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The Routledge Handbook of Environmental Justice presents an extensive and cutting-edge introduction to the diverse, rapidly growing body of research on pressing issues of environmental justice and injustice. With wide-ranging discussion of current debates, controversies, and questions in the history, theory, and methods of environmental justice research, contributed by over 90 leading social scientists, natural scientists, humanists, and scholars from professional disciplines from six continents, it is an essential resource both for newcomers to this research and for experienced scholars and practitioners. The chapters of this volume examine the roots of environmental justice activism, lay out and assess key theories and approaches, and consider the many different substantive issues that have been the subject of activism, empirical research, and policy development throughout the world. The Handbook features critical reviews of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodological approaches and explicitly addresses interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity, and engaged research. Instead of adopting a narrow regional focus, it tackles substantive issues and presents perspectives from political and cultural systems across the world, as well as addressing activism for environmental justice at the global scale. Its chapters do not simply review the state of the art, but also propose new conceptual frameworks and directions for research, policy, and practice. Providing detailed but accessible overviews of the complex, varied dimensions of environmental justice and injustice, the Handbook is an essential guide and reference not only for researchers engaged with environmental justice, but also for undergraduate and graduate teaching and for policymakers and activists.
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September 2017: 246x174: 670pp
32 illustrations
Hb: 978-1-138-93282-1 | £165.00
eBook: 978-1-315-67898-6 | £39.99
Ryan Holifield is an Associate Professor of Geography at
the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. His research
interests include environmental justice policy and
practice, social and political dimensions of urban
environmental change, and stakeholder participation in
environmental governance.
Jayajit Chakraborty is a Professor of Geography in the
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, and
Director of the Socio-Environmental and Geospatial
Analysis Lab at the University of Texas at El Paso. His
research interests are located at the intersection of
hazards geography, health geography, and urban
geography, and encompass a wide range of
environmental and social justice issues.
Gordon Walker is Professor of Environment, Risk, and
Justice in the Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster
University, UK. His research focuses on environmental
justice, sustainable energy transitions, and the dynamics
of energy demand. Recent books include Environmental
Justice: Concepts, Evidence, and Politics (Routledge
2012) and Energy Justice in a Changing Climate (2013).
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The Routledge
Handbook of
Environmental Justice
Edited by Ryan Holifield, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
US, Jayajit Chakraborty, University of Texas at el Paso,
US and Gordon Walker, Lancaster University, UK
Series: Routledge International Handbooks
The Handbook of Environmental Justice presents an extensive
and cutting-edge introduction to the diverse, rapidly
growing body of research on pressing issues of
environmental justice and injustice. With wide-ranging
discussion of current debates, controversies, and questions
in the history, theory, and methods of environmental justice
research, contributed by over 90 leading social scientists,
natural scientists, humanists, and scholars from professional
disciplines from six continents, it is an essential resource
both for newcomers to this research and for experienced
scholars and practitioners.
20% Discount Available - enter the code FLR40 at
Hb: 978-1-138-93282-1 | £132.00
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Table of Contents
List of figures
List of tables
Notes on contributors
1 Introduction: the worlds of environmental justice, Ryan Holifield, Jayajit Chakraborty and Gordon
2 Historicizing the personal and the political: evolving racial formations and the environmental justice
movement, Laura Pulido
3 Social movements for environmental justice through the lens of social movement theory, Diane M.
Sicotte and Robert J. Brulle
4 Environmental justice movements and political opportunity structures, David N. Pellow
5 Environmental justice and rational choice theory, William M. Bowen
6 The political economy of environmental justice, Daniel Faber
7 Feminism and environmental justice, Greta Gaard
8 Opening black boxes: environmental justice and injustice through the lens of science and technology
studies, Gwen Ottinger
9 Procedural environmental justice, Derek Bell and Jayne Carrick
10 The recognition paradigm of environmental injustice, Kyle Whyte
11 A capabilities approach to environmental justice, Rosie Day
12 Vulnerability, equality and environmental justice: the potential and limits of law, Sheila R. Foster
13 Environmental human rights, Kerri Woods
14 Sustainability discourses and justice: towards social-ecological justice, Ulrika Gunnarsson-Östling and
Åsa Svenfelt
15 Spatial representation and estimation of environmental risk: a review of analytic approaches, Jayajit
16 Assessing population at risk: areal interpolation and dasymetric mapping, Juliana Maantay and
Andrew Maroko
17 Application of spatial statistical techniques, Jeremy Mennis and Megan Heckert
18 Historical approaches to environmental justice, Christopher G. Boone and Geoffrey L. Buckley
19 The ethics of embodied engagement: ethnographies of environmental justice, Catalina M. de Onís
and Phaedra C. Pezzullo
20 Storytelling environmental justice: cultural studies approaches, Donna Houston and Pavithra
21 Facilitating transdisciplinary conversations in environmental justice studies, Jonathan K. London, Julie
Sze and Mary L. Cadenasso
22 Cumulative risk assessment: an analytic tool to inform policy choices about environmental justice,
Ken Sexton and Stephen H. Linder
23 A review of community-engaged research approaches used to achieve environmental justice and
eliminate disparities, Sacoby Wilson, Aaron Aber, Lindsey Wright and Vivek Ravichandran
24 Participatory GIS and community-based citizen science for environmental justice action, Muki Haklay
and Louise Francis
25 Streams of toxic and hazardous waste disparities, politics and policy, Troy D. Abel and Mark Stephan
26 Air pollution and respiratory health: does better evidence lead to policy paralysis? Michael Buzzelli
27 Water justice: key concepts, debates and research agendas, Leila M. Harris, Scott McKenzie, Lucy Rodina, Sameer H.
Shah and Nicole J. Wilson
28 Environmental justice and flood hazards: a conceptual framework applied to emerging findings and future research
needs, Timothy W. Collins and Sara E. Grineski
29 Climate change and environmental justice, Philip Coventry and Chukwumerije Okereke
30 Environmental justice and large-scale mining, Leire Urkidi and Mariana Walter
31 Justice in energy system transitions: a synthesis and agenda, Karen Bickerstaff
32 Transportation and environmental justice: history and emerging practice, Alex Karner, Aaron Golub, Karel Martens
and Glenn Robinson
33 Food justice: an environmental justice approach to food and agriculture, Alison Hope Alkon
34 Environmental crime and justice: a green criminological examination, Michael J. Lynch and Kimberly L. Barrett
35 Urban parks, gardens and greenspace, Jason Byrne
36 Urban planning, community (re)development and environmental gentrification: emerging challenges for green and
equitable neighbourhoods, Isabelle Anguelovski, Anna Livia Brand, Eric Chu and Kian Goh
37 Just conservation: the evolving relationship between society and protected areas, Maureen G. Reed and Colleen
38 Free-market economics, multinational corporations and environmental justice in a globalized world, Ruchi Anand
39 Globalizing environmental justice: radical and transformative movements past and present, Leah Temper
40 Environmental justice for a changing Arctic and its original peoples, Alana Shaw
41 Environmental injustice in resource-rich Aboriginal Australia, Donna Green, Marianne Sullivan and Karrina Nolan
42 Environmental justice across borders: lessons from the US-Mexico borderlands, Sara E. Grineski and Timothy W.
43 The dawn of environmental justice?: the record of left and socialist governance in Central and South America, Karen
44 Urban environmental (in)justice in Latin America: the case of Chile, Alexis Vásquez, Michael Lukas, Marcela Salgado
and José Mayorga
45 Environmental justice in Nigeria: divergent tales, paradoxes and future prospects, Rhuks T. Ako and Damilola S.
46 Sub-imperial ecosystem management in Africa: continental implications of South African environmental injustices,
Patrick Bond
47 Environmental justice and attachment to place: Australian cases, David Schlosberg, Lauren Rickards and Jason Byrne
48 Environmental justice in South and Southeast Asia: inequalities and struggles in rural and urban contexts, Pratyusha
49 Environmental justice in a transitional and transboundary context in East Asia, Mei-Fang Fan and Kuei-Tien Chou
50 Environmental justice in Western Europe, Heike Köckler, Séverine Deguen, Andrea Ranzi, Anders Melin and Gordon
51 Environmental justice in Central and Eastern Europe: mobilization, stagnation and detraction, Tamara Steger, Richard
Filčák and Krista Harper
... The history of environmental justice doctrine and movement is traced to the United States, where it served as a counterpoint to the discontent for racist government policies in the 1960s and 1970s (Ekhator, 2017). A plethora of studies highlight the inordinate burden of differential environmental harms on minorities (Bullard and Johnson 2002;Holifield, Chakraborty and Walker, 2018). Hence, environmental justice "is the first paradigm to link environment and race, class, gender and social justice in an explicit framework" (Taylor, 2000: p. 542). ...
... Moreover, public participation and consultation are central to the environmental justice struggle in industrialized countries, whereas in developing countries-especially resource-rich countries-access to or control of natural resources is fundamental to the environmental justice paradigm (Ekhator, 2017). Environmental justice entails considering how the governance architecture of environmental resources affects different individuals and groups, particularly the vulnerable and marginalized, whether changes to/within environmental governance institutions are considered fair by diverse stakeholders, and how human interests can be reconciled with environmental sustainability (Holifield, Chakraborty and Walker, 2018). ...
This chapter focuses on the use of protests and the potential of reliance on litigation in improving access to environmental justice for women, particularly in the rural parts of the Niger Delta region, where there are significant environmental impacts from the operations of the oil and gas industry.
... The plurality of ways in which scholars understand environmental justice has been well-documented [37][38][39][40]. Here, we focus on what can be described as the five tenets of socio-environmental justice [17]. ...
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Municipalities, their utilities and resource managers are designing and implementing policies and programs toward climate adaptation, which means governing urban water resources differently. Urban water managers are thus expanding their roles and responsibilities through the installation and maintenance of green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) systems. This system expansion is perhaps more striking for water utilities administering GSI-related programs because they acquire a role that has an impact on how residents and neighborhoods will differentially experience the effects of climate change. Through an in-depth qualitative study of a GSI program in Tucson, Arizona, USA, we contribute to the socio-environmental justice framework with specific attention to distributive, procedural, recognition, interactional, and mobility justice. We highlight that a socio-environmental justice approach requires resource managers and decision-makers to recognize and respect the ways in which people’s everyday relationship to water and water infrastructure is impacted by culturally mediated social norms and values, as well as legacies of exclusion and inclusion in urban development and resource governance. Thus, we argue that discussions around water equity in urban water governance need to be placed within a socio-environmental justice framework to address historical inequalities and ensure these are not reproduced through GSI.
... The term 'climate justice' began to gain traction in the late 1990s following a wide range of activities by social and environmental justice movements that emerged in response to the operations of the fossil fuel industry and, later, to what their members saw as the failed global climate governance model at COP15 in Copenhagen. The term continues to gain momentum in discussions about sustainable development, climate change, mitigation and adaptation (Holifield, Chakraborty & Walker, 2017;Tokar, 2019). It has a particular resonance in the Global South where early environmental movements disregarded how global capitalism and imperialism were directly responsible for environmental and thus societal degradation. ...
Full-text available
Ecoliteracy is essential for adult educators/activists en route to creating ecoliterate populations. Working cooperatively with other networks in the spirit of a 'solidarity economy', a group within the PIMA network has run a climate justice education programme through Towards an emergent curriculum for climate justice adult educators/activists 299 a series of webinars. We describe and analyse a case story of an emergent climate justice curriculum in action. We use an ecofeminist analysis to understand the relational entanglement of ecological breakdown, capitalism, colonialism, racism and patriarchy which in part undergird the breaching of planetary boundaries. We identify five inquiry-based themes which are suggestive as coordinates for orientating curricula for adult educators/activists learning climate justice. One of these is the importance of building ecoliterate alliances through collaborative action as we face the 'socio-ecological hurricane' which is bearing down.
... The field of environmental justice began with a focus on pollution and today encompasses unsustainable development, including industrialization, resource depletion, and food and energy access (Purdy 2018). Environmental justice is integrated into many disciplines, including public health, urban planning, history, political science, and geography, as well as by coalitions of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary teams (Holifield, Chakraborty, and Walker 2018). Positive examples of managed retreat include improved home valuation and maintenance of social cohesion among a Mississippi River town electing to relocate (Pinter and Rees 2021). ...
The effects of climate change are both acute and chronic, leaving many communities in a perpetual state of uncertainty. For others, there is no such uncertainty—their communities will soon be uninhabitable. Some levels of government have begun to recognize and slowly respond to communities facing the possibilities of relocation. This paper considers the impact of transdisciplinary thinking and collaborative moments in the planning phase of one of the few community‐scale managed retreat attempts in the United States. In January 2016, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) awarded the state of Louisiana $48.3 million to plan, design, and implement a structured and scalable resettlement with former and current residents of Isle de Jean Charles. The paper uses data from surveys and interviews with the practitioner team, fieldnotes, review of published reports, and a sample of more than 400 media accounts. Our analysis highlights how developing a transdisciplinary process may render a new understanding to the tasks and meanings of planning resettlements in the future.
... Environmental justice being primarily concerned with disadvantaged environmental living conditions has become a vibrant field for not only activism but also research offering a vast array of case studies, analysis, methodological reflections, and theoretical approaches (e.g., Coolsaet, 2021;Holifield et al., 2018). At its centre, there are questions of distributive justice with regard to expositions to toxins, air pollution, degraded water resources, or biodiversity. ...
Full-text available
In recent years, multiple-burden maps were developed as a tool for assessing environmental health inequities in cities. Maps of this kind are particularly useful in identifying disadvantaged neighbourhoods. In the case of Erlangen (Germany), the historical development of poorer neighbourhoods may mean that their situation as regards environmental assets is relatively favourable. However, urban renewal often precipitates the redistribution of environmental “goods” and “bads” in such a way as to place a disproportionate burden on socio-economically deprived people and privilege the better-off. This type of environmental microsegregation occurs on a scale below that of neighbourhoods, which means that newly developed approaches in urban geography may fail to identify it. This article details the roots of these processes in changes in the structure of ownership and the respective administration of housing and considers possible methods for monitoring these tendencies.
... The term "climate justice" began to gain traction in the late 1990s following a wide range of activities by social and environmental justice movements that emerged in response to the operations of the fossil fuel industry and, later, to what their members saw as the failed global climate governance model at COP15 in Copenhagen. The term continues to gain momentum in discussions about sustainable development, climate change, mitigation, and adaptation (Holifield et al. 2017;Tokar 2019). ...
Full-text available
A “mountain of disposable nappies” in a river in the northern part of South Africa provides a real-life case study to explore “climate justice” and “learning” within civil society. Climate justice is attained by foregrounding the needs and interests of the people who have contributed least to climate catastrophes and are most affected by them. The climate and ecological crises have particular impacts on the majority of women. Women carry primary responsibility due to unequal patriarchal divisions of labor, for putting food on the table, and taking care of ecosystems, families, and communities. Applying an ecofeminist analysis to the case study, entanglements of ecological breakdown, capitalism, racism, and patriarchy are identified. These undergird the environmental catastrophe that is unfolding. The transformation that is required is unlikely to be led by those who have created the problem. Movements from below, including climate justice and related social movements, are key vehicles to build pressure and create systemic alternatives. Learning through activism is an essential part of lifelong learning for climate justice. It is situated in broader social change processes that are grounded in environmental issues or landscapes, the people, and all life forms, including the rivers. It embraces relationality as an emerging (and ancient) paradigm, ecofeminist praxis, cognitive justice, and indigenous knowledge systems. Learning through activism has profound implications for education and learning across all life stages. This is where educators become learners and where educational processes are designed to support deep transformation.
... harms (Holifield et al., 2018). According to Cutter (1995), the movement has focused on drawing attention to the localized impacts of pollution on lowincome communities and communities of color and calling for measurable improvements in environmental and social outcomes. ...
... In addition to defining environmental justice, its cognates, and its outcomes, scholars have studied the processes that lead to environmental inequity. Early discussions of environmental justice focused on toxic and hazardous siting, but they have since expanded to include other areas, including air pollution, water justice, flood hazards, energy systems, transportation, food justice, and urban parks (Holifield et al., 2018b). Taylor (2014) identified seven broad categories of theories that have been applied "to explain unequal exposure to environmental hazards" (p. ...
Full-text available
Non-arid region countries, including Canada, enjoy abundant water resources, while arid countries such as Qatar struggle to meet their water needs. However, climate change threats to water resources are similar for both climatic regions. Therefore, this article discusses water dimensions, security, and governance for these different regions, i.e., non-arid Canada and arid Qatar, that distinctly respond to their water-related challenges. Limitations of the article include lesser water-related literature availability for Qatar than for Canada. Canada’s water resources appear vulnerable to climate change as it is projected to face >0.6 °C above the global average of 1.6 °C for the 20th-century temperature. Qatar is extremely vulnerable to dust storms, and rising sea levels, with the maximum temperature approaching 50 °C during the summer, and flooding during the winter. The sustainable use of water resources needs to address social, economic, political, climate change, and environmental dimensions of water. Other than climate change impacts and high per capita consumption of water, Qatar faces challenges of a rise in population (~29 million as of now), acute shortage of freshwater from rainfall (~80 mm per annum), high evapotranspiration (~95% of the total rainfall), depletion of groundwater, and low agricultural productivity due to infertile lands and water scarcity, all leading to food insecurity. The sustainable use of water resources requires improved regulations for water governance and management. Comparisons of water sustainability issues, dimensions, security, and governance facilitate discussions to improve water governance structures for resource sustainability, food security, and climate change adaptability, and show how one country could learn from the experiences of the other.
Comparative scholarship that examines the intersections and tensions among animal rights, environmental justice, and climate justice movements is sorely needed because of the clear overlapping interests among these political formations and the potentially high impact of these movements converging in either discursive or material registers, or both. While points of conflict will continue to shape interactions and avoidances among key stakeholders in these communities, the author argues that they are also a source for advancing important intellectual and political agendas. This chapter takes up this challenge and offers conceptual and empirical resources for better understanding the divisions among these movements as well as the importance of the collaborations and intersections that have been realized.
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