Article

Demographic and social factors in relation with occurrence of orofacial defects

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Abstract

Objective: To determine the association of various demographic and social factors and the risk of orofacial defects in the children. To give recommendations to reduce the incidence of various orofacial defects. Study Design: Observational / descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Cleft Hospital (Ayesha Bashir Hospital) and Aziz Bhatti Teaching Hospital Gujrat for a period of six months from July to December 2016. Materials and Methods: A particular performa was made to interview the parents of the children who presented with these orofacial defects. The patients with minor degrees of defects were excluded from the study. This was not a funded study. Results: Total number of the patients included in this study was 81 out of which ten had cleft lips and ten had palates but 70.07% had both cleft lip and palates. About 49.38% of the fathers were between 25-34 years, very young and old ones did not have these children. However about 71% of the mothers were less than thirty years of the age. Male children were the most affected. Majority of the parents and children belonged to the middle class. Para 2 and 3 were the ones who had these children. Majority belonged to the non hilly and Northern Punjab Pakistan. Conclusion: The results of this study regarding parental age and orofacial defects were contrary to other such studies, in which advanced parental age was found as a determinant. Similarly increased parity did not have any association, but yet there was an increase after fifth birth of a child, so it is recommended that further studies and bigger samples should be assessed to confirm a positive association.

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