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Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning



Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on the customers’ needs and wants. Hence, a prerequisite for the development of this customer-centric strategy is the specification of the target markets that the companies will attempt to serve. The marketing managers who may consider using target marketing will usually break the market down into groups and to target the most profitable segments. They may adapt their marketing mix elements, including; products, prices, channels, and promotional tactics to suit the requirements of individual consumers. In sum, this chapter explains the three stages of target marketing, including; market segmentation (ii) market targeting and (iii) market positioning.
Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning
By Mark Anthony Camilleri1, PhD (Edinburgh)
How to Cite : Camilleri, M. A. (2018). Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning. In Travel
Marketing, Tourism Economics and the Airline Product (Chapter 4, pp. 69-83). Springer, Cham,
Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove
difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have
identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Therefore,
many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This
strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to
these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on the customers’ needs and wants.
Hence, a prerequisite for the development of this customer-centric strategy is the
specification of the target markets that the companies will attempt to serve. The marketing
managers who may consider using target marketing will usually break the market down into
groups (segments). Then they target the most profitable ones. They may adapt their marketing
mix elements, including; products, prices, channels, and promotional tactics to suit the
requirements of individual groups of consumers. In sum, this chapter explains the three stages
of target marketing, including; market segmentation (ii) market targeting and (iii) market
4.1 Introduction
Target marketing involves the identification of the most profitable market segments.
Therefore, businesses may decide to focus on just one or a few of these segments. They may
develop products or services to satisfy each selected segment. Such a target marketing
strategy differs from mass marketing (where a company may decide to produce and distribute
one product to all consumers) or from product differentiation (where a company offers a
variety of products to a large market). Marketers have been moving away from mass
marketing endeavours, as they are increasingly targeting smaller segments with customised
marketing programmes. In this light, this chapter sheds light on the process of market
1 Department of Corporate Communication, Faculty of Media and Knowledge Sciences, University of Malta,
Msida, MSD2080, MALTA. Email:
segmentation. It clarifies how businesses could select the most profitable segments as they
employ market coverage and positioning strategies to attract them.
4.2 The Market Segment
A market segment is a group of individuals, groups or organisations who may share the same
interests, traits and characteristics. The consumer segments may have similar needs, wants
and expectations. Therefore, businesses should ask themselves which segments should they
serve? To answer this question, the businesses must determine the most appropriate ways to
distinguish and to differentiate their segments. Once the segments have been identified they
must customise their offerings to satisfy each and every one of them.
4.3 Market Segmentation
Market segmentation is the actual process of identifying segments of the market and the
process of dividing a broad customer base into sub-groups of consumers consisting of
existing and prospective customers. Market segmentation is a consumer-oriented process and
can be applied to almost any type of market. In dividing or segmenting markets, researchers
typically look for shared characteristics such as common needs, common interests, similar
lifestyles or even similar demographic profiles. So, market segmentation assumes that
different segments require different marketing programmes, as diverse customers are usually
targeted through different offers, prices, promotions, distributions or some combination of
marketing variables. For example, Southwest Airlines’ single-minded focus on the short-haul,
point-to-point, major-city routes, allowed them to prosper as their competitors floundered.
The airline’s focus on specific segments allowed them to do a better job of deciding what
their target segment really valued (for example, convenience, low price, on-time departures
and arrivals, among other things).
Once the customer segments have been identified and profiled, the marketer must decide
which segment to target. Diverse customers will have different expectations. For instance,
there may be customers who will value a differentiated, high quality service, whilst others
may be more price-sensitive. Notwithstanding, not all firms have the resources to serve all
customers in an adequate manner. Trying to serve the entire market could be a recipe for
disaster. The overall aim of segmentation is to identify high-yield segments. These are likely
to be the most profitable groups of customers, or may hold potential for growth. Hence, the
most lucrative segments will usually become target markets. In the tourism industry, the
business traveller is usually considered as an attractive segment. However, there are different
types of business travellers:
The Hard Money Travellers (or the independent business travellers), these include the
business individuals travelling at their own expense;
The Soft Money Travellers (or corporate business travellers), these include business
individuals travelling on an expense account;
The Medium Money Travellers (or the conference or incentive business travellers),
these include business individuals travelling within a group;
The Interim Travellers, these include business travellers who are combining personal
travel with a business trip;
The Frequent Short Travellers, these include business travellers who consistently fly a
short-haul route;
The Periodic Travellers, these include sales persons who make a round of stops on a
steady itinerary.
However, these six groups are said to be only part of some other travel groupings which have
often been identified as principal sources of revenue for the tourism industry. Travel and
tourism marketers must analyse these various segments. They must then select at least one
segment and decide how to service them, in terms of fare prices, facilities, frequencies and
special features.
4.3.1 The Benefits of Segmentation
By dividing the market into segments, marketing managers can acquire a better
understanding of the needs and wants of customers. This enables them to customise or to
‘tailor’ the company’s marketing activities more accurately and responsibly to the individual
customers’ likings. Segmentation marketing supports businesses in meeting and exceeding
their customers’ requirements. It may also allow them to evaluate the competitors’ strengths
and weaknesses. This way, they could discover business opportunities in markets which were
not served well.
Customer segmentation enables marketers to adopt a more systematic approach when
planning ahead for the future. This leads to better exploitation of marketing resources,
resulting in the development of a more finely-tuned marketing programme. For example, the
businesses’ integrated marketing communications can be better organised, as targeted
advertising (for example native advertising) and promotional activities can be directed at
individual customers. For example, the emergence of data-driven, digital technologies such as
sensor analytics, geo-location and social data-capture could track the users’ movements and
other real-time phenomena. These disruptive technologies are increasingly being used by
tourism businesses as they add value to customer-centric marketing endeavours (Schegg &
Stangl, 2017; Camilleri, 2016).
4.4 Segmentation Variables
Having defined segmentation and discussed about its benefits, the next question to address is;
how could businesses segment their markets? The traditional variables that may be used for
market segmentation can be grouped into five main categories: (i) Demographic; (ii)
Geographic (iii) Psychographic; (iv) Behavioural and / or (v) Product-Related Factors.
4.4.1 Demographic Segmentation
Demographic segmentation involves dividing the market into groups that are identifiable in
terms of physical and factual data. The demographic variables may include; age, gender,
income, occupation, marital status, family size, race, religion and nationality. These
segmentation methods are a popular way of segmenting the customer markets, as the
demographic variables are relatively easy to measure.
For example, the age range for business travellers may usually span from their late twenties
to their mid-fifties. According to Skift (2017), younger employees are travelling for business
purposes and their buying habits are completely different than their older counterparts. On
average, millennials took 7.4 business trips in the last year, compared to 6.4 for Generation
Xers and 6.3 for baby boomers. Younger travellers are less likely to book air travel based on
loyalty programme perks. They are more likely to book their flight according to the airline
service and the customer experience they offer. Moreover, young travellers are more likely to
use room share services like Airbnb, than other segments (Skift, 2017). However, for the time
being, major hotel brands are not under any serious threat.
At the same time, Uber and other ridesharing services are becoming mainstream across all
age groups, as they may be cheaper than taxis (Pew Research, 2016). The age range in the
leisure market is a very broad one and quite different to that in the business market. Children
particularly can play an important role in leisure travel, as they travel abroad on holidays with
their families. Young people in their early to mid-twenties too are prepared to spend their
disposable income on travel before they take on the responsibilities of family life. At the
other end of the scale, we have those who are retired from work, are in a relatively good
health and in good financial position which allows them to travel.
In the past, middle-aged males dominated the business travel market. However, recently, the
advertising and promotion of airline services have increasingly targeted female business
travellers. This market controls 60% of U.S. wealth and influences 85% of purchasing
decisions (Skift, 2014). The female gender is high-tech, connected, and social. They represent
58% of online sales (Skift, 2014). To get maintain their competitive edge, travel brands must
start focusing their campaigns to better target women. The leisure travel market is far more
balanced in terms of gender. In fact, in older categories of leisure travellers, that is over the
age of sixty, women outnumber men due to their longer life expectancy (Boston Globe,
The ability to travel for leisure purposes greatly depends on an individual’s income. Leisure
travel is a luxury which may be foregone when times are financially difficult. Generally, as
personal income rises, the demand for air travel increases. However, should there be a
recession, money belts are tightened, and less leisure trips may be taken. This is an example
of a concept known as income elasticity (this topic will be discussed in Chapter 8). Income
elasticity can be defined as the relationship between changes in consumers’ income level and
the demand for a particular item.
4.4.2 Geographic Segmentation
Geographic segmentation involves selecting potential markets according to where they are
located. This segmentation approach may consider variables such as climate, terrain, natural
resources and population density, among other geographic variables. Markets can be divided
into regions because one or more of these variables could differentiate customers from one
region to the next. For example, those individuals who are living in wet and cold climates
will favour warm, sunny destinations for their holidays. This issue could greatly affect
competition among airlines for certain destinations, particularly during the peak holiday
The culture or country of origin of all travellers is also an important factor which must be
taken into consideration, particularly when targeting corporate segments. Not all business
travellers belong to the same stereotypical image of the sophisticated, affluent middle-aged
business man hailing from specific regions such as the north-west of Europe, North America
or Japan. Today, business travellers may include traders who are travelling to different
locations in the world, including developing countries, where there are growth prospects. In
this case, convenient schedules and inflight frills are relatively unimportant when compared
to excess baggage policies and low fares.
4.4.3 Psychographic Segmentation
Psychographic segmentation could be used to segment markets according to personality
traits, values, motives, interests and lifestyles. A psychographic dimension can be used by
itself to segment a market, or it can be combined with other segmentation variables. The
psychographic variables are used when purchasing behaviours correlate with the personality
or lifestyles of consumers. Diverse consumers may respond differently to the businesses’
marketing efforts. For example, affluent business travellers who are used to high standards of
living will expect an airline’s service to complement such a lifestyle (Swarbrooke, & Horner,
2001). The lifestyle one leads and expects to lead greatly depends on an individual’s social
status which is generally influenced by occupation. Social grades (grades in status) may be
broken down as follows:
A: Higher managerial, administrative or professional;
B: Intermediate managerial, administrative or professional;
C1: Supervisory, clerical and junior managerial, administrative or professional;
C2: Skilled manual workers;
D: Semi or unskilled manual workers;
E: State pensioners or widows, casual or lowest grade workers.
Most business class passengers come from the A, B and C1 social grades. These people have
high occupational status. They may earn high incomes and are usually accustomed to a good
lifestyle. Therefore, they may demand a very high standard of service. Marketing managers
must carefully consider additional facilities for these passengers, as they should ensure their
comfort, at all times. Examples of additional facilities that could be provided to these
individuals (particularly those who are in Class A) could include; separate cabin for business
class, separate check-in desks, the use of private lounge, and so on. Air travel is no longer an
elitist luxury. Although members of the A and B social grades form a substantial number of
leisure travellers, many airlines, particularly low-cost carriers are increasingly targeting lower
social grades, namely, C2, D and E, as a means of exploiting the market.
4.4.4. Behavioural Segmentation
Behavioural segmentation is defined as the segmentation of the market according to
individual purchase behaviours. Behaviour-based segmentation is conspicuous with the
benefits sought from the product, with the identification of specific buying behaviours, in
terms of shopping frequency and volumes of purchase, et cetera. For example, a customer
relationship management system could include customer profiles of frequent-flyer travellers,
and could reveal valuable information on their past transactions. The frequency with which
individuals travel often depends on their occupation. The higher the standard of living of
individuals will enable them to travel more frequently. These issues ought to be considered by
the airlines’ marketers. A poorly run airline could lose the return custom of its business
travellers. Moreover, it may lose credibility among potential prospects who may have come
in contact with disappointed travellers.
4.4.5 Product-related Segmentation
These variables depend on the product or service to be marketed. In the airline industry such
variables include, journey purpose, the length of the journey, the passengers’ country of
origin, and the like. For instance, passengers could be travelling for business reasons,
therefore they may need to book for their short itinerary in the last minute. When discussing
about business travellers it is necessary to break them into segments, namely, corporate,
independent, incentive or conference travellers. As mentioned earlier, there are quite a large
number of market segments which provide good sources of revenue for the airline industry.
However, the business passengers (as mentioned above), may differ from each other, in terms
of their spending power.
The independent travellers are usually travelling on their own expense, so they would expect
value for money. The corporate travellers are subsidised by their company, so they may be
more interested in the standard of service, as well as on other frills being made available to
them. The conference and incentive segments have other requirements. This latter segment
consists of individuals who travel in groups. Their arrangements are usually made well in
advance by either corporate businesses or by specialised travel agencies. As a means of
offering cheap group rates, airlines could possibly organise group travel at unsociable hours.
The length of the travel journeys may also dictate the customers’ needs, wants and
expectations. For example, the needs of the customers who are travelling on a long-haul flight
from London to Singapore, would be different from those of other travellers on a short-haul
flight from London to Paris. Long-haul travellers will need very comfortable seats, inflight
entertainment, inflight meals and so on. On the other hand, the short-haul travellers may only
require a drink and some literature (inflight magazine) to peruse. Then, there are other
journeys which may be categorised as medium-haul flights. An example would be a flight
from London to Rome. These passengers will have different requirements to those mentioned
above. In this case, they may expect comfortable seating and a light snack. Other services
such as priority boarding and a welcome drink may also be expected by business travellers.
4.5 The Requirements for Effective Segmentation
There are a number of ways of how a market can be segmented. However, not all market
segmentations are effective. Market segments must mean something, they must have
relevance to the product being marketed. The market segments must possess the following
4.5.1 Measurability
It must be possible to measure the size and purchasing power of the segment. It must be
possible to gather concrete information on the various characteristics of the market. For
example, 42 % of passengers earn $100,000 per annum. The businesses would be more
effective in their marketing strategies and tactics if they hold accurate data, on their chosen
4.5.2 Substantiality
This is the degree to which segments are profitable enough to be worth pursuing with
‘tailored’ marketing programmes. For example, it may not pay an airline to market its service
to people who are in the grade E social strata.
4.5.3 Accessibility
This refers to the degree to which one may reach and serve segments. For example, there is
no point in conducting a heavy television advertising campaign for the business class service
during off-peak viewing times of the day.
4.5.4 Actionability
This relates to the degree to which effective programmes can be redesigned to attract and
serve relevant segments. For instance, a small airline could identify different market
segments, but its human and financial resources may limit its ability to adequately develop
separate marketing programmes.
The four parameters, including measurability, substantiality, accessibility and actionability of
market segments, can be explained through a simple example:
After much market research, an airline has decided to offer an additional service on a new
direct route between two main cities. Previously, travellers had to fly indirectly to their
destination, by connecting through an intermediate city. The segment which the airline
proposes to target is the business class traveller. A market research has identified the business
traveller segment as the main customers using this indirect route. As a result, the airline
concluded that a new direct service would be welcomed by this group of travellers. Research
has indicated that a substantial number of business travellers already travel this route
although indirectly, and the size and purchasing power of this segment is considerable.
Accessibility does not pose a problem to the airline, as it proposes to promote the new route
through corporate magazines and newspapers, online through digital media and in prime
television and radio advertising. Moreover, the new service will be manageable for the
airline, satisfying company objectives, resources and fleet size.
In summary, the problem is to identify a segment of the market which can be easily targeted.
An airline may also use psychographic segmentation if it wants to establish the needs for
several business traveller segments, such as those whose choice of airline is dominated by
schedule convenience. At the same time, it could target leisure traveller segments, such as
those who are nervous of travelling by air. However, although it may be possible to develop
products to satisfy the needs of the business traveller segments, it will prove quite difficult for
the airline to identify the latter psychographic segment. For instance, those nervous of flying
would not live in just one area, or they may not read the same magazines, et cetera.
4.6 Market Targeting
Once the market segmentation has been completed, the company should be aware of the
needs and wants of its selected segments. It is in the interest of the business to identify any
untapped needs in the marketplace, as there could be customers who may not be adequately
served by competitors. It is then necessary to identify the most profitable segments and to
decide which segments will be served. There are three market coverage alternatives which
can be applied; undifferentiated marketing; differentiated marketing and concentrated
4.6.1 An Undifferentiated Marketing Strategy
An undifferentiated marketing strategy ignores any differences in the market. Therefore, this
strategy involves approaching the customers with one market offer. In this day and age,
discerned customers are increasingly becoming more demanding. It will prove difficult for
the business to develop a product or a brand which will satisfy all consumers who may have
different needs, wants and expectations.
4.6.2 A Differentiated Marketing Strategy
A differentiated marketing strategy will usually involve targeting a number of segments. This
marketing coverage strategy entails developing an individual product or service offering, and
creating a marketing plan for each and every segment. Hence, the company should carry out a
thorough market research to learn about how it can satisfy its selected segments. This will
translate to more costs than an undifferentiated strategy. Therefore, it is extremely important
for the company to decide which services are of critical importance to its chosen segments.
The marketing managers should determine whether there will be significant margins when
opting for differentiated marketing. For example, the legacy airlines’ provision of additional
facilities, such as; separate check-in desks, airport lounge facilities, separate cabins with
comfortable seating for first class or business class passengers, as well as superior inflight
meals, will translate to greater costs for the airline.
4.6.3 Concentrated marketing
The companies with limited resources will usually target just one or a few sub-markets. If a
segment is successfully chosen, there is a possibility that the firm may earn a high rate of
return on its investment. However, this form of marketing could also involve a high-risk
factor. If the selected segment fails, the company can experience hefty losses.
In sum, the appropriate market coverage strategy may be determined by a number of factors:
The company’s resources. If the resources are limited, concentrated marketing
could be the most logical choice;
The type of service which is to be offered. For example, airlines could offer
chartered or scheduled service, low-cost or full-service, long-haul or short-
haul services, business or leisure services, and so on;
Diversities within the market. The companies need to understand their
customers’ requirements. For example, independent business travellers may
have different needs and wants than those of the corporate business travellers
who are sponsored by their employers;
The competitors’ market coverage strategies. For example, if competing
airlines are successfully applying segmentation techniques; probably, it would
not make good business sense to employ an undifferentiated marketing
Which segment should be selected? Businesses should only consider those market segments
that are profitable. Therefore, they should target profitable customers within those segments
and nurture a long-lasting relationship with them.
4.7 eTourism: Targeting Customers in the Digital Age
In classic marketing, customers are segmented into groups. However, in reality, individual
customers have different needs and wants. This is the core aspect of personalised marketing.
Today, the advances in technology have enabled many businesses to reach their potential
customers by using digital and mobile applications.
A few companies have already reinvented how they target digital consumers to maximise
value from them, individually. Google, Facebook, Ebay and Amazon among others are
dominating digital marketing; and are pushing the entire field of advertising to other levels.
The use of personal info, web-browsing, search history, geographic location, apps and Google
Play Store’s transactions have gone mainstream. Google has begun using transaction records
to prove that its ads are working, as they are pushing people to make more purchases. This
allowed Google to determine the effectiveness of its digital ad campaigns and to verify their
conversion rates.
All individuals leave a “digital trail” of data as they move about in the virtual and physical
worlds. This phenomenon is called, “data exhaust”. Initially, the “digital trail” was an
interesting term that was used to describe how used predictive analytics in order
to suggest items to its customers. Although, individuals tend to regularly repeat their habitual
behaviours, predictive analytics cannot determine when and why they may decide to change
their future preferences (Camilleri, 2016). Of course, every person is unique. The possibility
of “one off” events must never be discounted. Yet, a firm with sufficient scarce resources
could be in a position to exploit how consumers deviate from rational decision making, on a
previously unimaginable scale. Big data and analytics are continuously being gathered in
new, innovative ways that have changed and improved the businesses’ operations. For
example, Deloitte Consulting have developed a mobile app that enabled Delta Air Lines’
executives to quickly query the airline’s operations. For instance, when users touch an airport
on a map, the system brings up additional data at their disposal. Executives could also drill
further down to obtain granular information on staffing requirements. and customer service
levels as they identify problems in their airline operations.
However, business intelligence and predictive analytics could raise a number of concerns.
Many customers may be wary of giving their data due to privacy issues. The underlying
question is; when does personalisation become an issue of consumer protection? Very often,
advances in technology are faster than legislation, and its deployment. These issues could
advance economic and privacy concerns that regulators will find themselves hard-pressed to
ignore. Some academics argue that the digital market manipulation may be pushing the limits
of consumer protection law. Evidently, society has built up a body of rules that are aimed to
protect personal information. Another contentious issue is figuring out the value of data and
its worth in monetary terms. In the past, companies could have struggled to determine the
value of their business; including patents, trade secrets and other intellectual property.
4.8 Targeted Segmentation through Mobile Devices
The mobile is an effective channel to reach out to many users. Mobile devices, including
smart phones and tablets could increase the productivities and efficiencies of organisations.
For this reason, mobile applications (apps) are an “in demand” area for research and
development. Gartner (2015) anticipated that mobile analytics was going to be one of the
latest technologies that could disrupt business intelligence. In fact, the market for advertising
on mobile is still escalating at a fast pace. Moreover, there are niche areas for professional
growth, as more and more individuals are increasingly creating new applications for many
purposes on mobile operating systems.
Recent advances in mobile communication and geo-positioning technologies have presented
marketers with a new way how to target consumers based on their location (Camilleri, 2016).
Location-targeted mobile advertising involves the provision of ad messages to mobile data
subscribers. This digital technology allows marketers to deliver ads and coupons that are
customised to individual consumers’ tastes, geographic location and the time of day. Given
the ubiquity of mobile devices, location-targeted mobile advertising is increasingly offering
tremendous marketing benefits.
In addition, many businesses are commonly utilising applications, including browser cookies
that track consumers through their mobile devices as they move out and about. Very often,
when users leave the sites they visited, the products or services they viewed will be shown to
them again in advertisements, across different websites. Hence, many companies are using
browsing session data combined with the consumers’ purchase history to deliver “suitable”
items that consumers like. There are also tourism businesses that are personalising their
offerings as they collect, classify and use large data volumes on the consumers’ behaviours.
As more consumers carry smartphones with them, they may be easily targeted with
compelling offers that instantaneously pop-up on their mobile devices.
For instance, consumers are continuously using social networks which are indicating their
geo location, as they use mobile apps. This same data can be used to identify where people
tend to gather — this information that could be very useful to marketers. This information is
valuable to brands as they seek to improve their consumer engagement and marketing efforts.
It may appear that businesses are using mobile devices and networks to capture important
consumer data. For instance, smart phones and tablets that are wifi-enabled interact with
networks and convey information to network providers and ISPs. Hence, more businesses
shall be using mobile devices and networks as a sort of sensor data to acquire relevant
information on their consumers’ digital behaviours and physical movements. These
businesses have become increasingly interactive through the proliferation of near-field
communication (NFC). Basically, embedded chips in the customers’ mobile phones are
exchanging data with the retailers’ items possessing the NFC tags. The latest iPhone, Android
and Microsoft smartphones have already included these NFC capabilities. This development
has recently led to the use of mobile wallets. The growth of such data-driven, digital
technologies is surely adding value to the customer-centric marketing. Therefore, analytics
can enable businesses to provide a deeper personalisation of content and offers to specific
The geo-based marketing message or offer is delivered at the right time, and at the right
place. The brands that hold customer data can gain a competitive edge over their rivals. Of
course, firms will need more than transaction history and loyalty schemes to be effective at
this. They may require both socio-demographic and geo-data that new mobile technologies
are capable of gathering.
For instance, many mobile service companies are partnering with local cinemas, in response
to the location-targeted mobile advertising; as cinema-goers often inquire about movie
information, and they may book tickets and select their seats through their mobile app. The
consumers who are physically situated within a given geographic proximity of the
participating cinemas could be receiving location-targeted mobile ads. The cinemas’ ads will
inform prospects what movies they are playing and could explain how to purchase tickets
through their phone. The consumers may also call the cinemas’ hotlines to get more
information from a customer service representative. Besides location-targeted advertising, the
mobile companies can also promote movie ticket sales via mobile ads that are directly
targeted to individuals, according to their behaviour (not by location). Therefore, the
companies may direct mobile-ad messages to those consumers who had previously responded
to previous mobile ads (and to others who had already purchased movie tickets, in the past
months). Moreover, the cinema companies could also promote movies via Facebook
Messenger Ads - if they logged in the companies’ website, via their Facebook account. The
mobile users might receive instant message ads via pop-up windows whenever they log into
the corporate site of their service provider.
It is envisaged that such data points will only increase as the multi-billion dollar advertising
monopolies are built on big data and analytics that can help businesses personalise immersive
ads to target individual customers. The use of credit card transactions is also complementing
geo-targeting and Google Maps, with ads; as the physical purchases are increasingly
demanding personalisation, fulfillment and convenience. Consumers and employees alike are
willing to give up their data for value. Therefore, the businesses need to reassure their
customers through concise disclosures on how they will use personal data. They should
clarify the purpose of maintaining consumer data, as they have to provide simple user
controls to opt in and out of different levels of data sharing. This way, they could establish a
trust-worthy relationship with customers and prospects.
Companies are already personalising their mobile shopping experience based on the user
situation and history. Tomorrow’s tourism businesses are expected to customise their user
experiences of applications and web interfaces, according to the needs of each individual
customer. Big data and analytics capabilities are increasingly allowing businesses to fully
leverage their rich data from a range of new digital touchpoints and to turn this into high
impact interactions. Those businesses that are able to reorient their marketing and product-
development efforts around digital customer segments and behaviours will be in a position to
tap into the hyper-growth that mobile, social media and the wearables market are currently
4.9 Product Positioning
The final stage in target marketing is product positioning. Firms formalise “positioning
statements” which specify the position they wish to occupy in their target customers’ minds,
relative to other competitors’ products or services. Customers continuously compare products
or services. Therefore, marketers must build their positioning strategies to improve the
customers’ (and prospects’) perceptions of their products. Effective product positions have
four important characteristics. Firstly, they are built around benefits for prospective
customers. Secondly, they differentiate the specific firms’ products or service from those of
key competitors. Thirdly, the respective firms need to possess relevant skills, resources, and
the credibility to deliver on their implied statements and promises. Finally, an effective
position is defensible, which means that an aggressive competitor cannot act quickly to
neutralise or preempt another positioning strategy. For example, a full-service, national
carrier could differentiate itself among other competitors as the only airline offering a
superior service in its chosen markets. The tourism businesses should stand out from their
rivals whether they decide to position themselves alongside competitors, or to position
themselves in untapped niches. They may position themselves for their high standards of
service, additional amenities and so on.
Alternatively, low-cost carriers like Southwest Airlines could position themselves as a
punctual airline, as a no-frills airline, as a low-cost airline, as a safety-conscious airline, as a
friendly airline, and as the airline serving the western part of the U.S. Recently, they used TV
advertising to counter an unpleasant customer perception about the airline’s ‘free-for-all’
seating policy. The rationale behind this spot was to build an image in their consumers’
4.10 Questions
What is market segmentation?
If your company is working with very limited resources. Which alternative would you
recommend and why?
Define product positioning and briefly state its relevance to the airline industry.
Outline in your own words, the variable which you could use, when segmenting the
business travel market in the airline industry.
4.11 Summary
It is virtually impossible to satisfy all customers, so it is up to the company to select the
specific parts of the market which they can best serve. Therefore, businesses could identify
market segments, select a few profitable segments, and develop products and marketing
mixes that are aimed at particular customers. Target marketing is made up of three stages:
market segmentation, marketing targeting and product positioning.
Segmentation is the identification of customer groups who share similar characteristics. This
process has a number of advantages, and enables a marketing manager to design an effective
plan for each segment. Usually, tourism companies segment their market by using
demographic, geographic, psychographic, behavioural and product-related variables. The
chosen segments ought to be measurable, accessible, substantial and actionable.
Three market coverage alternatives including; undifferentiated marketing; differentiated
marketing and concentrated marketing were also put forward in this chapter. Businesses
should consider the most appropriate market coverage strategy according to their resources,
the type of service to be offered and the diversities within the market. However, they should
also evaluate their competitors’ market coverage strategies.
The final stage in target marketing is product positioning. Consumers have different
perceptions of products or services. Therefore, business should underline their products’
unique attributes, features and value propositions to differentiate themselves from other
competitors in the marketplace.
... Meanwhile (Hasan 2015: 167) states that from the (prospective) point of view of tourists considering all forms of visit, the product must be designed in a package consisting of tangible or intangible components and activities in the destination must be felt by tourists to be a suitable experience using market price. In this study, the measurement of tourism product attribute variables is based on the dimensions of Accesses, Attractions, Amenities (Camilleri, 2018). In research (Zeshasina, 2018) states that product attributes significantly influence the tourist decision process. ...
... In marketing a product or service, one strategy that is often carried out in practice is to pay attention to the strategy of the attributes offered. The tourism attribute is the overall service that is received or felt enjoyed by tourists since he left his place, arrived at the tourist destination he has chosen and returned to the house where he originally left (Camilleri, 2018). Meanwhile, according to (Camilleri 2018). ...
... The tourism attribute is the overall service that is received or felt enjoyed by tourists since he left his place, arrived at the tourist destination he has chosen and returned to the house where he originally left (Camilleri, 2018). Meanwhile, according to (Camilleri 2018). The attributes of tourism products are all forms of services enjoyed by tourists which have the main elements consisting of attraction, access and facilities, stating that there are three important aspects of tourism products that influence the decision of tourists to visit ...
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This study aims to analyze the effect of electronic words of mouth, the attributes of tourism products on visiting decisions through an interest in visiting Dago Dreampark tourism. This research uses a quantitative approach with descriptive and verification designs. The sample used is 384 respondents who are Dago Dreampark visitors and social media users. Analysis of research data using the method of Structural Equation Modeling-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS). The results showed that the path coefficient was positive and indicated that electronic word-of-mouth and the attributes of tourism products had a positive and significant effect on visiting interest. The results of the R-squared value generated in this study are included in the standard model of the strength of visit interest, which has a positive effect on visiting decisions, and the path coefficient value is positive, and the results of the R-square value generated in this study are included in the strong standard model. | KEYWORDS Electronic word of mouth, Partial Least Square, tourism product attributes, interest in visiting, visiting decisions | ARTICLE
... Na esfera das instituições públicas, a comunicação vai para além de seu caráter Neste caso, os beneficiários são enquadrados, na teoria do marketing, como 'clientes' e o serviço de ATER como um 'produto' (RIBEIRO;OLIVEIRA, 2013;SILVA, 2015;CEZAR, 2018 Percebe-se que em outros setores, que não de serviços públicos, as comunicações são direcionadas de acordo com os diferentes desejos, valores, comportamentos, localização geográfica, dentre outras características que tornam necessário o agrupamento homogêneo para que os possíveis beneficiários, clientes, consumidores ou usuários possam ser atingidos de forma mais eficiente LIU et al., 2019). A esta separação dá-se o nome de 'segmentação' (CAMILLERI, 2018;LIU et al., 2019). ...
... Síntese dos resultados das hipóteses diferentes objetos de estudos, que há diferenças entre gêneros em relação a percepção do agricultor familiar quanto às práticas de ATER.A segmentação por nível de escolaridade também não tem qualquer influência na percepção da ATER no curto, médio ou longo prazo. Portanto, os presentes resultados contrariam as tesesde Diamantopoulos et al. (2003),Camilleri (2018) e Laurett, Paço e Mainardes (2021) baseadas na defesa de que a segmentação de acordo com o 'nível de escolaridade' tem influência em estudos de percepção. Da mesma forma, a atividade principal, de acordo com os resultados deste estudo, não influencia na percepção do serviço de ATER, independentemente de seu impacto temporal, contrapondo o estudo de Biardi et al. (2015). ...
A inserção do setor agrícola na agenda do desenvolvimento sustentável tem aumentado com a intenção de combinar desenvolvimento socioeconômico rural com preservação do meio ambiente. Neste cenário, o serviço de ATER tem se pautado em metas para incrementar a qualidade de vida das famílias rurais com vistas a oferecer aquisição de habilidade, promoção na mudança de comportamento e transformação no meio de vida no curto, médio e longo prazo. Ao enquadrar o beneficiário do serviço como ‘consumidor’ e a ATER como ‘produto’ pode-se fazer um estudo sob a ótica do marketing do consumidor. Assim, esta pesquisa objetivou analisar em qual medida as características dos produtores da agricultura familiar influenciam na percepção do serviço de ATER em três quesitos: aquisições de habilidades, mudanças de comportamento e transformação do meio de vida, através da segmentação destes quanto à faixa etária, gênero, escolaridade, atividade principal e o fato do produtor participar de organização social. Para tanto, analisou-se 457 observações de um estudo realizado com agricultores familiares brasileiros. A análise empírica foi desenvolvida por meio da técnica da Modelagem de Equações Estruturais. Os resultados indicaram que segmentações por faixa etária, escolaridade e atividade principal não têm influências significativas na percepção do serviço nos três atributos designados. O gênero e a participação em organização social influencia, em parte, na percepção dos quesitos ‘aquisição de habilidades’, ‘mudança de comportamento’ e ‘transformação do meio de vida’. De maneira geral identificou-se que, de forma não proposital, o oferecimento do serviço de ATER no Brasil encontra-se já segmentado. ABSTRACT The insertion of the agricultural sector in the sustainable development agenda has increased, intending to combine rural socioeconomic development with environmental preservation. In this scenario, the Technical Assistance and Rural Extension (TARE) service has been targeting goals to increase the rural families’ farmer’s life quality with an objective to offer skills acquisition, promote behavior change and transform the way of life in the short, medium and long term. By framing the beneficiary of the service as a 'consumer' and the TARE as a 'product', a study can be carried out from the ’consumer marketing’ perspective. Thus, this study aimed to analyze to what extent the characteristics of family farming producers influence the perception of the TARE service in three categories: skills acquisition, behavior changes and livelihood transformation, through their segmentation according to age, gender, education, main activity and the fact if the producer participates in social organization. Therefore, 457 observations of a survey carried out with Brazilian family farmers were analyzed. The empirical analysis was developed using the Structural Equation Modeling technique. The results indicated that segmentations by age, education and main activity do not have significant influences on the perception of the service in the three designated attributes. Gender and participation in social organization partly influence the perception of the items 'acquisition of skills, 'behavior change' and 'transformation of livelihood'. In general, it was identified that, unintentionally, the provision of the TARE service in Brazil is already segmented.
... One notable characteristic of online advertising is the ability to simultaneously target diverse segments of a population differently. Targeting within a marketing strategy is different from mass marketing or product differentiation (Camilleri, 2018). Nowadays, marketers have the tools to granularly distinguish between different stages of the customer journey and present tailormade content at lower costs to, say, acquire new customers or increase loyalty, among others. ...
Conference Paper
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Abstract The educator in modern society interacts with a diverse group of children/students when she/he works with or teaches extremely heterogenous groups of individuals who may be characterised by diversity that is not only cultural and linguistic in nature, but also moral. A similar situation arises in terms of moral customs, modes of behaviour and habits. A whole range of lifestyles and normative opinions converge at school and in the classroom. Consequently, educators need methods and sound knowledge in order to be able to address moral and ethical problems. According to Banks, Stárek, the most controversial area of ethics in helping professions is the conflict between ethical values and principles. The job of educators is becoming more and more complicated and demanding. Educators have to increasingly take into account the voice and reaction of parents. Students are more diverse. School management is becoming more professional and more administratively complex. Schools and other institutions are newly defined and there are changes in legislation and key documents. Consequently, educators have to work strategically in a field that is increasingly more determined by the social and personal interests of higher positions along with cashflow/economy, legal frameworks and political power. On the other hand, it is becoming increa+63singly clear that the core of the teaching profession includes not only teaching but also the relationship with students and parents. Educators can barely cope with the speed of changes in the teaching profession when they have to protect its core and sometimes even fight for it, not only in schools but even in society, where the issue of teacher status is often addressed. Educators can better protect themselves and have a professional space to defend the quality of their profession. Professional ethics can play an important role in this task. For the teacher, it is not a top-down ethics but the ethics of educators that frames what governs and interconnects teaching professionals. The research sample consisted of teaching staff working at a primary school in Prague. The teachers work in the first stage of primary school. The selected primary school has a code of ethics as an internal regulation. In total, five interviews with teachers were conducted. Respondents agreed that the Code of Ethics and Ethical Decision-making Model are good support for their professional practice. They are primarily useful in the communication process, especially when talking to children, colleagues and parents.
... Market segmentation requires market intelligence to divide the market into meaningful and measurable segments, according to the size of the companies and the previous purchasing behaviours and measure the performance of each segment (Camilleri, 2017). Weinstein (2010) explains that the company has two basic strategic choices: 1) to segment the market, or 2) to treat the entire market as potential customers for its goods or services. ...
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ICT providers need to differentiate themselves from competitors in a challenging environment by offering potential innovative technologies that are being developed throughout the ICT industry and provide attractive channel partnership programs for an inclusive industry strategy. The channel can be described as the services and product (indirect) sales to the market via established channel business partners in the local industry. This study explores strategic decisions on whether the fastest route and penetration to the market is through the ICT Channel which already has existing relationships in different market segments throughout the country. A channel strategy has the advantage of better access to a wider audience base which can translate into higher sales revenues. The objective was to explore strategic options that could improve growth and market share for ICT companies in South Africa. A provider may consider engaging directly with a customer or through a channel partnership. ISSN 1728 9157 [124] JMA Issue II 2020 A qualitative method was adopted which included purposeful sampling and semi-structured interviews. The objective was to explore strategic options that could improve growth and market share. The study concluded that one of the options is to develop a channel growth strategy that is both viable and sustainable. Recommendations focus on establishing an effective and reliable channel partnership strategy by developing and implementing a program that is attractive and offers mutual benefits to all stakeholders within the partnership thereby overcoming certain barriers to entry and challenges posed in the local market.
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The research objectives were (1) to analyze the achievement of 10% market share of PT Bestindo Jaya Indonesia's gas stoves in Indonesia for 10 years, (2) to improve the ability to assemble flatbed folding burners gas stove with INS (Indonesian National Standard) quality using modern technology, and (3) analyze the allocation of human resources according to the company's needs. This research used an ethnographic qualitative approach to take effective business decisions for PT Bestindo Jaya Indonesia. The recommended alternative strategies were marketing penetration to achieve the target market share; employee training and establishment of a quality management system to improve product assembly capabilities; and the implementation of the Human Capital management strategy program design to conform the allocation of human resources to the company's needs.
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PT. Karya Inti Abadi Kontainer is a company engaged in container modification services for business owners. The company uses abandoned containers in container depo for building purposes. The company spreads awareness through websites and advertisements for every MSME business owner throughout Java and Bali. Our services are a 'one-stop solution,' including pre-sales consulting, modified container sales, delivery, repair and maintenance services until container resale. To spread awareness for every business owner, we need a reliable online and offline marketing plan.
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The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) of the EU confirms the protection of personal data as a fundamental human right and affords data subjects more control over the way their personal information is processed, shared, and analyzed. However, where data are processed by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, asserting control and providing adequate explanations is a challenge. Due to massive increases in computing power and big data processing, modern AI algorithms are too complex and opaque to be understood by most data subjects. Articles 15 and 22 of the GDPR provide a modest regulatory framework for automated data processing by, among other things, mandating that data controllers inform data subjects about when it is being used, and its logic and ramifications. Nevertheless, due to the phrasing of the articles and the numerous exceptions they allow, doubts have arisen about their effectiveness. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the quality and effectiveness of AI disclosures as mandated by the GDPR. By means of an online survey ( N = 835), we investigated how data subjects expect to be informed about the automated processing of their data. We then conducted a content analysis of the AI disclosures of N = 100 companies and organizations. The combined findings reveal that current GDPR-mandated disclosures do not meet the expectations and needs of data subjects. Explanations drawn up following the guidelines of the generic formulations of the GDPR differ widely and are often vague, incomplete and lack transparency. In our conclusions we identify a path towards standardizing and optimizing AI information notices.
This investigation exhibits a real study of the influence of color in a digital promotional product—social coupon. The paper’s goal is to analyze the perception of color in graphic design, through the analysis of consumers’ responses. Following the design-science research (DSR) approach through the development of the artifacts—social coupons—the emotional influence of color was studied during the literature review. Then, according to the DSR, the main problem was divided into iterative cycles, in order to build and evaluate the artifacts designed to meet the identified business need. After the development of innovative artifacts, a digital promotional product was tested and redesigned, according to the user's perceptions. Consumers prefer colors that are associated with positive emotions and find tranquility and safety the most related to blue color, sophistication to black color, comfort to white color, brown as the most boring color, and red as the color which captures more of their attention. This study brings new insights to brands, with the development of a new framework and with its exploration about the emotional triggers of colors in the design, determining how to best capture consumers’ attention and how to bring more pleasant experiences to them.
This study compares and contrasts five different segmentation techniques to determine which one(s) best describe behaviour among independent tourists who visited Bali, Indonesia. The five techniques included geographic, demographic, behavioural and motivation segmentation, plus a hybrid technique that included geographic, demographic and behavioural variables. The study revealed geographic segmentation proved to be the most efficacious, with motivation segmentation least reliable. However, the authors caution that the preferred segmentation technique depends on the objectives of the study, with each method adopted serving a specific purpose.
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