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Review Article
Calendula officinalis - An Important Medicinal Plant with Potential
Biological Properties
NELOFER JAN1, KHURSHID IQBAL ANDRABI2and RIFFAT JOHN*,1
1Plant Molecular Biology Lab., Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006, India
2Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006, India
(Received on 18 April 2017; Revised on 08 July 2017; Accepted on 01 August 2017)
Calendula officinalis L. (Marigold) is globally known for its medicinal importance containing various phyto-chemicals
including carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, fatty acids, carotenoids, terpenoids, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins and
other constituents, showing some important biological activities like wound healing, immuno-stimulant, spasmogenic and
spasmolytic, hepatoprotective, genotoxic and antigenotoxic, anti-amylase, anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous, anti-bacterial
and anti-fungal, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-HIV and anti-cancerous, nephron-protective, prevention of oropharyngeal
mucositis, hypoglycemic and gastroprotective activities with no toxic effect .In this review, a detailed account of different
phytochemicals and their medicinal properties of C. officinalis have been addressed.
Keywords: Calendula officinalis; Asteraceae; Marigold; Phytochemicals
*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: riffatminhaj@kashmiruniversity.ac.in; riffat_iit@yahoo.com
Proc Indian Natn Sci Acad 83 No. 4 December 2017 pp. 769-787
Printed in India. DOI: 10.16943/ptinsa/2017/49126
Introduction
In India, over 6,000 plants are used in herbal, folk and
traditional medicine. Approximately, amongst1500
identified medicinal plants 500 are commonly in use
(Chidambaram et al., 2014). Calendula officinalis
L. (pot marigold) is one of the commonly used
medicinal plantsin India, China, Europe and US (Muley
et al., 2009). Calendula was known as “gold’s” in
old English was associated with Virgin Mary and
Queen Mary, hence the name marigold (Grieve 1931;
Kemper 1999; Mills 1991). The name of this plant
comes from a Latin word ‘Calend’ meaning the first
day of each month, because of the long flowering
period of plant. As flowers move in the direction of
the sun’s radiation, it has become an astronomical
sun sign “Leo” (Dinda and Craker, 1998). Calendula
is an annual herb growing about 80 cm tall, having
corymbosely branched stem; a long tap root with
numerous secondary roots; hispid, acute, oblanceolate,
alternate and sessile leaves; flower head inflorescence
(surrounded by two rows of hairy bracts). The plant
has yellow to orange ûowers with female ray ûorets
and hermaphrodite, tridentate, tubular, disc florets; and
curved, sickle-shaped and ringed achenes (Bisset,
1994) (Fig. 1).
The plant species has been reported to contain
a variety of phyto-chemicals, including carbohydrates,
phenolic compounds, lipids, steroids, tocopherols,
terpenoids, quinones and carotenoids (Kishimoto et
al., 2005; Re et al., 2009; Shahrbabaki et al., 2013;
Wojciak-Kosior et al., 2003) with different health
benefits (Miliauskas et al., 2004; Muleyet al., 2009;
Vodnar, 2012). The major active constituents of plant
include triterpendiol esters, saponins, and flavonoids
including rutin and hyperoside. The orange flower
contains a high content of carotenoids including
auroxanthin and flavoxanthin (Braun and Cohen, 2005;
Neukiron et al., 2004; Roopashree et al., 2008).
The pot marigold extracts possess a wide range
of pharmacological effects (Pintea et al., 2003) and
are used as antiseptic, stimulant, diaphoretic, anti-
spasmodic and anti-pyretic agents (Kirtikar and Basu,
1993; Weiner, 1990). The flower extracts of the plant
have anti-viral effects on HIV (Kalvatchev et al.,
1997). In-vitro,Calendula officinalis (CO) plant
Published Online on 6 September 2017
770 Nelofer Jan et al.
extracts show anti-cancerous activity on various tumor
cell lines derived from leukemias, fibrosacomas,
melanomas, breast, cervix, prostate, pancreas and lung
(Medina et al., 2006). It has also been internally used
for the treatment of gastritis, colitis and bleeding of
duodenal ulcers (Boneet al., 2003). Due to significant
biological activity of C. officinalisand its constituents
it is imperative that the plant be given attention and
developed as a medicine.
Important Phyto-chemicals
Various phyto-chemical studies have revealed the
presence of different chemical compounds including
carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, carotenoids,
terpenoids, flavonoids, volatile oil, quinines, coumarins
and other constituents (Tables 1 and 2).
Carbohydrates
The water soluble polysaccharides of C. officinalis
inflorescence contain 9.25 % moisture, 25.77 % acidic
sugar, 29.25 % ash, 31.25 % reducing sugars and
84.58 % pectic substances and various mono-
saccharides including glucose, arabinose, rhamnose,
xylose, galactose and galacturonic acid (Lim, 2013).
The ethanolic extract of C. officinalis inflorescence
was reported to contain monosacccharides along with
polysaccharides, PS-I,-II, -III with (13)--D-
galactam backbone and a side chain at C-6 consisting
of -L-rhamnan-(13)-araban and -araban-
(13)-araban form (Varlijen, 1989; Wanger et al.,
1985).
Amino Acids
The C. officinalis flower extract showed the
presence of 15 free amino acids including proline,
phenylalanine, histidine, lysine, leucine, serine, alanine,
valine, arginine, tyrosine, aspargine, threonine,
glutamate, methionine and aspartate and amino acid
content, being highest in the flower (4.5%) (Abajova,
1994).
Lipids and Fatty Acids
The fatty acids present in the C. officinalis flowers
Fig. 1: A. Calendula officinalis (young leaflet stage) B.
Calendula officinalis (young flower bud) C. Calendula
officinalis (full flowering stage)
Table 1: Active components present in different plant parts of C. officinalis
Plant part Active components Constituents Reference
Flower Terpenoids Lupeol, -taraxasterol (Zittwel-Eglseeret al., 1997; Wilkomirski, 1985)
Erythrodiol (Wojciechowski et al., 1972)
Calenduloside (Vecherko et al., 1975)
Calendulaglycoside A, Calendulaglycoside B (Ukiya et al., 2006)
Cornulacic acid acetate (Naved et al., 2005)
Flower Flavonoids Quercetin, Isorhamnetin (Kurkin and Sharova, 2007)
Isoquercitrin, rutin, calendoflavoside (Ukiya et al., 2006)
Isorhamnetin-3-O--D glycoside, narcissin (Vidal-Ollivieret al., 1989)
Leaves Quinones Phylloquinone, -tocopherol, ubiquinone, (Janiszowka et al., 1976)
plastoquinone
Flower Coumarin esculetin,scopoletin,umbelliferone (Kerkach et al., 1986)
Flower Volatile oil Cubenol, -cadinol, oplopanonec (Nicoletta et al., 2003)
methyllinoleate
Sabinene, limonene, -pinene, p-cymene, (Khalid and J. A. Teixeira da Silva, 2012)
nonanal, carvacrol, geraniol, nerolidol,
t-muurolol and palustron
Root Terpenoid Calenduloside B Iatsyno et al., 1978
Calendula officinalis - An Important Medicinal Plant with Potential Biological Properties 771
Table 2: Chemical structure, physical, chemical and pharmacological properties of various components present in C. officinalis
Compound Physical and chemical properties Pharmacological Chemical Structure
properties
Molecular Molecular Topological Com-
weight formula polar plexity
surface
area
Lupeol 426.7174 g/mol C30H50O 20.2 A^2 766 Anti-Inflammatory activity
-taraxasterol 426.7174 g/mol C30H50O 20.2 A^2 779 Antitubercular activity
Erythrodiol 442.7168 g/mol C30H50O 240.5 A^2 810 Anti-viral and Anti-
Inflammatory activity
Calenduloside 794.96504 g/mol C42H66O14 233 A^2 1560 Cytotoxicity against ,
melanoma leukemia and
colon cancer
Calendulagly- 1119.24624 g/mol C54H86O24 391 A^2 2200 Anti-Inflammatory activity
coside A
Calendulagly- 957.10564 g/mol C48H76O19 312 A^2 1880 Anti-Inflammatory activity
coside B
Quercetin 302.2357 g/mol C15H10O71 27 A^2 488 Anti-proliferative, anti-infla-
mmatory and anti-allergy
activity
772 Nelofer Jan et al.
Isorhamnetin 316.26228 g/mol C16H12O71 16 A^2 503 Anti-plasmodial activity
against chloroquine-
sensitive Plasmodium
falciparum NF54
Isoquercitrin 464.3763 g/mol C21H20O12 207 A^2 758 Hepatoprotective activity,
Antiviral activity
Rutin 610.5175 g/mol C27H30O16 266 A^2 1020 Antioxidant and anti-infla-
mmatory activity
Calendoflavo- 624.54408 g/mol C28H32O16 255 A^2 1040 Antioxidant activity
side
Isorhamnetin- 478.40288 g/mol C22H22O12 196 A^2 773 Vasorelaxation activity
3-O--D glycoside
Calendula officinalis - An Important Medicinal Plant with Potential Biological Properties 773
Narcissin 624.54408 g/mol C28H32O16 255 A^2 1040 Cytotoxic activity against
the human chronic myelo-
genous leukemia
Phylloquinone 450.69574 g/mol C31H46O23 4.1 A^2 696 For control of massive
hemorrhage and in other
coagulation disorders
-tocopherol 430.7061 g/mol C29H50O22 9.5 A^2 503 Anticoagulant, neuropro-
tective, antiviral,
immunomodulatory
activities
Ubiquinone 250.29032 g/mol C14H18O45 2.6 A^2 474 Termiticidal activity against
Coptotermes formosanus
Plastoquinone 749.2011 g/mol C53H80O23 4.1 A^2 1590 Antimicrobial and
antiparasitic activity
Eesculetin 178.14154 g/mol C9H6O46 6.8 A^2 248 Antioxidant activity
774 Nelofer Jan et al.
Scopoletin 192.16812 g/mol C10H8O45 5.8 A^2 261 Cytotoxicity against human
HT1080 cells and human
LoVo cells
Umbelliferone 162.14214 g/mol C9H6O34 6.5 A^2 222 Antimicrobial activity
Cubenol 222.36634 g/mol C15H26O20.2 A^2 292 Anti-inflammatory activity
-cadinol 222.36634 g/mol C15H26O20.2 A^2 292 Antiviral activity against
SARS coronavirus
Oplopanonec 238.36574 g/mol C15H26O337.3 A^2 310 Anti-inflammatory
Methyllinoleate 294.47206 g/mol C19H34O226.3 A^2 279 Cytotoxicity against
isogenic chicken DT40
cell lines
Sabinene 136.23404 g/mol C10H16O 0 A^2 179 Anticancerous activity
Calendula officinalis - An Important Medicinal Plant with Potential Biological Properties 775
Limonene 136.23404 g/mol C10H16O 0 A^2 163 Antioxidant activity
-pinene 136.23404 g/mol C10H16O 0 A^2 186 Anti-inflammatory,
Anticancerous
p-cymene 134.21816 g/mol C10H14O20 A^2 86.2 Anti-inflammatory activity
Nonanal 142.23862 g/mol C9H18O 17.1 A^2 69.1 Anti-micribial activity
Carvacrol 150.21756 g/mol C10H14O 0.2 A^2 120 Agonist activity at human
TRPA1 channel expressed
in HEK293 cells
Geraniol 154.24932 g/mol C10H18O 20.2 A^2 150 Anti-cancerous activity
Nerolidol 222.36634 g/mol C15H26O 20.2 A^2 269 Anti-inflammatory activity
t-muurolol 222.36634 g/mol C15H26O 20.2 A^2 292 Antifungal activity
Palustron 309.44694 g/mol C17H31N3O264.6 A^2 373 Anti-bacterial activity
776 Nelofer Jan et al.
are myristic acid, lauric acid, stearic acid, palmitic
acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. The
lipids present in the seeds of C. officinalis are
phospholipids, glycolipids and neutral lipids. Seeds also
contain 9-hydroxy-18:2(trans-9, cis-11) acid-
dimorphecolic acid and 18:3 conjugated trienic (trans-
8,trans-10,cis-12) acid (Vlchenko, 1998; Wilkomirski
and Kasprzyk, 1979). The seed oil contains D-(+)-9-
hydroxy-10, 12-octadecadienoic acid (oxygenated
fatty acid) (Badami and Morris, 1965).
Nineteen fatty acids were identified in the eleven
genotypes of Calendula seed oils with calendic acid
and linoleic acid being the predominant fatty acids
(51.47%-57.63% and 28.5-31.9%), followed by oleic
acid (4.44-6.25%) and palmitic acid (3.86-4.55%)
(Dulf et al., 2013). The fatty acids present in trace
amounts include lauric, stearic, myristic, palmitoleic,
á-linolenic, -calendic, arachidic, elaidic, gondoic,
behenic, linoelaidicic, pentadecanoic, cis-7-
hexadecenoic and margaric acids, and a very low
amount of hydroxy-fattyacid, namely 9-hydroxy-trans-
10, cis-12-octadecadienic acid (9-HODE) (Dulf et
al., 2013). Calendic acid is a conjugated trienoic fatty
acid containing conjugated trans-8-, trans-10-, and
cis-12-double bonds (Cahoon et al., 2001).
Conjugated trans-8- and trans-10-double bonds of
calendic acid are formed by the modification of cis-
12-double bond of linoleicacid (Crombie et al.,
1984). CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2 (cDNAs for two
closely related FAD2-like enzymes) are responsible
for the formation of conjugated trans-8-andtrans-
10-double bonds of calendic acid (Cahoon et al.,
2001).
During the seed maturation period, the
concentration of calendic acid has been shown to
increase steadily and sharply with a decrease in linoleic
and oleic acids (Pinteaet al., 2008) due to the presence
of a specific conjugase in calendula seeds which
converts linoleic acid into calendic acid (Cahoon et
al., 2006; Fritsche et al., 1999).
Carotenoids
The inflorescence of C. officinalis has abundant
amount of carotenoids that give flowers their yellow-
orange color and the color shade depends on pigment
content and pigment profile. Yellow flower petals of
Calendula contain 19 carotenoids and orange flower
contains10 unique carotenoids. These 10 carotenoids
have UV-visible absorption maxima at a wavelength
longer than that of flavoxanthin, and provide orange
color to the flower petals (Khalid and Teixeira da Silva,
2012). Six carotenoids (5Z) having cis form at C-5
may be isomerized at C-5 enzymatically in a pathway
deviating from the main pathway of carotenoid
biosynthesis. Some of the carotenoids which were
recently identified include - (5Z, 9Z)-lycopene, (5Z)-
g-lycopene, (5Z, 9Z, 5’Z, 9’Z)-lycopene and (5Z, 9Z)-
rubixanthin. The carotenoid identified as a synthesized
compound is (5Z, 9Z, 5’Z)-lycopene (2) (Kishimoto
et al., 2005).
The main carotenoids present in the petals and
pollens are flavoxanthin, luteoxanthin, auroxanthin, 9Z-
antheraxanthin, neoxanthin, lutein and its Z-isomers,
mutatoxanthin, violaxanthin, 9Z-neoxanthin, 9Z-
violaxanthin, - and -carotene, and - and -
cryptoxanthin withhigher quantity of lycopene in petals
(Bako et al., 2002). The total carotenoid present in
the petals and pollens is 7.71% and 1.61%, repectively.
Lutein, -carotene, neoxanthin, 9Z-neoxanthin, Z-
isomers of lutein, antheraxanthin and violaxanthin,are
the main carotenoids detected in the leaf and stem
(Bako et al., 2002). The total carotenoid present in
the leaf and stem is 0.85% and 0.18%, respectively
(Bako et al., 2002; Goodwin, 1954). The carotenoid
composition of herbal tea (Calendula flos) is less
because of drying of plant material and only
antheraxanthin and 9Z-antheraxanthin in smaller
amounts were detected (Bako et al., 2002). The ratio
of Z-isomers of lutein and -carotene increased with
drying of plant material (Bako et al., 2002).
Zeaxanthin or lutein is necessary for photo-protection
and also leads to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation
(Niyogi et al., 1997).
HPLC analysis of carotenoids in four varieties
of Calendula (‘Bonbon Abricot’, ‘Double Esterel
Jaune’, ‘Radio Extra Selected’ and ‘Double Esterel
Orange’) showed that all varieties contain common
pigments and the difference is only in ratio of individual
pigments (Pintea et al., 2003) (Table 3). Orange
varieties are rich in carotenoids and contain both
hydrocarbons and oxygenated derivatives (Pintea et
al., 2003). Moreover, orange color intensity of
Calendula is determined by the amount of -carotene,
â-carotene, lycopene and rubixanthin as these
pigments are responsible for the orange or even red
color of vegetal tissues (Pintea et al., 2003) (Table
4).
Calendula officinalis - An Important Medicinal Plant with Potential Biological Properties 777
Table 3: Total carotenoid content in Calendula officinalis
L.-varieties (Pintea et al., 2003)
Variety Colour Carotenoid amount
(mg/100g fresh
flowers)
Bonbon Abricot Yellow-orange 48.2
Double Esterel Jaune Lemon yellow 97.0
Radio Extra Selected Orange 111.8
Double Esterel Orange Dark orange 276.0
Table 4: Carotenoid composition of inflorescences of Calendula officinalis L.- varieties (Pintea et al., 2003)
Pigment No. of pigment Double esterel Radio extra Bonbon Double esterel
on HPLC orange % selected % abricot % jaune %
chromatogram
Neoxanthin 1 0.92 1.71 2.84 1.74
Luteoxanthin+Auro 8 8.9 11.3 15.43 18.97
Antheraxanthin 9 2.09 4.31 4.56 6.83
Flavoxanthin 10 14.1 17.4 35.42 42.05
Mutatoxanthin 11 0.38 - 2.17 -
Lactucaxanthin 12 4.49 8.02 - 11.31
Lutein 3 9.18 11.38 8.27 12.29
Zeaxanthin 4 0.11 0.23 - 0.15
Rubixanthin 13,14 14.36 7.27 4.58 -
Lycopene 15 14.03 5 0.57 -
?-carotene 16 12.15 6.15 5.11 -
a-carotene 17 0.98 1.15 1.89 0.2
ß-carotene 7 16.68 17.51 10.31 2.37
Terpenoids
Calendula contains various terpenoids including
stigmasterols, sitosterols (Alder and Kasprzyk, 1975),
lupeol, Ø-taraxasterol, 3-monoesters of taraxasterol
(Wilkomirski, 1985; Zittwel-Eglseer et al., 1997),
ursadiol (Sliwowski et al., 1973), diesters of diols
(Wilkomirski and Kasprzyk, 1979), brein, erythrodiol
(Wojciechowski et al., 1972; Kasprzyk and
Wilkomirski, 1973), calenduladiol-3-O-myristate,
aranidiol-3-O-myristate, calenduladiol-3-O-palmitate,
aranidiol-3-O-laurate, aranidiol-3-O-palmitate
(Neukiron et al., 2004; Ukiya et al., 2006),
calenduloside AH (Vecherkoet al., 1969, 1971, 1974,
1975), calendulaglycoside A, calendulaglycoside B,
calendulaglycoside C, calendulaglycoside A 6’-O-n-
butyl ester, calendulaglycoside A 6’-O-n-methyl ester,
calendulaglycoside B 6’-O-n-butyl ester, calendula-
glycoside C 6’-O-n-butyl ester, calendula-glycoside
C 6’-O-n-methyl ester, calendulo-side F 6’-O-n-butyl
ester, calenduloside G 6’-O-n-methyl ester (Ukiyaet
al., 2006), faradiol-3-O-myristate, faradiol-3-O-
palmitate, faradiol-3-O-laurate (Eitterl-Eglseeret al.,
2001), glucuronides (mainly present in green parts and
flowers) and glucosides of oleanolic acid (mainly
present in growing and senescing plants) (Ruszkowski
et al., 2003; Wojciechowski et al., 1971).
The major triterpenoid esters present in the
flower head of Calendula are palmitate, myristate
and faradiol 3-O-laurate (Hamburge et al., 2003).
Triterpene alcohols and triterpene saponins are found
in ligulate flowers (Hansel et al., 1992; Issac 1992).
Cornulacic acid acetate (new oleanane triterpene
ester) was reported from Calendula flowers (Naved
et al., 2005).
Flavonoids
The C. officinalis inflorescence contains various
flavonoids including isorhamnetin, quercetin (Kurkin
and Sharova 2007), isorhamnetin-3-O--D-glycoside,
isoquercetin, calendoflavoside, narcissi (Vidal-Ollivier
et al., 1989), isoquercitrin, rutin, quercetin-3-O-
rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-
778 Nelofer Jan et al.
O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-2G-rhamnosyl
rutinoside, neohesperidoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-
neohesperidoside, calendoflavobioside (Ukiya et al.,
2006). The flavonoid content depends on the plant
variety, time and place of cultivation, and there appears
a relationship between floret color and total flavonoid
content of C. officinalis (Raal and Kirsipuu, 2011).
Volatile Oil and Its Constituents
The flower heads ofC. officinalis have been reported
to contain volatile oil (VO) consisting of cubenol, -
cadinol, -cadinene, -cadinene, oplopanonec,
methyllinoleate, methyltetradecanoate,
methylhexanoate, methyloctadecanoate and methyl-
9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoate (Nicoletta et al., 2003).
The flowers contain minimum VO at pre-flowering
stage and maximum at full flowering stage (Okoh et
al., 2007). The VO contain a maximum amount of-
cadinol, -cadinene, limonene, t-muurolol and 1,8
cineol with a minimum amount of p-cymene during
the post-flowering stage (Okoh et al., 2007).
According to Gazim et al. (2007), the main
constituents of VO are epi--muurolol, -cadinol, -
cadinene, sesquiterpenols and sesquiterpene
hydrocarbons.The VO contains various monoterpenes
and sesquiterpenes: sabinene, limonene, -pinene, -
pinene, -thujene, p-cymene, -terpenene, tras--
ocimene, -3-carene, 1,8-cineol, nonanal, carvacrol,
geraniol, terpene-4-ol, -terpeneol, 3-cyclohexene-1-
ol,-cadinol, bornyl acetate, calarene, aromadendrene,
germacrene-D, endobourbonene muurolene, -
bourbonene, -copaene, -cubebene, -gurjunene,
-humulene,-phellandrene, -cadinene,-cadinol,
-cubebene, -caryophyllene, -saliene, nerolidol, t-
muurolol and palustron (Khalid and Teixeira da Silva,
2012).
Quinones and Coumarins
Various quinines have been reported from C.
officinalis. They include phylloquinone in leaves,-
tocopherol, phylloquinone and ubiquinone in
mitochondria, and -tocopherol, phylloquinone and
plastoquinone in chloroplast (Janiszowka 1976). The
flower contains coumarins, esculetin, scopoletin and
umbelliferone (Kerkach et al., 1986). Coumarin is
the parent molecule of warfarin (a clinically useful
anticoagulant), which acts as a vitamin K antagonist
(Asif 2015). Coumarins act as phytoalexins as they
are produced by plantsfordefense against various
pathogens (Berenbaumet al., 1991; Weinmann 1997).
Coumarins are leached from the roots of some plants
(wild Avena) into the soil, to provide defense against
various micro-organisms (Asif 2015). Coumarins
possess a variety of biological activities including
estrogenic, anticoagulant, dermal photo-sensitising,
vasodilator, anti-microbial, anti-helminthic,
molluscacidal, hypnotic, sedative and analgesic activity
(O’kennedy and Thornes, 1997).
Other Constituents
Other constituents of Calendula include calendulin
(Fliesonner 1985), loliolide (calendin) (Willuhn and
Westhaus 1987), n-paraffins (Komeo and Hayashi
1971) and some bitter constituent.
Medicinal Properties
The use of plants for treating diseases is as old as the
human species. Various pharmacological studies have
reported that C. officinalis has a broad range of
biological activities and some of these can be used
for further future development.
Wound Healing Property
While studying the healing activity of Calendula
flower extract against thermal burns in rats, it was
found that the extract showed significant healing
activity by increasing hexosamine and
collagenhydroxyproline content with a significant
decrease in the level of tissue damage marker enzymes
(aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) and
acute phase proteins (orosomycid and heptaglobin).
The decline in lipid peroxidation may be due to the
antioxidant activity of Calendula (Chandran and
Kutton 2008). Daily use ofCalendula gel (2%) causes
significant healing of wounds due to its antioxidant
and antimicrobial activities (Leach, 2008).Calendula
may facilitate the wound healing by increasing wound
angiogenesis, epithelialization, and nucleoprotein,
glycoprotein and collagenmetabolism leading to
improvement in local circulation and granulation tissue
formation (Leach, 2008). The Calendula treatment
was more effective than other medicines and also
reduces discomfort during dressing changes. The use
of 10% Calendula solution supplemented with 2%
Calendula gel for cleaning skin lesions, burn, and
venous ulcers reduces the time of healing and also
Calendula officinalis - An Important Medicinal Plant with Potential Biological Properties 779
results in a greater number of healed wounds,
compared to using of Calendula solution alone
(Leach, 2008). However, this evidence is weak and
requires further investigation. The topical application
of C. officinalis cream leads to the healing of achilles
tendon by increasing the collagen and non-collagen
protein concentration as well as by organizing the
collagen proteins (Aro et al., 2015).
Immuno-stimulant Activity
C. officinalis polysaccharide (PS) fraction exhibits
immuno-stimulant activity. PS-I and PS-II showed 40-
57% and 20-30% of phagocytosis, respectively, while
PS-III exhibited the highest (54-100%) phagocytosis
(Varlijen, 1989; Wagner et al., 1985). Immuno-
stimulant activity was also observed in shrimp
(Fenneropenaeus chinensis) against Vibrio harveyi,
when injected with SFPSE i.e., a Sargassum fusiforme
polysaccharide extract (Huang et al., 2006).
Moreover, thepolysaccharides from Salicornia
herbaceae show immuno-modulatory activity and are
efficiently used against various types of cancers (Im
et al., 2006).
Spasmogenic and Spasmolytic Activity
The aqueous/ethanolic plant extract showed
spasmogenic activity (Bashir et al., 2006). The
aqueous/ethanolic extract of Calendula flowers
caused relaxation of spontaneous contraction and K+
induced contraction of muscles. When the extract was
further fractionated with dichloromethane, it inhibited
spontaneous contraction. Calcium channel blockade
(CCB) was responsible for spasmolytic activity
(Bashir et al., 2006). N-type calcium channel
blockade prevents sudden cardiac death (Nattel,
2014). N-type calcium channel blockade (NCC)
blockade only or along with L-type calcium channel
blockade (LCC) blockade can be beneficial in patients
with hypertension, cardiovascular and other metabolic
diseases (Kuwahara and Kimura, 2015).
Hepatoprotective Activity
Calendula flower hydro-alcoholic extract caused
28.5% reduction in hepatocytolysis of CCl4-intoxicated
rat liver due to reduction in glutamo-pyruvate-
transaminase and glutamo-oxalate-transaminase. For
instance, histo-enzymological studies showed steatosis
reduction bysuccinate dehydrogenase,
cytochromoxidase, lactate dehydrogenase and Mg2+
dependent ATPase (Rasu et al., 2005). Calendula
flower hot water extract showed anti-hepatoma
activity (25-26% inhibition) against five human liver
cancer cells: Hep3B, SK-HEP-1, HepG2/C3A, PLC/
PRF/5 and HA22T/VGH (Linet al., 2002). Moreover,
CCl4intoxicated rats pre-treated withCalendulafloral
extract afford a protection against CCl4 induced
toxicity and showed an improvement in liver function
due to significant anti-oxidant activity and free radical
scavenging activity of bioactive metabolites including
flavonoids and terpenoids present in Calendula
(Maysa et al., 2015). These bioactive metabolites
have potent activities for scavenging the hydroxyl
radicals (OH.) and superoxide radicals (O.2) resulted
from CCl4 metabolites (Maysa et al., 2015).
Genotoxic and Antigen-toxic Activity
The aqueous-ethanolic extract of Calendula flowers
exhibit a genotoxic effect at high concentration and
anti-genotoxic effect at low concentration (Perez-
Carreonet al., 2002). During the evaluation involving
the measurement of excretory 24h urinary 8-hydroxy-
2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and lymphocyte DNA
fragmentation in young pigs, propylene glycol extract
of Calendula was also found to have anti-genotoxic
effect (Frankic et al., 2008). The urinary 8-OHdG
acts as a biomarker for carcinogenesis and various
degenerative diseases, and has been used as a pivotal
marker for measuring the endogenous effect of
oxidative damage to DNA and as a factor of initiation
and promotion of carcinogenesis (Valavanidis et al.,
2009).
Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oedematousacitivity
Calenduloside B (trioside of oleinic acid) ofCalendula
roots show sedative and anti-phlogistic activity (Iatsyno
et al., 1978). Calenduloglycosides show anti-
inflammatory activities against mouse ear edema and
calenduloside F 6’-O-n-butyl ester show potent
cytotoxicity against melanoma, leukemia and colon
cancer (Ukiya et al., 2006).
C. officinalis inflorescence extract showsanti-
inflammatory activity against the dextran and
carrageenan-induced acute paw edema in mice
(Preethi et al., 2009). Also a significant increase in
the level of pro-inflammatorycytokines like IL-1, IL-
6, and TNF- in the sera of LPS (lipopolysaccharide)
780 Nelofer Jan et al.
induced animals has been observed (Preethi et al.,
2009). The cytokines-like IL-1, IL-6 and TNF- act
as stimulants in theliver to produce C-reactive protein
(CRP) which is increased several folds during acute
inflammation. Studies suggest that increased levels
of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and tumor necrosis
factor-alpha (TNF-) play important role not only in
the development of kidney ailments (Stenvikelet al.,
2005) but also ovarian epithelial cancer (Mark M.
Moradi, et al., 2006). Calendula flower methanolic
extract inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-
acetate (TPA) induced inflammation in mice attributed
to presence of oleanane-triterpene glycoside in
Calendula flower (Ukiya et al., 2006). After
elucidating the structure of faradiol-3-myristic acid
ester, faradiol-3-palmitic acid ester and taraxasterol,
it was found that these three esters/compounds have
anti-oedematous activities as shown by inhibition of
Croton oil-induced oedema of the mouse ear (Della,
1990; Della, 1994).
Anti-bacterial and Antifungal Activity
Calendula has various anti-bacterial and anti-fungal
activities (Rossiter et al., 2006; Tonks et al., 2007)
and has been used for the treatment of abrasions,
burns, ulcers, skin inflammations, eczema and wounds
(Schulz et al., 2004). CO flower extract has an anti-
bacterial activity against various bacteria. In-vitro,
the essential oil of flowers inhibited the growth of
gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus
aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and gram-negative
bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and
Escherichia coli, showing maximum inhibition for
Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, the
reproductive parts of CO show less anti-bacterial
activity than the petals (Hamad et al., 2011).The
flower decoction and methanolic extract showed anti-
bacterial activity against various facultative aerobic
and obligate anaerobic periodontal bacteria including
Furobacteriumnucleatum,Porphyromonosgingi -
valis,Caphocytophagagingivalis,Prevotella spp.,
Veilonellaparvula,Peptostreptococcus micros,
Eikenellacorrodens and Actinomycesodontolyticus
(Iauk et al., 2003). The flower volatile oil showed
anti-fungal activity against various fungal strains:
Candida dubliniensis (ATCC777), Candida krusei
(ATCC6258), Candida glabrata (ATCC90030),
Candida albicans (ATCC64548), Candida
parapsilosis (ATCC22019) and against yeast isolated
from humans: Candida krusei,Candida
dubliniensis,Candida guilliermondii,Candida
glabrata,Candida albicans,Candida
parapsilosis,Candida tropicals,and Rhodotorella
spp. (Gazim et al., 2008) (Table 5). Streptococcus
aureus was more susceptible to the aqueous extracts
than ethanolic, methanolic and petroleum ether
extracts of Calendula flower, suggesting the better
anti-bacterial activity of aqueous extracts (Roopashree
et al., 2008). Calendula leaf, stem, root and flower
extracts show anti-microbial activity against various
Table 5: Anti-fungal activities of the essential oil of flowers
of Calendula officinalis (Gazim et al., 2008)
Microorga- Origin* Mean zone of
nisms inhibition a (mm)
Calendulaoil 5 Nystatin20
µl/disc µg/disc
C. albicans ATCC 64548 16 12
C. albicans orotracheal tube 11 13
C. albicans OC–HIV 26 11
C. albicans VVC 18 12
C. albicans VVC 15 12
C. albicans VVC 15 12
C. albicans Urine 27 11
C. dubliniensis ATCC 777 24 11
C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 20 12
C. parapsilosis Onychomycosis 14 13
C. parapsilosis Paronychia 30 11
C. parapsilosis Blood 30 11
C. glabrata ATCC 90030 15 12
C. glabrata Hands colonization 23 11
C. glabrata Hands colonization 28 11
C. tropicalis Urine 11 13
C. tropicalis Granulomatous lesion 15 12
C. tropicalis Urine 21 12
C. tropicalis Urine 22 11
C. guilliermondii Hands colonization 25 11
C. guilliermondii Hands colonization 24 11
C. krusei ATCC 6258 15 12
Rhodotorulla sp Hands colonization 30 11
Except ATCC microorganisms all of others are human clinical
isolates OC–HIV: oral candidiasis; VVC: vulvo vaginal candidiasis.
Mean of inhibition zone by oil of flowers of CO: Good activity
(11-18 mm); high activity (20-27 mm); highest activity (28-30
mm)
Calendula officinalis - An Important Medicinal Plant with Potential Biological Properties 781
human pathogenic microbes: Candida albicans,
Candida parapsilosis,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Escherichia coli,Cogulase (+) Staphylococcus sp.,
Enterococcus sp. and Cogulase (-) Staphylococcus
sp.
Glycosides of oleanolic acid and saponins of C.
officinalis showed anti-parasitic activity against
Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Al-Snafi, 2016). The
ethanolic and methanolic extract of leaves of C.
officinalis also showed anti-parasitic activity against
Pheretimaposthuma (Dorwal, 2012). -pinene in C.
officinalis showed anti-Listeria activity against L.
monocytogenes (Viuda-Martos et al., 2010).
Nerolidol of C. officinalis showed anti-malarial
activity by inhibiting the parasite to synthesize co-
enzyme Q in all intraerythrocytic stages (Boyom et
al., 2003).
Anti-oxidant Activity
C. officinalis contain various phyto-chemical
constituents: alkaloids, carotenoids, flavonoids like
quercetin, lupeol, protocatechuic acid, isorhamnetin,
etc. and triterpenoids (Matysik et al., 2005). Most of
these phyto-chemicals have free radical scavenging
activity and also enhance healing of wounds by
artificial cross linkage (Kuppast and Nayak 2006).
C. officinalis being rich in flavonoids, carotenoids,
saccharides, organic acids, lipids and saponosoides
show a very effective anti-oxidant activity. Both
flavonoids and carotenoids inhibit the production of
various reactive oxygen species and free radicals,
which can otherwise cause chronic inflammatory and
autoimmune diseases in humans, like pulmonary
hypertension syndrome (ascites) of broilers (Iqbal et
al., 2002). Flavonoids and carotenoids inhibit oxidation
because of their capacity to inhibit oxidases, activate
anti-oxidant enzymes, chelate metal catalysts, transfer
free radical electrons, and reduce alpha-tocopherol
radicals (Middletonet al., 2000; Nijveldtet al., 2001).
Bio-flavonoids can reduce the oxidative stress and
improve the performance of various farm animals
(Abd El-Gawad et al., 2001; Hager-Theodorides et
al., 2014). Flavonoids and carotenoids may effect by
their interactions with specific proteins that are
important to various intracellular signaling cascades.
Particularly, flavonoids may selectively act with various
components of protein kinase signaling cascades like
protein kinase C, asphosphoinositide 3-kinase, Akt/
protein kinase B, etc. (Hou and Kumamoto, 2010).
Moreover, C. officinalis extract shows activity against
reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen
species (RNS) with an effective activity even at low
concentration (Braga et al., 2009). In vitro,C.
officinalis butanolic fraction possesses a high anti-
oxidant and free radical scavenging activity (Cordova
et al., 2002). Butanolic fraction (BF) decreased the
concentration of hydroxyl radicals (OH.) and
superoxide radicals (O2–). BF also showed 100%
inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes
induced by Fe2+/ascorbate.
Sabir et al. (2015) also reported anti-oxidant
activity ofC. officinalis with flower extract showing
higher anti-oxidant activity than leaf extract. C.
officinalis flower extract having anti-oxidant activity
protects the human skin cells against oxidative damage
which otherwise can lead to ageing or skin cancer
(Alnuqaydan et al., 2015).
Anti-HIV and Anti-cancerous Activity
In vitro flower tincture showed antiviral activity by
suppressing the replication of influenza APR-8,
influenza A2 and herpes simplex virus (Silva et al.,
2007). In-vitro dichloromethane-methanolic extract
of Calendula flowers showed an effective anti-HIV
activity through the inhibition of HIV1-RT and
suppression of HIV-mediated fusion (Kalvatchev et
al., 1997).
In vitro ethyl acetate soluble fraction of
Calendula flower extract showed cytotoxic effect
due to the presence of two main compounds:
calenduloside G’6-O-methyl-ester and calenduloside
F’6-O-butyl-ester (Ukiya et al., 2006). Calenduloside
G’6-O-methyl-ester showed anti-cancerous activity
against melanoma (UAAC-62, SK-MEL-5 and
LOXIMVI), leukaemia (RPMI-8226 and MOLT-4)
and colon cancer (HCC-2998) cell lines.
Calenduloside F’6-O-butyl-ester also showed anti-
cancerous activity against these cell lines (Ukiya et
al., 2006).In vitro aqueous laser activated calendula
extract (LACE) showed 70-100% proliferation
inhibition of murine and human tumor cell lines through
cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and caspase-3-
induced apoptosis (Medina et al., 2006). Moreover,
invivo LACE exhibited anti-tumor activity in nude
mice (Medina et al., 2006).
782 Nelofer Jan et al.
Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE)
showed 100% inhibition of growth of cancer cell lines
by inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1, mediated via
down-regulation of CDK1-Cdc2, CDK2, CDK4 and
CDK6, and cyclin E y A, D1 and D3 (Medina et al.,
2006). LACE induces the apoptotic death and
increased concentration of LACE increases the rate
of apoptosis. LACE treatment causes 100% growth
inhibition in Jurkat cells in leukemia cell lines (Medina
et al., 2006).
Nephroprotective Activity
CO flower extract inhibit the cisplatin (cis-dichloro
diamine platinum II/ platinum containing anti-
cancerous drug) induced oxidative stress and reduces
the kidney damage (Preethi et al., 2009). The renal
accumulation of platinum leads to nephrotoxicity. The
Calendula extract reduces the kidney damage due
to its anti-oxidant activity. The increased activity of
SOD, CAT and increased level of GSH in extract
treated group leads to the protection against cisplatin
induced renal damage (Preethi et al., 2009).
Prevention of Oropharyngealmucositis
Oropharyngealmucositis (OM) is reported as the main
side effect of cancer radiotherapy, involving oral
mucosa inflammation, atrophy, erythema, swelling and
ulceration (Raber-Durlacheet al., 2010; Sonis, 2004;
Trotti et al., 2003). The initiation phase of radio-
therapy induced injury in OM leads to the production
of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by injured cells
and clonogenic cell death (Babaee et al., 2013).
However, the phenolics and the hydroxyl group
containing flavonoids present in Calendula are the
antioxidants with free radical scavenging and
chelating activities (Jacobo-Velazquez and Cisneros-
Zevallos, 2009; Es-Safi et al., 2007; Heijnen et al.,
2001; Younes and Siegers 1981), and play a very
important role in protecting the body from ROS
induced oxidative stress. The presence of these
phenolics and flavonoids in CO and their high
anti-oxidant activity is responsible for its protective
effect in radiotherapy-induced OM (Babaee et al.,
2013). Calendula mouthwash decreased OM
intensity without any side effect (vomiting and nausea)
but could not completely prevent it, which can be
further explained by OM patho-biology (Babaee et
al., 2013).
Hypoglycemic and Gastroprotective Effect
The butanol-soluble fraction and methanolic extract
of C. officinalis flowers showed hypoglycemic effect
in oral glucose-loaded mice due to the presence of
saponins [two oleanolic acid 3, 28-bisdesmosides (5,7)
and two oleanolic acid 3-monodesmosides (8,10)] and
glycosides A, B, C, D and F. The two oleanolic acid
3-monodesmosides (8,10) showed significant
hypoglycemic activity, while seldom hypoglycemic
activity was observed with the two oleanolic acid 3,
28-bisdesmosides (5,7) (Yoshikawa et al., 2001). The
significant hypoglycemic activity of extracts and
individual compounds of Calendula flowers shows
that it can be used as a forth coming anti-diabetic
drug (Yoshikawa et al., 2001).
Saponins (5-8, 10) present in the flowers of C.
officinalis showed gastro-protective effect against
ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal
lesions in rats. The saponins (5-8, 10) also showed
inhibitory activity in the ethanol-induced gastric lesions,
while two oleanolic acid 3-monodesmosides (8, 10)
and two oleanolic acid 3,28-bisdesmosides (5, 7)
showed a protective effect against indomethacin-
induced gastric lesions. The oleanolic acid 3-
monodesmoside (8) and oleanolic acid 3, 28-
bisdesmoside (5, 7) activities were more effective than
the activities of two oleanolic acid 3-monodesmosides
(6, 10) (Yoshikawa et al., 2001).
The ethanolic extract of Calendula has been
found to possess anti-acid and anti-ulcer activity in
rats due to its gastro-protective and anti-secretory
effect (Chandra et al., 2015). The ethanolic extract
of Calendula stimulates mucus secretion and
glutathione (GSH) level, while suppressing the pepsin
level, thus being the mechanism responsible for gastro-
protection (Chandra et al., 2015).
Toxic Effect
C. officinalis extract has been found to be non-toxic,
non-mutagenic and non-genotoxic (Taylor and Francis
Health Sciences, 2001) with no reports of toxicity and
mortality (Silva et al., 2007, Lagarto et al., 2011).
Conclusion
As the plant C. officinalis - possesses wide variety
of phyto-chemicals and pharmacological activities, so
it can be considered as an excellent source of new
Calendula officinalis - An Important Medicinal Plant with Potential Biological Properties 783
drugs. Many reports are available on the Calendula
having highly effective anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-
helminthic, anti-molluscal and anti-inflammatory
properties with no toxicity. It is a promising plant which
needs to be investigated thoroughly and can be
exploited for extraction of active ingredients that can
be used in the synthesis of different drugs, for the
protection against various maladies and management
of various diseases.
Acknowledgement
The authors are grateful to the DST and DBT for
providing the financial support. NJ acknowledges the
funding by DST, Govt. of India under Women Scientist
Fellow Scheme.
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... It has numerous common names in use, including Marigold and Pot Marigold. Traditionally, it has been used externally to treat small wounds, burns, and other skin problems [105,106]. C. officinalis can be used in the form of an infusion, tincture, liquid extract, cream, or ointment for numerous uses, including the treatment of herpes, wounds, scars, and skin and hair products [105][106][107][108]. ...
... Traditionally, it has been used externally to treat small wounds, burns, and other skin problems [105,106]. C. officinalis can be used in the form of an infusion, tincture, liquid extract, cream, or ointment for numerous uses, including the treatment of herpes, wounds, scars, and skin and hair products [105][106][107][108]. ...
... There has been an increasing interest in the synergistic effect of different extracts with specific phytocomponents. For example, when B. striata's extract polysaccharides, primarily glucomannans, are enriched with B. striata extract mainly containing polyphenols, more effective healing of wounds is observed [106]. ...
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Wound healing is a complicated process, and the effective management of wounds is a major challenge. Natural herbal remedies have now become fundamental for the management of skin disorders and the treatment of skin infections due to the side effects of modern medicine and lower price for herbal products. The aim of the present study is to summarize the most recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies on major herbal preparations, their phytochemical constituents, and new formulations for wound management. Research reveals that several herbal medicaments have marked activity in the management of wounds and that this activity is ascribed to flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic compounds. These phytochemicals can act at different stages of the process by means of various mechanisms, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, collagen synthesis stimulating, cell proliferation, and angiogenic effects. The application of natural compounds using nanotechnology systems may provide significant improvement in the efficacy of wound treatments. Increasing the clinical use of these therapies would require safety assessment in clinical trials.
... Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) is an important ornamental, medicinal and aromatic plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family and is known to grow on diverse soils without any input material or fertilizer (Barbara et al. 2021). This plant species has been reported to contain various phytochemicals including saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, quinones, etc. (Jana et al. 2017). It has been cultivated extensively by Egyptians, Arabs, Greeks, and Hindus for its importance in herbal medicine. ...
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The present study was carried out to determine the impact of FA application on growth performance, biochemical parameters, and antioxidant defense activity of Calendula officinalis. The results revealed that under a low dose of FA (40%) amended soil, the plant growth performance and metal tolerance index (MTI) were increased compared to control plants and further decreased with increased FA application (60%, 80%, and 100% FA). In addition, the incorporation of 40% FA in soil not only improved the physicochemical properties of soil but also increased the biochemical parameters in the Calendula plant, however, these parameters declined under high FA applications. It was also observed that antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD, CAT, POD, and APX) in leaves of Calendula officinalis increased at high FA application (100% FA) to combat heavy metal stress from FA. The overall study suggests that 40% FA amended soil is the best suitable dose for growing Calendula officinalis and can be considered as metal tolerant species for phytoremediation of 40% FA amended soil.Novelty statement: Fly ash (FA) management is a major problem nowadays. The present study was carried out for FA utilization and to determine the impact of FA amended soil on growth performance, antioxidant properties, and biochemical attributes of Calendula officinalis. This is a sustainable approach in which waste (FA) utilization was done simultaneously with the enhancement in response of the medicinally potent Calendula species. The novelty of this study also suggests that Calendula has phytoremediation potential for remediation of heavy metal polluted soil. Further, the relationship between the growth, biochemical parameters, and antioxidant defense mechanism of Calendula grown on FA amended soil was studied which has not been studied so far. It was found that Calendula is a hyperaccumulator that can adapt to heavy metal stress from FA due to its ability to mitigate oxidative damage. Statistical analysis (ANOVA, Duncan's multiple range test, and PCA) was done for the results obtained using SPSS (11.5) and Origin 8 Pro software.
... Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis Linn.) from Asteraceae family is an annual aromatic and ornamental herb utilized in herbal medicines. The extract of the plant contains various phytochemicals, saponins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, carotenoids, fatty acids, quinones, coumarins, lipids, amino acids, and carbohydrates which leads to several pharmacological activities (Jan et al., 2017). It has rich ethnomedicinal values and is added as a special ingredient in the preparation of various food and beverages. ...
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An experiment in pot culture was conducted to analyze the ameliorative impact of different doses of fly ash (FA) in soil on the plant growth performance, total phenolics and flavonoids, and elemental uptake in Calendula officinalis. To determine the growth status of Calendula officinalis, various concentrations of FA and soil [100% garden soil (T1), 20% FA+ 80% garden soil (T2), 40% FA+ 60% garden soil (T3), 60% FA+ 40% garden soil (T4), 80% FA+ 20% garden soil (T5), and 100% FA (T6)] were selected. The physico-chemical properties of FA and soil and elemental concentrations (Ca, Mg, Al, As, Co, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Ni) in all FA treatments were determined. The results showed that under low ratio of FA amendment to the soil (40% FA treatment), the plant growth performance was increased in comparison to plants grown in control (garden soil). However, at high FA doses in soil (60%, 80% and 100% FA treatments), these parameters tend to decrease. Fly ash at 40% concentration did not contain toxic concentrations of these elements such as Co, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Al, As, and Ni, therefore, beneficial effects of fly ash in terms of improved growth and yield were evident. Furthermore, the leaves showed increasing trend of total phenolic and flavonoid content with increasing FA application up to 60% FA treatment. Therefore, this study showed that 40% FA treatment to the soil is suitable for the growth and yield of Calendula officinalis. Thus, this plant has the phytoremediation potential that can promote cleanup of FA polluted sites for sustainable development.
... The dried petal powder of this plant are used to treat infections, burns, wounds and heal cuts fast in the form of tinctures, ointments and washes. (Jan et al., 2017). ...
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Background: To compare anti-bacterial activity of 0.12% Chlorhexidine (CHX), 10% Povidone Iodine (PVD), Vega Oral Care Gel (VEGA) and Antioxidant Gel (AO) on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis with and without nicotine and to evaluate their effects on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Methods: S. mutans, S. sanguis, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were incubated with serial dilutions (1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 and 1/64) of anti-bacterial agents in media (with and without nicotine). Minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MIC/MBC) were measured, and confocal microscopy was performed. HGFs were exposed to serial dilutions (1/10, 1/100, 1/1000 and 1/10,000) of antibacterial agents with media. Water-soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used to assess proliferation and cytotoxicity towards HGFs. Results: CHX and PVD significantly inhibited growth of all bacterial species (p<0.0001) at all dilutions. AO and VEGA inhibited growth of all bacterial species up to only the 1/4 dilution. CHX and PVD decreased HGF proliferation at 1/10 and 1/100 dilution, while AO at all dilutions (p<0.05). CHX and AO were cytotoxic at all dilutions (p<0.05). VEGA was not cytotoxic to HGFs and did not affect HGF proliferation at any dilution (p>0.05). An increased bacterial growth was seen for all species except P. gingivalis with addition of nicotine. Conclusion: CHX and PVD demonstrate superior antibacterial properties, but significantly reduce HGF proliferation. AO is bacteriostatic at lower dilutions but is highly toxic to HGFs. VEGA was bacteriostatic and demonstrated no detrimental effects on HGF's. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Book
Plants are a fascinating group of plants that have been dominating the earth for 400 million years. During evolution, they have undergone series of evolutionary changes to suit themselves with the surrounding environment. These evolutionary changes not only included morphological changes to suit varied climatic conditions but also armed with intricate physiological changes to synchronize with the former and fortify better adaptability. These physiological changes of the plant later proved to be of immense help to the humans who evolved much later somewhere between 6 million to 2 million years ago. The physiological and biochemical evolution of the plants with the synchronous origin of various taxa resulted in the formation of numerous biochemical pathways producing a large number of secondary metabolites whose one primary aim is to protect the plants from herbivores and insect which in the due course of evolution became an integral part of the food chain. However, the secondary metabolites also proved to be of immense use to humans since antiquity who unknowingly since prehistoric times used plants for their food and medicine. It is only in the past hundred years or so, people became aware of the chemical constituent of the plants and started exploring their various beneficial properties. The agricultural activities also coevolved with human civilization and with the increase in population, higher yield along with protection of crops from pathogen attack became a necessity. This lead to the formulation of fertilizers which consequently paved the way for biofertilizers with a fewer side effects on humans and animals but with a more green approach towards fertility enhancement. With the advent of industrialization the menace of pollution cropped up and presently this pollution is encroaching soil water and air. This is having a deleterious effect on the ecosystem concerning human and animal health and also agricultural productivity. Thus keeping this in mind the scientific community was determined to remediate the polluted sites with the help of biological agents in which the plants and microbes played an important role. This provided major protection to agriculture from contamination thereby sustaining productivity. Thus, an attempt is made to highlight the progress and advances in the field of agriculture and plant science. Thus A handbook of Agricultural and Plant Sciences is an attempt to compile information related to the field of agriculture and plant science. The main purpose of the book is to provide relevant information to the readers on aspects largely cantered on plants. The book is divided into three sections namely agriculture and sustainable development, plants and microbes as nutraceutical agents, and medicinal potential of plants. Selected chapters in relevance to the sections have been accommodated to provide an overview. The first section deals with various aspects through which crops can be fortified through bio fertilization and also decontamination of polluted lands. The world population is presently stressing upon consumption of foods from natural sources as consumption of fast food with artificial agents is leading to the onset of several diseases. This has led to a group of foods that confers nutrition as well as a medicinal benefit at the same time. They are presently termed and considered nutraceuticals. The second section of the book deals with the nutraceutical potential of plants and microbes which are symbiotically associated with plants. The third section is also related to the second one concerning the medicinal importance. This section encompasses the medicinal importance of plants. Plants as antiviral agents have been accommodated because of the current pandemic situation. The section also contains a chapter on the ant diabetic potential of plants and also the medicinal importance of gymnosperms and bioactive potentials of bryophytes which adds up to the variation in chapters focusing on the medicinal aspect. The book is also accompanied by several tables within each chapter which gives a clear and systematic description of the theme that is discussed upon. The book is an academic venture and would benefit the scientific community and readers who are interested in the field of plant sciences.
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Endophytes colonizing plant tissue play an essential role in plant growth, development, stress tolerance and plant protection from soil-borne diseases. In this study, we report the diversity of cultivable endophytic bacteria associated with marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) by using 16S rRNA gene analysis and their plant beneficial properties. A total of 42 bacterial isolates were obtained from plant tissues of marigold. They belonged to the genera Pantoea, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Xanthomonas, Rathayibacter, Agrobacterium, Pseudoxanthomonas, and Beijerinckia. Among the bacterial strains, P. kilonensis FRT12, and P. rhizosphaerae FST5 showed moderate or vigorous inhibition against three tested plant pathogenic fungi, F. culmorum, F. solani and R. solani. They also demonstrated the capability to produce hydrolytic enzymes and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Five out of 16 isolates significantly stimulated shoot and root growth of marigold in a pot experiment. The present study reveals that more than half of the bacterial isolates associated with marigold (C. officinalis L.) provided antifungal activity against one or more plant pathogenic fungi. Our findings suggest that medicinal plants with antimicrobial activity could be a source for selecting microbes with antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens or with plant growth stimulating potential. These isolates might be considered as promising candidates for the improvement of plant health.
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Diabetic foot ulcers and its complications are to be dealt cautiously in general medical practice. Most cases of diabetes mellitus have multiple comorbidities which add more difficulty in ulcer management. The chances of complete wound healing are low even after amputation, which may be required in >15% of patients with diabetic ulcer. Furthermore, it leaves behind mental, physical and financial burden to people. In this case report, two cases of diabetic foot ulcers are presented, one with bipolar affective disorder and the other one with his toes amputated, which were treated with homoeopathic medicines Lachesis mutus and Calendula officinalis Q along with standard care in an inpatient department facility. It shows the effectiveness of homoeopathy in managing such challenging cases without complication.
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Many previous researches showed that many plants exerted antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal. These plants included:
Conference Paper
Backgroud: the healing properties of honey have been demonstrated in both animals and humans, although not all studies report positive findings. The lack of positive effects on healing could be due factors such as the type and/or the concentration of honey. The observed effects of honey include angiogenesis. Honey appears to influence the wound environment and modulate immune responses during the healing process. Angiogenesis occurs during the proliferative phase of wound healing and requires the development of an extracellular matrix (ECM) to support new capillaries. It is possible that either honey influences angiogenesis by the release of cytokines or that glucose in honey is converted to hyaluronic acid, a component of the ECM that has been shown to affect angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential angiogenic effects of honey. Materials and methods: using an established aortic ring assay, the angiogenic properties of three types of honey and a control at various dilutions were investigated: artificial honey (fructose, glucose and water equal to a 70% sugar solution), Rowse (commercial honey), Mesitran™ and Activon™ ointment. Preliminary results: total tubule lengths were as follows: artificial honey 0.008% - 11cm2; Rowse 0.04% - 12.5cm2; Mesitran™ 0.20% - 13.0cm2; and Activon™ 0.20% - 15.0cm2. The most pro-angiogenic honey was Activon™ which showed the highest number of junctions and tubule formations. However, at a dilution of 0.04% all honeys were pro-angiogenic compared with the control. All honeys were anti-angiogenic at a concentration of 5% and above. Conclusions: the concentration and/or type of honey may be a factor in wound healing in response to honey. There may be an unidentified factor in some honeys stimulating angiogenesis and/or the glucose in honey contributes to the hyaluronic acid content of the ECM, which stimulates angiogenesis. Anti-angiogenesis may be due to the cytotoxic effects of honey.
Article
The aim of this review, a summary of the putative biological actions of flavonoids, was to obtain a further understanding of the reported beneficial health effects of these substances. Flavonoids occur naturally in fruit, vegetables, and beverages such as tea and wine. Research in the field of flavonoids has increased since the discovery of the French paradox,ie, the low cardiovascular mortality rate observed in Mediterranean populations in association with red wine consumption and a high saturated fat intake. Several other potential beneficial properties of flavonoids have since been ascertained. We review the different groups of known flavonoids, the probable mechanisms by which they act, and the potential clinical applications of these fascinating natural substances.