ArticlePDF Available

Common Injuries of Collegiate Tennis Players

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7) with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 6 (2017) 2: 43–47 | UDC 796.342(599) 43
Common Injuries of Collegiate Tennis Players
Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser1 and Ken Ewing L. Narvasa1
Affiliations: 1University of the Philippines Diliman, Department of Sports Science, College of Human Kinetics, Quezon
City, Philippines
Correspondence: Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser, University of the Philippines Diliman, Department of Sports
Science, College of Human Kinetics, Don Mariano Marcos Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1101. E-mail:
cmvalleser@up.edu.ph
ABSTRACT e purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis
players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7) with an average playing experience
of 12 years participated in the study.  ere was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate
of 5.98 injuries per person.  e authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the
lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas
included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and
strains.  e recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the  ndings were similar to
those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive  ndings on
tennis injuries, particularly in di erent levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.
KEY WORDS Injuries, Collegiate, Tennis, Student-athletes.
Introduction
It is widely accepted that while engaging in sports and physical activities reduces the risk of certain diseases,
it also entails a noticeable risk of injury among all levels of participation (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). Although
there is no universally accepted de nition, this study de nes sports injury as a physical condition incurred as a
result of sport participation, which requires medical attention and restriction of participation or performance
(Hootman, Dick & Agel, 2007).  e general objective of this study is to identify the common injuries
incurred by collegiate tennis players using student athletes from participant schools of the University Athletic
Association of the Philippines (UAAP). Speci cally, this research aims to identify the common type of injuries
and most commonly injured anatomical regions.
Tennis is a sport widely participated in by the more than 200 countries a liated with the International Tennis
Federation. Along with its popularity are the various national and international tournaments organized
throughout the year, many of which feature large prizes (Pluim, Staal, Windler & Jayanthi, 2006).  ere
is increasing research on the epidemiology of tennis and other sport injuries, which further promotes the
awareness of injury tendencies and the development of prevention strategies (Rechel, Yard & Comstock, 2008;
Hootman et al., 2007).
On the international level, tennis is featured in the Olympics and most notably in major tournaments, such
as the Australian Open, Wimbledon Championships, French Open, and US Open. In the Philippines, there
are various professional and amateur tennis tournaments; most notably, on the amateur level, the UAAP
typically features the best collegiate tennis players in the country. Collegiate players in the UAAP normally
take up the sport at a young age, typically no later than ten years old.  e risk of early introduction and
regular participation in sports is that players starting young could acquire chronic injuries, especially when
trained with techniques that are not compatible with what their bodies can tolerate (Reid & Schneiker, 2007).
Furthermore, long-term sport participation can cause chronic and acute injuries in the developing bodies of
child- and adolescent-aged athletes (DiFiori et al., 2014).
Safran, Zachazewski, Benedetti, Bartolozzi III and Mendelbaum (1999) reported that many athletes have
ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPER
Accepted a er revision: March 29 2017 | First published online: September 01 2017
© 2017 by the author(s). License MSA, Podgorica, Montenegro.  is article is an open access article distributed under the
terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY).
Con ict of interest: None declared.
@MJSSMontenegro
COMMON INJURIES OF COLLEGIATE TENNIS
http://mjssm.me/?sekcija=article&artid=141
44 UDC 796.342(599)
COMMON INJURIES OF COLLEGIATE TENNIS | C.W.M. VALLESER & K.E.L. NARVASA
claimed that they played or competed through these discomforts.  ey further noted that low back pain was
common in elite junior players. Hellstrom, Jacobsson, Sward and Peterson (1990) also made this observation
in elite adult players. Lower-back pain from tennis comes from a wide variety of sources but is mainly due to
high demands placed on the lower back and trunk combined with low  exibility resulting in frequent overuse-
type injuries. Kibler and Safran (2005) observed that ankle sprains were the most common microtrauma
injury in tennis due to the frequent running, pivoting, sudden stopping, acceleration, jumping, and lunging
movements in tennis play. Furthermore, lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) and medial epicondylitis chronic
repetitive motion through  rm gripping of the handle of the racket and impact of the ball were common.
Generally, hand and wrist complaints are observed, speci cally tendinitis. It is o en common to have a
two-handed backhand stroke in which the non-dominant wrist receives stress through overuse during the
backswing phase of the stroke. Strains in the adductor muscles and hamstring are also common, primarily
due to sudden changes in direction or slipping on clay courts resulting in splits.
It was also reported by Ireland and Hutchinson (1995) that stress fractures of the ulna of the non-dominant
forearm, as well as distal radius and ulna fractures of the dominant wrist, were reported in players with
forearm and wrist pain. Renstrom (1995) indicated that 19% of all tennis-related injuries are knee injuries,
70% being acute and 30% overuse.
Most sports injuries, tennis included, occur in the lower extremities particularly the knee and ankles (Pluim
et al. 2006; Hootman et al. 2007; Rechel et al., 2008; Abrams, Safran & Renstrom, 2012) while injuries in the
trunk were the least common (Rechel et al., 2008; Chard & Lachman, 1987). In the study by Hjelm, Werner,
and Renstrom (2010) on the injury pro le of junior tennis players, the lumbar spine was the most commonly
injured body part. In contrast, Pluim et al. (2006) stated that the most commonly injured anatomical region
is the upper extremities followed by the lower extremities and the least injured part was the trunk. In the
summary by Kibler and Safran (2005), the most injured region is the lower extremities accounting for 39-59%
of reported injuries followed by the upper extremities with 20-45%, and lastly the central core with 11-30% of
the total injuries reported. Speci cally, the ankles and the thighs showed the highest frequency in the lower
extremities, the shoulders and elbows in the upper extremities, and the lower back in the central core.
Concerning practice and tournament injury rates, Hootman et al. (2007) observed that in-season
tournaments produced the highest injury rates followed by pre-season practices and in-season practice
among student-athletes. Meanwhile, post-season practice accounted for the lowest injury rates. Rechel et
al. (2008) also observed that as the level of competition increases so do injury rates and that most injuries
occur in competition as opposed to in practice. A variety of reasons that may explain why injury rates are
higher during preseason practice than during in-season or post-season practice have been suggested such as
coming to pre-season practice poorly conditioned, the duration of pre-season practices being longer than
other sport seasons, less-skilled athletes trying to improve technique and becoming injured, and pre-season
competitiveness in which players battle for starting positions.
Methods
is study is descriptive research design to identify the common injuries of collegiate tennis players,
speci cally, the most common types of injury and the anatomical regions at risk.
Subjects
e criteria for the selection of research participants were as follows: (1) a current varsity player of a UAAP
school for at least one year and (2) must have played in at least one UAAP season; 110 (60 male, 50 female)
collegiate student-athletes (Mage 20 ± 1.7 yrs.) representing 100% of all UAAP tennis players in a speci c
season participated in the study.  e subjects had an average playing experience of 12 (SD + 2.4) years.
Procedure
Data were collected through a survey questionnaire and guided interview using a sports injury questionnaire
adapted from Duco (2005) and Reyes (2005).  e injury inventory is divided into 20 anatomical regions
and identi es nine (9) types of injuries. Certain additions were also gathered to meet the speci c objectives
of this study, including (1) the message in the project information box, (2) details in the demographic
information (3) addition of other types of injuries, (4) the de nition of speci c types of injury, (5) a more
detailed enumeration of musculoskeletal regions and (6) a speci ed area for other injuries that may not have
been covered in the questionnaire such as other anatomical areas or multiple injuries in the same anatomical
region.  e survey questionnaire has been reviewed by a medical professional in a sports physical therapy unit
and veri ed to meet the speci c objectives of the study.
Responses were gathered at the respondents’ playing venue. Letters of request were  rst sent to the coaches,
a er which, upon being given permission to have access to their players, informed consents were handed out
to the players. A brief overview of the objectives and procedure was given to all participants prior to the data
collection.
Statistical Analysis
Subjects’ responses were interpreted via descriptive statistics and presented in frequency and percentage
UDC 796.342(599) 45
COMMON INJURIES OF COLLEGIATE TENNIS | C.W.M. VALLESER & K.E.L. NARVASA
distribution tables. Graphs are also used to display the  ndings and provide an overview of common injury
trends in collegiate tennis players.
Results
A total of 658 injuries were reported.  ere was a 100% incidence of at least one injury among the athletes
with an average of close to 6 injuries per person.  e data showed that the following are the most frequently
reported injury types: tendinitis (39%), sprains (32%) and strains (22%). All other injuries were reported at an
occurrence of 4% or lesser. Table 1 below summarizes the frequency and percentage distribution of reported
injuries.
Of all reported injuries, the most common are tendinitis; of these, most were in the shoulders, elbows, knees
and wrist (30%, 27%, 20%, and 9% of all reported injuries, respectively). Below, Table 2 presents the percentage
distribution of the occurrence of tendinitis.
e second most common injury were sprains, accounting for 32% of all reported injuries. Sprains were mostly
reported in the ankles (94%) and some on the wrists (5%).  e percentage distribution of the occurrence of
sprains can be seen below in Table 3.
e third most common injury, representing 22% of all reported injuries, were strains. Strains were most likely
to be in the lower back (45%) followed by the shoulders (19%) and thighs (17%). Table 4 below illustrates the
reported occurrence of strains.
TABLE 1 Frequency and percentage distribution of type of injury.
Type of injury Frequency %
Tendinitis 254 39
Sprain 211 32
Strain 148 22
In ammation 24 4
Abrasion 12 2
Stress Fracture 6 <1
Dislocation 2 <1
Fracture 1 <1
TOTAL 658 100%
TABLE 2 Percentage distribution of the occurrence of tendinitis.
Anatomical region %
Shoulders 30
Elbows 27
Knees 20
Wrists 14
Others 9
TOTAL 100%
TABLE 3 Percentage distribution of the occurrence of sprains.
Anatomical region %
Ankles 94
Wrists 5
Others 1
TOTAL 100%
TABLE 4 Percentage distribution of the occurrence of strains.
Anatomical region %
Lower back 45
Shoulders 19
Thighs 17
Others 19
TOTAL 100%
46 UDC 796.342(599)
COMMON INJURIES OF COLLEGIATE TENNIS | C.W.M. VALLESER & K.E.L. NARVASA
Anatomical Region
Regarding the anatomical regions at risk, injuries commonly occurred in the ankles (30%), shoulders (16%),
lower back (12%), knees (11%) and elbows (10%). All other injury sites were reported to be injured at a rate
of seven percent or less. Table 5 below summarizes the frequency and percentage distribution of injuries by
anatomical region.
As the most injured anatomical region, all reported injuries in the ankles were sprains, suggesting the
vulnerability of the ankles to sprains. As such, all 198 incidences were ankle sprains. In contrast, injuries in
the shoulders were mostly in the form of tendinitis, observed to be accountable for 70% of all injuries in the
shoulders, followed by strains (26%). Below, Table 6 summarizes the reported shoulder injuries.
e lower back was reported to be the third most frequently injured anatomical region. Of all injuries in the
lower back, the clear majority were strains (86%), suggesting the susceptibility of the lower back to strains
among tennis players, while the rest were in ammation (14%) or swelling characterized by tenderness and
pain which may or may not be related to strains.
Meanwhile, the fourth most injured region were the knees, mostly in the form of tendinitis (69%) with a few
strains (18%) and abrasions (11%). Table 7 below shows the summary of reported knee injuries.
e elbows were the location for 10% of all injuries, the  h most injured anatomical region. All injuries
in the elbow were reported to be tendinitis, most probably lateral epicondylitis or “tennis elbow”. All other
TABLE 5 Frequency and percentage distribution of injuries by anatomical region.
Anatomical region Frequency %
Ankles 198 30
Shoulders 106 16
Lower back 82 12
Knees 71 11
Elbows 68 10
Wrists 45 7
Thighs 26 4
Lower leg 17 3
Forearms 12 2
Arms 7 1
Upper back 6 1
Feet 6 <1%
Groin 6 <1%
Head 4 <1%
Hands 2 <1%
Abdomen 2 <1%
TOTAL 658 100%
TABLE 6 Percentage distribution of shoulder injuries.
Injury %
Tendinitis 70
Strain 26
Dislocation 2
Others 2
TOTAL 100
TABLE 7 Percentage distribution of knee injuries.
Injury %
Tendinitis 69
Strain 18
Abrasion 11
Sprain 2
TOTAL 100
UDC 796.342(599) 47
COMMON INJURIES OF COLLEGIATE TENNIS | C.W.M. VALLESER & K.E.L. NARVASA
anatomical regions were reported to be injured less frequently and represent a smaller proportion of all
injured anatomical regions.
Discussion
Tendinitis, sprains, and strains were clearly the most common types of injury, as observed in the data.
is observation is similar to that of Kibler and Safran (2005), and they postulate that these are mostly
microtrauma-related overuse injuries. It may be inferred that most injuries recorded in this study were due to
overuse rather than acutely incurred injuries.  e ndings are also consistent with the conclusions of Lanese,
Strauss, Leizman, and Rotondi (1990) and Rechel et al. (2008).
Tennis injuries may occur in many musculoskeletal areas but will most likely be in the ankles, shoulders
and lower back. Ankle sprains are perhaps the most common injury in tennis as well as in many sports. In
contrast, tendinitis was mostly found in the elbow or shoulders, presumably due to repeated stress, which
gives credence to the previous speculation that most injuries will be caused by chronic overuse.  ese ndings
were also previously observed by numerous studies (Kibler & Safran, 2005); Pluim et al., 2006; Hootman et
al., 2007; Rechel et al., 2008).
Tennis injury studies mostly concur with each other, which suggests the proclivity of tennis to certain
injuries. According to the  ndings of this study, overuse injuries in the form of tendinitis, sprains, and strains
were found to be most common especially in the upper extremities. Overall, however, the upper and lower
extremities seem to be most susceptible to injuries, primarily due to overuse and may be chronic if not
properly addressed.
To further minimize the risk of injury, strength and conditioning programs are recommended to focus on
strengthening the upper and lower extremities, speci cally the ankles and shoulders. As injuries in tennis may
be unavoidable, coaches and team physicians are advised to be prepared for recurring injuries in the upper
and lower extremities. Despite the relatively high number of injuries reported, the fact that all these players
still have active collegiate careers suggests that returning to play is still very possible. As such, tennis can be
safe with an inherent risk of injury, just like many other sports.
R E F E R E N C E S
Abrams, G., Safran, M.R. & Renstorm, P. (2012). Epidemiology of musculoskeletal injury in the tennis player.
British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52, 129-135.
Bahr, R. & Krosshaug, T. (2005). Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries
in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 324-329.
Chard, M. D. & Lachman, S. M. (1987). Racquet sports-patterns of injury presenting to a sports clinic. British
Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(4), 150-153.
DiFiori, J., Benjamin, H., Brenner, J., Gregory, A., Jayanthi, N., Landry, G., & Luke, A. (2014). Overuse
injuries and burnout in youth sports: a position statement from the American Medical Society for Sports
Medicine. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 24(1), 3-20.
Duco, L. (2005). Injuries among elite and non-elite Filipino gymnasts. Unpublished undergraduate thesis),
Quezon City, Philippines: University of the Philippines Diliman.
Hellstrom, M., Jacobsson, B., Sward, L. & Peterson, L. (1990). Radiologic abnormalities of the thoracolumbar
spine in athletes. Acta Radiologica, 31, 127-132.
Hjelm, N., Werner, S. & Renstrom, P. (2010). Injury pro le in junior tennis players: a prospective two-year
study. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 18, 845-850.
Hootman, J., Dick, R. & Agel, J. (2007). Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: summary and
recommendation for injury prevention initiatives. Journal of Athletic Training, 42(2), 311-319.
Ireland, M.L. & Hutchinson, M.R. (1995). Upper extremity injuries in young athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport
Medicine, 14, 533-571.
Kibler, W.B. & Safran, M.R. (2005). Tennis injuries. Medicine and Sports Science, 48, 120-137.
Lanese, R., Strauss, R., Leizman, D. & Rotondi, A.M. (1990). Injury and disability in matched mens and
womens intercollegiate sports. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 1459-1462.
Pluim, B., Staal, J. B., Windler, G. E. & Jayanthi, N. (2006). Tennis injuries: occurrence, aetiology and
prevention. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, 415-423.
Rechel, J., Yard, E. & Comstock, D. (2008). An Epidemiologic Comparison of High School Sports Injuries
Sustained in Practice and Competition. Journal of Athletic Training, 43(2), 197-204.
Reid, M. & Schneiker, K. (2007). Strength and conditioning in tennis: current research and practice. Journal
of Science and Medicine in Sport, 11(3), 248-256.
Renstrom, P. (1995). Knee pain in tennis players. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 14, 163-175.
Reyes, M. (2005). Injuries common to recreational badminton players. Unpublished undergraduate thesis,
Quezon City, Philippines: University of the Philippines Diliman.
Safran, M.R., Zachazewski, J.E., Benedetti, R.S., Bartolozzi III, A.R. & Mendelbaum, R. (1999). Lateral ankle
sprains: a comprehensive review part 2 – treatment and rehabilitation with an emphasis on the athlete.
Medicine and Sports Science, 31(7), S438-S447.
... Collegiate Tennis Players (Valleser & Narvasa, 2017) and "Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention" (Kozinc & Sarabon, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (MJSSM) is a scientifi c journal that exists for fi ve years and has so far released 75 scientifi c papers in 12 editions. The papers are from various fi elds of sports science - biomechanics, physiology, sports medicine, anthropology, methodology and other areas of sports. In this paper, we classifi ed works by fi elds, method of address analysis and found that the most numerous works from the physiology of sports, which are the most cited and best quoted in scientifi c databases. We have also established that the published works had themes - the most up-to-date tendencies in sports science. These research can be useful for further theoretical research, as well as for theoreticians. The authors of the works are researchers from all over the world, as well as the editorial board. The MJSSM includes works from exact disciplines, primarily physiology of sports, as well as from social sciences, thus achieving a synergistic eff ect. The highly cited topics in the fi eld of physiology of sports are raised by the work of social sciences. These topics when they fi nd themselves in the magazine with a social label increase their own visibility.
... Limited information is available on the common injuries of Filipino athletes in general (Duco, 2005;Reyes, 2005;Valleser & Narvasa, 2017) and in combat sports in particular (Maciejewski & Callanta, 2016;Maciejewski & Pietkiewicz, 2016;Valleser, 2016;Lariosa, Gozdowski, Pietkiewicz, & Maciejewski, 2017). In the Philippines, the University Athletic Association of the Philippines (UAAP) arguably features the best collegiate Taekwondo athletes in the country but no study as of yet has observed their common injuries. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the common injuries of collegiate Taekwondo Kyorugi athletes in the Philippines. A total of 70 collegiate Taekwondo Kyorugi athletes participated in the study. There were a total of 342 injuries reported with a 100% incidence of at least one injury among the athletes. The most frequently reported injury types are sprains (30%), inflammation (18%) and strains (9%) while injuries most commonly occurred in the ankles (18%), hands (12%), feet (12%) and knees (10%). The high risk for injury is consistent with related studies on injuries in combat sports in general. The trend in type of injury and anatomical regions at risk is also similar to other studies specifically on Taekwondo injuries. As is common in combat sports, Taekwondo carries an inherently high risk of injury but this risk can be managed with proper coaching and sufficient protective equipment.
... The descriptive data in Table 1 reported by previous studies of [5,[11][12][13][14]. Tennis injuries may occur in many musculoskeletal areas but will most likely be in the ankles, lower back and shoulders. ...
Article
The most injuries of racket sports players involve a critical association between the movement tasks and training programs strategies. This mini review highlights on the common injuries and anatomical regions of tennis, badminton and squash players injuries. The large majority of injuries, when recognized early on, can be prevented effectively with minor adjustments in the training programs, rehabilitation of essential muscles and flexibility imbalances, and awareness to proper footwear. According to the review data of previous studies, the majority of common injuries in racket sports related to the lower limb and observed with higher rate in badminton when compared to tennis and squash sports.
Research
Full-text available
Sažetak: Cilj ovog rada jeste prikaz morfoloških karakteristika i sastava tijela profesionalnih tenisera. Ovom studijom je obuhvaćeno 10 najbolje plasiranih tenisera na ATP listi. Svim ispitanicima su izmjerene dvije antropometrijske mjere: tjelesna visina i tjelesna masa. Izračunata je i jedna varijabla za procjenu sastava tijela: index tjelesne mase (BMI). Za svaku varijablu prikazani su sledeći deskriptivni statistički parametri: aritmetička sredina, standardna devijacija, minimalne i maksimalne vrijednosti. Aritmetička sredina tjelesne visine kod tenisera je iznosila 191,1cm, a tjelesne mase 83.8kg. Maksimalna tjelesna visina kod ispitanika iznosi 198cm, dok je minimalna tjelesna visina iznosi 180cm. Maksimalna tjelesna masa iznosi 95kg, dok je minimalna tjelesna masa iznosi 70kg. Na osnovu rezultata istraživanja tenisera aritmetička sredina indeksa tjelesne mase je iznosila 23,8kg/m² što ukazuje da nemaju prekomjernu tjelesnu masu, odnosno da su normalno uhranjeni. Maksimalni BMI kod ispitanih tenisera iznosi 24,85 kg/m² dok minimalni BMI iznosi 21,60 kg/m². Ovi podaci pružaju uvid u trenutno stanje uhranjenosti tenisera i treneri mogu biti zadovoljni sa stanjem svojih igrača. Ključne riječi: morfološke karakteristike, indeks tjelesne mase, teniseri
Research
Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (MJSSM) is a print (ISSN 1800-8755) and electronic scientific journal (eISSN 1800-8763) aims to present easy access to the scientific knowledge for sport-conscious individuals using contemporary methods. The purpose is to minimize the problems like the delays in publishing process of the articles or to acquire previous issues by drawing advantage from electronic medium. Hence, it provides: Open-access and freely accessible online; Fast publication time; Peer review by expert, practicing researchers; Post-publication tools to indicate quality and impact; Community-based dialogue on articles; Worldwide media coverage. MJSSM is published biannually, in September and March of each year. MJSSM publishes original scientific papers, review papers, editorials, short reports, peer review-fair review, as well as invited papers and award papers in the fields of Sports Science and Medicine, as well as it can function as an open discussion forum on significant issues of current interest. MJSSM covers all aspects of sports science and medicine; all clinical aspects of exercise, health, and sport; exercise physiology and biophysical investigation of sports performance; sport biomechanics; sports nutrition; rehabilitation, physiotherapy; sports psychology; sport pedagogy, sport history, sport philosophy, sport sociology, sport management; and all aspects of scientific support of the sports coaches from the natural, social and humanistic side. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine is official journal of Montenegrin Sports Academy and is jointly published by Faculty for Sport and Physical Education (University of Montenegro).
Article
Full-text available
Basketball is a team sport that contains varied activities and various technical skills that a player must perform during the game. Basketball player required to perform a combinations of speed, agility and jumping abilities to achieve the best performance. SAQ training is known as one of the most effective training methods to improve performance in team sports. This study aimed to identify the effect of the of SAQ exercises training on the level of physical fitness and skillful performance levels of basketball players. Sixteen female basketball players was included in this study. The mean of their age, weight and height were (18.29 ± 1.17) years, (63.91± 1.25) kg, and (165 ± 2.33) cm, respectively. Participants was divided into two groups, experimental and control. All participants agreed to participate in the study and were familiar with SAQ training. Pre - posttest measurements were taken. The most important results obtained from this study that 8 weeks of SAQ exercises training was effective on improving physical fitness level and skill performance in basketball players. SAQ training showed an improvement in muscles strength and some skills performance.
Presentation
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are a growing cause of concern, as these injuries can have serious consequences for the athlete with a greatly increased risk of early osteoarthrosis. Using specific training programmes, it may be possible to reduce the incidence of knee and ankle injuries. However, it is not known which programme components are the key to preventing knee and ankle injuries or how the exercises work to reduce injury risk. Our ability to design specific prevention programmes, whether through training or other preventive measures, is currently limited by an incomplete understanding of the causes of injuries. A multifactorial approach should be used to account for all the factors involved-that is, the internal and external risk factors as well as the inciting event (the injury mechanism). Although such models have been presented previously, we emphasise the need to use a comprehensive model, which accounts for the events leading to the injury situation (playing situation, player and opponent behaviour), as well as to include a description of whole body and joint biomechanics at the time of injury.
Article
Tennis is a sport enjoyed by millions of players worldwide. With the large number of both recreational and professional players, there are many tennis-specific injuries which are commonly seen. This review discusses the prevalence of tennis injuries, the biomechanical demands of tennis strokes, the kinetic chain of the tennis serve, as well as specific injuries seen in the tennis player. Specific areas of injury discussed are the shoulder, elbow, wrist, abdomen, back, hip, knee, ankle, and pediatric-specific pathologies. A brief discussion on presentation, physical examination, work-up, and treatment plan is presented for each injury discussed.
Article
The aim of this study was to prospectively make a survey of injuries in junior players from a Swedish local tennis club during a 2-year period in relation to gender, anatomic location, month of the year when injured, injury type and injury severity. All 12-18 years old members in a tennis club playing more than twice weekly were asked to participate. Fifty-five junior tennis players, 35 boys and 20 girls accepted to participate. All tennis-related injuries were prospectively registered and evaluated. Time of exposure for playing tennis was recorded. Thirty-nine players sustained 100 injuries, 73 in boys and 27 in girls. Injury incidence for boys was 1.7 injuries/1000 h of tennis playing time and for girls 0.6 injuries/1000 h. Ankle sprains, low back pain and knee injuries were the most common ones. Sixty-five percent were new injuries, and the majority of these injuries were located at the knee joint followed by the ankle joint, while most of the recurrent injuries were found in the lumbar spine. Boys suffered mainly from low back pain and ankle injuries and girls from low back pain and knee injuries. Forty-three percent of the injuries caused absence from tennis for more than 4 weeks and 31% more than 1 week.
Article
Eight matched men's and women's intercollegiate varsity teams were studied prospectively for one academic year to determine the incidence of athletic injury and resulting disability. Sports in which both men and women participated in a comparable manner were chosen: basketball, fencing, gymnastics, swimming, tennis, indoor track, outdoor track, and volleyball. Men (232) and women (150) were injured at comparable rates, 42 percent versus 39 percent. When adjusted for exposure time, seven of the eight sports continued to show similar injury rates. Women gymnasts, however, experienced .82 injuries per 100 person-hours of exposure as compared to .21 injuries for the men (p = .0001). Disability was greater in women gymnasts, 7.44 days per 100 person-hours versus 1.15 days for men (p = .0004). Percent of season lost to injury was also greater for women gymnasts. Types and sites of injury were similar for men and women, with sprains and strains accounting for over half of all injuries. We found no evidence for gender differences in matched sports except for gymnastics, in which technically diverse events may have accounted for the differences observed.
Article
In an 8-year retrospective study, 631 injuries due to the racquet sports of squash (59%), tennis (21%) and badminton (20%) were seen in a sports injury clinic, males predominating (58 to 66%). The proportion of squash injuries was higher than expected and probably relates to higher physical stress and risk of contact in this sport. Also they occurred mainly in persons over 25 years (59%) i.e. the reverse for sport in general. Acute traumatic injuries were seen especially in squash players, a majority affecting the knee, lumbar region, muscles and ankle. Tennis injuries differed most with lateral epicondylitis, patello-femoral pain and lumbar disc prolapse being relatively common. The badminton injury pattern overlapped the others. Lower limb injuries predominated in all three. Detailed assessment of 106 cases showed many to be new, infrequent, social players. Poor warm-up was a common factor in new and established players. The importance of these findings is discussed.
Article
With the knowledge base of normal anatomy, development, biomechanics, and differential diagnosis, the sports medicine professional can treat injured young athletes with greater efficiency. In addition, microtraumatic injuries may be prevented by emphasizing safe parameters of participation, proper throwing techniques, and careful monitoring of the amount of practice time and intensity. Gymnasts using apparatus should always have spotters. The height of towers and basket tosses by cheerleaders should be limited by age and ability. Proper pitching techniques, not the fastest pitch or youngest curve, should be taught to baseball players. "Play it safe" should be the rule. Finally, by establishing an early and precise diagnosis, potential complications from injuries can be lessened.
Article
Knee injuries are relatively common in tennis, comprising about one fifth of all tennis injuries. The most common injuries are meniscus injuries and degenerative cartilage problems in middle aged and elderly recreational players. In younger individuals, patellofemoral pain syndromes are the most frequent and intriguing problems. Knee overuse syndromes occur more commonly on surfaces such as all weather concrete because they are more fatiguing and have higher friction than clay surfaces do.
Article
The purpose of this chapter is to critically review the existing studies on the epidemiology of tennis injuries in pediatric athletes, present suggestions for the prevention of injury based on these studies, and present suggestions for future research. Data sources included published articles on pediatric tennis injuries, a previously published review by the authors, and unpublished data from one of the authors (MS). Most studies of tennis injuries show that they are of microtrauma origin, develop over time, and result in short times of absence from play. They involve all joints of the body, but have a higher incidence in the shoulder, back, and knee. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors may be related to the incidence of injury. These factors may be evaluated by a comprehensive pre-participation exam, and preventive strategies may be implemented. Most injury studies in pediatric tennis players vary in the population studied, methods of injury evaluation, and risk factors studied. Consequently, few specific conclusions can be derived about the causative factors. Further longitudinal prospective studies need to be done to completely discover all the factors involved in producing tennis injuries.