Article

GPR55: A therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease?

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Abstract

The GPR55 receptor is expressed abundantly in the brain, especially in the striatum, suggesting it might fulfill a role in motor function. Indeed, motor behavior is impaired in mice lacking GPR55, which also display dampened inflammatory responses. Abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), a synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) isomer, is a GPR55 agonist that may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we explored whether modulating GPR55 could also represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The distribution of GPR55 mRNA was first analyzed by in situ hybridization, localizing GPR55 transcripts to neurons in brain nuclei related to movement control, striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and cortex. Striatal expression of GPR55 was downregulated in parkinsonian conditions. When Abn-CBD and CBD (5 mg/kg) were chronically administered to mice treated over 5 weeks with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and probenecid (MPTPp), Abn-CBD but not CBD prevented MPTPp induced motor impairment. Although Abn-CBD protected dopaminergic cell bodies, it failed to prevent degeneration of the terminals or preserve dopamine levels in the striatum. Both compounds induced morphological changes in microglia that were compatible with an anti-inflammatory phenotype that did not correlate with a neuroprotective activity. The symptomatic relief of Abn-CBD was further studied in the haloperidol-induced catalepsy mouse model. Abn-CBD had an anti-cataleptic effect that was reversed by CBD and PSB1216, a newly synthesized GPR55 antagonist, and indeed, two other GPR55 agonists also displayed anti-cataleptic effects (CID1792197 and CID2440433). These results demonstrate for the first time that activation of GPR55 might be beneficial in combating PD.

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... CBD is likely to promote both neuronal repolarization via GPR55, at a presynaptic level, and neuromodulation (Morano et al., 2020). Interestingly, as GPR55 is expressed in a similar way to the CB1 receptors, they are also expressed in the BG circuit (Celorrio et al., 2017). In addition to the foregoing findings, evidence reported on the mechanism via which CBD affects the CNS has shown that CBD activates the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A (Russo et al., 2005) and the adenosine A2A receptors (Mecha et al., 2013). ...
... CBD behaves as an antagonist with TRPM8 (De Petrocellis et al., 2011), while, acting alone, it has also been found to stimulate the activity of mitochondrial complexes (Valvassori et al., 2013), in addition to, directly and indirectly, stopping the pro-inflammatory process and promoting the anti-inflammatory process, via PPARɣ (Esposito et al., 2011;Malfait et al., 2000) (Figure 3). It should be noted that the CB1 receptor, TRPV-1, GPR55, and the A2A receptor are all abundantly expressed in the BG, which are main structures that participate in the control of movement (Fernández-Ruiz et al., 2010a;Hickey and Stacy, 2012;Chaves-Kirsten et al., 2013;Celorrio et al., 2017). ...
... In an animal PD model, two 1 mg/kg reserpine doses were administered for six days along whit a CBD 0.5 and 5 mg for seven days, resulting in a decrease in catalepsy behavior, a decrease in vacuous chewing movements, and an attenuation of reserpine-induced memory deficit (Peres et al., 2016). Another study found neither neuroprotective effect of CBD in 1-Methyl-4phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) models in mice, nor beneficial effects on motor behavior or haloperidol-induced catalepsy (Celorrio et al., 2017). ...
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The phytocannabinoids of Cannabis sativa L. have, since ancient times, been proposed as a pharmacological alternative for treating various central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Interestingly, cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) are highly expressed in the basal ganglia (BG) circuit of both animals and humans. The BG are subcortical structures that regulate the initiation, execution, and orientation of movement. CBRs regulate dopaminergic transmission in the nigro-striatal pathway and, thus, the BG circuit also. The functioning of the BG is affected in pathologies related to movement disorders, especially those occurring in Parkinson’s disease (PD), which produces motor and non-motor symptoms that involving GABAergic, glutamatergic, and dopaminergic neural networks. To date, the most effective medication for PD is levodopa (l-DOPA); however, long-term levodopa treatment causes a type of long-term dyskinesias, l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LIDs). With neuromodulation offering a novel treatment strategy for PD patients, research has focused on the endocannabinoid system (ECS), as it participates in the physiological neuromodulation of the BG in order to control movement. CBRs have been shown to inhibit neurotransmitter release, while endocannabinoids (eCBs) play a key role in the synaptic regulation of the BG. In the past decade, cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid, has been shown to have compensatory effects both on the ECS and as a neuromodulator and neuroprotector in models such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and reserpine, as well as other PD models. Although the CBD-induced neuroprotection observed in animal models of PD has been attributed to the activation of the CB1 receptor, recent research conducted at a molecular level has proposed that CBD is capable of activating other receptors, such as CB2 and the TRPV-1 receptor, both of which are expressed in the dopaminergic neurons of the nigro-striatal pathway. These findings open new lines of scientific inquiry into the effects of CBD at the level of neural communication. Cannabidiol activates the PPARγ, GPR55, GPR3, GPR6, GPR12, and GPR18 receptors, causing a variety of biochemical, molecular, and behavioral effects due to the broad range of receptors it activates in the CNS. Given the low number of pharmacological treatment alternatives for PD currently available, the search for molecules with the therapeutic potential to improve neuronal communication is crucial. Therefore, the investigation of CBD and the mechanisms involved in its function is required in order to ascertain whether receptor activation could be a treatment alternative for both PD and LID.
... LysoPI is an endogenous ligand for G protein coupled receptor (GPR) 55, although other candidate receptors for LysoPI have also been suggested [7]. Celorrio et al. [20] found that the expression of GPR55 in the striatum was downregulated in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease, and activation of GPR55 by agonists relieved haloperidolinduced catalepsy in the mouse model. Thus, it has been suggested that GPR55 can be a therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease [7,20,21]. ...
... Celorrio et al. [20] found that the expression of GPR55 in the striatum was downregulated in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease, and activation of GPR55 by agonists relieved haloperidolinduced catalepsy in the mouse model. Thus, it has been suggested that GPR55 can be a therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease [7,20,21]. Additionally, another study showed that the rat brain contains a significant amount of LysoPI [22]. However, the functions of LysoPI and its receptor GPR55 in the CNS are not fully understood. ...
... Several lines of evidence indicate that LPLs mediate inflammation and immunity in the CNS. Among LPLs, LysoPI is an endogenous ligand for GPR55, which is expressed by the microglia and is related to neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease [7,20,21,23]. Additionally, a significant amount of LysoPI is contained in the rat brain [22]. ...
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Lysophosphatidylinositol (LysoPI), an endogenous ligand for G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 55, has been known to show various functions in several tissues and cells; however, its roles in the central nervous system (CNS) are not well known. In particular, the detailed effects of LysoPI on microglial inflammatory responses remain unknown. Microglia is the immune cell that has important functions in maintaining immune homeostasis of the CNS. In this study, we explored the effects of LysoPI on inflammatory responses using the mouse microglial cell line BV-2, which was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and some results were confirmed also in rat primary microglia. LysoPI was found to reduce LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase protein expression without affecting cell viability in BV-2 cells. LysoPI also suppressed intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species both in BV-2 cells and primary microglia and cytokine release in BV-2 cells. In addition, LysoPI treatment decreased phagocytic activity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells and primary microglia. The GPR55 antagonist CID16020046 completely inhibited LysoPI-induced downregulation of phagocytosis in BV-2 microglia, but did not affect the LysoPI-induced decrease in NO production. Our results suggest that LysoPI suppresses microglial phagocytosis via a GPR55-dependent pathway and NO production via a GPR55-independent pathway. LysoPI may contribute to neuroprotection in pathological conditions such as brain injury or neurodegenerative diseases, through its suppressive role in the microglial inflammatory response.
... Despite the receptor may be activated by an endogenous molecule, L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol, IUPHAR (http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) did not consider GPR55 as de-orphaned because in vivo efficacy of L-αlysophosphatidylinositol acting on GPR55 has not yet been reported [21][22][23][24][25][26]. GPR55 is expressed in different regions within the brain and has been proposed as a potential target for PD [27][28][29]. ...
... In contrast, the CB 2 R is expressed in fewer neuronal populations, at restricted CNS sites, and in glial cells [38,39]. It is known that GPR55 is also expressed in neurons at different brain regions [27,[40][41][42]. CB 1 R/GPR55 heteromers have been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo [29,31]; in the CNS, the heteromers have been identified in the striatum [29]. ...
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Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) and the GPR55 receptor are expressed in striatum and are potential targets in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease (PD), one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases in developed countries. The aimof this paper was to address the potential of ligands acting on those receptors to prevent the action of a neurotoxic agent, MPP+, that specifically affects neurons of the substantia nigra due to uptake via the dopamine DAT transporter. The SH-SY5Y cell line model was used as it expresses DATand, therefore, is able to uptake MPP+ that inhibits complex I of the respiratory mitochondrial chain and leads to cell death. Cells were transfected with cDNAs coding for either or both receptors. Receptors in cotransfected cells formed heteromers as indicated by the in situ proximity ligation assays. Cell viability was assayed by oxygen rate consumption and by the bromide-based MTT method. Assays of neuroprotection using two concentrations ofMPP+ showed that cells expressing receptor heteromers were more resistant to the toxic effect. After correction by effects on cell proliferation, the CB1R antagonist, SR141716, afforded an almost full neuroprotection in CB1R-expressing cells even when a selective agonist, ACEA, was present. In contrast, SR141716 was not effective in cells expressing CB1/GPR55 heteromeric complexes. In addition, an agonist of GPR55, CID1792197, did not enhance neuroprotection in GPR55-expressing cells. These results show that neurons expressing heteromers are more resistant to cell death but question the real usefulness of CB1R, GPR55, and their heteromers as targets to afford PD-related neuroprotection.
... Finally, a potential role for GPR55 in Parkinson's disease treatment was suggested, as GPR55 expression was decreased in the striatum in a murine model of Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, GPR55 agonists had an anticataleptic effect in mice treated with haloperidol to mimic the symptomatic motor difficulties of Parkinson's disease patients [93]. However, while most of these studies point to a beneficial role of GPR55 activation in the CNS, GPR55 antagonists had beneficial effects on seizures and social deficits in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome, a form of childhood epilepsy [94]. ...
Article
Lysophosphatidylinositols (LPIs) are membrane constituents that alter the properties of said membranes. However, recent data showing that the once orphan receptor, GPR55, can act as a receptor for LPIs has sparked a renewed interest in LPIs as bioactive lipids. As evidence supporting the importance of LPIs and/or GPR55 is continuously accumulating and because LPI levels are altered in a number of pathologies such as obesity and cancer, the coming years should bring new, exciting discoveries to this field. In this review, we discuss the recent work on LPIs and on their molecular target, the GPR55 receptor. First, we summarize the metabolism of LPIs before outlining the cellular pathways activated by GPR55. Then, we review the actions of LPIs and GPR55 that could have potential pharmacological or therapeutic applications in several pathophysiological settings, such as cancer, obesity, pain, and inflammation.
... Currently, the phospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is considered the GPR55 endogenous ligand (Morales and Reggio, 2017). Although only few studies link the CBD effect to its action on GPR55 (Kaplan et al., 2017), it is noteworthy that GPR55 has been associated with PD in an animal model (Celorrio et al., 2017) and with axon growth in vitro (Cherif et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and dyskinesia are highly debilitating conditions linked to oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. When available, the pharmacological therapies for these disorders are still mainly symptomatic, do not benefit all patients and induce severe side effects. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that presents antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Although the studies that investigate the effects of this compound on movement disorders are surprisingly few, cannabidiol emerges as a promising compound to treat and/or prevent them. Here, we review these clinical and pre-clinical studies and draw attention to the potential of cannabidiol in this field.
... Δ 9 -THC and CBD restored dopamine levels in the 6-OHDA rat model in a CB 1 receptor-independent manner [120], presumably by acting through the same mechanisms (e.g., PPAR-γ, Nrf-2 signaling, thus improving mitochondrial function), and these mechanisms have been described for AD in the previous subsection (see Section 2.2.4.). However, a lack of neuroprotective activity was described for CBD in the chronic MPTP mouse model [163]. The phytocannabinoid Δ 9 -THCV, with its antioxidant properties and the ability to activate CB 2 and to block CB 1 receptors, presents an interesting pharmacological profile for PD. ...
Article
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) exerts a modulatory effect of important functions such as neurotransmission, glial activation, oxidative stress, or protein homeostasis. Dysregulation of these cellular processes is a common neuropathological hallmark in aging and in neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). The broad spectrum of actions of cannabinoids allows targeting different aspects of these multifactorial diseases. In this review, we examine the therapeutic potential of the ECS for the treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS focusing on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. First, we describe the localization of the molecular components of the ECS and how they are altered under neurodegenerative conditions, either contributing to or protecting cells from degeneration. Second, we address recent advances in the modulation of the ECS using experimental models through different strategies including the direct targeting of cannabinoid receptors with agonists or antagonists, increasing the endocannabinoid tone by the inhibition of endocannabinoid hydrolysis, and activation of cannabinoid receptor-independent effects. Preclinical evidence indicates that cannabinoid pharmacology is complex but supports the therapeutic potential of targeting the ECS. Third, we review the clinical evidence and discuss the future perspectives on how to bridge human and animal studies to develop cannabinoid-based therapies for each neurodegenerative disorder. Finally, we summarize the most relevant opportunities of cannabinoid pharmacology related to each disease and the multiple unexplored pathways in cannabinoid pharmacology that could be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
... GPR55 can bind to both cannabinoid compounds, such as abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), although its endogenous ligand is lysophophatidylinositol (LPI; Shore and Reggio, 2015). The potential of GPR55 in neurodegenerative disorders has been reported in many studies (Shore and Reggio, 2015;Celorrio et al., 2017;Alavi et al., 2018). It is significantly expressed in both primary and BV-2 microglia cells. ...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with impairment of cognition, memory deficits and behavioral abnormalities. Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) is a characteristic hallmark of AD. Microglia express several GPCRs, which, upon activation by modulators, mediate microglial activation and polarization phenotype. This GPCR-mediated microglial activation has both protective and detrimental effects. Microglial GPCRs are involved in amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage and Aβ generation. In addition, microglial GPCRs are featured in the regulation of Aβ degradation and clearance through microglial phagocytosis and chemotaxis. Moreover, in response to Aβ binding on microglial Aβ receptors, they can trigger multiple inflammatory pathways. However, there is still a lack of insight into the mechanistic link between GPCR-mediated microglial activation and its pathological consequences in AD. Currently, the available drugs for the treatment of AD are mostly symptomatic and dominated by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEI). The selection of a specific microglial GPCR that is highly expressed in the AD brain and capable of modulating AD progression through Aβ generation, degradation and clearance will be a potential source of therapeutic intervention. Here, we have highlighted the expression and distribution of various GPCRs connected to microglial activation in the AD brain and their potential to serve as therapeutic targets of AD.
... In an excitotoxicity in vitro model of rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC), the activation of GPR55 receptor by L-α-Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) mediated neuroprotection through microglia [15]. In a mouse model of PD, the expression of GPR55 was downregulated in the striatum and the treatment with an agonist of GPR55, abnormal-cannabidiol, improved the motor behavior by neuroprotection of dopaminergic neuron cell bodies [16]. A molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral study of GPR55 −/− knockout mice demonstrated a normal development of brain structure and did not affect the endocannabinoid system nor muscle strength and motor learning. ...
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Background Neuroinflammation plays a vital role in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Microglia are the resident mononuclear immune cells of the central nervous system, and they play essential roles in the maintenance of homeostasis and responses to neuroinflammation. The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been reported to modulate inflammation and is expressed in immune cells such as monocytes and microglia. However, its effects on neuroinflammation, mainly on the production of members of the arachidonic acid pathway in activated microglia, have not been elucidated in detail. Methods In this present study, a series of coumarin derivatives, that exhibit GPR55 antagonism properties, were designed. The effects of these compounds on members of the arachidonic acid cascade were studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated primary rat microglia using Western blot, qPCR, and ELISA. Results We demonstrate here that the various compounds with GPR55 antagonistic activities significantly inhibited the release of PGE2 in primary microglia. The inhibition of LPS-induced PGE2 release by the most potent candidate KIT 17 was partially dependent on reduced protein synthesis of mPGES-1 and COX-2. KIT 17 did not affect any key enzyme involved on the endocannabinoid system. We furthermore show that microglia expressed GPR55 and that a synthetic antagonist of the GPR receptor (ML193) demonstrated the same effect of the KIT 17 on the inhibition of PGE2. Conclusions Our results suggest that KIT 17 is acting as an inverse agonist on GPR55 independent of the endocannabinoid system. Targeting GPR55 might be a new therapeutic option to treat neurodegenerative diseases with a neuroinflammatory background such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson, and multiple sclerosis (MS).
... Knowledge about GPR55 physiology in the nervous system has increased recently (Marichal-Cancino et al., 2017). This receptor has been suggested as a potential therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease due to a possible alteration on its expression in the basal nuclei (Celorrio et al., 2017), where it is related to procedural memories (Marichal-Cancino et al., 2016). GPR55 is also expressed in the hippocampus, where it has a role in spatial navigation (Marichal-Cancino et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Background: Marijuana extracts (cannabinoids) have been used for several millennia for pain treatment. Regarding the site of action, cannabinoids are highly promiscuous molecules, but only two cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) have been deeply studied and classified. Thus, therapeutic actions, side effects and pharmacological targets for cannabinoids have been explained based on the pharmacology of cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptors. However, the accumulation of confusing and sometimes contradictory results suggests the existence of other cannabinoid receptors. Different orphan proteins (e.g., GPR18, GPR55, GPR119, etc.) have been proposed as putative cannabinoid receptors. According to their expression, GPR18 and GPR55 could be involved in sensory transmission and pain integration. Methods: This article reviews select relevant information about the potential role of GPR18 and GPR55 in the pathophysiology of pain. Results: This work summarized novel data supporting that, besides cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, GPR18 and GPR55 may be useful for pain treatment. Conclusion: There is evidence to support an antinociceptive role for GPR18 and GPR55.
... For example, cannabinoids targeting the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB 1 ) have been found to reduce, mainly in preclinical studies, parkinsonian signs such as bradykinesia and immobility (Fernández-Espejo et al., 2005;González et al., 2006;Kelsey et al., 2009), tremor (Sañudo-Peña et al., 1999) and/or L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (Junior et al., 2020). Targeting the CB 1 receptor has been also proposed as neuroprotective therapy (Iuvone et al., 2007;Chung et al., 2011;Pérez-Rial et al., 2011;Nguyen et al., 2016), but most of cannabinoids proposed as disease modifiers work: (i) against inflammatory events by targeting the cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB 2 ) (Price et al., 2009;García et al., 2011;Javed et al., 2016;Gómez-Gálvez et al., 2016;Chung et al., 2016;Aymerich et al., 2016;Wang et al., 2018), but also the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) (Carroll et al., 2012;García et al., 2018;Burgaz et al., 2019) and even an orphan receptor, GPR55, which has been recently associated with the endocannabinoid system (Celorrio et al., 2017); and (ii) against oxidative injury based on cannabinoid receptor-independent effects (Lastres-Becker et al., 2005;Jimenez-Del-Rio et al., 2008) and possibly on their proposed ability to modulate the signaling of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf-2 (Gugliandolo et al., 2018). ...
Article
The quinone derivative of the non-psychotropic cannabinoid cannabigerol (CBG), so-called VCE-003.2, has been recently investigated for its neuroprotective properties in inflammatory models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in mice. Such potential derives from its activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective properties of VCE-003.2 against the parkinsonian neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), in comparison with two new CBG-related derivatives, the cannabigerolic acid quinone (CBGA-Q) and its sodium salt CBGA-Q-Salt, which, similarly to VCE-003.2, were found to be active at the PPAR-γ receptor, but not at the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. First, we investigated their cytoprotective properties in vitro by analyzing cell survival in cultured SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 6-OHDA. We found an important cytoprotective effect of VCE-003.2 at a concentration of 20 μM, which was not reversed by the blockade of PPAR-γ receptors with GW9662, supporting its activity at an alternative site (non-sensitive to classic antagonists) in this receptor. We also found CBGA-Q and CBGA-Q-Salt being cytoprotective in this cell assay, but their effects were completely eliminated by GW9662, thus indicating that they are active at the canonical site in the PPAR-γ receptor. Then, we moved to in vivo testing using mice unilaterally lesioned with 6-OHDA. Our data confirmed that VCE-003.2 administered orally (20 mg/kg) preserved tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive nigral neurons against 6-OHDA-induced damage, whereas it completely attenuated the astroglial (GFAP) and microglial (CD68) reactivity found in the substantia nigra of lesioned mice. Such neuroprotective effects caused an important recovery in the motor deficiencies displayed by 6-OHDA-lesioned mice in the pole test and the cylinder rearing test. We also investigated CBGA-Q, given orally (20 mg/kg) or intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg, i.p.), having similar benefits compared to VCE-003.2 against the loss of TH-positive nigral neurons, glial reactivity and motor defects caused by 6-OHDA. Lastly, the sodium salt of CBGA-Q, given orally (40 mg/kg) to 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, also showed benefits at behavioral and histopathological levels, but to a lower extent compared to the other two compounds. In contrast, when given i.p., CBGA-Q-Salt (10 mg/kg) was poorly active. We also analyzed the concentrations of dopamine and its metabolite DOPAC in the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned mice after the treatment with the different compounds, but recovery in the contents of both dopamine and DOPAC was only found after the treatment with VCE-003.2. In summary, our data confirmed the neuroprotective potential of VCE-003.2 in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, which adds to its previous activity found in an inflammatory model of PD (LPS-lesioned mice). Additional phytocannabinoid derivatives, CBGA-Q and CBGA-Q-Salt, also afforded neuroprotection in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, but their effects were lower compared to VCE-003.2, in particular in the case of CBG-Q-Salt. In vitro studies confirmed the relevance of PPAR-γ receptors for these effects.
... GPR55 receptors have generated significant interest recently as regulators of developmental processes (45) and pathologies (16,46,47), as well as phenomena associated with cell migration, subcellular motility, and amplification of signal transduction. Nevertheless, the physiological role of GPR55 in adult systems physiology remains unexpectedly obscure to this day, which we attribute to the often moderate-to-low levels of Gpr55 expression (10). ...
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GPR55, a lipid-sensing receptor, is implicated in cell cycle control, malignant cell mobilization, and tissue invasion in cancer. However, a physiological role for GPR55 is virtually unknown for any tissue type. Here, we localize GPR55 to self-renewing ductal epithelial cells and their terminally differentiated progeny in both human and mouse salivary glands. Moreover, we find GPR55 expression downregulated in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas and GPR55 reinstatement by antitumor irradiation, suggesting that GPR55 controls renegade proliferation. Indeed, GPR55 antagonism increases cell proliferation and function determination in quasiphysiological systems. In addition, Gpr55-/- mice present ~50% enlarged submandibular glands with many more granulated ducts, as well as disordered endoplasmic reticuli and with glycoprotein content. Next, we hypothesized that GPR55 could also modulate salivation and glycoprotein content by entraining differentiated excretory progeny. Accordingly, GPR55 activation facilitated glycoprotein release by itself, inducing low-amplitude Ca2+ oscillations, as well as enhancing acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ responses. Topical application of GPR55 agonists, which are ineffective in Gpr55-/- mice, into adult rodent submandibular glands increased salivation and saliva glycoprotein content. Overall, we propose that GPR55 signaling in epithelial cells ensures both the life-long renewal of ductal cells and the continuous availability of saliva and glycoproteins for oral health and food intake.
... The expression of GPR55 was protective against the insult exerted by MPP + in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease, but an agonist of GPR55 did not enhance neuroprotection in GPR55-expressing cells (Martínez-Pinilla et al., 2019). However, the GPR55 agonist abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), a synthetic cannabidiol isomer, displayed beneficial properties when chronically administered (5 weeks) to a murine model of Parkinson's disease (Celorrio et al., 2017). Moreover, a neuroprotective role of GPR55 activation on neural stem cells in vitro and in vivo has been recently proposed, thus suggesting that GPR55 could provide a novel therapeutic target against negative regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by inflammatory insult (Hill et al., 2019). ...
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N-Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a non-endocannabinoid lipid mediator belonging to the class of the N-acylethanolamine phospolipids and was firstly isolated from soy lecithin, egg yolk, and peanut meal. Either preclinical or clinical studies indicate that PEA is potentially useful in a wide range of therapeutic areas, including eczema, pain, and neurodegeneration. PEA-containing products are already licensed for use in humans as a nutraceutical, a food supplement, or a food for medical purposes, depending on the country. PEA is especially used in humans for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and has demonstrated high safety and tolerability. Several preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies have proven that PEA can induce its biological effects by acting on several molecular targets in both central and peripheral nervous systems. These multiple mechanisms of action clearly differentiate PEA from classic anti-inflammatory drugs and are attributed to the compound that has quite unique anti(neuro)inflammatory properties. According to this view, preclinical studies indicate that PEA, especially in micronized or ultramicronized forms (i.e., formulations that maximize PEA bioavailability and efficacy), could be a potential therapeutic agent for the effective treatment of different pathologies characterized by neurodegeneration, (neuro)inflammation, and pain. In particular, the potential neuroprotective effects of PEA have been demonstrated in several experimental models of Alzheimer’s disease. Interestingly, a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) case study reported that a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patient, treated for 9 months with ultramicronized-PEA/luteolin, presented an improvement of cognitive performances. In the present review, we summarized the current preclinical and clinical evidence of PEA as a possible therapeutic agent in Alzheimer’s disease. The possible PEA neuroprotective mechanism(s) of action is also described.
... This chronic mouse model of PD was treated with abnormal-CBD (Abn-CBD), a synthetic CBD isomer and GPR55 agonist. Authors found that the key features of PD induced by MPTPp were prevented by the pharmacological treatment, suggesting that the activation of GPR55 may be a good strategy for the treatment of PD (Celorrio et al., 2017). ...
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Cannabis sativa, commonly known as marijuana, contains a pool of secondary plant metabolites with therapeutic effects. Besides Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol that is the principal psychoactive constituent of Cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid and may represent a prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development for human pathologies where both the inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) play an important role to their etiology and progression. To this regard, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative disorders, are characterized by extensive oxidative damage to different biological substrates that can cause cell death by different pathways. Most cases of neurodegenerative diseases have a complex etiology with a variety of factors contributing to the progression of the neurodegenerative processes; therefore, promising treatment strategies should simultaneously target multiple substrates in order to stop and/or slow down the neurodegeneration. In this context, CBD, which interacts with the eCB system, but has also cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism, might be a good candidate as a prototype for anti-oxidant drug development for the major neurodegenerative disorders, such as PD and AD. This review summarizes the multiple molecular pathways that underlie the positive effects of CBD, which may have a considerable impact on the progression of the major neurodegenerative disorders.
... GPR18 and GPR55 have a role in integrating, transmitting and/or alleviating pain whereas CB 1 agonists induce inhibition of pain integration and CB 2 agonists cause antiinflammation via negative modulation of the immune system [92]. GPR55 is also emerging as a therapeutic target for the nondopaminergic symptomatic treatment of PD as shown by the effect of Abn-CBD in improving motor behavior [93]. The role of GPR55 in energy balance and glucose metabolism has been thoroughly reviewed showing its potential in obesity and type 2 diabetes [94]. ...
Article
Introduction: The pathophysiological relevance of the endocannabinoid system has been widely demonstrated in a variety of diseases including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic issues. Therefore, targeting the receptors and the endogenous machinery involved in this system can provide a successful therapeutic outcome. Ligands targeting the canonical cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, along with inhibitors of the endocannabinoid enzymes have been thoroughly studied in diverse disease models. In fact, phytocannabinoids such as cannabidiol or Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol are currently on the market for the management of neuropathic pain due to spasticity in multiple sclerosis or seizures in children epilepsy amongst others. Areas covered: Challenges in the pharmacology of cannabinoids arise from its pharmacokinetics, off-target effects, and psychoactive effects. In this context, the current review outlines the novel molecular approaches emerging in the field discussing their clinical potential. Expert opinion: Even if orthosteric CB1 and CB2 ligands are on the forefront in cannabinoid clinical research, emerging strategies such as allosteric or biased modulation of these receptors along with controlled off-targets effects may increase the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids.
... Recently, cannabinoid receptors activation has been reported to have neuroprotective and antidyskinetic effects on animal models [83][84][85]. In humans, polymorphisms of CB1 have been related to signs of depression in PD patients [86]. ...
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Besides being better known for causing motor impairments, Parkinson’s disease (PD) can also cause many nonmotor symptoms, like depression and anxiety, which can cause significant loss of life quality and may not respond to regular drugs treatment. In this review, we discuss the depression in PD, based on data from studies in humans and rodents. Depression frequency seems higher in PD patients than in general population, despite high variation in data due to diagnosis disparities. Development of depression in PD seems more likely to be caused by the nigrostriatal pathway degeneration than as a consequence of the awareness of disease prognostic, and it seems to be related to dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotoninergic synapses deficits. The dopaminergic role could be more significant, since it can modulate the release of the others, and its depletion is progressive, due to the degenerative feature of PD. Highly regarded in major depression, serotonin can be depleted in rats after nigrostriatal damage, but data from human patients are more conflicting. Animal studies can help in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of depression in PD and the pursuit for more effective drugs for its treatment, but they lack the complexity of the disease progression, especially the nondopaminergic degeneration.
... In this sense, there is the possibility for cannabinoids to regulate the M1/M2 balance (Galve-Roperh et al. 2008;Stella 2009;Aso and Ferrer 2014;Mecha et al. 2015Mecha et al. , 2016Tao et al. 2016). Interestingly, there are already data showing that GPR55 may be a non-dopaminergic therapeutic target in PD (Wu et al. 2013;Celorrio et al. 2017). ...
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Endocannabinoids are neuromodulators acting on specific cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), representing potential therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. Cannabinoids also regulate the activity of GPR55, a recently “deorphanized” GPCR that directly interacts with CB1 and with CB2 receptors. Our hypothesis is that these heteromers may be taken as potential targets for Parkinson’s disease (PD). This work aims at assessing the expression of heteromers made of GPR55 and CB1/CB2 receptors in the striatum of control and parkinsonian macaques (with and without levodopa-induced dyskinesia). For this purpose, double blind in situ proximity ligation assays, enabling the detection of GPCR heteromers in tissue samples, were performed in striatal sections of control, MPTP-treated and MPTP-treated animals rendered dyskinetic by chronic treatment with levodopa. Image analysis and statistical assessment were performed using dedicated software. We have previously demonstrated the formation of heteromers between GPR55 and CB1 receptor (CB1-GPR55_Hets), which is highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), but also with the CB2 receptor (CB2-GPR55_Hets). Compared to the baseline expression of CB1-GPR55_Hets in control animals, our results showed increased expression levels in basal ganglia input nuclei of MPTP-treated animals. These observed increases in CB1-GPR55_Hets returned back to baseline levels upon chronic treatment with levodopa in dyskinetic animals. Obtained data regarding CB2-GPR55_Hets were quite similar, with somehow equivalent amounts in control and dyskinetic animals, and with increased expression levels in MPTP animals. Taken together, the detected increased expression of GPR55-endocannabinoid heteromers appoints these GPCR complexes as potential non-dopaminergic targets for PD therapy.
... The expression of GPR55 in mouse tissue has been reported in the nervous system including the hippocampus, though its function remains unknown (Sylantyev et al. 2013). GPR55 agonists have been shown to have a neuroprotective effect on Parkinson's disease (Celorrio et al. 2017), anxiety (Rahimi et al. 2015), and pain perception (Deliu et al. 2015). In addition, it has been reported that activation of GPR55 can strongly protect from ER stress-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells (Vong et al. 2019). ...
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Our previous research found that activation of GPR55 can alleviate cognitive impairment induced by amyloid-beta 1–42 (Aβ1-42) and streptozotocin in mice, but the role of GPR55 in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment remains unknown. Here, we used a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mouse model to further investigate the role and mechanism of O-1602, a GPR55 agonist, on cognitive dysfunction. ICR mice were treated with an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of LPS, followed by cognitive function tests. The expression of GPR55, NF-κB p65, caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 in the hippocampus was examined by Western blotting. Inflammatory cytokines and microglia were detected by ELISA kit and immunohistochemical analyses, respectively. The levels of MDA, GSH, SOD, and CAT were examined by assay kits. Furthermore, TUNEL-staining was used to detect neuronal apoptosis. Our results showed that i.c.v. injection of LPS in mice exhibited impaired performance in the behavior tests, which were ameliorated by O-1602 treatment (2.0 or 4.0 μg/mouse, i.c.v.). Importantly, we found that O-1602 treatment reversed GPR55 downregulation, decreased the expression of NF-κB p65, suppressed the accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines and microglia activation, increased the anti-inflammatory cytokines, and reduced the levels of MDA, increased the levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT in the hippocampus. In addition, O-1602 treatment also significantly reduced Bax and increased Bcl-2 expression as well as decreased caspase-3 activity and TUNEL-positive cells in the hippocampus. These observations indicate that O-1602 may ameliorate LPS-induced cognition deficits via inhibiting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis mediated by the NF-κB pathway in mice.
... 30 To examine the in vivo effects, a synthetic regioisomer of cannabidiol named abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), was used; administration of Abn-CBD produced vasodilator effects, reduced blood pressure, did not have any psychotomimetic effects, 32 and showed that it could be a powerful tool to manage some of Parkinson's disease symptoms. 33 Also, Abn-CBD has an anti-cataleptic effect that is blocked by CBD confirming the agonist-antagonist activities of these two molecules at GPR55. 33 F I G U R E 1 Multiple molecular targets for CBD -Cannabidiol has multiple molecular targets within the cell. ...
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Cannabidiol (CBD) is the second most abundant component of the Cannabis plant and is known to have effects distinct from Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Many studies that examined the behavioral effects of CBD concluded that it lacks the psychotomimetic effects attributed to THC. However, CBD was shown to have a broad spectrum of effects on several conditions such as anxiety, inflammation, neuropathic pain, and epilepsy. It is currently thought that CBD engages different targets and hence CBD's effects are thought to be due to multiple molecular mechanisms of action. A well-accepted set of targets include GPCRs and ion channels, with the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and the transient receptor potential cation channel TRPV1 channel being the two main targets. CBD has also been thought to target G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as cannabinoid and opioid receptors. Other studies have suggested a role for additional GPCRs and ion channels as targets of CBD. Currently, the clinical efficacy of CBD is not completely understood. Evidence derived from randomized clinical trials, in vitro and in vivo models and real-world observations support the use of CBD as a drug treatment option for anxiety, neuropathy, and many other conditions. Hence an understanding of the current status of the field as it relates to the targets for CBD is of great interest so, in this review, we include findings from recent studies that highlight these main targets.
... Orphan GPCRs are those whose endogenous ligands have not yet been discovered. Some of the orphan GPCRs take part in significant physiological process, thus serving as potential targets for treating numerous diseases, such as GPR119 for diabetes [13], GPR55 for Parkinson's disease [14], and GPR84 for ulcerative colitis [15]. ...
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Germinal center (GC) reaction greatly contributes to the humoral immune response, which begins in lymph nodes or other secondary lymphoid organs after follicular B cells are activated by T-dependent antigens. The GCs then serve as a platform for follicular B cells to complete clonal expansion and somatic hypermutation and then interact with follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and follicular helper T cells (Tfh). Through the interaction between the immune cells, significant processes of the humoral immune response are accomplished, such as antibody affinity maturation, class switching, and production of memory B cells and plasma cells. Cell positioning during the GC reaction is mainly mediated by the chemokine receptors and lipid receptors, which both belong to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) family. There are some orphan GPCRs whose endogenous ligands are unclear yet contribute to the regulation of GC reaction as well. This review will give an introduction on the ligands and functions of two types of GC-relating GPCRs—chemokine receptors like CXCR4 and CXCR5, as well as emerging de-orphanized GPCRs like GPR183, GPR174, and P2RY8. The roles these GPCRs play in several antibody-mediated autoimmune skin diseases will be also discussed, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), pemphigus, scleroderma, and dermatomyositis. Besides, GPCRs are excellent drug targets due to the unique structure and vital functions. Therefore, this review is aimed at providing readers with a focused knowledge about the role that GPCRs play in GC reaction, as well as in provoking the development of GPCR-targeting agents for immune-mediated diseases besides autoimmune diseases.
... G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor, which is activated by endocannabinoids and lipid transmitters [20,21].The expression of GPR55 in mouse tissue has been declared in the nervous system that includes the hippocampus, though its function remains unknown [22]. GPR55 agonists have been shown to have a neuroprotective effect in Parkinson's disease [23], anxiety [24], and pain perception [25]. It has been reported that activation of GPR55 can strongly protect from ER stress-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells [26]. ...
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Background Neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects and possible mechanism of G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) agonist, O-1602, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Methods ICR mice were treated with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of LPS. Cognitive tests were performed, including the open field, Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and passive avoidance tests. The expression of GPR55, NF-κB p65, caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 were examined in the hippocampus by western blotting. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglia were detected by ELISA kit and immunohistochemical analyses, respectively. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined by assay kits. Furthermore, TUNEL-staining was used to detect neuronal apoptosis. Results I.c.v. injection of LPS exhibited impaired performance in the behavior tests, which were ameliorated by O-1602 treatment(2.0 or 4.0 μg/mouse, i.c.v.). Importantly, O-1602 reversed GPR55 down-regulation, decreased the expression of NF-κB p65, and suppressed the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglia activation, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. In addition, O-1602 also significantly decreased Bax and increased Bcl-2 expression as well as decreased caspase-3 activity and TUNEL-positive cells, suppressed neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Conclusions we conclude that O-1602 may ameliorate LPS-induced cognition deficits via inhibiting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis mediated by NF-κB signaling in mice.
... GPR55 receptors have generated significant interest recently as regulators of developmental processes (45) and pathologies (16,46,47), as well as phenomena associated with cell migration, subcellular motility, and amplification of signal transduction. Nevertheless, the physiological role of GPR55 in adult systems phys- iology remains unexpectedly obscure to this day, which we attribute to the often moderate-to-low levels of Gpr55 expression (10). ...
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Although dopamine receptors D1 and D2 play key roles in hippocampal function, their synaptic localization within the hippocampus has not been fully elucidated. In order to understand precise functions of pre- or postsynaptic dopamine receptors (DRs), the development of protocols to differentiate pre- and postsynaptic DRs is essential. So far, most studies on determination and quantification of DRs did not discriminate between subsynaptic localization. Therefore, the aim of the study was to generate a robust workflow for the localization of DRs. This work provides the basis for future work on hippocampal DRs, in light that DRs may have different functions at pre- or postsynaptic sites. Synaptosomes from rat hippocampi isolated by a sucrose gradient protocol were prepared for super-resolution direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) using Bassoon as a presynaptic zone and Homer1 as postsynaptic density marker. Direct labeling of primary validated antibodies against dopamine receptors D1 (D1R) and D2 (D2R) with Alexa Fluor 594 enabled unequivocal assignment of D1R and D2R to both, pre- and postsynaptic sites. D1R immunoreactivity clusters were observed within the presynaptic active zone as well as at perisynaptic sites at the edge of the presynaptic active zone. The results may be useful for the interpretation of previous studies and the design of future work on DRs in the hippocampus. Moreover, the reduction of the complexity of brain tissue by the use of synaptosomal preparations and dSTORM technology may represent a useful tool for synaptic localization of brain proteins.
... Importantly, GPR18 is functionally expressed in PAG and its activation was reported to produce analgesia [38], whereas GPR55 activation in PAG produce pronociceptive effects [16]. To support the second possibility, using different pharmacological GPR55 tools [i.e., abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD) instead of LPI and cannabidiol instead of ML-193] Celorio et al. [12] reported similar cellular actions of GPR55 stimulation/blockade in microglia. Admittedly, both Abn-CBD and CBD are also non-selective GPR55 tools. ...
Article
Background: Piperidines are biogenic amines studied mainly in toxicology because they were initially found as alkaloids from peppers and insect venoms. Piperidines are also produced in the human body, and their actions seem to be related to wakefulness/sleep and other cognitive phenomena. Piperidines have been minimally characterized for therapeutic applications. In this context, 1-Boc-piperidine-4-carboxaldehyde (1-Boc-piperidine) is a piperidine-derivative molecule with no mechanism of action reported, although its uses include the synthesis of GPR119 selective agonists that have been patented as anti-obesity drugs. Objectives: The aim of this work was to study the effects of 1-Boc-piperidine on binge-eating behaviour and anxiety in Wistar rats. Methods: In experimental protocol 1, binge-eating behaviour was induced in animals that received pre-treatment (i.p.) with (i) vehicle (methanol 10%; 1 mL/kg), (ii) 1-Boc-piperidine (1 µmol kg-1), or (iii) 1-Boc-piperidine (10 µmol kg-1). In experimental protocol 2, mildly stressed animals were evaluated in the elevated plus maze under the acute effects of the pre-treatments applied in experimental protocol 1. Results and conclusions: 1-Boc-piperidine decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the intake of calories from a succulent hyper-caloric food in a binge-eating protocol in female rats, whereas the acute exposition to this piperidine exerted an anxiolytic effect in the male rat. In both effects, the mechanism of action remains to be characterized.
... Another possible cannabinoid receptor is GPR55, which is highly expressed in the striatum and has been found to exert a neuroprotective effect in a rat model of excitotoxic injury (Sawzdargo et al., 1999;Ryberg et al., 2007;Celorrio et al., 2017). In addition, GPR55 may also interact with cannabinoids and may be regulated by CB1 receptors (Ulrich et al., 2014;Zheng et al., 2017). ...
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease usually caused by neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and other etiologies. Recent studies have found that the cannabinoid system present in the basal ganglia has a strong influence on the progression of PD. Altering the cannabinoid receptor activation status by modulating endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) levels can exert an anti-movement disorder effect. Therefore, the development of drugs that modulate the endocannabinoid system may be a novel strategy for the treatment of PD. However, eCB regulation is complex, with diverse cannabinoid receptor functions and the presence of dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and γ-aminobutyric signals interacting with cannabinoid signaling in the basal ganglia region. Therefore, the study of eCB is challenging. Here, we have described the function of the cannabinoid system in the basal ganglia and its association with PD in three parts (eCBs, cannabinoid receptors, and factors regulating the cannabinoid metabolism) and summarized the mechanisms of action related to the cannabinoid analogs currently aimed at treating PD. The shortcomings identified from previous studies and the directions that should be explored in the future will provide insights into new approaches and ideas for the future development of cannabinoid-based drugs and the treatment of PD.
... [39][40][41] Furthermore, CBD has been previously explored as an immunomodulator, with research utilizing it toward treatment of pathologies like bowel inflammation, idiopathic autism spectrum disorder, Dravet syndrome, and Parkinson's disease. 27,[42][43][44][45][46][47][48] Specifically in macrophages, reports by Silva et al. and Rajan et al. have explored the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD through assessing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) suppression, while others like Muthumalage and Rahman have investigated a larger panel of immune markers following exposure to CBD-containing e-liquids. 25,26,28 Subtle differences in experimental designs elicited substantial differences in their results pertaining to TNFa expression. ...
Article
Background: The nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) presents itself as a potentially safe and effective anti-inflammatory treatment relative to clinical standards. In this present study, we compare the capacity of CBD to the corticosteroid dexamethasone (Dex) in altering the secreted protein landscape of activated macrophages and speculate upon the mechanism underpinning these alterations. Materials and Methods: Human THP-1 monocytes were differentiated into macrophages (THP-1 derived macrophages [tMACs]), activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and then treated with 5, 10, 25, 50, or 100 μM CBD or 10 μM Dex for 24 h. Following treatment, cytotoxicity of CBD and protein expression levels from culture supernatants and from whole cell lysates were assessed for secreted and intracellular proteins, respectively. Results: High concentration (50 and 100 μM) CBD treatments exhibit a cytotoxic effect on LPS-activated tMACs following the 24-h treatment. Relative to the LPS-activated and untreated control (M[LPS]), both 25 μM CBD and 10 μM Dex reduced expression of pro-inflammatory markers-tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)-as well as the pleiotropic marker interleukin-6 (IL-6). A similar trend was observed for anti-inflammatory markers interleukin-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Dex further reduced secreted levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in addition to suppressing IL-6 and VEGF beyond treatments with CBD. The anti-inflammatory capacity of 25 μM CBD was concurrent with reduction in levels of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin Ser 2448, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and induction of cyclooxygenase 2 relative to M(LPS). This could suggest that the observed effects on macrophage immune profile may be conferred through inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and ensuing induction of autophagy. Conclusion: Cumulatively, these data demonstrate cytotoxicity of high concentration CBD treatment. The data reported herein largely agree with other literature demonstrating the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD. However, there is discrepancy within literature surrounding efficacious concentrations and effects of CBD on specific secreted proteins. These data expand upon previous work investigating the effects of CBD on inflammatory protein expression in macrophages, as well as provide insight into the mechanism by which these effects are conferred.
... GPR55 is expressed in microglia (Pietr et al., 2009), which also display dampened inflammatory responses. Therefore, it can be suggested that GPR55 agonist may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases (Celorrio et al., 2017). Noteworthy, it has been reported that CB1R and CB2R can heteromerize with GPR55 and that heteromerization affects receptor functionality (Martínez-Pinilla et al., 2020). ...
Article
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) by neurodegeneration. Recent findings in animal models of PD propose tonic inhibition of the remaining DA neurons through GABA release from reactive glial cells. Movement dysfunctions could be ameliorated by promotion of activity in dormant DA cells. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is extensively present in basal ganglia (BG) and is known as an indirect modulator of DAergic neurotransmission, thus drugs designed to target this system have shown promising therapeutic potential in PD patients. Interestingly, down/up-regulation of cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) varies across the different stages of PD, suggesting that some of the motor/ non-motor deficits may be related to changes in CBRs. Determination of the profile of changes of these receptors across the different stages of PD as well as their neural distribution within the BG could improve understanding of PD and identify pathways important in disease pathobiology. In this review, we focus on temporal and spatial alterations of CBRs during PD in the BG. At present, as inconclusive, but suggestive results have been obtained, future investigations should be conducted to extend preclinical studies examining CBRs changes within each stage in controlled clinical trials in order to determine the potential of targeting CBRs in management of PD.
... Importantly, GPR18 is functionally expressed in PAG and its activation was reported to produce analgesia [38], whereas GPR55 activation in PAG produce pronociceptive effects [16]. To support the second possibility, using different pharmacological GPR55 tools [i.e., abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD) instead of LPI and cannabidiol instead of ML-193] Celorio et al. [12] reported similar cellular actions of GPR55 stimulation/blockade in microglia. Admittedly, both Abn-CBD and CBD are also non-selective GPR55 tools. ...
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GPR55 is a receptor expressed in several central nervous system areas, including the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Current knowledge of GPR55 physiology in PAG only covers pain integration, but it is involved in other actions such as anxiety, panic, motivated behaviors, and alcohol intake. In the present study, juvenile male Wistar rats were unexposed (alcohol-naïve group; A-naïve) or exposed to alcohol for 5 weeks (alcohol-pre-exposed group; A-pre-exposed). Posteriorly, animals received intra dorsal-PAG (D-PAG) injections of vehicle (10% DMSO), LPI (1 nmol / 0.5 µl) and ML-193 (1 nmol / 0.5 µl, a selective GPR55 antagonist). Finally, defensive burying behavior (DBB) paradigm and alcohol preference were evaluated. Compared to the A-naïve group, the A-pre-exposed vehicle group had higher (p<0.05): (i) time of immobility; (ii) latency to and duration of burying; and (iii) ethanol consumption. In both groups (i.e., A-naïve and A-pre-exposed) treatment with LPI: (i) decreased duration of burying (p<0.05); (ii) suppressed time of immobility; and (iii) increased alcohol intake (p<0.05). On the other hand, treatment with ML-193: (i) decreased duration of immobility in A-pre-exposed (but not in A-naïve rats); (ii) promoted an aggressive response against the shock-probe in A-pre-exposed rats (p<0.05); and (iii) increased alcohol intake (p<0.05). Our results suggest that blockade of GPR55 in D-PAG is associated with anxiety-like behaviors, defensive aggressive behaviors, and higher inclination to alcohol intake, whereas LPI in D-PAG produced anxiolytic-like effects (probably GPR55-mediated), but not prevention of alcohol intake.
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease and its characteristic is the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) of the midbrain. There is hardly any clinically proven efficient therapeutics for its cure in several recent preclinical advances proposed to treat PD. Recent studies have found that the endocannabinoid signaling system in particular the comprised two receptors, CB1 and CB2 receptors, has a significant regulatory function in basal ganglia and is involved in the pathogenesis of PD. Therefore, adding new insights into the biochemical interactions between cannabinoids and other signaling pathways may help develop new pharmacological strategies. Factors of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) are abundantly expressed in the neural circuits of basal ganglia, where they interact interactively with glutamatergic, γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic), and dopaminergic signaling systems. Although preclinical studies on PD are promising, the use of cannabinoids at the clinical level has not been thoroughly studied. In this review, we evaluated the available evidence and reviewed the involvement of ECS in etiologies, symptoms and treatments related to PD. Since CB1 and CB2 receptors are the two main receptors of endocannabinoids, we primarily put the focus on the therapeutic role of CB1 and CB2 receptors in PD. We will try to determine future research clues that will help understand the potential therapeutic benefits of the ECS in the treatment of PD, aiming to open up new strategies and ideas for the treatment of PD.
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Cannabidiol (CBD) is the second cannabinoid, in order of importance after Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), from Cannabis sativa. Unlike THC, CBD does not cause psychotomimetic effects, and although these compounds have the same chemical formula, their pharmacological characteristics are not equivalent. Preclinical studies suggest that CBD has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic, antiemetic, anticonvulsant, and antipsychotic properties and influences the sleep–wake cycle. The evaluation of effects on spontaneous motor activity is crucial in experimental pharmacology, and the careful measurement of laboratory animal movement is an established method to recognize the effects of stimulant and depressant drugs. The potential influence of CBD on locomotor activity has been investigated through numerous in vivo experiments. However, there is no clear picture of the impact of CBD on these issues, even though it is administered alone for medical uses and sold with THC as a drug for pain caused by muscle spasms in multiple sclerosis, and it was recently licensed as a drug for severe forms of infantile epilepsy. On this basis, with the aim of developing deeper knowledge of this issue, scientific data on CBD’s influence on locomotor activity are discussed here. We conducted research using PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and a search engine for literature between January 2009 and December 2021 on life sciences and biomedical topics using the keywords “motor activity”, “locomotor activity”, and “locomotion” in combination with “cannabidiol”. In this article, we discuss findings describing the effects on locomotor activity of the CBD precursor cannabidiolic acid and of CBD alone or in combination with THC, together with the effects of CBD on locomotor modifications induced by diseases and on locomotor changes induced by other substances.
Chapter
Cannabis legalization continues to progress in many US states and other countries. Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) is the major psychoactive constituent in cannabis underlying both its abuse potential and the majority of therapeutic applications. However, the neural mechanisms underlying cannabis action are not fully understood. In this chapter, we first review recent progress in cannabinoid receptor research, and then examine the acute CNS effects of Δ⁹-THC or other cannabinoids (WIN55212-2) with a focus on their receptor mechanisms. In experimental animals, Δ⁹-THC or WIN55212-2 produces classical pharmacological effects (analgesia, catalepsy, hypothermia, hypolocomotion), biphasic changes in affect (reward vs. aversion, anxiety vs. anxiety relief), and cognitive deficits (spatial learning and memory, short-term memory). Accumulating evidence indicates that activation of CB1Rs underlies the majority of Δ⁹-THC or WIN55121-2’s pharmacological and behavioral effects. Unexpectedly, glutamatergic CB1Rs preferentially underlie cannabis action relative to GABAergic CB1Rs. Functional roles for CB1Rs expressed on astrocytes and mitochondria have also been uncovered. In addition, Δ⁹-THC or WIN55212-2 is an agonist at CB2R, GPR55 and PPARγ receptors and recent studies implicate these receptors in a number of their CNS effects. Other receptors (such as serotonin, opioid, and adenosine receptors) also modulate Δ⁹-THC's actions and their contributions are detailed. This chapter describes the neural mechanisms underlying cannabis action, which may lead to new discoveries in cannabis-based medication development for the treatment of cannabis use disorder and other human diseases.
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cascading changes in cognition and behavior. G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been used as a promising target for the treatment of diabetes, but its function in AD is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of O-1602, a GPR55 agonist, on the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced AD mouse model. A single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of STZ into the brains of mice significantly induced cognitive impairment. In contrast, O-1602 (2.0 or 4.0 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) can improve the cognitive dysfunction caused by STZ in the Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Importantly, O-1602 treatment reversed STZ-induced GPR55 down-regulation, reduced the activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1) and the level of Aβ1–42, and abolished the up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Besides, O-1602 markedly suppressed STZ-induced oxidative stress, characterized by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and increased the levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as attenuated neuroinflammation as indicated by decreased series of pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglia activation. O-1602 treatment also ameliorated synaptic dysfunction by promoting the up-regulation of PSD-95 protein in the STZ-treated mice. Our results suggest that O-1602 has potent neuroprotective effects against STZ-induced neurotoxicity. Meanwhile, these findings suggest that GPR55 might be a novel and promising target for the treatment of AD.
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Anti-neuroinflammatory treatment has gained importance in the search for pharmacological treatments of different neurological and psychiatric diseases, such as depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical studies demonstrate a reduction of the mentioned diseases’ symptoms after the administration of anti-inflammatory drugs. Novel coumarin derivates have been shown to elicit anti-neuroinflammatory effects via G-protein coupled receptor GPR55, with possibly reduced side-effects compared to the known anti-inflammatory drugs. In this study, we, therefore, evaluated the anti-inflammatory capacities of the two novel coumarin-based compounds, KIT C and KIT H, in human neuroblastoma cells and primary murine microglia. Both compounds reduced PGE2-concentrations likely via the inhibition of COX-2 synthesis in SK-N-SH cells but only KIT C decreased PGE2-levels in primary microglia. The examination of other pro- and anti-inflammatory parameters showed varying effects of both compounds. Therefore, the differences in the effects of KIT C and KIT H might be explained by functional selectivity as well as tissue- or cell-dependent expression and signal pathways coupled to GPR55. Understanding the role of chemical residues in functional selectivity and specific cell- and tissue-targeting might open new therapeutic options in pharmacological drug development and might improve the treatment of the mentioned diseases by intervening in an early step of their pathogenesis.
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Cannabinoids act as pleiotropic compounds exerting, among others, a broad-spectrum of neuroprotective effects. These effects have been investigated in the last years in different preclinical models of neurodegeneration, with the cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) and type-2 (CB2) receptors concentrating an important part of this research. However, the issue has also been extended to additional targets that are also active for cannabinoids, such as the orphan G-protein receptor 55 (GPR55). In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective potential of VCE-006.1, a chromenopyrazole derivative with biased orthosteric and positive allosteric modulator activity at GPR55, in murine models of two neurodegenerative diseases. First, we proved that VCE-006.1 alone could induce ERK1/2 activation and calcium mobilization, as well as increase cAMP response but only in the presence of lysophosphatidyl inositol. Next, we investigated this compound administered chronically in two neurotoxin-based models of Parkinson’s disease (PD), as well as in some cell-based models. VCE-006.1 was active in reversing the motor defects caused by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the pole and the cylinder rearing tests, as well as the losses in tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons and the elevated glial reactivity detected in the substantia nigra. Similar cytoprotective effects were found in vitro in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 6-OHDA. We also investigated VCE-006.1 in LPS-lesioned mice with similar beneficial effects, except against glial reactivity and associated inflammatory events, which remained unaltered, a fact confirmed in BV2 cells treated with LPS and VCE-006.1. We also analyzed GPR55 in these in vivo models with no changes in its gene expression, although GPR55 was down-regulated in BV2 cells treated with LPS, which may explain the lack of efficacy of VCE-006.1 in such an assay. Furthermore, we investigated VCE-006.1 in two genetic models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), mutant SOD1, or TDP-43 transgenic mice. Neither the neurological decline nor the deteriorated rotarod performance were prevented with this compound, and the same happened with the elevated microglial and astroglial reactivities, albeit modest spinal motor neuron preservation was achieved in both models. We also analyzed GPR55 in these in vivo models and found no changes in both TDP-43 transgenic and mSOD1 mice. Therefore, our findings support the view that targeting the GPR55 may afford neuroprotection in experimental PD, but not in ALS, thus stressing the specificities for the development of cannabinoid-based therapies in the different neurodegenerative disorders.
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Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is currently the most rapid growing neurodegenerative disease and over the past generation, its global burden has more than doubled. The onset of PD can arise due to environmental, sporadic or genetic factors. Nevertheless, most PD cases have an unknown etiology. Chemicals, such as the anthropogenic pollutant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amphetamine-type stimulants, have been associated with the onset of PD. Conversely, cannabinoids have been associated with the treatment of the symptoms’. PD and medical cannabis is currently under the spotlight, and research to find its benefits on PD is on-going worldwide. However, the described clinical applications and safety of pharmacotherapy with cannabis products are yet to be fully supported by scientific evidence. Furthermore, the novel psychoactive substances are currently a popular alternative to classical drugs of abuse, representing an unknown health hazard for young adults who may develop PD later in their lifetime. This review addresses the neurotoxic and neuroprotective impact of illicit substance consumption in PD, presenting clinical evidence and molecular and cellular mechanisms of this association. This research area is utterly important for contemporary society since illicit drugs’ legalization is under discussion which may have consequences both for the onset of PD and for the treatment of its symptoms.
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Current pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is symptomatic and palliative, with levodopa/carbidopa therapy remaining the prime treatment, and nevertheless, being unable to modulate the progression of the neurodegeneration. No available treatment for PD can enhance the patient’s life-quality by regressing this diseased state. Various studies have encouraged the enrichment of treatment possibilities by discovering the association of the effects of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in PD. These reviews delineate the reported evidence from the literature on the neuromodulatory role of the endocannabinoid system and expression of cannabinoid receptors in symptomatology, cause, and treatment of PD progression, wherein cannabinoid (CB) signalling experiences alterations of biphasic pattern during PD progression. Published papers to date were searched via MEDLINE, PubMed, etc., using specific key words in the topic of our manuscript. Endocannabinoids regulate the basal ganglia neuronal circuit pathways, synaptic plasticity, and motor functions via communication with dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic signalling systems bidirectionally in PD. Further, gripping preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate the context regarding the cannabinoid compounds, which is supported by various evidence (neuroprotection, suppression of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, glial activation, and additional benefits) provided by cannabinoid-like compounds (much research addresses the direct regulation of cannabinoids with dopamine transmission and other signalling pathways in PD). More data related to endocannabinoids efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profiles need to be explored, providing better insights into their potential to ameliorate or even regress PD.
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Objective: G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor with various physiological functions. Recent evidence suggests that this receptor may be involved in the control of motor functions. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of intra-striatal administration of GPR55 selective ligands in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Methods: Experimental Parkinson was induced by unilateral intra-striatal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 10 µg/rat). L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI, 1 and 5 µg/rat), an endogenous GPR55 agonist, and ML193 (1 and 5 µg/rat), a selective GPR55 antagonist, were injected into the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Motor performance and balance skills were evaluated using the accelerating rotating rod and the ledged beam tests. The sensorimotor function of the forelimbs and locomotor activity were assessed by the adhesive removal and open field tests, respectively. Results: 6-OHDA-lesioned rats had impaired behaviors in all tests. Intra-striatal administration of LPI in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats increased time on the rotarod, decreased latency to remove the label, with no significant effect on slip steps, and locomotor activity. Intra-striatal administration of ML193 also increased time on the rotarod, decreased latency to remove the label and slip steps in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats mostly at the dose of 1 µg/rat. Conclusions: This study suggests that the striatal GPR55 is involved in the control of motor functions. However, considering the similar effects of GPR55 agonist and antagonist, it may be concluded that this receptor has a modulatory role in the control of motor deficits in an experimental model of Parkinson.
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Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid known for its beneficial effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, CBD is a compound with antidepressant, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and antipsychotic effects. Thanks to all these properties, the interest of the scientific community for it has grown. Indeed, CBD is a great candidate for the management of neurological diseases. The purpose of our review is to summarize the in vitro and in vivo studies published in the last 15 years that describe the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of CBD and its therapeutic application in neurological diseases. CBD exerts its neuroprotective effects through three G protein coupled-receptors (adenosine receptor subtype 2A, serotonin receptor subtype 1A and G protein-coupled receptor 55), one ligand-gated ion channel (transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1) and one nuclear factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ). Moreover, the therapeutical properties of CBD are also due to GABAergic modulation. In conclusion, CBD, through multi-target mechanisms, represents a valid therapeutic tool for the management of epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease.
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Background and purpose: Cannabis or cannabinoids produce characteristic tetrad effects - analgesia, hypothermia, catalepsy, and suppressed locomotion, which are generally believed to be mediated by the activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs). Given recent findings of CB2 and GPR55 receptors in the brain, we examined whether CB2 and GPR55 receptors are also involved in cannabinoid action. Experimental approach: We first compared Δ9 -THC-, WIN55212-2-, or XLR11-induced tetrad effects between wild-type (WT) and each genotype of CB1-, CB2-, or GPR55-knockout mice, and then observed the effects of antagonists of these receptors on cannabinoid-induced tetrad effects in WT mice. Key results: Systemic administration of Δ9 -THC, WIN55212-2, or XLR11 produced dose-dependent tetrad effects in WT mice. Genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade of CB1Rs abolished the tetrad effects produced by all three cannabinoids. Unexpectedly, genetic deletion of CB2Rs also abolished analgesia and catalepsy produced by Δ9 -THC or WIN55212-2, but not by XLR11. Microinjections of Δ9 -THC into the lateral ventricles also produced tetrad effects in WT, but not in CB1-KO, mice. CB2-KO mice displayed a reduction in intra-ventricle Δ9 -THC-induced analgesia and catalepsy. In contrast to CB1Rs and CB2Rs, genetic deletion of GPR55s caused enhanced responses to Δ9 -THC or WIN55212-2. Pharmacological blockade of CB1, CB2, or GPR55 receptors produced alterations similar to those observed in each genotype mouse line. Conclusions and implications: These findings suggest that in addition to CB1Rs, both CB2Rs and GPR55s are also involved in some pharmacological effects produced by cannabinoids. CB1/CB2Rs, in contrast to GPR55 receptors, appear to play opposite roles in cannabinoid action.
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The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid molecules and has been speculated to play a modulatory role in a large variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in metabolically perturbed states. We therefore generated male mice deficient in the gene coding for the cannabinoid/lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) receptor Gpr55 and characterized them under normal dietary conditions as well as during high energy dense diet feeding followed by challenge with the CB1 receptor antagonist/GPR55 agonist rimonabant. Gpr55 deficient male mice (Gpr55 KO) were phenotypically indistinguishable from their wild type (WT) siblings for the most part. However, Gpr55 KO animals displayed an intriguing nocturnal pattern of motor activity and energy expenditure (EE). During the initial 6 hours of the night, motor activity was significantly elevated without any significant effect observed in EE. Interestingly, during the last 6 hours of the night motor activity was similar but EE was significantly decreased in the Gpr55 KO mice. No significant difference in motor activity was detected during daytime, but EE was lower in the Gpr55 KO compared to WT mice. The aforementioned patterns were not associated with alterations in energy intake, daytime core body temperature, body weight (BW) or composition, although a non-significant tendency to increased adiposity was seen in Gpr55 KO compared to WT mice. Detailed analyses of daytime activity in the Open Field paradigm unveiled lower horizontal activity and rearing time for the Gpr55 KO mice. Moreover, the Gpr55 KO mice displayed significantly faster reaction time in the tail flick test, indicative of thermal hyperalgesia. The BW-decreasing effect of rimonabant in mice on long-term cafeteria diet did not differ between Gpr55 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, Gpr55 deficiency is associated with subtle effects on diurnal/nocturnal EE and motor activity behaviours but does not appear per se critically required for overall metabolism or behaviours.
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Aims/hypothesis: Abnormal cannabidiol (Abn-CBD) and AS-1269574 are potent selective agonists for GPR55 and GPR119, respectively. The present study evaluated the actions and ability of these small-molecule agonists to counteract experimental diabetes in mice. Methods: Diabetes was induced in NIH Swiss mice by five consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of 40 mg/(kg body weight) streptozotocin. Diabetic mice received daily oral administration of Abn-CBD or AS-1269574 (0.1 μmol/kg) or saline vehicle (0.9% wt/vol. NaCl) over 28 days. Body weight, food intake, fluid intake, plasma glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance, insulin release, lipid profile and pancreatic morphology were examined. Mechanism of action of agonists was assessed in acute studies using incretin-receptor-knockout mice. Results: Abn-CBD and AS-1269574 decreased plasma glucose (20-26%, p < 0.05) and increased circulating insulin (47-48%, p < 0.05) by 10-28 days, compared with saline-treated diabetic controls. Food intake and polydipsia were reduced by both agonists (21-23%, p < 0.05 and 33-35%, p < 0.01, respectively). After 28 days of treatment, plasma glucagon concentrations were reduced (p < 0.01) and glucose tolerance was enhanced by 19-44% by Abn-CBD (p < 0.05 or p < 0.001) and AS-1269574 (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Plasma insulin responses were improved (p < 0.01) and insulin resistance was decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in both Abn-CBD- and AS-1269574-treated groups. Triacylglycerols were decreased by 19% with Abn-CBD (p < 0.05) and 32% with AS-1269574 (p < 0.01) while total cholesterol was reduced by 17% (p < 0.01) and 15% (p < 0.05), respectively. Both agonists enhanced beta cell proliferation (p < 0.001) although islet area was unchanged. Acute studies in Gipr- and Glp1r-knockout mice revealed an important role for the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor in the actions of both agonists, with the glucose-lowering effects of Abn-CBD also partly mediated through the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) receptor. Conclusions/interpretation: These data highlight the potential for fatty acid G-protein-coupled receptor-based therapies as novel insulinotropic and glucose-lowering agents acting partly through the activation of incretin receptors.
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Background: Non-psychotropic atypical cannabinoids have therapeutic potential in a variety of inflammatory conditions including those of the gastrointestinal tract. Here we examined the effects of the atypical cannabinoid abnormal cannabidiol (Abn-CBD) on wound healing, inflammatory cell recruitment and colitis in mice. Methods: Colitis was induced in CD1 mice by a single intrarectal administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 4 mg/100 μl in 30 % ethanol) and Abn-CBD and/or the antagonists O-1918 (Abd-CBD), AM251 (CB1 receptor) and AM630 (CB2 receptor), were administered intraperitoneally (all 5 mg/kg, twice daily for 3 days). The degree of colitis was assessed macro- and microscopically and tissue myeloperoxidase activity was determined. The effects of Abn-CBD on wound healing of endothelial and epithelial cells (LoVo) were assessed in a scratch injury assay. Human neutrophils were employed in Transwell assays or perfused over human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to study the effect of Abn-CBD on neutrophil accumulation and transmigration. Results: TNBS-induced colitis was attenuated by treatment with Abn-CBD. Histological, macroscopic colitis scores and tissue myeloperoxidase activity were significantly reduced. These effects were inhibited by O-1918, but not by AM630, and only in part by AM251. Wound healing of both HUVEC and LoVo cells was enhanced by Abn-CBD. Abn-CBD inhibited neutrophil migration towards IL-8, and dose-dependently inhibited accumulation of neutrophils on HUVEC. Conclusions: Abn-CBD is protective against TNBS-induced colitis, promotes wound healing of endothelial and epithelial cells and inhibits neutrophil accumulation on HUVEC monolayers. Thus, the atypical cannabinoid Abn-CBD represents a novel potential therapeutic in the treatment of intestinal inflammatory diseases.
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Guidance molecules regulate the navigation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections toward targets in the visual thalamus. In this study, we demonstrate that the G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is expressed in the retina during development, and regulates growth cone (GC) morphology and axon growth. In vitro, neurons obtained from gpr55 knock-out (gpr55-/-) mouse embryos have smaller GCs, less GC filopodia, and have a decreased outgrowth compared with gpr55+/+ neurons. When gpr55+/+ neurons were treated with GPR55 agonists, lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and O-1602, we observed a chemo-attractive effect and an increase in GC size and filopodia number. In contrast, cannabidiol (CBD) decreased the GC size and filopodia number inducing chemo-repulsion. In absence of the receptor (gpr55-/-), no pharmacologic effects of the GPR55 ligands were observed. In vivo, compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates, gpr55-/- mice revealed a decreased branching in the dorsal terminal nucleus (DTN) and a lower level of eye-specific segregation of retinal projections in the superior colliculus (SC) and in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Moreover, a single intraocular injection of LPI increased branching in the DTN, whereas treatment with CBD, an antagonist of GPR55, decreased it. These results indicate that GPR55 modulates the growth rate and the targets innervation of retinal projections and highlight, for the first time, an important role of GPR55 in axon refinement during development.
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Background/objectives: Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the best-characterized cannabinoid receptor, and CB1 antagonists are used in clinical trials to treat obesity. Because of the wide range of CB1 functions, the side effects of CB1 antagonists pose serious concerns. G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is an atypical cannabinoid receptor, and its pharmacology and functions are distinct from CB1. GPR55 regulates neuropathic pain, gut, bone, immune functions and motor coordination. GPR55 is expressed in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. However, the roles of GPR55 in energy and glucose homeostasis are unknown. Here we have investigated the roles of GPR55 in energy balance and insulin sensitivity using GPR55-null mice (GPR55(-/-)). Methods: Body composition of the mice was measured by EchoMRI. Food intake, feeding behavior, energy expenditure and physical activity of GPR55(-/-) mice were determined by indirect calorimetry. Muscle function was assessed by forced treadmill running test. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Adipose inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry analysis of adipose tissue macrophages. The expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissues and orexigenic/anorexigenic peptides in the hypothalamus was also analyzed by real-time PCR. Results: GPR55(-/-) mice had normal total energy intake and feeding pattern (i.e., no changes in meal size, meal number or feeding frequency). Intriguingly, whereas adult GPR55(-/-) mice only showed a modest increase in overall body weight, they exhibited significantly increased fat mass and insulin resistance. The spontaneous locomotor activity of GPR55(-/-) mice was dramatically decreased, whereas resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis were unchanged. Moreover, GPR55(-/-) mice exhibited significantly decreased voluntary physical activity, showing reduced running distance on the running wheels, whereas muscle function appeared to be normal. Conclusions: GPR55 has an important role in energy homeostasis. GPR55 ablation increases adiposity and insulin resistance by selectively decreasing physical activity, but not by altering feeding behavior as CB1.
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a slow insidious neurological disorder characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Although several recent preclinical advances have proposed to treat PD, there is hardly any clinically proved new therapeutic for its cure. Increasing evidence suggests a prominent modulatory function of the cannabinoid signaling system in the basal ganglia. Hence, use of cannabinoids as a new therapeutic target has been recommended as a promising therapy for PD. The elements of the endocannabinoid system are highly expressed in the neural circuit of basal ganglia wherein they bidirectionally interact with dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic signaling systems. As the cannabinoid signaling system undergoes a biphasic pattern of change during progression of PD, it explains the motor inhibition typically observed in patients with PD. Cannabinoid agonists such as WIN-55,212-2 have been demonstrated experimentally as neuroprotective agents in PD, with respect to their ability to suppress excitotoxicity, glial activation, and oxidative injury that causes degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Additional benefits provided by cannabinoid related compounds including CE-178253, oleoylethanolamide, nabilone and HU-210 have been reported to possess efficacy against bradykinesia and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in PD. Despite promising preclinical studies for PD, use of cannabinoids has not been studied extensively at the clinical level. In this review, we reassess the existing evidence suggesting involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the cause, symptomatology, and treatment of PD. We will try to identify future threads of research that will help in the understanding of the potential therapeutic benefits of the cannabinoid system for treating PD.
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Based on evidence that the therapeutic properties of Cannabis preparations are not solely dependent on the presence of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), pharmacological studies have been recently carried out with other plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), particularly cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). Results from some of these studies have fostered the view that CBD and THCV modulate the effects of THC via direct blockade of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors, thus behaving like first generation CB1 inverse agonists, such as rimonabant. Here we review in vitro and ex vivo mechanistic studies of CBD and THCV, and synthesize data from these studies in a meta-analysis. Synthesized data regarding mechanisms are then used to interpret results from recent preclinical animal studies and clinical trials. The evidence indicates that CBD and THCV are not rimonabant-like in their action, and thus appear very unlikely to produce unwanted central nervous system effects. They exhibit markedly disparate pharmacological profiles particularly at CB1 receptors: CBD is a very low affinity CB1 ligand which can nevertheless affect CB1 activity in vivo in an indirect manner, whilst THCV is a high affinity CB1 ligand and potent antagonist in vitro and yet only occasionally produces effects in vivo resulting from CB1 antagonism. THCV also has high affinity for CB2 and signals as a partial agonist, a departure from both CBD and rimonabant. These cannabinoids illustrate how in vitro mechanistic studies do not always predict in vivo pharmacology, and underlie the necessity of testing compounds in vivo before drawing any conclusion on their functional activity at a given target.
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Emerging data suggest that off-target cannabinoid effects may be mediated via novel seven-transmembrane spanning/G protein-coupled receptors. Due to its cannabinoid sensitivity, the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was recently proposed as a candidate; however, GPR55 is phylogenetically distinct from the traditional cannabinoid receptors, and the conflicting pharmacology, signaling, and functional data have prevented its classification as a novel cannabinoid receptor. Indeed, the most consistent and potent agonist to date is the noncannabinoid lysophospholipid, lysophosphatidylinositol. Here we present new human GPR55 mRNA expression data, providing supportive evidence of GPR55 expression in a vast array of tissues and cell types. Moreover, we summarize major recent developments in GPR55 research and aim to update the reader in the rapidly expanding fields of GPR55 pharmacology, physiology, and pathology.
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Cannabinoids have been reported to mediate changes in vascular resistance through endothelial receptor targets. We examined involvement of the endothelium in cannabinoid-mediated vasoactive responses in resistance arterioles of the retina. Vascular responses to both intraluminal (IL) and extraluminal (EL) administration of the atypical cannabinoid, abnormal cannabidiol (abn-CBD), a prototypical agonist at the non-CB1/CB2 endothelial cannabinoid receptor (CBeR), were studied in endothelial intact and endothelial denuded, isolated perfused porcine retinal arterioles with and without endothelin-1 (ET-1) precontraction. The effects of AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist, and O-1918, an analog of CBD reported to antagonize CBeR, were also studied. Dose-dependent vasocontractile responses were induced by both IL and EL administration of abn-CBD in the absence of precontraction. Significantly greater vasoconstriction was induced by IL administration of abn-CBD than with EL administration. In contrast, only vasodilation to abn-CBD was observed in ET-1 precontracted retinal arterioles. Endothelium removal significantly reduced abn-CBD-induced vasoactivity when abn-CBD was used IL but not when applied EL. IL abn-CBD-induced vasoactivity was antagonized by O-1918 and AM251. Cannabinoids show complex vasoactive actions in isolated perfused retinal arterioles. The fact that abn-CBD-mediated vasorelaxation was seen only in precontracted retinal vessels indicates that the abn-CBD-induced vasoactive response is highly dependent on vascular tone. Furthermore, IL and EL administration produced differential responses, and removal of endothelium blunted abn-CBD vasoactivity, highlighting the critical role of endothelium in abn-CBD vasoactivity. AM251 and O-1918 inhibition of abn-CBD-induced vasoactivity suggests the possibility of modulating abn-CBD-induced vasoactivity.
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Growing evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system plays a role in neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Recently, we have shown the neuroprotective effect of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibition with JZL184 in the chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model. However, further investigation is needed to determine the neuroprotective mechanisms of the endocannabinoid system on the nigrostriatal pathway. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the neuroprotective effect of JZL184 in mice could be extended to an in vitro cellular model to further understand the mechanism of action of the drug. The SH-SY5Y cell line was selected based on its dopaminergic-like phenotype and its susceptibility to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP(+)) toxicity. Furthermore, SH-SY5Y cells express both cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The present study describes the neuroprotective effect of MAGL inhibition with JZL184 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP(+). The effect of JZL184 in cell survival was blocked by AM630, a CB2 receptor antagonist, and it was mimicked with JWH133, a CB2 receptor agonist. Rimonabant, a CB1 receptor antagonist, did not affect JZL184-induced cell survival. These results demonstrate that the neuroprotective effect of MAGL inhibition with JZL184 described in animal models of Parkinson's disease could be extended to in vitro models such as SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP(+). This represents a useful tool to study mechanisms of neuroprotection mediated by MAGL inhibition, and we provide evidence for the possible involvement of CB2 receptors in the improvement of cell survival.
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Originally synthesized for research purposes, indole- and pyrrole-derived synthetic cannabinoids are the most common psychoactive compounds contained in abused products marketed as "spice" or "herbal incense." While CB1 and CB2 receptor affinities are available for most of these research chemicals, in vivo pharmacological data are sparse. In mice, cannabinoids produce a characteristic profile of dose-dependent effects: antinociception, hypothermia, catalepsy and suppression of locomotion. In combination with receptor binding data, this tetrad battery has been useful in evaluation of the relationship between the structural features of synthetic cannabinoids and their in vivo cannabimimetic activity. Here, published tetrad studies are reviewed and additional in vivo data on synthetic cannabinoids are presented. Overall, the best predictor of likely cannabimimetic effects in the tetrad tests was good CB1 receptor affinity. Further, retention of good CB1 affinity and in vivo activity was observed across a wide array of structural manipulations of substituents of the prototypic aminoalkylindole molecule WIN55,212-2, including substitution of an alkyl for the morpholino group, replacement of an indole core with a pyrrole or phenylpyrrole, substitution of a phenylacetyl or tetramethylcyclopropyl group for JWH-018's naphthoyl, and halogenation of the naphthoyl group. This flexibility of cannabinoid ligand-receptor interactions has been a particular challenge for forensic scientists who have struggled to identify and regulate each new compound as it has appeared on the drug market. One of the most pressing future research needs is determination of the extent to which the pharmacology of these synthetic cannabinoids may differ from those of classical cannabinoids.
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Searching for chemical agents and molecular targets protecting against secondary neuronal damage reflects one major issue in neuroscience. Cannabinoids limit neurodegeneration by activation of neuronal G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 ) and microglial G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 ). However, pharmacological experiments with CB1 /CB2 -deficient mice unraveled the existence of further, so-called non-CB1 /non-CB2 G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) subtypes. GPR55, whose function in the brain is still poorly understood, represents a novel target for various cannabinoids. Here, we investigated whether GPR55 reflects a potential beneficial target in neurodegeneration by using the excitotoxicity in vitro model of rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). l-α-Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), so far representing the most selective agonist for GPR55, protected dentate gyrus granule cells and reduced the number of activated microglia after NMDA (50 µM) induced lesions. The relevance of GPR55 activation for LPI-mediated neuroprotection was determined by using Gpr55 siRNA. Microglia seems to mediate the observed neuroprotection since their depletion in OHSC attenuated the beneficial effects of LPI. Moreover, LPI alone induced microglia chemotaxis but conversely significantly attenuated ATP triggered microglia migration. These effects seemed to be independent from intracellular Ca(2+) and p38 or p44/p42 MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, this study unmasked a yet unknown role for GPR55 in neuroprotection driven by LPI-mediated modulation of microglia function. GLIA 2013.
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G-protein coupled receptor (GPR)55 is a novel lipid sensing receptor activated by both cannabinoid endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) and other non-cannabinoid lipid transmitters. This study assessed the effects of various GPR55 agonists on glucose homeostasis. Insulin secretion and changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP in response to glucose and a range of GPR55 agonists (endogenous ligands (OEA, PEA), chemically synthetic CBD analogues (Abn-CBD, 0-1602), an analogue of rimonabant (AM-251) and antagonist (CBD)) were investigated in clonal BRIN-BD11 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. Cytotoxicity was assessed by LDH release, cellular localisation by double-staining immunohistochemistry and in vivo effects assessed in mice. The most potent and selective GPR55 agonist was the synthetic CBD analogue, Abn-CBD (pEC50 10.33), maximum stimulation of 67% at 10(-4) mol/l (p<0.001) in BRIN-BD11 cells. AM-251 (pEC50 7.0), OEA (pEC50 7.0), 0-1602 (pEC50 7.3) and PEA (pEC50 6.0) stimulated insulin secretion. Results were corroborated by islet studies, with no cytotoxic effects. Concentration-dependent insulin secretion by GPR55 agonists was glucose-sensitive and accompanied by elevations of [Ca(2+) ]i (p<0.01-p<0.001) and cAMP (p<0.05-p<0.01). GPR55 agonists exhibited insulinotropic and glucose lowering activity in vivo. GPR55 was expressed on BRIN-BD11 cells and confined to islet beta cells with no distribution on alpha cells. These results demonstrate GPR55 is distributed in pancreatic beta cells and is a strong activator of insulin secretion, with glucose-lowering effects in vivo. Development of agents agonising the GPR55 receptor may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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