614-72, 26 June 2014 (UCR).
Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia (Spreng.) W.L. Wagner & Hoch subsp.
suffruticosa, beach evening-primrose. Small shrub. Clearly a labeling error
or from a cultivated source; this species is a coastal dune obligate rarely
found away from beach sand and coastal bluff habitat. M.R. Solomen s.n.,
Jul 1931 (RSA).
*?Clarkia dudleyana (Abrams) J.F. Macbr., Dudley’s clarkia. Annual. Known
from a single recent collection from a debris basin along Oak Canyon, this
was found alongside another species also known from a single occurrence
(Layia platyglossa), yet it is not known elsewhere in the Santa Monica
Mountains; because both species are used for “wildower” seed mix often
spread following construction work in wildland habitat, their origin is
suspect. Cooper 510-47D, 10 May 2010 (UCR).
*Oenothera rosea L’H-r., pink evening-primrose. Perennial herb. Recently
collected (DSC) in ruderal site at mouth of Oak Canyon, growing with
Epilobium brachycarpum; it is not clear if this species has successfully
naturalized in the park, and is here treated as a waif. Cooper 911-113, 27 Sep
2011 (UCR).
*Oxalis corniculata L. creeping woodsorrel. Perennial herb. Presumably
widespread as a lawn weed, it does not appear to be naturalized in the park at
this time. E. Purer 70, 11 Feb 1931 (SD).
*Romneya trichocalyx Eastw., bristly Matilija poppy. Perennial herb. Occurs in
several areas at the urban edge of open space, where it is both intentionally
planted and naturalized from ornamental plantings nearby, including Vermont
Canyon and in Cahuenga Pass. Cooper 315-25, 22 Mar 2015 (UCR).
Mimetanthe pilosa (Benth.) Greene [= Mimulus pilosus (Benth.) S. Watson],
downy monkeyower. Annual. The single known specimen appears to be a
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
better t for M. guttatus. M. Stassforth 152, 8 May 1992 (SAMO, “near west
boundary of Grifth Park”).
*?Gilia tricolor Benth., bird’s-eye gilia. Annual. A single early specimen labeled
“Grifth Park” was subsequent annotated “aberrant, garden escape perhaps
hybrid with G. angelensis”. This species has long been popular in wildower
seed mix, and a cultivar origin cannot be ruled out (Roberts 2008). It also
has not been included in recent oras of the Santa Monica Mountains (e.g.,
Wishner 1997). A. Eatherton s.n., May 1930 (RSA).
*?Leptosiphon grandiorus Benth., large-owered linanthus. Annual. Collected
80 years ago in Grifth Park by the same individual as the above species (A.
Eatherton), this species would be clearly out of range Los Angeles County
and was presumably from a garden. A. Eatherton 16041, May 1930 (RSA).
*Potamogeton crispus (L.), cutleaf pondweed. Aquatic perennial herb. Single
early collection apparently from Fern Dell, where possibly a waif (“Grifth
Park, Western Ave. entrance”). A. Davidson 3398, Aug 1920 (RSA).
Ceanothus crassifolius Torrey, thick-leaved ceanothus. Shrub. A 1995 collection
appears to be of this species; however, the notes on the label indicate that
it was found to be a “common tree…growing on a south-facing slope
in chaparral”, adding “dominant associates include Malosma laurina,
Eriogonum fasciculatum.” While this describes the landscape around the
reservoir, no individuals have been encountered during recent visits, and
given the species’ rarity in the eastern Santa Monica Mountains, until it is
located in the eld, I consider its occurrence in the park hypothetical, and
likely based on a labeling error. C.A. Mish 22, 9 Mar 1995 (RSA, “Hollywood
Ceanothus cuneatus (Hook.) Nutt., buckbrush. Shrub. Two specimens are
claimed from the park, but at least one (cited below) was examined (by DSC)
and appears to be C. megacarpus based on leaf arrangement, with the leaves
being mainly alternate. H. Mullins s.n., 25 Feb 1931 (RSA).
*Ceanothus cyaneus Eastw., Lakeside ceanothus. Shrub. Clearly out of range,
material presumably from introduced individuals. R.E. Hammond s.n., Apr
1929 (RSA).
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 85
*Ceanothus thyrsiorus Eschsch., blueblossom. Shrub. Clearly out of range,
material presumably from introduced individuals. L.E. Hoffman s.n., 21 Apr
1934 (GH)
*?Fragaria vesca L., woodland strawberry. Perennial herb. Three early specimens
at RSA, two from “Fern Dell” and a third from “Mt. Hollywood”. Because
this species is essentially unknown in a wild state in Los Angeles County,
being restricted to higher mountains east of the L.A. Basin, and north into
northern/central California, and because both Fern Dell and Mt. Hollywood
were, and continue to be, popular locations for planting non-native plants, it
seems prudent to consider this taxon hypothetical until additional individuals
can be located in the park. An apparent cultivar of Fragaria was observed
as a lawn weed at Roosevelt Golf Course in 2011, which awaits collection
and identication. E. Kline s.n., 1 Feb 1925 (RSA; “Mount Hollywood”, as
Fragaria californica”).
*Poterium sanguisorba L., garden burnet. Perennial herb. Apparently a waif; the
lone undated specimen was noted as having been found at “Vermont Canyon,
E(ast) of Greek Theater”. E. McClintock 176, 27 Mar 1943 (LA).
*Rubus pensilvanicus Poiret. Pennsylvania blackberry. Vine. Several Rubus
collections made in the park recently have keyed to R. ursinus; however,
this taxon might well persist. Since there is no way to determine from this
record whether it was from an intentionally planted individual or if it was
naturalized at the time (the location notes “Grifth Park off Bronson”, which
is a heavily-landscaped area), I have kept it off the main list. A. Mayers s.n.,
14 Apr 1978 (UCR).
*Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq., trailing lantana. Frequent invasive at
edges of picnic areas, such as in lower Vermont Canyon and near Mineral
Wells. P.H. Raven 13820, 1 Mar 1959 (UCR).
*Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv., barnyard grass. Annual. Probably present
in certain seasonally wet areas such as debris basins, but has not been
positively identied as occurring away from the Los Angeles River. H. Stone
s.n., 10 Apr 1936 (POM).
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
*?Eragrostis sp. A single collection, unidentied to species, was made recently
at the edge of the Los Angeles Zoo along Zoo Drive; however, until more
is learned about the specic identity of this plant, if indeed it represents a
population and not just a waif, it remains off the main list. Cooper 813-43, 8
Aug 2013 (UCR).
*Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., johnsongrass. Perennial herb. Like Echinochloa
crus-gallii, it may persist in seasonally weedy spots such as debris basins, but
until more is learned of its local status to conrm it is not a waif, it remains
off the main list. P.H. Raven 13817, 1 Mar 1959 (LA).
*Triticum aestivum L., common wheat. Annual. Single early collection, location
unknown; possibly a waif. E.A. Purer 2047, 8
Crossosoma 41 (1 & 2) 2015 87
ERRATA TO VOLUME 40.2, Fall 2016
e author and contact were le o for the Rumex stenophyllus Noteworthy
Collection on page 99. e author and contact should have been:
Fred M. Roberts, Research Associate, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500
North College Ave., Claremont, California 91711.
Crossosoma 41 (1 &2) 2015
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Full-text available
Few long-term examples exist of wildlife population trends in urban environments despite the recent recognition of the importance of biodiversity in cities. Founded in 1896, Griffith Park's over 1,700 ha in Los Angeles adjacent to Hollywood represent the largest municipal park in California. Through the 1920s, biologists studied the natural area with great interest but in the decades that followed, little fieldwork was conducted here as Los Angeles developed into a megacity surrounding the park. We combined thorough examination of Griffith Park historical field notes and specimen records (1900-1960) with recent field surveys (2011-2012) to determine (1) the extent of urbanization impacts on butterfly extirpation and persistence and (2) how butterfly traits and host plant relationships might be contributing to butterfly species status. Here we document multiple local butterfly extinctions in Griffith Park; 10 species or 18 % of the historically reconstructed community. Many of these species were lost early in the twentieth century, highlighting the importance of the historical record in understanding urban biodiversity patterns and trends. An analysis of larval host plant status and relationships suggests that a primary factor determining butterfly presence or extirpation is the abundance of the larval host plant in the park, in addition to host plant specificity. Despite these extirpations, we also found that the majority (over 80 %) of native butterfly species have persisted including species of conservation interest. While urban parks certainly suffer from surrounding anthropogenic pressure and impacts, this study also demonstrates the potentially high and underappreciated conservation and ecological value of urban parks.
Available online here: The Verdugo Mountains and San Rafael Hills in Los Angeles County, California, are a 21 km (13 mi) long mountainous region that encompasses approximately 14,646 ha (36,192 acres) surrounded by the greater Los Angeles area. Urbanization from the greater Los Angeles area has encroached upon these mountains over the years. Despite the mountains’ proximity to high population densities, recent botanical collections from the range are sparse. The goal of our study was to compile historic and recent botanical collections from the range to document the flora of the Verdugo Mountains and San Rafael Hills. We first compiled information on the natural and cultural history of the study area from literature reviews, internet searches, and local herbaria. We then performed botanical surveys in the Verdugo Mountains and San Rafael Hills to document vascular plant taxa with herbarium vouchers, develop an annotated checklist, describe plant communities, and document fire-following species for the region. The vegetation within the study area was predominantly chaparral (chamise or mixed chaparral) and southern coastal scrub with occasional woodlands (coast live oak or California walnut), riparian communities (California sycamore or mixed riparian woodlands), and grasslands (native bunchgrass or valley and southern coastal grassland). We identified fire-following species from three burn areas in the study area one to five years later. A total of 422 native and 163 non-native taxa were confirmed from the area, including 12 rare taxa.
Nick Jensen, and Fred Roberts for helpful comments that greatly improved the manuscript
  • Michelle Thank
  • Justin Cloud-Hughes
  • Wood
thank Michelle Cloud-Hughes, Justin Wood, Nick Jensen, and Fred Roberts for helpful comments that greatly improved the manuscript. LITERATURE CITED
Aerial Information Systems, Inc.) and ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Photo Interpretation Report
AIS (Aerial Information Systems, Inc.) and ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute. 2007. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Photo Interpretation Report. Submitted to Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, May 23, 2007.
The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California
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Baldwin, B. G., D. H. Goldman, D. J. Keil, R. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H. Wilken, editors. 2012. The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California. Second edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Native and exotic flora of Griffith Park (unpublished checklist)
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Brusha, R.F. 2003. Native and exotic flora of Griffith Park (unpublished checklist). " Source: Bill Eckert. Transcribed and edited by R.F. Brusha ", May 2003.
Vegetation Classification of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area and Environs in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, California
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CDFG (California Department of Fish and Game), California Native Plant Society, T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. Evens. 2006. Vegetation Classification of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area and Environs in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, California. Submitted to National Park Service, January 2006.
Website Online at: Consortium of California Herbaria. 2016. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria
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Calflora. 2016. Website. Online at: Consortium of California Herbaria. 2016. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria. (accessed 2015).