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Monitoring and depth of strategy use in computer-based learning environments for science and history

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Abstract

Background: Self-regulated learning (SRL) models position metacognitive monitoring as central to SRL processing and predictive of student learning outcomes (Winne & Hadwin, 2008; Zimmerman, 2000). A body of research evidence also indicates that depth of strategy use, ranging from surface to deep processing, is predictive of learning performance. Aims: In this study, we investigated the relationships among the frequency of metacognitive monitoring and the utilization of deep and surface-level strategies, and the connections between these SRL processes and learning outcomes across two academic domains, science and history. Sample: This was a secondary data analysis of two studies. The first study sample was 170 undergraduate students from a University in the south-eastern United States. The second study sample consisted of 40 US high school students in the same area. Methods: We collected think-aloud protocol SRL and knowledge measure data and conducted both structural equation modelling and path analysis to investigate our research questions. Results: Findings showed across both studies and two distinct academic domains, students who enacted more frequent monitoring also enacted more frequent deep strategies resulting in better performance on academic evaluations. Conclusions: These findings suggest the importance of measuring not only what depth of strategies learners use, but also the degree to which they monitor their learning. Attention to both is needed in research and practice.

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... Firstly, sufficient resources (Seufert, 2019) seem to help students consider relationships among content, which is a central element in SRL (Moos & Azevedo, 2008). Secondly, timed tasks are often used in SRL research (e.g., Bannert et al., 2014;Moos & Azevedo, 2008;Deekens et al., 2018), limiting the number of activities that can be performed and imposing an extraneous load on the learner. Indeed, increased time pressure has been associated with increased extraneous cognitive load (Barrouillet et al., 2007) and less-effective cognitive activities (e.g., Sidi, et al., 2017). ...
... In both studies, the SRL activities labelled as monitoring (part of metacognition) were positively associated with high cognition, which in turn were positively associated with post-test performance on both a declarative (domain test) and conceptual knowledge (essay) measure. Low cognitive activities negatively associated with essay quality (Deekens et al., 2018). Although surface knowledge of independent concepts The Dynamics Between Self-Regulated Learning and Learning Outcomes:… (domain test) and deep knowledge of connected concepts (essay) was assessed, they were not contrasted with surface knowledge of connected concepts and deep knowledge of independent concepts. ...
... This means it is impossible to engage in knowledge construction when engaging in processing, which can explain a negative relation between processing and domain knowledge at posttest. In the present study, we used a timed task commonly used in SRL research (e.g., Moos & Azevedo 2008;Deekens et al., 2018). ...
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Self-regulated learning (SRL) has been linked to improved learning and corresponding learning outcomes. However, there is a need for more precise insights into how SRL during learning contributes to specific learning outcomes. We operationalised four learning outcomes that varied on two dimensions: structure/connectedness and level/deepness of knowledge. Specifically, we assessed how surface knowledge measured with a domain knowledge test (independent concepts) and a concept map (connected concepts), and deep knowledge measured with a transfer test (independent concepts) and an essay (connected concepts) were associated with frequencies of SRL activities during learning, assessed by concurrent think aloud, while taking into account students’ metacognitive and prior knowledge. Forty-four university students performed a 45-minute problem-solving task integrating information about three topics to write a vision essay on the future of education. Results of the pre-/post-test analysis revealed a learning gain in domain knowledge and concept maps. Low cognitive activities were associated with all knowledge measures, except the concept maps and transfer. Furthermore, specific low cognitive activities showed either a positive or negative association; for example, processing showed a positive association with essay, but a negative association with domain knowledge. High cognitive activities were associated with the essay (connected concepts), but not with the concept map. Both metacognitive activities and knowledge were related to transfer. To conclude, taking the level and structure of knowledge into account helps specify the association between SRL activities during learning and the related learning outcomes.
... Previous empirical research examined monitoring and strategy use separately. However, recently interest in exploring how these processes interact with each other during the learning process has been growing (Ben-Eliyahu and Bernacki 2015; Binbasaran Tuysuzoglu and Greene 2014; Deekens et al. 2018). ...
... Previous research on monitoring focused, for example, on monitoring accuracy (Thiede et al. 2009), although educational researchers considered monitoring in a broader sense, including different types of monitoring, in their studies, such as monitoring of goals (Harkin et al. 2016), strategy use (Deekens et al. 2018), and motivation and emotions (Griffin et al. 2013;Wolters 2003). That is, monitoring has a broad focus, especially in the context of SRL and SSRL. ...
... Monitoring is central for regulation. For example, Deekens et al. (2018) found that students who enacted deeper strategies also monitored their learning more frequently, resulting in better performance. Binbasaran Tuysuzoglu and Greene (2014) studied the relationship between metacognitive monitoring and control in a hypermedia learning environment. ...
Article
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In collaborative learning situations, monitoring is needed to maintain common progress toward shared goals. The present study aimed to analyze group-level monitoring events, as well as groups’ reactions to these events, to identify instances of adaptive regulation and maladaptive behavior. Three dimensions of monitoring events were qualitatively coded from video data: the monitoring target, valence, and phase, which provided insight into identifying critical moments during the collaborative process when regulation is needed. By looking at what kind of monitoring the groups engaged in, and how the groups progressed after the need for regulation arose, different types of adaptive regulation and maladaptive behavior were distinguished. In addition, group-level physiological state transitions in the heart rate were explored to see whether changes in regulation (adaptive regulation and maladaptive behavior) were reflected in the state transitions. Nine groups of three students each participated in a collaborative exam for an advanced high school physics course, during which video and heart rate data were collected. The results showed that on-track sequences were the most common, followed by adaptive sequences. The temporality of these sequences was examined, and four categories of group progress are described with case examples. A correlation analysis showed that physiological state transitions were positively correlated with on-track sequences. The opportunities and limitations of using three dimensions of monitoring and heart-rate based physiological state transitions to study adaptive regulation are discussed.
... The vast majority of empirical research has been focused on the predictive validity of various SRL processes, either individually (e.g., practice testing; Adesope, Trevisan, & Sundararajan, 2017) or aggregated in some manner (Cleary & Kitsantas, 2017;Deekens, Greene, & Lobczowski, 2018). Less has been done to investigate the relationships between various SRL processes using objective measures, such as observation and performance (Ben-Eliyahu & Bernacki, 2015), though existent findings show that learners who accurately evaluate and calibrate their comprehension (Alexander, 2013) (2018) found more frequent enactment of monitoring processes predicted more frequent use of deep-level strategies (i.e., strategies that foster elaboration and recall), which in turn predicted learning performance, above and beyond the effect of prior knowledge. ...
... To test relations among knowledge and SRL process variables, we posited a path model similar to one tested in Deekens et al. (2018). In this model, prior knowledge (i.e., essay pretest) and previous relevant coursework predicted the frequency of monitoring enacted during learning (i.e., FOR-and JOU-), which in turn predicted the frequency of different kinds of strategies enacted (i.e., deep-and surface-level strategy use; Dinsmore, 2017), which in turn predicted performance on the knowledge essay posttest. ...
... As expected, pretest and posttest essay scores were positively related. More frequent use of deep-level strategies was positively related to posttest essay scores, whereas more frequent use of surface-level strategies was negatively related, again as would be expected given past research (e.g., Deekens et al., 2018;Dinsmore, 2017). Verbalizations coded as FOR-(e.g., "I do not think I have seen this before") were positively related to the frequency of deep-level strategy use, whereas verbalizations of JOU-(e.g., "I do not understand what I am reading") were negatively related to frequency of surface-level strategy use. ...
Article
First-year courses have been used to bolster college student success, but empirical evidence on their efficacy is mixed. We investigated whether a first-year science of learning course, focused on self-regulated learning, would benefit first-generation college students. We randomly assigned students to a treatment condition involving enrollment in the course, a comparison condition in which students had access to online course materials only, or a control condition. From this larger study, we recruited 43 students to participate in a laboratory task involving learning about the circulatory system with a computer. We found that treatment and comparison students experienced greater changes in conceptual knowledge than the control group, and we found differences in the enactment of monitoring and strategy use across conditions.
... For instance, framing their study within self-regulated learning or SRL, Deekens, Greene, and Lobczowski (2018) re-analysed think-aloud data from two investigations as the means to establish a statistical, if not a theoretical, relation between depth of processing and frequency of monitoring and, ultimately, high-school and college students' performance on history and science tasks. Operating from a different framework, Catrysse et al. (2018) used first-year psychology students' responses on the Inventory of Learning Patterns-Short Version (Donche & Van Petegem, 2008) to craft learner profiles. ...
... Similarly, Deekens et al. (2018) used think-aloud data from high-school and college students to explore the relations between the depth and frequency of cognitive strategy use and the frequency of regulatory behaviour. Echoing Dinsmore and Zoellner (2018), Deekens et al. concluded that focusing only on depth or frequency of strategy use was insufficient to represent the nature of effective learning in those studies. ...
... For example, in the Azevedo et al. (2005) study, Microsoft Encarta materials on the circulatory system, like those used by Deekens et al. (2018), were modified to test the effects of three kinds of scaffolds embedded in the CBLE. What is relevant to this commentary is that these researchers discussed their procedures and outcomes in terms of self-regulation, despite the fact that their participants displayed no self-initiated regulation. ...
Article
Purpose: The primary goal of this commentary was to consider the future directions that researchers dealing with levels and regulation of strategies and with approaches to learning may wish to pursue in the years to come. Procedure: In order to accomplish this goal, the first step was to look for any common ground shared by authors contributing to this Special Issue. That common ground represented a convergence of evidence for these programmes of research; in effect, where they intersect. Next, theoretical, methodological, and data-analytic barriers that have long impeded progress within and across these research communities were identified. Outcome: Recommendations were offered that might serve to diminish or remove those existing barriers and, thus, open new avenues of inquiry.
... The second family, SRL, is represented by three contributions. The study by Deekens et al. (2018) did not choose a particular SRL model, but referred to the shared premises between the models. Scheiter et al. (2018) made reference to Boekaerts' (1999) three-layered model of self-regulated learning (i.e., the regulation of the self, of the learning process, and of the processing modes). ...
... Interestingly, in my view, this would not even require new data collections. Multiple researchers from the SAL domain could independently code data on metacognitive processing that was already collected in studies on SRL or MDL (Deekens et al., 2018;Dinsmore & Zoellner, 2018;Parkinson & Dinsmore, 2018), while the authors from these studies could flag those statements that are not in line with the pattern of a self-regulated learner. Based on these data, each researcher could, for each student, form a judgement of the metacognitive processing for the given task (e.g., beneficial for learning, partially beneficial, not beneficial, or detrimental). ...
... The studies from the SRL and MDL perspectives looked at the level of the tasks (i.e., situational orientation, Deekens et al., 2018;Dinsmore & Zoellner, 2018;Parkinson & Dinsmore, 2018;Scheiter et al., 2018;Winne, 2018). It is worth noting that, although numerous studies in the SAL domain have examined learning at the course level (Asikainen & Gijbels, 2017;Baeten, Kyndt, Struyven, & Dochy, 2010;Kyndt, Dochy, Struyven, & Cascallar, 2011), this grain size was not present in the seven contributions. ...
... The studies in this special issue primarily address learning at the university level (Catrysse et al., 2018;Dinsmore & Zoellner, 2018;Fryer & Vermunt, 2018;Scheiter, Schubert, & Sch€ uler, 2018). Parkinson and Dinsmore (2018) address these issues with high school students, while Deekens, Greene, and Lobczowski (2018) addresses the core questions with both university and high school students. Notably, each of these studies examines a specific learning situation or task, except for Fryer and Vermunt (2018) who examine Japanese university students across an entire year. ...
... Studies in the special issue addressed learning about a variety of domains that included both psychology (Catrysse et al., 2018) and science (Parkinson & Dinsmore, 2018). In addition to linear text, studies also investigated the core questions when learning through hypermedia (Deekens et al., 2018) and multimedia sources (Scheiter et al., 2018). Dinsmore and Zoellner on the other hand examined the core questions while students were engaged in an activity simulating scientific tasks. ...
... With regard to how motivation or perceptions influence the relation between metacognitive/self-regulatory and cognitive processing, two of the studies examined the role of effort regulation (Deekens et al., 2018;Fryer & Vermunt, 2018). Deekens et al., 2018 approached this effort regulation through the lens of self-regulated learning, while Fryer and Vermunt (2018) examined it through the lens of Student Approaches to Learning. ...
Article
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ENTIRE SPECIAL ISSUE IS OPEN ACCESS--->>https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/toc/10.1111/(ISSN)2044-8279/free-sample
... If the content of the notes was in line with the rubric or with what the students intended to write in the essay, then this explanation also holds for reviewing notes. Reading notes, as part of so-called deep processing, has been previously found to be associated with learning outcomes (Deekens et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Self-regulation is an essential skill for lifelong learning. Research has shown that self-regulated learning (SRL) leads to greater academic achievement and sustainable education, but students often struggle with SRL. Scaffolds are widely reported as an effective and efficient support method for SRL. To further improve digital scaffolds’ effectiveness, real-time detection of learning behavior can be used to personalize scaffolds. Therefore, the present study aimed to inform the field of scaffolding SRL by reporting on the design and evaluation of digital scaffolds. We present decisions made during the design process of personalized scaffolds to inform future scaffold designs. We evaluated how scaffolds were personalized based on real-time detection SRL, how university students respond to the scaffolds (i.e., compliance), and how this response is related to learning outcomes (i.e., quality of an essay). The research design was a pre-posttest with three conditions (no, generalized (same for all), or personalized scaffolds). A 45-minute reading and writing task was used, during which SRL processes were recorded in real-time. Findings revealed that different real-time SRL processes could be used to personalize scaffolds, meaning that we were able to personalize the content of scaffold based on students’ actual learning behavior. In addition, students in the personalized condition complied more with the scaffolds than students in the other conditions. This compliance with the scaffolds was generally associated with better learning outcomes. To conclude, our approach showed how design decisions could be evaluated and provided insight into the personalization of scaffolds.
... , and the contributions to this special issue also base their work on different but related conceptualisations of SRL. Learners capable of self-regulating their learning tend to show improved learning outcomes Deekens et al., 2018). However, students tend to struggle with SRL (Azevedo et al., 2010), suggesting a need to support the use of effective SRL during learning. ...
Article
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It is important for learners to engage in self-regulated learning (SRL), as it predicts academic achievement in a wide range of disciplines. However, SRL can be difficult to enact. Therefore, scaffolds have been designed to support SRL. In our introductory article to this special issue on facilitating SRL with scaffolds, we present a framework to categorize different scaffolds, place the contributions to this special issue in the framework, present highlights from the contributions, and conclude with a discussion on designing scaffolds to facilitate SRL.
... Training focused on knowledge of cognitive strategies and skills related to regulation of behavior and environment were predictors of success; metacognitive knowledge failed to attain a statistically significant relationship with exam scores. We did not find direct predictive effects of knowledge of metacognitive processes, which runs counter to assumptions in frameworks of SRL (Winne & Hadwin, 1998) and laboratory studies where engagement in metacognitive monitoring and control strategies predict success in biology tasks (Deekens et al., 2018;Binbasaran & Greene, 2015). In addition to the independent utility of individual cognitive strategies or methods of managing one's environment or establishing cues to prompt behavior, self-regulated learning involves a collection of processes that rely upon one another to impact learning. ...
Article
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Undergraduate STEM lecture courses enroll hundreds who must master declarative, conceptual, and applied learning objectives. To support them, instructors have turned to active learning designs that require students to engage in self-regulated learning (SRL). Undergraduates struggle with SRL, and universities provide courses, workshops, and digital training to scaffold SRL skill development and enactment. We examined two theory-aligned designs of digital skill trainings that scaffold SRL and how students’ demonstration of metacognitive knowledge of learning skills predicted exam performance in biology courses where training took place. In Study 1, students’ (n = 49) responses to training activities were scored for quality and summed by training topic and level of understanding. Behavioral and environmental regulation knowledge predicted midterm and final exam grades; knowledge of SRL processes did not. Declarative and conceptual levels of skill-mastery predicted exam performance; application-level knowledge did not. When modeled by topic at each level of understanding, declarative knowledge of behavioral and environmental regulation and conceptual knowledge of cognitive strategies predicted final exam performance. In Study 2 (n = 62), knowledge demonstrated during a redesigned video-based multimedia version of behavioral and environmental regulation again predicted biology exam performance. Across studies, performance on training activities designed in alignment with skill-training models predicted course performances and predictions were sustained in a redesign prioritizing learning efficiency. Training learners’ SRL skills –and specifically cognitive strategies and environmental regulation– benefited their later biology course performances across studies, which demonstrate the value of providing brief, digital activities to develop learning skills. Ongoing refinement to materials designed to develop metacognitive processing and learners’ ability to apply skills in new contexts can increase benefits.
... Desde este enfoque, la comprensión del contenido es muy baja o nula. En cambio, el uso de estrategias con un enfoque cognitivo más profundo se lleva a cabo en situaciones donde el objetivo principal es comprender el contenido para su posterior aplicación en la resolución de problemas (Deekens et al., 2018). Durante la ESO, la estrategia de desarrollo se considera una de las principales a adquirir, ya que favorece el aprendizaje generativo (Rodríguez et al., 2017). ...
Article
Factores cognitivos, motivacionales y sociales se relacionan en la investigación sobre los procesos de aprendizaje. En conjunto, influyen en la obtención de los mejores resultados académicos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar el valor predictivo de las estrategias de aprendizaje, las metas, los estilos educativos y las expectativas académicas parentales sobre el rendimiento en ESO. De forma más novedosa, se incorporan las percepciones mutuas de estudiantes y progenitores sobre dichas variables. Para llevarlo a cabo se diseñó un estudio descriptivo, correlacional e inferencial con metodología cuantitativa. Se administraron cuatro cuestionarios a una muestra de 358 estudiantes con edades comprendidas entre los 11 y los 17 años de un centro público de ESO. La versión parental de los mismos instrumentos fue utilizada con 158 madres y padres del mismo centro educativo. Entre los resultados obtenidos destaca el del análisis de regresión respecto del rendimiento. El 62.5% de la varianza del rendimiento es explicado por cinco variables: Expectativa parental percibida, Regulación del esfuerzo, Meta de superación del ego percibida, Meta de protección del ego percibida en sentido negativo y Estilo permisivo percibido. El perfil del estudiante que consigue los mejores resultados académicos autorregula de manera adecuada el esfuerzo necesario para la adquisición de conocimiento, percibe altas expectativas académicas parentales, es percibido con metas de rendimiento y su entorno familiar es principalmente afectivo. Este artículo concluye con algunas recomendaciones a tener en cuenta en la práctica educativa como, por ejemplo, reforzar la orientación y/o formación parental en ESO, e incidir en aspectos estratégicos y motivacionales de los estudiantes.
... From a methodological perspective, observations and in-depth interviews can produce deep explorations of SRL metacognitive practices in computer-supported learning (Ferreira et al., 2017;Postholm, 2011;Robson, 2016). Past qualitative approaches to examining computer-based SRL include: (a) discourse analysis of virtual learning interactive communities where a reconciliation of individualized with collaborative learning was enacted (Delfino, et al., 2008); (b) triangulation of interviews from elementary and middle school students, teachers, and administrators which revealed positive correlations between personalized computer learning and persistence in completing reading assignments (Underwood & Banyard, 2008); (c) case study for primary school students where video-engaging recall produced fewer monitoring activities in reading (Pratt & Martin, 2017); (d) transcriptions of students' speaking aloud utterances demonstrating that student engaging in a hypermedia-learning environment contributed to deep-strategy use (Deekens et al., 2018). The current study extends previous qualitative research by incorporating natural accounts of elementary-aged students as they complete computer and paper-pen reading assignments. ...
Article
Self-regulated learning (SRL) and metacognitive processes are important in education because they contribute to effective learning and improved academic performance. Metacognitive SRL may be facilitated by the implementation of computer technology. This qualitative study examined the presence and use of metacognitive SLR processes among elementary school students as they completed computer- and paper-based reading assignments. Students in two after-school programs were recruited from a public school district in a southeastern region of the United States (U.S.). The participants consisted of 52 elementary students in Grades 2-5. Students participated in two, counterbalanced, conditions that involved computer- and paper-based reading assignments. Observations and semistructured interviews were conducted. The results indicated that students were more likely to apply metacognitive SRL skills when reading on paper than reading on a computer. Overall, students showed signs of planning more in the paper than in the computer condition but student behaviors and responses differed between grades. Monitoring practices appeared in both the computer- and the paper-based reading assignment, with monitoring connected with background knowledge in Grades 2 and 3 but reading content in Grades 4 and 5. Control processes such as retrying and representing graphically were more common in the computer- than in the paper-based reading across all grades. Students used their score in a reading assignment as an evaluation tool to assess performance in the computer- and paper-based reading condition. These findings suggest that the utilization of prior information, integration of multimedia and verbal signals, and comfort level with the reading medium all influenced students' SRL decision-making.
... From a methodological perspective, observations and in-depth interviews can produce deep explorations of SRL metacognitive practices in computer-supported learning (Ferreira et al., 2017;Postholm, 2011;Robson, 2016). Past qualitative approaches to examining computer-based SRL include: (a) discourse analysis of virtual learning interactive communities where a reconciliation of individualized with collaborative learning was enacted (Delfino, et al., 2008); (b) triangulation of interviews from elementary and middle school students, teachers, and administrators which revealed positive correlations between personalized computer learning and persistence in completing reading assignments (Underwood & Banyard, 2008); (c) case study for primary school students where video-engaging recall produced fewer monitoring activities in reading (Pratt & Martin, 2017); (d) transcriptions of students' speaking aloud utterances demonstrating that student engaging in a hypermedia-learning environment contributed to deep-strategy use (Deekens et al., 2018). The current study extends previous qualitative research by incorporating natural accounts of elementary-aged students as they complete computer and paper-pen reading assignments. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate metacognitive self-regulated learning (SRL) differences in computer- and paper-based reading assignments across elementary students. Students in two after-school programs in a southeastern U.S. public school district were recruited. The final sample consisted of 48 students in Grades 2–5 who participated in two counterbalanced conditions involving a computer- and a paper-based reading assignment. The study employed a 2 x 4 (condition-by-grade) mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followup tests to examine metacognitive SRL differences between conditions and grades. The results indicate that elementary students used various metacognitive SRL skills across both conditions. The mixed-model ANOVA results show a significant interaction in control processes in paper-based reading for students in fifth grade, a significant main effect of condition in evaluation practices in computer-based reading for all grades, and a significant main effect of condition in conditional knowledge in the paper reading assignment for all grades. The results suggest that students can benefit from focused instruction to apply metacognitive SRL skills between the two reading formats.
... Individuals engage in metacognitive monitoring when they self-assess current learning states against a preset standard or criterion (Morphew, 2021); moreover, whether students make accurate judgements determines the effectiveness of subsequent regulatory activities and thus learning achievements . For instance, learners who achieve accurate metacognitive monitoring are more likely to identify the ineffective strategies that hamper their progress and select more effective strategies (Deekens et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Background Computer‐based scaffolding has been intensively used to facilitate students' self‐regulated learning (SRL). However, most previous studies investigated how computer‐based scaffoldings affected the cognitive aspect of SRL, such as knowledge gains and understanding levels. In contrast, more evidence is needed to examine the effects of scaffolding on the metacognitive dimension and efficiency outcome of SRL. Objectives This study aims to examine the role of computer‐based scaffolding in students' metacognitive monitoring and problem‐solving efficiency. Methods Seventy‐two medical students completed two clinical reasoning tasks in BioWorld, an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) designed for promoting medical students' diagnostic expertise. During solving the tasks, students were asked to report their confidence judgements about proposed diagnoses. Computer trace data were used to identify task completion time (CT) and students' use of three scaffolding types, that is, conceptual, strategic, and metacognitive. Then we calculated students' metacognitive monitoring accuracy (i.e., calibration) and problem‐solving efficiency. Results and Conclusions One‐sample t‐test demonstrated that students inaccurately monitored their learning processes and were overconfident in both tasks. Linear mixed‐effects models (LMMs) indicated that the intensive use of metacognitive scaffolding positively predicted students' metacognitive monitoring accuracy. Moreover, strategic scaffolding was negatively related to problem‐solving efficiency, whereas metacognitive scaffolding positively influenced problem‐solving efficiency. Takeaways This study shows the importance of metacognitive scaffolding in improving the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring and problem‐solving efficiency. Findings from this study provide new insights for instructors and ITS developers to optimise the design of scaffoldings.
... Those were Planning and Monitoring, metacognitive processes that are often difficult to reveal with trace data and rich think aloud protocols can be more helpful to this end (Deekens et al., 2018;Moos & Azevedo, 2008). For instance, we note that few learners verbally expressed occurrences of the Planning process when developing their plans using the Planner tool. ...
Article
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Background Many learners struggle to productively self‐regulate their learning. To support the learners' self‐regulated learning (SRL) and boost their achievement, it is essential to understand the cognitive and metacognitive processes that underlie SRL. To measure these processes, contemporary SRL researchers have largely utilized think aloud or trace data, however, not without challenges. Objectives In this paper, we present the findings of a study that investigated how concurrent analysis and integration of think aloud and trace data could advance the measurement of SRL and assist in better understanding the mechanisms of SRL processes, especially those details that remain obscured by observing each data channel individually. Methods We concurrently collected think aloud and trace data generated by 44 university students in a laboratory setting and analysed those data relative to the same timeline. Results We found that the two data channels could be interchangeably used to measure SRL processes for only 17.18% of all the time segments identified in a learning task. Moreover, SRL processes for around 45% of all the time segments could be detected via either trace data or think aloud data. For another 27.17% of all the time segments, different SRL processes were detected in both data channels. Conclusions Our results largely suggest that the two data collection methods can be used to complement each other in measuring SRL. In particular, we found that think aloud and trace data could provide different perspectives on SRL. The integration of the two methods further allowed us to reveal a more complex and more comprehensive temporal associations among SRL processes compared to using a single data collection method. In future research, the integrated measurement of SRL can be used to improve the detection of SRL processes and provide a fuller picture of SRL.
... SRL has been found to be related to learning performance, especially in the contexts where students apply knowledge and skills to a new situation or problem (Schunk & Greene, 2017). Previous research has shown that metacognitive activities promote deeper understanding of learning content , and that monitoring activities were associated with the increased use of deep learning strategies (Deekens et al., 2018). In two experiments conducted by Roelle et al., (2017), they consistently found that students prompted to engage in metacognitive processes subsequently had a higher quality of organization processes. ...
Article
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Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) is related to increased learning performance. Scaffolding learners in their SRL activities in a computer-based learning environment can help to improve learning outcomes, because students do not always regulate their learning spontaneously. Based on theoretical assumptions, scaffolds should be continuously adaptive and personalized to students' ongoing learning progress in order to promote SRL. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of analytics-based personalized scaffolds, facilitated by a rule-based artificial intelligence (AI) system, on students' learning process and outcomes by real-time measurement and support of SRL using trace data. Using a pre-post experimental design, students received personalized scaffolds (n = 36), generalized scaffolds (n = 32), or no scaffolds (n = 30) during learning. Findings indicated that personalized scaffolds induced more SRL activities, but no effects were found on learning outcomes. Process models indicated large similarities in the temporal structure of learning activities between groups which may explain why no group differences in learning performance were observed. In conclusion, analytics-based personalized scaffolds informed by students’ real-time SRL measured and supported with AI are a first step towards adaptive SRL supports incorporating artificial intelligence that has to be further developed in future research.
... In a monitoring phase, learners assess their own knowledge and performance, judge outcomes and products, predict future outcomes, and diagnose mistakes (Deekens et al., 2018;Kostons et al., 2012). These judgments can be prospective, concurrent, or retrospective, and may occur at any time throughout the process (Baars et al., 2014;Mihalca et al., 2017). ...
Article
Researchers and educators have developed a variety of computer-based technologies intended to facilitate self-regulated learning (SRL), which refers to iterative learning processes wherein individuals set plans and goals, complete tasks, monitor their progress and outcomes, and adapt future efforts. This paper draws upon the SRL literature and related work to articulate two fundamental principles for designing SRL-promoting technologies: the Platform Principle and the Support Principle. The Platform Principle states that SRL-promoting technologies must incorporate clear platforms (i.e., tools and features) for engaging in planning, enacting, monitoring, and adapting. The Support Principle states that SRL-promoting technologies must include clear scaffolds for strategies, metacognition, motivation, and independence. These principles can be applied heuristically to formatively assess how and whether given learning technologies enable and scaffold self-regulation. More broadly, these assessments can empower educational technology creators and users to strategically design, communicate, and study technologies aligned with self-regulation. An exemplar application of the framework is presented using the PERvasive Learning System (PERLS) mobile SRL technology.
... Think-aloud protocols are when individuals are asked to say out loud anything they are thinking and doing while they are completing a task (i.e., concurrent). For instance, Deekens et al. (2018) used thinking aloud to examine the connection between university students' strategies in science and history. Think alouds, sometimes referred to in classrooms as talk alouds, are particularly common in reading and writing classrooms at younger grade levels (e.g., Farr & Conner, 2005). ...
Article
The learning styles hypothesis—and particularly the meshing hypothesis—state that learners’ preferences about their preferred modality of learning (i.e., visual, aural, or kinesthetic) predict learning gains on academic tasks. Despite the fact that this hypothesis is not borne out by the scientific evidence available to us, it still remains in widespread classroom use. This article begins by discussing the evidence against learning styles. Second, the article discusses why teachers might continue to believe in and use learning styles in their classroom as well as why essentialist beliefs about learning are not helpful. Finally, 3 variables that do impact student learning—knowledge, strategies, and interest are discussed. Each is defined, their development and measurements are discussed, and finally some instructional examples are given. Replacing the use of learning styles in the classroom with instructional decisions based on the development of knowledge, strategies, and interest can improve student learning outcomes across a wide range of subjects and grade levels.
... The students spent only 4% of the total time on the scaffolding, which is reasonable, as the students did not need to take much time to read the hints. This observation is similar to previous research in which learners were found not to spend much time on monitoring, yet they very frequently engaged in it [11]. As expected, students in condition D started the task with the creation activity, then completed the self-assessment (88%) and submitted the created resource (61%). ...
Conference Paper
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The benefits of incorporating scaffolds that promote strategies of self-regulated learning (SRL) to help student learning are widely studied and recognised in the literature. However, the best methods for incorporating them in educational technologies and empirical evidence about which scaffolds are most beneficial to students are still emerging. In this paper, we report our findings from conducting an in-the-field controlled experiment with 797 post-secondary students to evaluate the impact of incorporating scaffolds for promoting SRL strategies in the context of assisting students in creating novel content, also known as learnersourcing. The experiment had five conditions, including a control group that had access to none of the scaffolding strategies for creating content, three groups each having access to one of the scaffolding strategies (planning, externally-facilitated monitoring and self-assessing) and a group with access to all of the aforementioned scaffolds. The results revealed that the addition of the scaffolds for SRL strategies increased the complexity and effort required for creating content, were not positively assessed by learners and led to slight improvements in the quality of the generated content. We discuss the implications of our findings for incorporating SRL strategies in educational technologies.
... Specifically, metacognitive activities comprise of analyzing the task through orientation, planning, and setting goals for learning, regulation of cognitive activities, monitoring the processing of content and operations applied for the content's processing, and evaluation of learning (Meijer et al., 2006;Schunk and Greene, 2017). Deekens et al. (2018) found in two studies they conducted that monitoring activities, which are part of metacognitive activities, were positively associated with use of deep learning strategies. The association between metacognitive activities and learning has been repeatedly found by empirical studies investigating (and supporting) SRL activities and learning performance, with effects found particularly in transfer performance. ...
Article
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It has been widely theorized and empirically proven that self-regulated learning (SRL) is related to more desired learning outcomes, e.g., higher performance in transfer tests. Research has shifted to understanding the role of SRL during learning, such as the strategies and learning activities, learners employ and engage in the different SRL phases, which contribute to learning achievement. From a methodological perspective, measuring SRL using think-aloud data has been shown to be more insightful than self-report surveys as it helps better in determining the link between SRL activities and learning achievements. Educational process mining on the basis of think-aloud data enables a deeper understanding and more fine-grained analyses of SRL processes. Although students’ SRL is highly contextualized, there are consistent findings of the link between SRL activities and learning outcomes pointing to some consistency of the processes that support learning. However, past studies have utilized differing approaches which make generalization of findings between studies investigating the unfolding of SRL processes during learning a challenge. In the present study with 29 university students, we measured SRL via concurrent think-aloud protocols in a pre-post design using a similar approach from a previous study in an online learning environment during a 45-min learning session, where students learned about three topics and wrote an essay. Results revealed significant learning gain and replication of links between SRL activities and transfer performance, similar to past research. Additionally, temporal structures of successful and less successful students indicated meaningful differences associated with both theoretical assumptions and past research findings. In conclusion, extending prior research by exploring SRL patterns in an online learning setting provides insights to the replicability of previous findings from online learning settings and new findings show that it is important not only to focus on the repertoire of SRL strategies but also on how and when they are used.
... In recent literature, monitoring has been examined considering the context in which it emerges, focusing on how monitoring interacts with other learning processes (Ben-Eliyahu & Bernacki, 2015;Binbasaran Tuysuzoglu & Greene, 2014). For example, when examining the relationship between monitoring and strategy use, researchers found that when learners enacted deeper strategies, they also monitored their learning more frequently, which resulted in higher achievement (Deekens et al., 2018). Taub et al. (2019) examined the relationship between emotions and the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring processes and found that certain emotions negatively affect the monitoring accuracy. ...
Thesis
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This dissertation explores adaptive regulation in collaborative learning by using novel technologies for data collection and analysis. Adaptation is a key feature of regulated learning, because through adaptation learners change their ways of thinking and learning when faced with challenges. However, because of methodological limitations, studying adaptation has been challenging. This dissertation focuses on exploring the differences between high- and low-challenge sessions in terms of phases of regulation, how metacognitive monitoring triggers adaptation, and how sequences of adaptive regulation and maladaptive behavior emerge throughout a learning session. To capture adaptation in group learning situations, two data sets were collected in authentic learning situations. The first data collection took place during a mathematics didactics course organized for teacher education students; the second data collection was conducted during an advanced physics course for high-school students. The data collected included log, video, and heart rate data. Process-oriented methods were used to combine qualitative analysis of the video data and group-level analysis of changes in heart rate values. The results indicate that in high-challenge sessions learners return to planning throughout the session, which can be interpreted as a sign of adaptation. The results also show that monitoring acts as a trigger for adaptation and report how group-level small-scale adaptation can be evidenced by considering the phase, target, and valence of shared monitoring events. Physiological state transitions defined from the heart rate data have potential to reveal information about whether the group is on track in the learning process. The findings provide insight into how adaptation happens in an authentic collaborative learning setting. Methodologically, the study provides an innovative solution for capturing adaptation using multimodal data and novel analytical methods. At the theoretical level, the dissertation contributes to the field with details of the relationship between metacognitive monitoring and small-scale adaptation. For pedagogical practice, this study signals a need for adaptive support during the learning process: collaborative groups take very different routes to success in terms of when and how they adapt their learning process.
... However, dysregulation hampers learning, including failures to update one's standards and adapt to the demands of the task, deploy effective strategies, as well as make accurate judgments of one's progress (Azevedo & Feyzi-Behnagh, 2011). Such findings have been documented in research conducted across disciplines such as science (Deekens, Greene, & Lobczowski, 2018), mathematics (Kramarski & Friedman, 2014), medicine (Lajoie, Poitras, Doleck, & Jarrell, 2014), and psychology (Sonnenberg & Bannert, 2015). ...
Article
Self-regulated learning (SRL) has a predictable and instrumental effect on learning complicated knowledge. This study investigates the role of SRL in acquiring technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), an important aspect of teachers’ effective technology use. The present study identified several regulatory procedural patterns used by teachers in the context of their TPACK achievements. A computer-based context, nBrowser, was used to facilitate teachers lesson planning around technology usage. Teachers log file data were analysed using process mining approaches. Findings indicate that high TPACK performers are more likely to perform self-regulative activities (e.g., monitoring) in developing TPACK compared to the low performers. Higher TPACK performers are more goal-oriented, demonstrate more monitoring and are more iterative in using all SRL processes in contrast to low performers who only partially regulate their problem solving. Such findings support previous research. This study adopts a novel approach for understanding the relations between SRL and TPACK. It offers opportunities to examine how teachers enact SRL as they move from the beginning to later stages of designing lessons and provides insights to researchers who study SRL in TPACK domains. Furthermore, the findings can assist educational designers in developing interventions for promoting TPACK development by concentrating on teachers’ SRL abilities.
... In monitoring, learners assess their own knowledge and products, predict outcomes, and diagnose errors (Deekens et al., 2018;Kostons et al., 2012), and may do so before, during, and after the task (Baars et al., 2014). Such self-evaluations are essential because learning and task performance rarely unfold smoothly or without error (Bjork et al., 2013), and mistakes can halt progress or lead to faulty solutions and misconceptions. ...
Article
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Researchers and educators have explored a variety of technologies to facilitate self-regulated learning (SRL). Drawing from contemporary perspectives on SRL, this paper articulates two fundamental design principles for SRL-promoting technologies: the platform principle and the support principle. This paper then discusses how usability inspection methods, such as heuristic evaluations and cognitive walkthroughs, can readily assess whether and how these needs are met. This framework can assist researchers and educators in evaluating technologies to make strategic design and implementation decisions aligned with self-regulation.
... Issues such as these require students to engage in collective regulation as they collaborate . To date, much of the research on regulation in science education has been focused on individual students (Deekens, Greene, & Lobczowski, 2018;Greene, Costa, Robertson, Pan, & Deekens, 2010;Sinatra & Taasoobshirazi, 2018). However, there is increasing interest in the ways students in collaborative groups regulate their interactions and learning (Grau & Whitebread, 2012;, which occur in a reciprocal way that is not equivalent to the sum of each individual's regulation (Iiskala, Vauras, Lehtinen, & Salonen, 2011). ...
Article
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Argumentation and scientific discourse are essential aspects of science education and inquiry in the 21st century. Student groups often struggle to enact these critical science skills, particularly with challenging content or tasks. Social regulation of learning research addresses the ways groups attempt to navigate such struggles by collectively planning, monitoring, controlling, and reflecting upon their learning in collaborative settings. Such regulation and argumentation can also elicit socioemotional responses and interactions. However, little is known regarding how regulation processes and socioemotional interactions manifest among students involved in small-group discourse about scientific phenomena. As such, in this qualitative study, we explored social regulation of learning, scientific argumentation discourse, and socioemotional interactions in the discussions of two groups of high school physics students (n = 7, n = 6). We found key qualitative distinctions between the two groups, including how they enacted planning activities, their emphasis on challenging other’s ideas versus building shared understanding, and how socioemotional interactions drove discourse. Commonalities across groups included how regulation initiation related to discourse, as well as how the difficulty of the content hindered, and teacher support augmented, the enactment of social regulation. Finally, we found overlapping regulation and discourse codes that provide a foundation for future work.
... ere has also been a steady shi towards diversifying the ways in which we collect data about how individuals strategically process information. Some of these include qualitative approaches such as think aloud (for some recent examples, see Deekens, Greene, & Lobczowski, 2018;Dinsmore & Zoellner, 2018;Parkinson & Dinsmore, 2018) combined with modelling such as path analyses. ey also include popular research technologies such as eye-tracking for reading experiences (Catrysse et al., 2018), click traces le from interacting with digital multimedia (Winne & Hadwin, 2013), and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during tasks (Dinsmore, Hooper, & Macyczko, 2018). ...
Chapter
The present chapter will present what is, as yet, a very small niche within the strategic processing research literature: the (potential) role of person-centered analyses for strategic processing research. This chapter is organised into three sections. The first aims to situate person-centered quantitative research methodologies within the plethora of analytical approaches that are commonly pursued. Section two takes the reader through key person-centered research that has been undertaken, establishing the current state of the field and how it might continue to develop. The final section of this chapter makes a case for person-centered analytical approaches as a viable means of relating and integrating some of our processing strategy theories into a more comprehensive picture of how individual differences and the environment interact across a learners’ knowledge, skills and motivation-beliefs development.
... At the level applied to scholastic and academic learning, there is also an enormous amount of evidence regarding the importance and role of self-regulation during learning, i.e., self-regulated learning, in predicting motivation, learning and achievement (Schunk, 2005;Zimmerman and Labuhn, 2012;de la Fuente et al., 2014;Panadero and Alonso-Tapia, 2014;Greene et al., 2015Greene et al., , 2018Bol et al., 2016;Sperling et al., 2016;Peters-Burton and Botov, 2017;Deekens et al., 2018;Greene, 2018;Li et al., 2018). In summary, the effects of self-regulation in scholastic and academic learning are (Schunk and Greene, 2018): (1) Higher academic achievement. ...
Article
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The proliferation of research production in Psychology as a science has been increasing exponentially. This situation leads to the necessity of organizing the research production into different levels of analysis that make it possible to delimit each research domain. The objective of this analysis is to clearly distinguish the different levels of research: micro-analysis, molecular, and molar. Each level is presented, along with an analysis of its benefits and limitations. Next, this analysis is applied to the topics of Executive Functions, Self-Regulation, and External Regulation. Conclusions, limitations, and implications for future research are offered, with a view toward a better connection of research production across the different levels, and an allusion to ethical considerations.
... This method outperformed the use of differences scores across the two time points due to the consideration of measurement errors (Adler-Baeder et al. 2013). In the model test, covariances between three perceptions were included at each time point; error covariances between the same items of each construct (except for the single-item construct of career intention due to the fixed parameter estimates) from pretest to posttest were included in the model (Adler-Baeder et al. 2013;Deekens et al. 2018). ...
Article
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The decreasing number of young students pursuing science careers has become a rising concern worldwide, particularly in China. Educational programs with empirical evidence of promoting young students’ pursuit of science careers are still lacking. Here, drawing on the existing literature, we designed and implemented a 3-day quasi-apprenticeship program in a research botanical garden of China. We used a pre-post test design, with hypotheses based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and provided both quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the efficacy of the program on 319 seventh- and eighth-grade Chinese students from 15 public schools. The quantitative findings by using generalized estimating equations indicated that students’ attitudes, subjective norms, science self-efficacy, and career intention were significantly enhanced after the program; the structural equation modeling result showed that the enhancement of career intention could be explained by increases in subjective norms and science self-efficacy. The qualitative findings also supported the notion that a high proportion of students mentioned gains in increased science self-efficacy from attending the program. We suggest a short-term program, engaging students in group work of authentic science practices with mentors in an authentic context, might be a cost-effective strategy for supporting Chinese young students’ pursuit of science careers. This study also provides valuable information, through both pedagogical and theoretical structure elements, for educators and researchers who design, deliver, and evaluate educational programs to promote secondary school students’ pursuit of science careers.
... Additionally, performance was improved when raters were asked to engage in self-testing. Spontaneous monitoring frequency is also associated with strategy use in regular and in computer-learning environments (Deekens, Greene, & Lobczowski, 2018). ...
Article
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Metacognitive monitoring refers to how people evaluate their cognitive performance. An extensive literature examines how accurately individuals engage in monitoring. The question of how often individuals engage in metacognitive monitoring has been largely neglected, although one might expect situational, group, and individual variability in monitoring frequency. We argue that this is a critical omission, given that the frequency of metacognitive monitoring might have important implications for monitoring accuracy and task performance. Within this review, we highlight findings from three literatures, that each provide insight into how often individuals engage in monitoring. To clarify the important links and potential overlaps between these separate bodies of research, we begin by summarizing the metacognitive monitoring literature, including age-related patterns in monitoring accuracy. We then connect these questions regarding spontaneous monitoring, including age-related patterns in spontaneous monitoring, to targeted reviews of the self-regulated learning, think-aloud protocol, and mind-wandering literatures. We discuss situational and dispositional factors believed to influence monitoring accuracy, and propose that the same factors could potentially influence the frequency of spontaneous monitoring. Additionally, we propose that age-related increases in spontaneous monitoring (as suggested by age-related increases in TRI) may contribute to older adults’ intact monitoring abilities. It is our hope that this review will encourage increased attention and research on the topic of spontaneous monitoring.
... The use of strategies is conscious, controllable and effortful (Pressley and Hilden, 2006;Shaffer and Kipp, 2010). Level and quality of strategy use is associated with a broad range of learning outcomes, e.g., achievement in reading (Hong-Nam et al., 2014;Cromley and Wills, 2016), science (Akyol et al., 2010;Deekens et al., 2017) and mathematics (Torbeyns et al., 2006;Askeland, 2012). ...
Article
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Concrete-operational thinking depicts an important aspect of cognitive development. A promising approach in promoting these skills is the instruction of strategies. The construction of such instructional programs requires insights into the mental operations involved in problem-solving. In the present paper, we address the question to which extent variations of the effect of isolated and combined mental operations (strategies) on correct solution of concrete-operational concepts can be observed. Therefore, a cross-sectional design was applied. The use of mental operations was measured by thinking-aloud reports from 80 first-and second-graders (N = 80) while solving tasks depicting concrete-operational thinking. Concrete-operational thinking was assessed using the subscales conservation of numbers, classification and sequences of the TEKO. The verbal reports were transcribed and coded with regard to the mental operations applied per task. Data analyses focused on tasks level, resulting in the analyses of N = 240 tasks per subscale. Differences regarding the contribution of isolated and combined mental operations (strategies) to correct solution were observed. Thereby, the results indicate the necessity of selection and integration of appropriate mental operations as strategies. The results offer insights in involved mental operations while solving concrete-operational tasks and depict a contribution to the construction of instructional programs.
... With respect to the task problem, while it is the case that examinations of strategy use are ubiquitous, these investigations have typically focused on learning about science through text and hypermedia (see Dinsmore, 2017, andDeekens, Greene, &Lobczowski, 2017, for examples), but very few investigations have examined processing during tasks in which individuals are using scientific tools and principles. This is important as the requirements of a reading task versus a science task may differ in cognitive and metacognitive processes and the relation between the two domains, which is most germane to this special issue. ...
Article
Background: This investigation was designed to uncover the relations between students' cognitive and metacognitive strategies used during a complex climate simulation. While cognitive strategy use during science inquiry has been studied, the factors related to this strategy use, such as concurrent metacognition, prior knowledge, and prior interest, have not been investigated in a multidimensional fashion. Aims: This study addressed current issues in strategy research by examining not only how metacognitive, surface-level, and deep-level strategies influence performance, but also how these strategies related to each other during a contextually relevant science simulation. Sample: The sample for this study consisted of 70 undergraduates from a mid-sized Southeastern university in the United States. These participants were recruited from both physical and life science (e.g., biology) and education majors to obtain a sample with variance in terms of their prior knowledge, interest, and strategy use. Methods: Participants completed measures of prior knowledge and interest about global climate change. Then, they were asked to engage in an online climate simulator for up to 30 min while thinking aloud. Finally, participants were asked to answer three outcome questions about global climate change. Results: Results indicated a poor fit for the statistical model of the frequency and level of processing predicting performance. However, a statistical model that independently examined the influence of metacognitive monitoring and control of cognitive strategies showed a very strong relation between the metacognitive and cognitive strategies. Finally, smallest space analysis results provided evidence that strategy use may be better captured in a multidimensional fashion, particularly with attention paid towards the combination of strategies employed. Conclusions: Conclusions drawn from the evidence point to the need for more dynamic, multidimensional models of strategic processing that account for the patterns of optimal and non-optimal strategy use. Additionally, analyses that can capture these complex patterns need to be further explored.
... In a variant of the black box protocol, researchers ask learners to describe information processing while they study under a particular conditions. This is the think aloud protocol, illustrated by Deekens, Greene, and Lobczowski (2017). It derives from Simon's (1980, 1993) extensive analysis of verbal reports as data. ...
Article
Background: Deep versus surface knowledge is widely discussed by educational practitioners. A corresponding construct, levels of processing, has received extensive theoretical and empirical attention in learning science and psychology. In both arenas, lower levels of information and shallower levels of processing are predicted and generally empirically demonstrated to limit knowledge learners gain, curtail what they can do with newly acquired knowledge, and shorten the life span of recently acquired knowledge. Purpose: I recapitulate major accounts of levels or depth of information and information processing to set a stage for conceptualizing, first, self-regulated learning (SRL) from this perspective and, second, how a "levels-sensitive" approach might be implemented in research about SRL. Method: I merge the levels construct into a model of SRL (Winne, 2011, Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 15-32), New York: Routledge; Winne, 2017b, Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (2nd ed.), New York: Routledge; Winne & Hadwin, 1998, Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 277-304). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) conceptually and with respect to operationally defining the levels construct in the context of SRL in relation to each of the model's four phases - surveying task conditions, setting goals and planning, engaging the task, and composing major adaptations for future tasks. Select illustrations are provided for each phase of SRL. Regarding phase 3, a software system called nStudy is introduced as state-of-the-art instrumentation for gathering fine-grained, time-stamped trace data about information learners select for processing and operations they use to process that information. Conclusions: Self-regulated learning can be viewed through a lens of the levels construct, and operational definitions can be designed to research SRL with respect to levels. While information can be organized arbitrarily deeply, the levels construct may not be particularly useful for distinguishing among processes except in a sense that, because processes in SRL operate on information with depth, they epiphenomenally acquire characteristics of levels. Thus, SRL per se is not a deeper kind of processing. Instead, it is processing more complex - deeper - information about a different topic, namely processes for learning.
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Atendiendo las reformas educativas de las Instituciones de Educación Superior en la generación de condiciones de enseñanza para formar profesionistas que desarrollen habilidades y conocimientos a en un proceso de fomentar la autonomía y un aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida. Se realiza una exploración de los valores que se obtienen en los indicadores que conforman la dimensión motivación académica en estudiantes de nuevo ingreso a una Institución de Educación Superior para plantear posibles propuestas de trabajo docente que permitan orientar su formación profesional bajo una perspectiva de aprendizaje autónomo. Participan 85 estudiantes de nuevo ingreso (72 mujeres y 13 hombres) inscritos en una universidad pública en el noroeste de la República Mexicana. Se realizó un estudio transversal con un tipo de muestreo no probabilístico con grupos intactos. Se evaluó la dimensión motivación académica utilizando el instrumento Cuestionario de Motivación y Estrategias de Aprendizaje (CMEA). Las dimensiones Valor de tarea, Creencias de control y Autoeficacia para el aprendizaje presentan las puntuaciones más altas, y la dimensión Ansiedad ante los exámenes presenta la menor puntuación. Se presentan algunas reflexiones y acciones que han mostrado ser efectivas en el fomento de los indicadores que conforman la dimensión de motivación académica.
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The present study synthesizes research evidence on self-regulated learning (SRL) and academic achievement in online and blended learning environments from intervention and cross-sectional studies. We examined 163 studies conducted in various countries and different learning contexts in terms of study characteristics, methodology, and SRL features. The current study found that SRL in the online and blended learning contexts has been an important topic and has received increased attention. The results revealed the importance of SRL for improving students’ academic performance in the STEM field. It also demonstrated that the majority of the studies adopted multiple SRL strategies throughout mixed phases. This study confirmed the effectiveness of SRL on academic achievement in online or blended learning. However, the present study also identified that research on children’s and adolescents’ SRL strategies in online learning contexts is urgently needed and most of the available research did not focus on the preparatory and planning phases of SRL which are extremely important.
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This research explored the typologies of self-regulated learners in an asynchronous online Chemistry I (OCI) course of an undergraduate active learning program. Student readiness and capability regarding self-regulated learning (SRL), the activity logs in the learning management system, and academic achievement were collected to investigate behavioral sequences of different typologies of learning self-regulation. Seventeen students who took OCI in the 2019 school year were recruited for the study. Through learning analytics for the 3965 behavioral codes, the study generated three key results. First, hierarchical cluster analysis classified two typologies of self-regulated online learners: High self-regulated learners (H-SRLs) and low self-regulated learners (L-SRLs). Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test further revealed a higher academic achievement in H-SRLs than that of the L-SRLs. Second, lag sequential analysis portrayed different behavioral sequences in the performance control phrase of SRL. H-SRLs tended to leverage proper learning skills like practice immediately after receiving assistance whereas L-SRLs exit immediately without taking further actions after learning new materials, revisited the syllabus, and checked course grades. Qualitative interviews further confirmed the relationship between different strategies used in the phase and the academic performance. L-SRLs were more likely to adopt passive learning strategies and even mismatched goals and strategies during online learning, while H-SRLs appeared otherwise. To support successful online learning experiences, the researchers suggest integrating workshops and resources into the online learning orientation that focus on the performance control of SRL. Moreover, AIED platform features also may support L-SRLs in performing proper learning strategies.
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Computer-Based Learning Environments (CBLEs) have emerged as an almost limitless source of education, challenging not only students but also education providers; teaching and learning in these virtual environments requires greater self-regulation of learning. More research is needed in order to assess how self-regulation of learning strategies can contribute to better performance. This study aims to report how an Intelligent Tutoring System can help students both with and without learning difficulties to self-regulate their learning processes. A total of 119 university students with and without learning difficulties took part in an educational experiment; they spent 90 min learning in a CBLE specifically designed to assess and promote self-regulated learning strategies. Results show that as a consequence of the training, the experimental group applied more self-regulation strategies than the control group, not only as a response to a system prompt but also self-initiated. In addition, there were some differences in improvement of learning processes in students with and without learning difficulties. Our results show that when students with learning difficulties have tools that facilitate applying self-regulated learning strategies, they do so even more than students without learning difficulties.
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Book
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Die Bedeutung des Lesens multipler Dokumente nimmt zu. Dieses Buch systematisiert deshalb dieses neue Feld der Leseforschung. Ausführlich widmet es sich zentralen theoretischen Modellen und empirischen Befunden zu Prozessen und Produkten. Dabei bilden zwei Prozesse, Integrieren und Sourcing, das Rückgrat. An ihnen entlang werden Anforderungen, Leistungen und Förderbarkeit verortet und entfaltet. // The importance of reading multiple documents is on the rise. Therefore, this book systemizes this new field of reading research. It extensively pays attention to central theoretical models and empirical findings of both processes and products. Two processes guide this approach, namely integrating and sourcing. Alongside these both processes conditions, achievements and issues of promotion are clarified.
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Background: Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supporting student learning across university experiences. Aims: Develop and test a person-centred longitudinal model of learning strategies across the first-year university experience. Methods: Japanese university students (n = 933) completed surveys (deep and surface approaches to learning; self, external, and lack of regulation) at the beginning and end of their first year. Following invariance and cross-sectional tests, latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) was undertaken. Results: Initial difference testing supported small but significant differences for self-/external regulation. Fit indices supported a four-group model, consistent across both measurement points. These subgroups were labelled Low Quality (low deep approaches and self-regulation), Low Quantity (low strategy use generally), Average (moderate strategy use), and High Quantity (intense use of all strategies) strategies. The stability of these groups ranged from stable to variable: Average (93% stayers), Low Quality (90% stayers), High Quantity (72% stayers), and Low Quantity (40% stayers). The three largest transitions presented joint shifts in processing/regulation strategy preference across the year, from adaptive to maladaptive and vice versa. Conclusions: Person-centred longitudinal findings presented patterns of learning transitions that different students experience during their first year at university. Stability/variability of students' strategy use was linked to the nature of initial subgroup membership. Findings also indicated strong connections between processing and regulation strategy changes across first-year university experiences. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
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While the empirical literature on strategic processing is vast, understanding how and why certain strategies work for certain learners is far from clear. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the theoretical and empirical literature on strategic process to parse out current conceptual and methodological progress to inform new conceptual and methodological approaches to investigating strategic processing. From a PsycINFO search from 2011 to 2016, a pool of 134 studies was tabled with regard to key conceptual and methodological characteristics along with salient findings. These conceptual and methodological findings were then synthesized to examine how development, three aspects of strategic processing, and personal and environmental factors explained the relation between strategic processing and performance in academic domains. Three major findings emerged: less is known empirically about the developmental nature of strategic processing; quality and conditional use explain performance more consistently than simply frequency of strategy use; and, numerous person and environmental factors shape the degree to which certain strategies are effective for certain learners. A framework for future research based on these three findings is presented.
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The testing effect is a well-known concept referring to gains in learning and retention that can occur when students take a practice test on studied material before taking a final test on the same material. Research demonstrates that students who take practice tests often outperform students in nontesting learning conditions such as restudying, practice, filler activities, or no presentation of the material. However, evidence-based meta-analysis is needed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the conditions under which practice tests enhance or inhibit learning. This meta-analysis fills this gap by examining the effects of practice tests versus nontesting learning conditions. Results reveal that practice tests are more beneficial for learning than restudying and all other comparison conditions. Mean effect sizes were moderated by the features of practice tests, participant and study characteristics, outcome constructs, and methodological features of the studies. Findings may guide the use of practice tests to advance student learning, and inform students, teachers, researchers, and policymakers. This article concludes with the theoretical and practical implications of the meta-analysis.
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History is about what people have done and what has happened to them, but it can also be about the shape of society or institutions at particular times in the past. History seems to be about everyday, commonsense things - decisions that people make, actions that people take. We all make decisions and take actions every day, so many people believe that history can be understood simply by applying commonsense understandings. In history we learn about presidents, entrepreneurs, constitutions, and trade, and although most of us have never met a president, we can easily think of the president’s actions and decisions as variants of actions and decisions that we ourselves engage in. And although sometimes we read about things that are never encountered in modern life (like pharaoh, serf, puritan, or musket), we can easily conceive of these as quaint versions of what we know already. The task of learning history, then, is often portrayed as being less about mastering strange and esoteric conceptual tools than about acquiring information about ordinary life, as it was and as it unfolded. In short, history seems to be commonsense and cumulative. In this chapter, we argue that this simplistic view of history learning is a mistake. Four decades of research suggests that thinking historically is counterintuitive (Lee, 2005). History requires understanding concepts that differ from everyday conceptions and explanations. Some everyday ideas are completely incompatible with history; many students, for example, believe that we can only really know anything by directly experiencing it. Many more students believe that because there was only one past series of events that actually occurred, there can only be one true description of the past. It is likely that children often learn how to "tell the truth" by appeal to a fixed past against which we can measure truth claims. Such an idea is useful in day-to-day affairs where conventions of relevance may be shared, but in history it fails completely. There may be differing views about what questions to ask, and contested conventions of relevance. Moreover, what is asserted may not be something that could have been witnessed by anyone, changes in values, birth rates, or the environment could not be directly witnessed like births or battles: They must be inferred, not observed.
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This article presents a framework and methodology for designing learning goals targeted at what students need to know and be able to do in order to attain high levels of literacy and achievement in three disciplinary areas—literature, science, and history. For each discipline, a team of researchers, teachers, and specialists in that discipline engaged in conceptual meta-analysis of theory and research on the reading, reasoning, and inquiry practices exhibited by disciplinary experts as contrasted with novices. Each team identified discipline-specific clusters of types of knowledge. Across teams, the clusters for each discipline were grouped into 5 higher order categories of core constructs: (a) epistemology; (b) inquiry practices/strategies of reasoning; (c) overarching concepts, themes, and frameworks; (d) forms of information representation/types of texts; and (e) discourse and language structures. The substance of the clusters gave rise to discipline-specific goals and tasks involved in reading across multiple texts, as well as reading, reasoning, and argumentation practices tailored to discipline-specific criteria for evidence-based knowledge claims. The framework of constructs and processes provides a valuable tool for researchers and classroom teachers' (re)conceptualizations of literacy and argumentation learning goals in their specific disciplines. 2016
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Have the Next Generation Science Standards fulfilled a goal of specifying the objectives of precollege science education in clear and exact enough terms to make them readily implementable? Using students’ understanding of the concept of a variable as a case in point, the author suggests that the standards, despite their seeming precision and clarity, leave critical questions not fully answered regarding what K–12 students need to master to be judged knowledgeable regarding scientific practices. This is especially the case given that scientific practices entail not only procedural knowledge but also epistemic understanding, i.e., the purposes and ends toward which practices are conducted. If the teacher does not fully appreciate the epistemic component and lacks deep understanding of procedures, engaging students in related activities is less likely to seem worthwhile to the teacher and in turn to students, leaving teachers tempted to focus attention on content-defined learning, where goals are clearer.
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My career path to understanding the source and nature of human learning started with an interest in social processes, especially cognitive modeling, and has led to the exploration of self-regulatory processes. My investigation of these processes has prompted the development of several social cognitive models: a triadic model that synthesized covert, behavioral, and environmental sources of personal feedback, a multilevel model of training that begins with observational learning and proceeds sequentially to self-regulation, and a cyclical phase model that depicts the interaction of metacognitive and motivational processes during efforts to learn. Empirical support for each of these models is discussed, including its implications for formal and informal forms of instruction. This self-regulation research has revealed that students who set superior goals proactively, monitor their learning intentionally, use strategies effectively, and respond to personal feedback adaptively not only attain mastery more quickly, but also are more motivated to sustain their efforts to learn. Recommendations for future research are made.
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This study used think-aloud methodology to explore the strategic processing of 51 Norwegian undergraduates reading about an unfamiliar scientific issue in multiple conflicting documents presented in a Google-like environment. After reading, participants rated the trustworthiness of the sources and wrote essays on the issue. Findings indicated that students displayed reading behaviors falling in the main categories of identifying and learning important information, monitoring, and evaluating, with behaviors in all three categories involving the linking of information across different documents. Moreover, students' strategic processing while reading the documents was related to their evaluation of the trustworthiness of the sources and their inclusion of source citations in their essays. Specifically, more use of evaluation strategies was associated with less trust in biased and more trust in unbiased sources, and more use of evaluation strategies as well as cross-document linking strategies was associated with more explicit source citations and connections between sources and contents in the essays. Finally, students' strategic processing during reading was related to their written argumentation, with evaluating, monitoring, and cross-document linking positively related to argumentative reasoning about the scientific issue. We discuss how the findings may contribute to current theory on multiple-documents literacy and provide directions for further research in the area.
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Educational researchers have recently begun to conceptualize theoretical constructs and mechanisms of metacognitive activities in terms of the features that are specific to particular academic domains and subject matter. In this paper, we propose a framework of domain-specific metacognition in relation to learning through historical inquiry. The framework postulates that students’ comprehension of historical events is mediated by a state of coherence in understanding the causes that explain why an event occurred. Comprehension breaks down when the causes that explain the occurrence of historical events are unknown, uncertain, or unreported. In order to reinstate coherence in understanding, students engage in cognitive and metacognitive activities in accordance with disciplinary-based practices. Drawing on the existing empirical evidence, we discuss how the study of self-regulatory processes contributes to our understanding of the challenges faced by students while learning about complex historical topics as well as the skills that are required to gain knowledge while investigating the past.
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Many students are being left behind by an educational system that some people believe is in crisis. Improving educational outcomes will require efforts on many fronts, but a central premise of this monograph is that one part of a solution involves helping students to better regulate their learning through the use of effective learning techniques. Fortunately, cognitive and educational psychologists have been developing and evaluating easy-to-use learning techniques that could help students achieve their learning goals. In this monograph, we discuss 10 learning techniques in detail and offer recommendations about their relative utility. We selected techniques that were expected to be relatively easy to use and hence could be adopted by many students. Also, some techniques (e.g., highlighting and rereading) were selected because students report relying heavily on them, which makes it especially important to examine how well they work. The techniques include elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting (or underlining), the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice. To offer recommendations about the relative utility of these techniques, we evaluated whether their benefits generalize across four categories of variables: learning conditions, student characteristics, materials, and criterion tasks. Learning conditions include aspects of the learning environment in which the technique is implemented, such as whether a student studies alone or with a group. Student characteristics include variables such as age, ability, and level of prior knowledge. Materials vary from simple concepts to mathematical problems to complicated science texts. Criterion tasks include different outcome measures that are relevant to student achievement, such as those tapping memory, problem solving, and comprehension. We attempted to provide thorough reviews for each technique, so this monograph is rather lengthy. However, we also wrote the monograph in a modular fashion, so it is easy to use. In particular, each review is divided into the following sections: General description of the technique and why it should work How general are the effects of this technique? 2a. Learning conditions 2b. Student characteristics 2c. Materials 2d. Criterion tasks Effects in representative educational contexts Issues for implementation Overall assessment The review for each technique can be read independently of the others, and particular variables of interest can be easily compared across techniques. To foreshadow our final recommendations, the techniques vary widely with respect to their generalizability and promise for improving student learning. Practice testing and distributed practice received high utility assessments because they benefit learners of different ages and abilities and have been shown to boost students’ performance across many criterion tasks and even in educational contexts. Elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, and interleaved practice received moderate utility assessments. The benefits of these techniques do generalize across some variables, yet despite their promise, they fell short of a high utility assessment because the evidence for their efficacy is limited. For instance, elaborative interrogation and self-explanation have not been adequately evaluated in educational contexts, and the benefits of interleaving have just begun to be systematically explored, so the ultimate effectiveness of these techniques is currently unknown. Nevertheless, the techniques that received moderate-utility ratings show enough promise for us to recommend their use in appropriate situations, which we describe in detail within the review of each technique. Five techniques received a low utility assessment: summarization, highlighting, the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, and rereading. These techniques were rated as low utility for numerous reasons. Summarization and imagery use for text learning have been shown to help some students on some criterion tasks, yet the conditions under which these techniques produce benefits are limited, and much research is still needed to fully explore their overall effectiveness. The keyword mnemonic is difficult to implement in some contexts, and it appears to benefit students for a limited number of materials and for short retention intervals. Most students report rereading and highlighting, yet these techniques do not consistently boost students’ performance, so other techniques should be used in their place (e.g., practice testing instead of rereading). Our hope is that this monograph will foster improvements in student learning, not only by showcasing which learning techniques are likely to have the most generalizable effects but also by encouraging researchers to continue investigating the most promising techniques. Accordingly, in our closing remarks, we discuss some issues for how these techniques could be implemented by teachers and students, and we highlight directions for future research.
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The prevailing assumption by some that deep processing promotes stronger learning outcomes while surface processing promotes weaker learning outcomes has been called into question by the inconsistency and ambiguity of results in investigations of the relation between levels of processing and performance. The purpose of this literature review is to examine four areas that may be contributing to the inconsistency and ambiguity of these research results: conceptualization, operationalization, situational factors, and model specification of deep and surface processing. A PsycINFO database search was conducted, and 221 studies were identified for a comprehensive data table. Analysis of these data revealed trends that suggested conceptualization and operationalization of deep and surface processing differed depending on the theoretical frame utilized in each study. Additionally, the choice of theoretical frame also seemed to impact what situational factors may or may not have been present as well as how the model of levels of processing and performance was specified. Results from studies that met certain criteria demonstrated that levels of processing and performance are related, and further, these relations may be moderated by other factors. Implications for future research are discussed that focus on these four areas.
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Knowing how to manage one's own learning has become increasingly important in recent years, as both the need and the opportunities for individuals to learn on their own outside of formal classroom settings have grown. During that same period, however, research on learning, memory, and metacognitive processes has provided evidence that people often have a faulty mental model of how they learn and remember, making them prone to both misassessing and mismanaging their own learning. After a discussion of what learners need to understand in order to become effective stewards of their own learning, we first review research on what people believe about how they learn and then review research on how people's ongoing assessments of their own learning are influenced by current performance and the subjective sense of fluency. We conclude with a discussion of societal assumptions and attitudes that can be counterproductive in terms of individuals becoming maximally effective learners. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 64 is November 30, 2012. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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DESCRIPTION The nature of literacy is rapidly changing as new information and communication technologies, such as the Internet, rapidly generate new literacies required to effectively exploit their potential for reading, writing, and communication (Bruce, 2003; Lankshear & Knobel, 2003; Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004). Scholars from diverse disciplines, ranging from cognitive science (Gee, 2003; Mayer, 2001) to sociolinguistics (Cope & Kalantzis, 2000, 2003; Gee, 2004; Kress, 2003; Lemke, 1998) to cultural anthropology (Markham, 1998; Street, 2003; Thomas, forthcoming), have begun to recognize changes to literacy as they begin to study the consequences of these changes for their individual areas of study. As many new heuristics appear to inform this multidisciplinary work, a new perspective about the nature of literacy is beginning to emerge. This perspective, often referred to as "new literacies," is still in its initial stages but it is clear to most that it will be a powerful one, redefining what it means to be literate in the 21 st century. The construct "new literacies" means many different things to many different people. However, most would agree there are at least three defining characteristics of this perspective: 1. new literacies are central to full civic, economic, and personal participation in a globalized community and, as a result, are critical to educational research and the education of all of our students; 2. new literacies are deictic – they regularly change as their defining technologies change; 3. new literacies are multifaceted – they benefit from analysis that brings multiple points of view to the discussion. The purpose of this volume is to provide a central vehicle for directing research in this area. It will provide a single location to review the research from multiple lenses in multiple areas of investigation. Such a volume is critically important to help develop the multifaceted perspective necessary to inform educational research that might improve instruction as new technologies define even newer literacies that will be central to our lives in a global information society. The Handbook of Research on New Literacies will bring together leading scholars from around the world to review the research in their area, from the perspectives they find to provide the greatest insight into the questions that they address. We expect the Handbook of Research on New Literacies to provide the central leadership for this newly emerging field, directing scholars to the major issues, theoretical perspectives, and interdisciplinary research on new literacies.
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The terms metacognition, self-regulation, and self-regulated learning appear frequently in the educational literature and are sometimes used interchangeably. In order to explore the theoretical and empirical boundaries between these three constructs and the perceptions or misperceptions that their broad and often unqualified application may engender, an analysis of their use within contemporary research was undertaken. A PsychInfo database search was conducted and 255 studies were identified for a comprehensive data table. Analysis of these data revealed trends that suggest nesting of the constructs in definition and keyword explication. However, important differences emerged in the measures of these three constructs and in environmental factors such as prompting. Implications for future research are discussed.
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Praise for the First Edition of Statistical Analysis with Missing Data “An important contribution to the applied statistics literature.... I give the book high marks for unifying and making accessible much of the past and current work in this important area.”—William E. Strawderman, Rutgers University “This book...provide[s] interesting real-life examples, stimulating end-of-chapter exercises, and up-to-date references. It should be on every applied statistician’s bookshelf.”—The Statistician “The book should be studied in the statistical methods department in every statistical agency.”—Journal of Official Statistics Statistical analysis of data sets with missing values is a pervasive problem for which standard methods are of limited value. The first edition of Statistical Analysis with Missing Data has been a standard reference on missing-data methods. Now, reflecting extensive developments in Bayesian methods for simulating posterior distributions, this Second Edition by two acknowledged experts on the subject offers a thoroughly up-to-date, reorganized survey of current methodology for handling missing-data problems. Blending theory and application, authors Roderick Little and Donald Rubin review historical approaches to the subject and describe rigorous yet simple methods for multivariate analysis with missing values. They then provide a coherent theory for analysis of problems based on likelihoods derived from statistical models for the data and the missing-data mechanism and apply the theory to a wide range of important missing-data problems. The new edition now enlarges its coverage to include: Expanded coverage of Bayesian methodology, both theoretical and computational, and of multiple imputation Analysis of data with missing values where inferences are based on likelihoods derived from formal statistical models for the data-generating and missing-data mechanisms Applications of the approach in a variety of contexts including regression, factor analysis, contingency table analysis, time series, and sample survey inference Extensive references, examples, and exercises Amstat News asked three review editors to rate their top five favorite books in the September 2003 issue. Statistical Analysis With Missing Data was among those chosen.
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The primary purpose of the current study was to use structural equation modeling to examine the relations among background variables (socioeconomic status, prior mathematics achievement), motivation variables (self-efficacy, task interest, school connectedness), self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors, and performance in middle school mathematics courses. Of particular interest was examining the mediation roles of both self-efficacy and SRL behaviors. Data about three types of motivation beliefs (self-efficacy, task interest, connectedness) were obtained from 331 middle school students using self-report questionnaires, while information regarding student SRL behaviors was obtained from teacher ratings. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed an acceptable fit of the data to the proposed model. In addition to the overall model explaining 51% of the variance in mathematics performance, a key finding was that both cognitive (i.e., self-efficacy) and behavioral (i.e., SRL) latent factors served as key mediators in the model, with each of these factors exhibiting unique effects on mathematics performance after controlling for prior achievement. Furthermore, each of the three motivation beliefs played an important role in the model, particularly regarding the explanation of SRL behaviors. Directions for future research and implications for practice are discussed.
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This paper presents results from an experimental study that examined embedded strategy prompts in digital text and their effects on calibration and metacomprehension accuracies. A sample population of 80 college undergraduates read a digital expository text on the basics of photography. The most robust treatment (mixed) read the text, generated a summary for each page of text, and then was prompted with a metacognitive strategy. The metacognitive treatment received metacognitive strategy prompts only, and the cognitive group implemented the cognitive strategy (summarization) only. A control group read the text with no embedded support. Groups were compared on measures of achievement, attitudes, cognitive load, and metacomprehension and calibration accuracy. Results indicated that a combination of embedded cognitive and metacognitive strategies in digital text improved learner achievement on application-level questions, yielded more accurate predictive calibration, and strengthened the relationship between metacomprehension and performance, all of which are common attributes of an academically successful learner.
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Impacting the academic performance of high school students in core academic content areas is important because of the high-stakes nature of secondary school course grades relative to their vocational and post-secondary pursuits. Getting students to become more active, strategic participants in their learning by teaching them empirically supported learning strategies as well as specific forethought and reflective thinking skills is an important pathway to academic success. The importance of self-regulation processes also has been established in recent survey research with teachers and school psychologists showing that students who are referred for academic problems often have self-regulatory skill and motivation deficits. Intervention programs like the Self-Regulation Empowerment Program (SREP) can be conceptualized and implemented within the context of school-based service delivery frameworks. Tier I interventions typically occur at a classroom level and thus are designed to provide all students with the potential benefits of an intervention. With regards to classroom-wide self-regulation interventions, there are many empirically supported techniques that teachers can readily infuse into the daily routine of a school day, such as requiring all students to set performance goals, engage in progress monitoring, and utilize self-reflective processes. Students who do not respond (i.e., continue to exhibit poor test performance) to this general level of intervention support would be eligible to receive more intensive, Tier II pull-out programs, such as SREP.
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The research shows that the lack of instructional scaffolding and high degree of user control inherent to most HLEs make them difficult learning environments for learners who lack the ability to appropriately self-regulate their learning. Therefore, developers of HLEs must construct these environments in ways that not only promote knowledge acquisition, but also foster and scaffold SRL skills. This chapter introduces a two-tiered (i.e., the micro- and macro- level) approach to analyzing SRL data derived from think aloud protocols, which can be informative in terms of the domain-, task-specific self-regulatory processes that should be scaffolded in particular HLEs. The two-tiered approach provides a bridge between the SRL data and theory by showing how the micro-level learning processes (e.g., judgments of learning) can be used to indicate the degree to which individuals engage in the macro-level categories of self-regulation discussed in SRL models. Findings from a number of our research studies illustrate how analyzing data at both tiers results in a comprehensive understanding of how learners self-regulate in HLEs, and how the nature and quality of that self-regulation interacts with internal and external conditions.
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As computer-based learning environments grow in prominence, so do the demands placed upon students to learn with these tools. Empirical research has shown that students who are effective at self-regulating their learning are more likely to acquire deep conceptual understanding while using these environments. However, there is a noticeable lack of research into the degree to which self-regulated learning (SRL) is domain-specific. Investigating this theoretical question about domain-specificity results in related questions about how to best capture and model SRL. To address these concerns, we randomly assigned college students to either a science or history digital library, and used think-aloud protocol (TAP) data to examine the degree to which SRL processing predicted knowledge gains, above and beyond the effects of prior knowledge. We examined multiple methods of aggregating SRL TAP data into analysis variables, to determine which would be the most predictive of learning gains, and then tested these findings using a sample from a second study. In addition, we tested whether the frequency of SRL processing differed by academic domain. We found that data-driven aggregation methods were the most effective at predicting learning gains, and that there were both intriguing similarities in SRL processing across domains (e.g., the importance of corroborating sources) as well as differences (e.g., the predictive validity of self-questioning). Our findings have implications for how to capture and model SRL processing, as well as how to foster SRL among those students who do not yet enact it effectively on their own.
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Publisher Summary There is considerable agreement about the importance of self-regulation to human survival. There is disagreement about how it can be analyzed and defined in a scientifically useful way. A social cognitive perspective differs markedly from theoretical traditions that seek to define self-regulation as a singular internal state, trait, or stage that is genetically endowed or personally discovered. Instead, it is defined in terms of context-specific processes that are used cyclically to achieve personal goals. These processes entail more than metacognitive knowledge and skill; they also include affective and behavioral processes, and a resilient sense of self-efficacy to control them. The cyclical interdependence of these processes, reactions, and beliefs is described in terms of three sequential phases: forethought, performance or volitional control, and self-reflection. An important feature of this cyclical model is that it can explain dysfunctions in self-regulation, as well as exemplary achievements. Dysfunctions occur because of the unfortunate reliance on reactive methods of self-regulation instead of proactive methods, which can profoundly change the course of cyclical learning and performance. An essential issue confronting all theories of self-regulation is how this capability or capacity can be developed or optimized. Social cognitive views place particular emphasis on the role of socializing agents in the development of self-regulation, such as parents, teachers, coaches, and peers. At an early age, children become aware of the value of social modeling experiences, and they rely heavily on them when acquiring needed skills.
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Studies have shown that, to achieve a conceptual understanding of complex science topics, learners need to use self-regulated learning (SRL) skills, particularly when learning with Hypermedia Learning Environments (HLEs). Winne and Hadwin (2008) claimed that metacognition is a key aspect of SRL, particularly metacognitive monitoring and control. The aim of this study was to investigate the contingent relationship between metacognitive monitoring [e.g., judgment of learning (JOL)] and metacognitive control (e.g., strategy change) and whether those contingencies predicted learning about the circulatory system using an HLE. As a measure of contingency in metacognitive behavior, we examined the frequencies of learners’ change in strategy use (i.e., adaptive), or lack thereof (i.e., static), when they verbalized a negative JOL. The results showed that the frequency of adaptive metacognitive behavior positively related to learning, and static metacognitive behavior negatively related to learning, above and beyond the effect of prior knowledge. These findings suggest implications regarding future research into SRL, as well as the benefits of helping learners to recognize the necessary contingency that follows from metacognitive monitoring when learning with HLEs.
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This study examines the moderating effects of a situational factor (i.e., text type) and an individual factor (i.e., subject-matter knowledge) on the relation between depth of processing and performance. One-hundred and fifty-one undergraduates completed measures of subject-matter knowledge, read either an expository or persuasive text about the existence of extraterrestrials while thinking aloud, and then completed a passage recall task and an open-ended task. Results indicated that the relation between depth of processing and the open-ended tasks was moderated by the type of text participants read (i.e., expository or persuasive). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the passage recall measure and open-ended task for depth of processing and type of text.
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The burgeoning literatures on students' metacognitive judgments, self-regulation, self-efficacy beliefs, strategic processing, and conceptual change have focused new attention on the nature and measurement of calibration. Calibration, the distance between perceived and demonstrated levels of understanding, capability, competence, or preparedness, is foundational to these critical areas of inquiry. Yet, not enough is known about the nature of calibration or about the best means of gauging the distance between what students' believe and what they show in their cognitive actions and performance. It is the goal of this special issue on “Calibrating Calibration” to provide educational researchers with critical theoretical and methodological information on this pivotal topic.
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The target articles make significant advances in our understanding of students' judgments of their cognitive processes and products. In general, the advances are relative to a subset of common themes, which we call the four cornerstones of research on metacognitive judgments. We discuss how the target articles build on these cornerstones (judgment bases, judgment accuracy, judgment reliability, and control) and how they are relevant to improving student achievement.
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Although text types (e.g., persuasive and expository), think-aloud procedures, and expertise levels have been the focus of numerous studies, less is known about their effects on metacognitive monitoring and control. The purpose of this study was to investigate these issues during participants' text processing of government and politics texts using log files, think-aloud protocol, and individuals' calibration as data sources. Participants were undergraduates enrolled in human development (n = 38) and government/politics courses (n = 38) presumed to represent different levels of domain expertise. Participants read two passages on judicial review presented via computer while thinking aloud. Trace data on scrolling behaviors were collected during reading and confidence measures after reading. Think-aloud data were analyzed via non-parametric bootstrapping. Significant differences between text types were found for scrolling, calibration, and reading behavior. There was no significant difference for the think-aloud condition on scrolling or calibration. Only scrollback behavior was statistically different between levels of expertise. However, median differences revealed interesting trends between expertise groups in terms of calibration bias.
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In this randomized controlled study, we investigated implementation of Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) in story writing by 11 second grade teachers who first collaborated in practice-based professional development in SRSD. Students at-risk for failure in writing were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions in each teacher’s classroom. Teachers implemented SRSD with small groups of students at-risk for failure in writing (referred to as Tier 2 intervention in the Response to Intervention, or RTI, model) in their classrooms; control students at-risk in writing received regular classroom instruction from their teachers. Integrity of strategies instruction and social validity were assessed among the participating teachers. Student outcomes assessed included inclusion of genre elements and story quality, generalization to personal narrative, and teacher perceptions of intrinsic motivation and effort for writing. Teachers implemented strategies instruction with high integrity; social validity was positive. Significant effects were found for inclusion of genre elements and story quality at both posttest and maintenance; effect sizes were large (.89 to 1.65). Intervention also resulted in significant generalization to personal narrative (effect sizes were .98 for elements and .88 for quality). Teachers reported significantly higher perceptions of both intrinsic motivation and effort (effect sizes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively). Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
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Current research on goal orientation and self-regulated learning suggests a general framework for examining learning and motivation in academic contexts. Moreover, there are some important generalizations that are emerging from this research. It seems clear that an approach-mastery goal orientation is generally adaptive for cognition, motivation, learning, and performance. The roles of the other goal orientations need to be explored more carefully in empirical research, but the general framework of mastery and performance goals seems to provide a useful way to conceptualize the academic achievement goals that students may adopt in classroom settings and their role in facilitating or constraining self-regulated learning. There is much theoretical and empirical work to be done, but the current models and frameworks are productive and should lead to research on classroom learning that is both theoretically grounded and pedagogically useful.
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This study examined 148 adolescents' use of self-regulated learning (SRL) processes when learning about the circulatory system using hypermedia. We examined participants' verbal protocols to determine the relationship between SRL processes and qualitative shifts in students' mental models from pretest to posttest. Results indicated that participants who exhibited a qualitative shift displayed differential use of six SRL processes, including metacognitive monitoring activities, learning strategies, and indications of task difficulty. We propose that these SRL processes can account for the participants' shift in mental model. Implications for the design of hypermedia learning environments are presented, including substantive recommendations for the use of trace logs and scaffolding to promote self-regulated learning with hypermedia.
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate to what extent self‐regulated learning (SRL) is context‐dependent. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was repeatedly administered to 155 first‐year students at a Singaporean polytechnic – a general version of the MSLQ before students entered the polytechnic and a course‐specific version at the end of the first semester for mathematics, science and English courses. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The analyses included: (1) tests for invariance of factorial structures, (2) tests for invariance among latent means, and (3) a comparison of the predictive validity of the general and the course‐specific versions of the MSLQ. The results showed that no significant differences could be found in the underlying structure of SRL between subject domains. In addition, average subscale responses were rather invariant across domains. Finally, course‐specific measures of SRL were generally not more accurate in predicting academic achievements than the general version. These findings taken together do not support the notion that SRL is context‐dependent. Rather, SRL as measured by the MSLQ appears to be a stable disposition of the learner.
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Framed by a situation-specific and domain-specific orientation, this reaction explores two areas not directly or extensively addressed in Winne's (1995) detailing of self-regulated learning. The first focuses on the characterization of the construct of self-regulation. Specifically, it is argued that a delineation of self-regulation should consider its socially situated and subject-specific manifestations, as well as those that are solitary and domain independent. The second area of exploration deals with self-regulation from the standpoint of domain learning, in which subject-matter knowledge and individual interest of the learner become potent variables. In this regard, the nature of self-regulation in a context in which knowledge or interest is limited is contrasted with a situation in which knowledge and interest are high. Based on these accounts of self-regulation, implications for research and practice are forwarded.
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This chapter explores the role of self-regulation in learning with computer-based learning environments, and how it can be assessed and fostered.
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Maximum likelihood algorithms for use with missing data are becoming common-place in microcomputer packages. Specifically, 3 maximum likelihood algorithms are currently available in existing software packages: the multiple-group approach, full information maximum likelihood estimation, and the EM algorithm. Although they belong to the same family of estimator, confusion appears to exist over the differ-ences among the 3 algorithms. This article provides a comprehensive, nontechnical overview of the 3 maximum likelihood algorithms. Multiple imputation, which is fre-quently used in conjunction with the EM algorithm, is also discussed. Until recently, the analysis of data with missing observations has been dominated by listwise (LD) and pairwise (PD) deletion methods (Kim & Curry, 1977; Roth, 1994). However, alternative methods for treating missing data have become in-creasingly common in software packages, leaving applied researchers with a wide range of data analytic options. In particular, three maximum likelihood (ML) esti-mation algorithms for use with missing data are currently available: the multi-ple-group approach (Allison, 1987; Muthén, Kaplan, & Hollis, 1987) can be imple-mented using existing structural equation modeling (SEM) software; Amos (Arbuckle, 1995) and Mx (Neale, 1995) offer full information maximum likelihood STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING, 8(1), 128–141 Copyright © 2001, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
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This authoritative handbook reviews the breadth of current knowledge on the conscious and nonconscious processes by which people regulate their thoughts, ...
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This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
In the framework of the SAL (Students ' approaches to learning) position, the learning experience (approaches to learning and study orchestrations) of 572 high school students was explored, examining its interrelationships with some personal and familial variables. Three major results emerged. First, links were found between family's intellectual climate and students ' approaches to learning, in particular with Deep approach: The better the family's intellectual climate the higher students ' scores on Deep approach. Second, along with general intelligence, these approaches predicted students' academic achievement, higher grades being obtained by those students who scored lower in Surface learning approach and higher in Deep learning approach. Three, students from the four study orchestrations reported in previous research (two displaying conceptual consonance: Deep and Surface approaches, and the other two conceptual dissonance: high-high and low-low, in both Deep and Surface approaches) showed different profiles in some variables (e.g., metacognitive learning strategies, family's intellectual climate, academic achievement), worse scores being obtained by those who orchestrated their study either in surface or in conceptually dissonant ways. These relationships shed more light on the nature of high school students' learning experience, and help to provide an integrated view of students ' webs of experience.
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In this study, we examined how high-school students utilized a hypermedia learning environment (HLE) to acquire declarative knowledge of a historical topic, as well as historical thinking skills. In particular, we were interested in whether self-regulated learning (SRL; Winne & Hadwin, 1998; Zimmerman, 2000) processing was related to the acquisition of declarative knowledge and historical thinking. We found that, using the HLE, participants did learn from pretest to posttest, and that they most often engaged in strategy use SRL processes. However, the frequency of participant use of planning SRL processes, not strategy use, was predictive of learning. This study has implications for how educators use HLEs to foster historical thinking skills, and suggests that scaffolding planning skills may facilitate students’ use of computers as cognitive and metacognitive tools for learning (Azevedo, 2005; Lajoie, 2000).
Article
Think-aloud and pre-test data were collected from 49 undergraduates with varying levels of prior domain knowledge to examine the relationship between prior domain knowledge and self-regulated learning with hypermedia. During the experimental session, each participant individually completed a pretest on the circulatory system, and then one 40-min hypermedia learning task during which he or she learned about the circulatory system. Think-aloud data were collected during the 40-min learning task to measure each participant’s use of specific self-regulated learning processes related to planning, monitoring, and strategy use. Results indicate that prior domain knowledge is significantly related to how the participants self-regulated their learning during the 40-min learning task with hypermedia. Specifically, prior domain knowledge is positively related to participants’ monitoring and planning and negatively related to their use of strategies during the hypermedia learning task.