Arthritis is an inflammatory disease of diarthrodial joints and is associated with swollen inflamed joints, disruption of joints, and loss of integrity of articular cartilage and synovial joints.
The current review intended to examine the data on the epidemiology, causes, clinical diagnosis, and prevention and control of different types of arthritis and on the use of medicinal plants in gouty arthritis.
The research team performed a literature review, searching relevant literature databases, including bioRxiv, medRxiv, Google Scholar, Embase, PsychINFO, and PubMed. The search terms were arthritis, diarthodial joints, use of medicinal plants in gouty arthritis, and synovial joints.
The study took place in the main library of the University of Sargodha in Sargodha, Pakistan.
The research team identified 135 studies, and eventually 92 unique academic publications were included in the analysis. Arthritis can develop and progress in any musculoskeletal joint, and most commonly occurs in knees, hips, shoulders, and hands. Major risk factors for arthritis include age, obesity, trauma, other diseases, and smoking. Arthritis is classified into various types, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), gouty arthritis, septic arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). RA and OA are the most common types worldwide. RA is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune cells attack the joints. OA develops due to damage of cartilage, tissues, and joints due to age, obesity, or stress on joints. Gouty arthritis develops due to hyperuricemia; deposits of monosodium urate crystals can lead to gouty arthritis. Septic arthritis occurs due to a microbial infection in synovial joints because in synovial joints the basement membrane is absent. PsA develops due to the psoriasis-skin disease.
The current review showed that different types of arthritis has different causes and pathogeneses. Pain in joints is a major and common symptom in all types of arthritis. Arthritis is managed pharmacologically and nonpharmacologically. Treatment is different for each class of arthritis according to its cause and symptoms.