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New camera-trap records for bush dog (Speothos venaticus) in Colombia

Authors:
  • IBiCo - Instituto de Biología de la Conservación, Madrid, España
  • Fundación Omacha
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... . El perro venadero (Speothos venaticus, Lund, 1824) es una de estas especies y cuenta en la actualidad con escasos registros para los departamentos de Arauca, Meta, Guaviare y Vichada (De Armas-Mendoza 2007, Carretero-Pinzón 2013, Rodríguez-Castellanos et al. 2017. ...
... S. venaticus ocurre desde Costa Rica (Centro de Centroamérica) hasta Argentina (Sur de Suramérica) y está catalogado internacionalmente como Casi Amenazado (NT) (DeMatteo et al. 2011, Rodríguez-Castellanos et al. 2017. El perro venadero se encuentra listado desde el 4 de febrero de 1977 en el Apéndice I de CITES (CITES 2018) y en condición Vulnerable para Argentina (Ginsberg y Mcdonald 1990). ...
... Esta condición, se debe a la transformación del hábitat entre el 20% y 25% de su área de distribución en los últimos 15 años, además de múltiples amenazas a su conservación por la pérdida y fragmentación de sus hábitats, una reducción en la abundancia de presas debido a la caza ilegal, la depredación por perros domésticos y el riesgo de contagio zoonótico de sus poblaciones por enfermedades relacionadas con los cánidos domésticos (Jorge et al. 2007, DeMatteo et al. 2011, Rodríguez-Castellanos et al. 2017. Existen pocos registros de presencia del perro venadero para su área de ocurrencia e información acerca de su ecología que se derivan principalmente de avistamientos oportunistas, porque las técnicas de campo estándar han tenido poco o ningún éxito en la detección de esta especie (DeMatteo y Loiselle 2008, Rodríguez-Castellanos et al. 2017. ...
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Abstract Although the bush dog (Speothos venaticus) is internationally categorized as Near Threatened (NT) at the national level, this species is not located under any condition of threat due to the scarce information about its ecology. Notwithstanding this canid has a wide distribution from the east of Central America to the south of the South American subcontinent, knowledge of its ecology is still limited. The presence of individuals of the bush dog registered through camera traps in the Colombian Orinoquia is reported. The animals were photographed in two places in the altillanura corresponding to the municipalities of Puerto Gaitán (Meta) and Puerto Carreño (Vichada) in Colombia. Additionally, the monitoring and study of this carnivore is recommended for this ecoregion that presents an accelerated transformation of its natural ecosystems in order to contribute to the knowledge of its conservation status.Keywords: Bush dog, Camera-trap, Canid, Orinoquia, Riparian forest.
... The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) (Lund, 1842), also known as the vinegar dog or savanna dog, is found from Costa Rica (González-Maya et al. 2017) and eastern Panama South to Paraguay, and North-Eastern Argentina (DeMatteo & Loiselle 2008;Tirira 2017), with populations in the Western Amazonian areas of Colombia (Rodríguez-Castellanos et al. 2017) and Ecuador. Although this species seems to be widely distributed, it is extremely difficult to locate, even with camera traps. ...
... Detection of Speothos venaticus rate per study site: sampling effort (trap-nights), bush dog captures and number of captures per 100 trap-nights in this study and other sites, modified fromOliveira et al. (2016) andRodríguez-Castellanos et al. (2017).COSTA RICA Las Tablas Protected Zone (LTPZ), LaAmistad International Park. *Events were separated by approximately 2 hours. ...
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The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) is one of the rarest canids in Central and South America. Very little is known about its distribution or its ecological behavior. However, there are ongoing scientific efforts to compile updated data on this species. By using line transect surveys, interviews with local people and camera traps, we studied mammals and their association with four palm-tree species (Oenocarpus bataua Socratea spp., Iriartea deltoidea, and Wettinia maynensis). Three transects, of approximately 3 kilometers each, were used to survey the piedmont of Colonso-Chalupas Biological Reserve (CCBR) in Eastern Ecuador; a recently established biological reserve (93,246 ha with an altitudinal gradient from 560 to 4432 m asl). We recorded two independent events of bush dog at 1200 m asl, using line transect surveys (one event from 91 line transect surveys) and camera trapping (two photographs from 1759 trap-nights) from September 2016 to March 2017. Both occurred at the same location, where the ground was completely covered by mature S. rostrata fruits. This is the first scientific report which confirms: the presence of bush dog in the reserve, the highest elevation of its range in Ecuador, and provides relevant data on a direct or indirect association between bush dog and a palm tree.
... A rare species recorded in our study is S. venaticus, photographed on 8 August 2014 at 08:44:19 h. Additional records of this species at the same locality are documented in detail by Rodríguez-Castellanos et al. (2017). In contrast, a rare species we did not record in this region is the short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis) which was found in the same department, near Restrepo, on the Río Ariari (Ayure & González-Maya, 2014) and recently in La Macarena (Díaz-Pulido et al., 2016). ...
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Estudiamos la diversidad de mamíferos medianos y grandes en un área no protegida de la Orinoquia Colombiana durante tres años, empleando cámaras trampa en 72 estaciones de muestreo y haciendo recorridos por bosques y sabanas. Con un esfuerzo de 1789 días-cámara y 469.5 km recorridos se documentaron 31 especies de mamíferos (9 órdenes, 19 familias). Se registraron especies amenazadas como ocarro (Priodontes maximus), danta (Tapirus terrestris), pecarí de labio blanco (Tayassu pecari) y hormiguero gigante (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Se registraron especies raras, como el perro vinagre (Speothos venaticus) y semiendémicas como el cachicamo sabanero (Dasypus sabanicola). Las especies mejor representadas a través del índice de abundancia relativa fueron el pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu) y la zarigüeya (Didelphis marsupialis). Las especies registradas se enfrentan a diversas presiones, como cacería para subsistencia, especies invasoras y ganadería. Por lo tanto, los resultados sugieren que las áreas no protegidas son importantes para la conservación de los mamíferos en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia.
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The bush dog (Speothos venaticus Lund, 1842) is a poorly known, threatened and difficult to detect species. In the extreme south of its distribution, in Argentina, it inhabits a highly threatened environment, the interior Atlantic forest. Among the methods available for species distribution prediction, the generalized linear models (GLM) are able to predict the real distribution of species, but require reliable information about absence localities. To better understand the geographic distribution of S. venaticus, all known localities and some new records from Argentina were geo-referenced. Subsequently, both potential and real distributions were modeled, and explanatory variables with high presence prediction capacity were identified. To examine the bush dog conservation status, the retraction of the geographic distribution of the species throughout its range, and its presence in Argentine protected areas, were analyzed. A total of 182 georeferenced database records were collected (13 in Argentina). The predicted real distribution covers ~10.5×106km2, 57 and 73% of previously reported areas. The most relevant variables predicting the presence of this species were mean annual precipitation, precipitation during the warmest quarter, and annual temperature range. The prey with greatest distribution overlap was Cuniculus paca. After eliminating unsuitable habitats within its geographic range, Speothos distribution reduces to 7.8×106km2, with two large core areas probably connected along eastern Bolivia. In Argentina, the environmentally favourable area for this species is predicted to have diminished to 23,025km2 (80% of the original area), with four highly transformed localities. Although most protected areas could host this species, records exist only in four (Iguazú NP, Urugua-í PP, Cruce Caballero PP and Valle del Cuña Pirú PRMU)
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The bush dog Speothos venaticus and the short-eared dog Atelocynus microtis are categorized as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List. I document the occurrence of these two little known canids in a fragmented landscape in southern Amazonia (around Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso state, Brazil) using interviews and two extensive camera-trapping surveys. From a total of 144 interviews conducted during 2001–2002 in forest fragments and continuous forest sites, bush and short-eared dogs were confirmed in only eight (5.6%) and 14 (9.7%) forest sites, respectively. Two camera-trapping surveys, conducted in 2003–2004 and 2007–2008, with a total of 6,721 camera-trap days, recorded two photographs of bush dogs and seven of short-eared dogs, in three continuous forest sites. On the basis of the large sampling effort it appears that these two elusive species occur at low densities in the study region. The continued presence of these species in an agricultural frontier with high deforestation rates makes this information of relevance for long-term conservation initiatives in this region and in other Neotropical agricultural frontiers.
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Density estimation is of fundamental importance in wildlife management. The use of camera traps to estimate animal density has so far been restricted to capture2013recapture analysis of species with individually identifiable markings. This study developed a method that eliminates the requirement for individual recognition of animals by modelling the underlying process of contact between animals and cameras. The model provides a factor that linearly scales trapping rate with density, depending on two key biological variables (average animal group size and day range) and two characteristics of the camera sensor (distance and angle within which it detects animals). We tested the approach in an enclosed animal park with known abundances of four species, obtaining accurate estimates in three out of four cases. Inaccuracy in the fourth species was because of biased placement of cameras with respect to the distribution of this species. Synthesis and applications. Subject to unbiased camera placement and accurate measurement of model parameters, this method opens the possibility of reduced labour costs for estimating wildlife density and may make estimation possible where it has not been previously. We provide guidelines on the trapping effort required to obtain reasonably precise estimates.
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The bush dog Speothos venaticus, a rarely seen Neotropical canid categorized as Near Threatened globally, is categorized as Vulnerable in Brazil. In the Atlantic Forest occurrence data of this species are extremely rare. Here we document new records of the bush dog in four reserves in a large remnant of continuous coastal Atlantic Forest in Paraná state, southern Brazil. From a total of 4,112 trap days in two camera-trap surveys in 2009 and 2011 we obtained one opportunistic sighting and three independent photographic records of the bush dog. Additionally, park guards reported previous sightings (>4 years earlier) in three of these reserves, including the reserve where we did not record the species. Our results indicate that the remnant coastal Atlantic Forest of Paraná state is an important region for the conservation of the bush dog in southern Brazil. Given the rarity of this species in its natural habitat we suggest that conservation efforts in this region should focus on minimizing the potential threats (prey depletion from poaching and disease transmission from domestic dog) to the species.
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The bush dog (Speothos venaticus), listed as CITES Appendix 1 – vulnerable, is a small (5–6 kg), rarely seen canid from Central and South America. The World Conservation Union Canid Specialist Group (IUCN CSG) recommended that research with this species focus on their basic ecology so that a data-driven conservation strategy can be formulated. Information on the bush dog, however, has been lacking since standard field techniques have had little or no success with this species. The S. venaticus Status and Distribution Survey was developed in an attempt to use indirect methodologies to determine the bush dog’s conservation status in the wild, its current distribution, and identify ecological needs by correlating habitat types to bush dog sightings. Survey responses and literature generated a database with 399 historic bush dog locations recorded between 1834 and 2004. These locational records were used to update the species’ range extent map, an important conservation planning tool. With year and precision of data accounted for, we analyzed land use coverage at known locations where bush dogs have historically been reported to evaluate the likelihood that the species persists in the area today. In addition, these locations provided training data for generation of potential distribution maps (i.e., areas of occupancy) using ecological niche modeling (i.e., Maximum Entropy) and bioclimatic data. These analyses revealed that 20% of the historic bush dog locations are associated with fragmented or altered habitat. These results allowed the status of bush dog habitat to be re-evaluated and areas that require more intensive research and protection to be identified.