Despite the exceptional performance record of current nuclear plants, no new nuclear plant has been licensed in the United States in over 25 years. Recent initiatives, such as DOE's Nuclear Power 2010 Program, and projections that the U.S. will need at least 350,000 megawatts of new generating capacity by the year 2030, the equivalent of hundreds of new plants, have resulted in a flurry of ... [Show full abstract] activity to site and license new nuclear plants. More than 15 companies are in the process of preparing for or obtaining Combined License Applications (COLAs) for over 30 new reactors at 25 proposed new plant locations. One of the primary elements of a new plant license application is the characterization of site-specific meteorology and a demonstration that plant operation can meet rigid limitations for airborne radiological impacts. A cornerstone of the demonstration of compliance with these requirements is the use of multiple years of on-site meteorological data when predicting relative concentration and deposition impacts of radionuclide emissions during plant operation and hypothetical accident scenarios. Based on Progress Energy's recent experience obtained during the siting and licensing process for two recently proposed nuclear power generating facilities in North Carolina and Florida, this paper describes some of the meteorological related considerations that should be taken into account, including the following: • Regulatory requirements • Lead time to obtain valid on-site data • Designing an on-site meteorological monitoring system • Siting the monitoring system • Operational considerations • Data recovery and quality • Physical influences on wind measurements • Effects of time and spatial averaging on meteorological parameters • Calm/light wind influences on the data • Other meteorological conditions that can adversely influence dispersion modeling of radionuclide emissions The consideration of these and other factors during the nuclear power plant siting and licensing process can play an important role in the early stages of the plant development process.