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Consumer's emotional influence & visual merchandising effects: Shopping malls

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(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management New Technologies,
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CONSUMERS EMOTIONAL INFLUENCE & VISUAL
MERCHANDISING EFFECTS: SHOPPING MALLS
*PhD Ranjan Upadhyaya &** MSc Govind Nath Srivastava, India
Abstract The research empirically examines
the impact of emotional influence in evaluation and
purchase decision with special reference to goods sold
in shopping malls. Various factors which influence the
consumer decision, such as ease offered by retailer to
customers in defining, selecting and purchasing the
product, brand value, utility of the product, reference
group, value for money, advertising and its appeal etc
are being critically analyzed and its impact is being
empirically assessed. Apart from all the factors,
emotion play a critical role in consumer decision-
making and it strongly influence the consumer’s
choices. Very little efforts have been done in the past
in order to understand the source of emotional arousal
in purchase decision. Emotions are subject to change
and it is subjective in nature. Emotions silently and
unconsciously drive the consumer’s decision at the
destiny, where customers intend to go. Emotions are
not necessarily permanent and it varies from customer
to customer and even for the same customer, it is
different, in different situation, so in order to be
successful in this hyper competitive business era,
organizations need to leverage emotions for business
success, for better brand value, customer satisfaction
and employee management
Key words- Emotional dynamics,
Neuromarketing, visual merchandising, Mannequins,
Emotion Driver.
Introduction
What & why customer buy is most
important aspect of consumer behavior? What
customers buy is well known facts and data
are available regarding consumption pattern
and frequency of the purchase. Why customer
buys is most difficult question of marketing,
this must be answered for diagnosis of
influences, and for incorporating these
influences in marketing mix strategy. The
rational decision making, which is being
based on price benefit relationship and
involves intensive information search have
very strong logical and sound justification
behind the purchase decision, but
unfortunately the consumer’s decision which
is driven by emotions, do not have such sort
of explanation, because emotional attributes
are highly qualitative in nature. Emotions
guide to specific judgment (Barrett and
Campos- 1987). Emotions can guide and
persuade consumers (Andrade and Cohen-
2007).The emotions are all those feelings that
so change men as to affect their judgments,
and that are also attended by pain or pleasure
(Aristotle-2004). Due to qualitative aspects of
emotions most of the retailers are not able to
incorporate emotional strategy in their
marketing strategy. Emotions matters and
emotional connect with the customers delivers
very strong edge to the firm over traditional,
rational appeal. Most of the customers hide
their true desire and emotion and that’s why
their decisions are unconsciously driven by
unspoken desire and emotions. The
customers, who are relatively more driven by
emotion, skip some of the important steps of
consumer decision making process and takes
decision in shortest span of the time. This
increases inventory turnover, return on asset,
and quick return on investment and reduces
inventory-carrying cost. It is no longer
enough to explain to customers what a
product can do for him, infact firm need to
win the emotion of the customer in order to
go deep inside in the heart and mind of the
new generation customers (emotion mics,
Dann Hills). Consumer decision-making also
depends on mood of consumers. Several
studies have shown that in a happy mood
customers are more driven by their first
feeling and emotion and they take quick
intuitive judgment. Intuitive decision-making
is characterized by sense by which customers
perceive an option better than another. The
customers are not necessarily able to find out
the source of this intuition. Sad individuals
are strongly persuaded by strong arguments,
but not by weak arguments, whereas happy
individuals are moderately persuaded by
strong as well as week arguments (Marieke D
Vries, Rob W. Holand and Cilia L.M. Witte
man, Psychology press). Bolte, Goschke and
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Kuhl, 2003 suggested that happy mood
individuals respond more intuitively than
those in bad mood. While choosing an option
from various alternatives customers may rely
on their intuition or customer may decide
deliberately by analyzing pros and cons of
different option before making final decision.
In the world of retailing today almost all the
firms are offering the same benefit and more
than hundred brands are available in one
product category so rational approach of
selling the product and product customization
will no longer deliver benefit to the firm.
Retail firms need to leverage the emotions for
grabbing business opportunity. As most of the
customer are not able to define the product
while purchasing the product and they do not
know exactly what they are looking for in
terms of colour, feature and benefit so firm
should integrate emotions with their
merchandising and visual display for
acquiring competitive edge over competitors.
It is also observed that women are relatively
more driven by emotional influence. Colour,
status of the person who wear a particular
dress in a party or social event, window
display, dress style of mannequin with related
items, fresh arrivals and new fashion
merchandise which is displayed through
fixture and attractive visual aids are account
for emotional arousal which ultimately drive
the purchase decision of customers. It is being
observed in the past that Actress of some
famous serials created a huge demand for
particular dress style and customers blindly
purchased the product without any assessment
regarding usage, quality and price of the
merchandise. In order to succeed in market
place retailer should align his merchandising
strategy with emotional strategy for catering
unspoken desire/ emotion of the customers.
Visual Merchandising as an Emotion Driver
Visual merchandising is the display
tools that transform shoppers into stoppers
and passers into buyers. It should be noted
that visual merchandising does not impose
any idea over customers and works as an
idea person and lead the emotion in the
direction where customers wish to go. As it is
believed that 80% of influence/impression is
created by sight that’s why mannequin and
window display is weightier than thousands
of the words. The impression of different
elements of visual merchandising such as
colour, light, merchandise, odour, sound is
different for different customers as impact of
this encounter is unique for each customer in
terms of emotional influence.
Elements of Visual Merchandising-
Window Display
Window display is like a visiting card
of the store and it is most controllable element
of the store in relation to image building.
Well-designed window display works like a
talking point and communicate with the
customers silently regarding merchandise
story. Attractive window displays not only
draw the attention of the customers and
creates first impression but it also entertain
pedestrians.
Real setting, Atmospheric setting, Semi
real setting, Abstract setting and whimsical
setting of window display creates different
impact over customer’s mind.
Colour
Medical science has proven that colours
have definite and various impact over the
nervous system. Colour can immediately
create the mood and it is biggest motivation
for shopping. Colours cheer us up whenever
we feel bad. Colours are associated with
human emotions and it is highly
individualistic. The problem for the visual
merchandiser is that each person may have
distinct reaction to the same colour. In the
vast and global market place there are cultural
and regional differences in colour preference.
Following are the general feeling of particular
colour.
a) Yellow- caution, cowardice,
treachery
b) Red- passion, love
c) Orange- knowledge, warmth, energy,
force d) Violet- royalty, depression
e) Blue- fidelity, sobriety, fear
(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management New Technologies,
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f) Green- Wealth, outdoors, luck, nature
g) Brown- Maturity, humility
h) White- Purity, truth
i) Black- Death, sorrow, depression
Sources- (Swati Bhalla, Anurag S, Visual
merchandising)
Neuromarketing
Neuromarketing is emerging field that
utilizes medical technologies such as FMRI
(functional magnetic Resonance Imaging) and
EEG (Electroencephalography) to study the
brain’s response to marketing stimuli (P Raj
Devasagayam, Tara Maloney, DIAS
Technology review, vol-6, No-2, Oct-Nov-
2010). FMRI is used by researcher for
measuring the change in the activity of the
brain and to learn what part of the brain is
affecting decision and why consumers take
decision. As it is believed that brand choice of
the customers is based on sub conscious
thought process so Neuromarketing uses
traditional Neuroscientific method to map the
brain pattern against encounter between
stimuli and brain. It also analyzes impact of
these stimuli on consumer decision-making.
The Retailer need to do the research at sub
conscious level to know what customers are
thinking and why and neuromarketing is
believed to give answer of these questions. As
the participants is shown a particular
stimulus, his or her brain is monitored with
neuroimaging monitor such as FMRI, EEG,
PET, TMS, SCR Etc, . Any one of these
monitors can be used for brain mapping.
Eventually the brain pattern is interpreted by
determining whether or not person liked what
he was experiencing and up to what degree.
Views from the field of Neuroscience
1-“The essential difference between
emotion and reason is that emotion leads to an
action while reason leads to conclusion”
(Calne, 2000)
2-“Over 85% of the thought,
emotions and learning occur in
unconscious mind and it can be said that
reasoning strategies are defective
(Damasio, 1999)
3-“The wiring of the brain favors
emotions” (Ledoux, 1996)
(Sources- Advertising journal of Research,
March, 2009, John Pawle and Peter Cooper)
Objectives Of the study
1- To analyze the impact of emotional
influence in consumer decision-making.
2- To identify the most important
influence in consumer decision making
3- To judge the rationality of consumer
decision-making and to find out variation for
the same product category.
Literature Review
John Pawle and Peter Cooper used the
Lovemak grid and incorporated quantative as
well as qualitative insight for measuring
emotions. In their study they found that
actual contribution of emotional factors to the
brand decision-making is significantly greater
than functional factors and ranges from 63-85
% depending on product category. According
to John Pawle and Peter Cooper Human
behavior is is heavily influenced by emotions
not solely by reason. Consumers are highly
emotional and intuitive in their behavior,
operating through emotional center of the
brain directed by their heart and often
independent of conscious control (John Pawle
and Peter Cooper). Robert (2004) developed a
love mark grid in order to understand the
relationship between brand and consumer. In
his study he emphasized that brand not only
need to create respect but it should also earn
respect from customers. Heath-2001 argues
that brand decision is not wholly rational.
Consumers take the decision via senses,
emotions, instinct and intuition. He pointed
out that customers are physically incapable of
making decision based on purely rational
thinking. Kelvin Roberts in his study argued
that human beings are powered by emotion
and whenever there is conflict between
emotion and reason emotion always wins.
Myeong GU-SEO and Feldman Barrett
analysed the impact of feeling (good or bad)
(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management New Technologies,
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over the decision-making performance. They
argued that decision making performance
depends on how people experience, treat and
use their feeling during decision making and
both functional and dysfunctional effects can
be simultaneously managed to maximize their
positive effects and minimize negative
effects. They suggested that affective feeling
can improve decision-making performance by
facilitating and even enabling decision
making process. Damasio (1994) pointed out
that feeling boost the conscious attention and
continued working memory required for any
reasoning or deciding pleasant and unpleasant
feelings can help decision makers to resolve
this dilemma by invoking distinguishable
frame of the mind. Blair Kidwell, David M.
Hardesty & Terry L. Childers argue that EI
and emotional processing play a crucial role
in highest quality of decision and emotional
processing have very strong influence on
consumer outcome. Jennifer S. Lerner
(Howard University), Seunghee Han and
Dacher Keltner Described the significance of
incidental emotion as well as integral
emotion. They defined the integral emotion as
a feeling that is related to judgment or
decision at hand. Marieke D. Vries, Rob W.
Holand, and Cilia L.M. Witte man in their
study argue that compatibility between mood
and decision strategy has very strong
influence over subjective value of decision
outcome. They Examined mood and intuitive
Vs deliberative decision-making. In their
study they mentioned that Deliberative
decision-making is cognition based, precise
and slow. Deliberative decision makers take
their time to thoroughly analyze the positive
and negative aspects of different options.
Luisa Andreu, Enriquebigne, Ruben
Chumpitaz and Valerie Swaen investigated
the impact of retail environment in two
different retail setting (shopping center and
traditional retail area. They established the
linkage between retail environment, emotion,
satisfaction level and behavioral intention of
consumers. They formed three-dimensional
construct for analyzing behavioral intention.
Baron et al described the concept of Retail
Theater for creating pleasant experience for
increasing satisfaction level and loyalty
among consumers. Wakefield and Baker
(1998) found that physical environment play a
very crucial role in determining consumer’s
desire to remain at shopping area. The way
consumer experience emotion determines his
behavioral intention (Yach and Spangenberg-
2000). It is pointed out that Positive emotion
creates approach behavior while negative
emotion produces avoidance behavior. Mooy
and Roben-2002 in their study found that
customer wish to touch the product for better
evaluation and purchase decision. On the
other hand Argo, Dahl and Morales-2006
demonstrated that customers do not want the
product to be touched by the others that they
would like to purchase and view touched
product as a negatively contaminated. Jenifer
J Argo, Darren W. Dahl and Andrea C.
Morales examined that when physical contact
between the product and another person
creates positive outcome for consumers and
how consumers respond when other people of
varying level of attractiveness touch the
product that they wish to purchase.. They
brought new insight regarding impact of
attractive social influence in consumer
decision-making and mentioned that a highly
attractive contact source and received
consumer must be of opposite sex for positive
contagion to occur. Male consumers are more
influenced by attractiveness level of another
woman and that female consumers are more
influenced by attractiveness level of another
man (Abbey1982, Buss 1989). Learner and
Keltner (2000, 2001) used appraisal tendency
Framework (ATF) as a basis for describing
the effect of specific emotions on judgment
and decision making. Ingrid Smithey, Fulmer
and Bruce Barry identified neural system for
incorporating integral emotions and
controlling incidental emotions.
Hypothesis
a) H1- Consumers primarily take
emotional decision driven by emotion
b) H2- Consumers spend less time in
Intuitive decision driven by emotions.
c) H3- Consumers feels joy and
satisfaction in post transaction driven by
emotion.
(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management New Technologies,
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Research Design
A structured undisguised questionnaire
is used and sample sizes of 200 were taken for
study. Both male and female respondents
were taken in order to minimize the impact of
gender bias. Data are analyzed through SPSS.
In the study dependent and independent
variables were identified. Consumer’s
judgment and purchase evaluation is
dependent variable while social influence
(Attractiveness of contact person),
compassion, atmospheric, retail setting,
temperature, music, colors, odor, décor,
window dishplay, anger, fear, pride, affection
etc is independent variable. Respondents were
asked to assess their feelings on five point
likert scale in order to find out that when
customers felt joy, anger, fear, contentment
and disgust.
Scope of Research
This research empirically analyzes the
impact of emotional influence in consumer
decision making for goods in different retail
setting. This study can be further extended for
variety of the goods and most importantly the
sources of emotional arousal for each product
category can be identified. As in a retail
setting different factors such as decor, light,
color, odour, music, contact person, window
display are accountable for emotion formation
among the consumers so an effective emotion
matrix can be developed in order to
incorporate this matrix in sensory marketing.
Analysis and Discussion
Total 200 questionnaires were
distributed among the customers in a different
retail setting as each shopping mall have
different architectural design, lay out and
window display. Finally 175 questionnaires
were found usable. Apart from SPSS analysis
tool, pie chart is also used to analyze the data.
Total 16 questions were asked to respondent
to analyze the impact of senses, emotional
influence over customer decision making.
Majority of the customers admitted that they
are strongly driven by their senses in purchase
decision and sight is most important influence
which energies customers to purchase the
goods. Most of the respondent said that they
give priority to first impression in purchase
decision. We also felt in the research that
fragrance, music, light is very important
source of emotional arousal and it influence
consumer decision making up to great extent.
It was also found that most of the customers
take intuitive judgment.
Limitation of the Study
This study is heavily depends on
analysis of feelings of just 175 respondents in
retail setting. As emotion is very subjective in
nature and most of the customers may not be
able to express their feelings exactly so the
result may not be absolutely accurate. Lastly
this study can not be generalized as study is
conducted in NCR region only and emotion
driver, drive the emotions of consumers based
on geographical location.
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Interpretation of the data
Table-1
How strong you are driven by your senses in purchase decision?
Particulars
Frequ
ency
Percent
Valid Percent
Valid
Strongly driven
94
47.0
47.0
Rarely
52
26.0
26.0
Moderately
52
26.0
26.0
Not at all
2
1.0
1.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
Table-2
Which of five senses hold you most during purchase?
Partic
ulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Valid
See
118
59.0
59.0
Smell
10
5.0
5.0
Touch
28
14.0
14.0
Hear
14
7.0
7.0
Taste
30
15.0
15.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
Table-3
Do you follow what your senses say during purchasing & up to what extent?
Particul
ars
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Valid
Always
68
34.0
34.0
Rarely
62
31.0
31.0
Sometim
es
68
34.0
34.0
Never
2
1.0
1.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
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Table-4
How much passionate you are about your favorite colour in purchase decision?
Particul
ars
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Very
Deeply
72
36.0
36.0
36.0
Moderat
ely
102
51.0
51.0
87.0
Rarely
24
12.0
12.0
99.0
Not at all
2
1.0
1.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
Table-5
Are you ready to spend more money to get your favorite colour?
Partic
ulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Yes
130
65.0
65.0
65.0
No
70
35.0
35.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
Table-6
How much passionate you are about your favorite music?
Particulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Very Deeply
96
48.0
48.0
48.0
Rarely Matters
62
31.0
31.0
79.0
Moderately
42
21.0
21.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
Table-7
How much you are driven by your favorite fragrance in purchasing cosmetics?
Particulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Strongly
80
40.0
40.0
40.0
Moderately
74
37.0
37.0
77.0
Sometimes
42
21.0
21.0
98.0
Not so
effective
4
2.0
2.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
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Table-8
Do you feel that music, and fragrance in the shopping mall energies you for purchasing more?
Particulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Strongly
agree
56
28.0
28.0
28.0
Agree
106
53.0
53.0
81.0
Disagree
32
16.0
16.0
97.0
Indifferent
6
3.0
3.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
Table-9
Do you get more satisfaction when you purchase the goods based on first impression rather than
deliberately analyzing the pros and cons of product?
Particulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Strongly agree
26
13.0
13.0
13.0
Agree
110
55.0
55.0
68.0
Disagree
54
27.0
27.0
95.0
Indifferent
10
5.0
5.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
Table-10
How strong are you in distinguishing or identifying stimulus, when you are given blindfold?
Particulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Always
18
9.0
9.0
9.0
Most of times
82
41.0
41.0
50.0
50-50
82
41.0
41.0
91.0
Rarely
18
9.0
9.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
Table-11
Are you so strongly driven by your senses that you overlook your budget?
Particulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Mostly it happens
54
27.0
27.0
27.0
50-50
58
29.0
29.0
56.0
Sometimes it
happens
64
32.0
32.0
88.0
Never happens
24
12.0
12.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
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Table-12
Do you go for analysis of price benefits when you find it as priority of your taste?
Particulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Always
58
29.0
29.0
29.0
50-50
98
49.0
49.0
78.0
Rarely
36
18.0
18.0
96.0
Never
8
4.0
4.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
Table-13
How many times conflict takes between emotions & reasons in purchase decision?
Particulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Always
22
11.0
11.0
11.0
Sometimes
130
65.0
65.0
76.0
Rarely
40
20.0
20.0
96.0
Never
8
4.0
4.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
Table-14
How much time you take to make purchase decision when you are emotionally driven?
Particulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Spontaneously
46
23.0
23.0
23.0
Discuss and consult with
friends
96
48.0
48.0
71.0
Think of pros and cons
50
25.0
25.0
96.0
Try to contect user/users
8
4.0
4.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
Table-15
How emotional influence is important for you and it affect your purchase decision?
Particulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Very important
36
18.0
18.0
18.0
Moderately important
110
55.0
55.0
73.0
Not important
38
19.0
19.0
92.0
Indifferent
16
8.0
8.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
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Table-16
Do you give priority to emotion over reason during the purchase decision?
Particulars
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Always
18
9.0
9.0
9.0
Sometimes
104
52.0
52.0
61.0
Rarely
24
12.0
12.0
73.0
Never
16
8.0
8.0
81.0
Both emotion and reason
are equally important
38
19.0
19.0
100.0
Total
200
100.0
100.0
Conclusion
Most of the customers hear to their
emotion while taking decision that’s why
their decision is primarily driven by the
emotion and emotional influence play a very
important role in consumer decision making
process. It is also found from the research that
intuitive decision driven by the emotion
provide more post purchase satisfaction and
pleasure .It is also found during the study that
emotion based decision take less time in
purchase decision as compared to reason
based decision making.
Reference
1) John Pawle and Peter Cooper ‘Measuring
Emotion-Love marks, the future beyond brands’,
Journal of advertising Research-March-2006,
2) Lisa Feldman Barrett ‘Being emotional
during decision making good or bad? An empirical
investigation’, Academy of management journal, 2007,
volume-50,
3) Blair Kidwell, David M. Hardestyand Terry
L.Childers ‘consumer emotional intelligence’,
Advances in consumer research, vol-35, 2008
4) Lennifer S. Lerner, Seunghee Han and
Dacher Keltner ‘Feelings and consumer decision
making-Extending the appraisal tendency framework’,
Journal of consumer psychology
5) Marieke Dvries, Rob W. Holand and Cilia L.
M. Witteman ‘Fitting decisions: Mood and intuitive
deliberative decision strategy’, Psychology press
6) Jennifer J. Argo, Darren W. Dahl and Andrea
C.Morales ‘Positive consumer contagion: Responses to
attractive others in a retail context’, Journal of
marketing research, vol-xlv, dec-2008, pp-690-701
7) Ingrid Smithey Fulmer and Bruce Barry
‘Managed hearts and Wallets: Ethical issues in
emotional influence by and within the organisation’,
Business ethics quarterly 19.2, April-2009
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Increasing research attention to the ways that firms seek to influence the emotions of employees, consumers, and other stakeholders has not been accompanied by systematic attention to the ethical dimensions of emotion management. In this article we review and discuss research that informs the morality of influencing and regulating the emotions of others. What are the moral limits of the use of emotion as a management tool for shaping workplace behavior and influencing the thoughts and actions of consumers? Do the ethics of emotional labor and emotional appeals (e.g., in consumer advertising) depart from moral rules that apply in "non-emotional" contexts? To explore these questions we examine research on the means by which individuals' emotions are shaped and on the organizationally relevant consequences of individual emotional experience. We then discuss a number of potential ethical issues that are implicit or explicit in the organizationally sanctioned use of emotion management, incorporating existing literature in management and business ethics that has addressed the moral obligations of organizations in this context, and highlighting areas where there is yet work to be done. We conclude by discussing the implications of our analysis. © 2009 Business Ethics Quarterly.
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We investigated the influence of the compatibility between mood and decision strategies on the subjective value of a decision outcome. Several studies have provided evidence for the idea that a sad mood induces people to analyse information carefully, probably fitting well with a deliberative decision strategy. In a happy mood, people tend to act more strongly on their feelings, probably fitting well with an intuitive decision strategy. However, sometimes the situation demands the use of decision strategies that seem incompatible with mood states. We expected that decision makers would value a decision outcome higher in the case of a fit between mood and decision strategy than in the case of a non-fit. After a mood manipulation, participants were instructed to decide either based on their first affective reaction or after deliberation. Results confirmed our expectations: fitting decisions enhanced the subjective value of a decision outcome.
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This research examines the impact of attractiveness on consumers during a consumption experience. Specifically, it examines the effects of an attractive social influence in the context of touching and contamination of store products by investigating how consumers respond when they see attractive others touching the same products they want to purchase. In doing so, it provides the first experimental evidence of a positive contagion effect in either the marketing or the psychology literature. Across three field experiments using an actual retail shopping environment, the authors find that product evaluations are higher when consumers perceive a product as having been physically touched by a highly attractive other. Moreover, they identify sex as a critical moderating variable in the realization of this positive contagion effect; the contact source and observing consumer must be of the opposite sex for positive contagion to occur. Finally, in contrast to previous work, the authors demonstrate that these effects are driven by a physical model of contagion
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This article presents the Appraisal-Tendency Framework (ATF; Lerner & Keltner, 2000, 2001; Lerner & Tiedens, 2006) as a basis for predicting the influence of specific emotions on consumer decision making. In particular, the ATF addresses how and why specific emotions carry over from past situations to color future judgments and choices. After reviewing the main assumptions and the 5 main principles of the framework, 2 streams of research are presented. One stream addresses emotional carryover effects on the assessment of risk; the other addresses carryover effects on the assessment of monetary value. Because risk assessment and value assessment are fundamental psychological processes, understanding them has the potential to yield manifold implications for consumer judgment and decision making. The concluding sections highlight limitations and future directions of the framework.
) Lisa Feldman Barrett 'Being emotional during decision making good or bad? An empirical investigation
  • John Pawle
  • Peter Cooper
John Pawle and Peter Cooper 'Measuring Emotion-Love marks, the future beyond brands', Journal of advertising Research-March-2006, 2) Lisa Feldman Barrett 'Being emotional during decision making good or bad? An empirical investigation', Academy of management journal, 2007, volume-50,
consumer emotional intelligence
  • Blair Kidwell
  • David M Hardestyand Terry
  • L Childers
Blair Kidwell, David M. Hardestyand Terry L.Childers 'consumer emotional intelligence', Advances in consumer research, vol-35, 2008