Conference PaperPDF Available

Developing an Educational Intervention with Social Media to Enhance the Digital Competence of Student-Teachers

Authors:

Abstract

Teachers need to be prepared to use ICT and provide technology-supported learning opportunities for their students. The set of knowledge and skills needed for these activities has also been called teachers’ digital competence. Despite the importance of this competence, different studies show that student-teachers do not always achieve an appropriate level during their training period, and it is necessary to rethink the training programs to improve the development of student-teachers’ digital competence. Several advanced technological environments (such as LMS) have appeared that are especially suited to the development and evaluation of competences. However, outside of these closed and controlled environments, the Internet provides platforms like social networks with a range of possibilities more in line with current trends and professional skills. Social media might promote potentially richer opportunities to make learning more personally meaningful, collaborative, and socially relevant. The main objectives of this DBR project are to: (1) Design a technological tool to integrate the activity of social networks with the institutional LMS; (2) Develop educational activities with social media for developing student-teachers’ digital competence; and (3) Evaluate the student-teachers’ digital competence.
EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION
Developing an Educational Intervention with Social Media to Enhance the
Digital Competence of Student-Teachers
Author(s):Francesc M. Esteve-Mon (presenting), Emilio Peña-Martínez (presenting), Jordi Adell-Segura
Conference:ECER 2017
Network:16. ICT in Education and Training
Format:10. Teacher Education Research
Session Information
16 SES 06 B, Social Media
Paper Session
Time:2017-08-23
15:30-17:00
Room:W4.21
Contribution
Developing an Educational Intervention with Social Media to Enhance the Digital Competence
of Student-Teachers
Teachers need to be prepared to use ICT and provide technology-supported learning opportunities for their students
(UNESCO, 2011). The set of knowledge and skills needed for these activities has also been called teachers’ digital
competence.
Digital competence is regarded as a key competence for lifelong learning. The European Parliament and Council define the
competence as involving the confident and critical use of Information Society Technology for work, leisure and
communication (European Commission, 2007). According Larraz and Esteve-Mon (2015), digital competence is
multidimensional and involves the integration of cognitive, relational and social abilities that we have grouped in four
literacies: (a) Informational literacy: management of digital information; (b) Technological literacy: treatment of data in
various formats; (c) Multimedia literacy: analysis and creation of multimedia messages; and (d) Communicative literacy:
participation, public spirit and digital identity.
However, primary and secondary school teachers require not only basic digital literacy; they also need to be able to
incorporate technology into their teaching praxis (Krumsvik, 2012). Digital competence needed by teachers has two
dimensions: (a) mobilize knowledge, abilities, and attitudes to use ICT efficiently and (b) improve and transform classroom
practices and enrich the professional development and identity of both teachers and students (Hall, Atkins, & Fraser, 2012).
And, to guide the process of training and evaluation of the digital competence of current and future teachers, various
administrations and institutions have developed their own frameworks for performance standards and indicators (Esteve-
Mon, 2015).
Despite the importance of this competence, different studies show that student-teachers do not always achieve an
appropriate level during their training period (Gutiérrez et al., 2010), and it is necessary to rethink the training programs to
improve the development of student-teachers’ digital competence.
In the last 10 years, several advanced technological environments have appeared that are especially suited to the
development and evaluation of competences (Redecker, 2013). Among ICT services offered by educational institutions, are
learning management system (LMS) -such as Moodle, Blackboard or Sakai- which make available their community a set of
online tools such as content repositories, forums, mail, assignments, etc.
However, outside of these closed and controlled environments, the Internet provides platforms like social networks with a
range of possibilities more in line with current trends and professional skills. According Dohn & Dohn (2017), Web 2.0 might
promote potentially richer opportunities to make learning more personally meaningful, collaborative, and socially relevant.
These activities may establish connections between the out-of-school self-directed leisure of students on social networking
sites. The integration of both environments poses the dilemma of opening, which although could bring positive things, also
makes a great not only technological but educational and evaluation challenge (Hew & Cheung, 2013).
The main objectives of this project are to: (1) Design a technological tool to integrate the activity of social networks with the
institutional LMS; (2) Develop educational activities with social media for developing student-teachers’ digital competence;
and (3) Evaluate the student-teachers’ digital competence.
The following research questions are posed as a guide for our research work:
RQ1. Is the development of educational intervention technically feasible?
RQ2. What were the students’ perceptions about the usability of the educational intervention with social media?
RQ3. What was student-teachers' digital competence self-perception at the end of the process?
Method
The study, conducted between 2015 and early 2017, comprised three iterations for the refinement educational intervention,
with different instruments, participants, and data collection procedures.
Design-Based Research (DBR) is the methodology selected for this project, given its suitability and convenience. Research
studies on educational design pose a systematic process of design, development and evaluation of a particular educational
programs or materials, often related to technology as a solution to a complex problem and to generate a series of design
principles (van den Akker et al., 2006). This research process follows a structure in phases and is cyclical. It is a process of
analysis, design, evaluation and revision of prototypes, which is repeated until the stated objective is accomplished (Plomp &
Nieveen, 2009).
To collect the information generated in the various iterative cycles, the researchers used the following instruments:
Interview. Formal interviews were conducted to evaluate content accuracy and technological usability of the first prototype.
Five experts were asked about these aspects.
Pedagogical usefulness questionnaire. The second prototype was tested to a sample of 10 students of the Educational
Technology Master Degree. It was analysed with this questionnaire adapted from Esteve-Mon, Cela-Ranilla and Gisbert-
Cervera (2016). It has a Likert scale, where 1 completely disagree and 5 completely agree.
Digital Competence self-perception questionnaire. The third prototype was administered during a full academic semester
and evaluated from this questionnaire. It has 20 items with a Likert scale of 1 to 5, where 1 not proficient at all and 5 highly
proficient. The questionnaire was constructed in accordance with Larraz indicators (Larraz, 2012), validated by a sample of
experts, and tested for reliability (alpha .91). It was applied to a sample of 230 university students from (84% females and
16% males) from the second (45%) and the third year (55%) of Teacher Training Degree.
Social media observation. Tag2Learn tool allows you to integrate, compatible with the interoperability standard IMS-LTI,
social networks and learning management system to manage and evaluate continuously and formatively work done by
students in social networks and facilitating the generation of design principles that can applied in various educational
methodologies (Peña-Martínez, 2016). Researchers observed social media activities through semester. The tool
automatically recorded all interactions, and the researchers analysed the characteristics and qualities of the educational
content as it was developed by student-teachers.
Expected Outcomes
This process generated three main outcomes: (a) a technological tool to manage and evaluate continuously and formatively
the work done by students in social networks through elearning platforms; (b) the evaluation of pre-service teachers’ digital
competence; and (c) design principles that can be applied in similar research.
At the technological level, the tool is functional. It allows managing and evaluating in a continuous and formative way the
work done by students in the social media networks (e.g. Twitter, Facebook, Vine or Youtube) through LMS platforms
compatible with the LTI protocol (Moodle, Sakai or Blackboard).
Regarding the second output, the participants received quite high scores for their digital competence with 3.56 of mean on
scale of 1 to 5. Communicative (mean = 3.71) and Multimedia (mean = 3.66) dimensions obtained higher scores, whereas
Informational (mean = 3.59) and especially Technological dimension (m= 3.28) obtained the lowest. Following the approach
of teacher educators’ digital competence by Krumsvik (2012), this seems to indicate that the pre-service teachers had an
acceptable level in basic digital skills, especially related with social and media skills.
As we have seen in this study, social media allows creating new learning possibilities to enhance instruction and learning
(Tess, 2013). In line with the recommendations of Dohn & Dohn (2017), social media allows for providing a variety of
evidences to make accurate observations of student-teachers’ digital competence.
References
Dohn, N.B., & Dohn, N.B. (2017). Integrating facebook in upper secondary biology instruction: A case study of students’
situational interest and participation in learning communication. Research in Science Education.
doi:10.1007/s11165-016-9549-3
Esteve-Mon, F. M. (2015). La competencia digital del futuro docente: análisis de su autopercepción y evaluación de su
desempeño por medio de un entorno 3D (Doctoral thesis). Tarragona: Universitat Rovira i Virgili.
Esteve-Mon, F. M., Cela-Ranilla, J. M., & Gisbert-Cervera, M. (2016). ETeach3D: Designing a 3D virtual environment for
evaluating the digital competence of preservice teachers. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(6), 816-839.
doi:10.1177/0735633116637191
European Commission. (2007). Key competences for lifelong learning. European reference framework.
Gutiérrez, A., Palacios, A., & Torrego, L. (2010). La formación de los futuros maestros y la integración de las TIC en la
educación: Anatomía de un desencuentro. Revista de Educación, 352.
Hall, R., Atkins, L., & Fraser, J. (2014). Defining a self-evaluation digital literacy framework for secondary educators: The
DigiLit Lecister Project. Research in Learning Technology, 22. doi:10.3402/rlt.v22.21440
Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2013). Use of web 2.0 technologies in K-12 and higher education: The search for evidence-
based practice. Educational Research Review, 9, 47-64. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2012.08.001
Krumsvik, R. (2012). Teacher educators' digital competence. Scandinavian
Journal of Educational Research, 58(3), 269-280.
doi:10.1080/00313831.2012.726273󰜩
Larraz, V. (2012). La competència digital a la universitat. (Doctoral thesis). Andorra: Universitat d’Andorra.
Larraz, V., & Esteve-Mon, F. M. (2015). Evaluating digital competence in simulation environments. In M. Gisbert & M. Bullen
(Eds.), Teaching and learning in digital worlds: Strategies and issues in higher education. Tarragona: Universitat Rovira i
Virgili.
Peña-Martínez, E. (2016). Tag2Learn: Diseño, desarrollo e implementación de una herramienta para la integración de redes
sociales en plataformas de teledocencia (Master thesis). Tarragona: Universitat Rovira i Virgili.
Plomp, T., & Nieveen, N. (2009). An introduction to educational design research. Enschede, the Netherlands: Netherlands
Institute for curriculum development (SLO).
Redecker, C. (2013). The use of ICT for the assessment of key competences. Sevilla: Joint Research Centre, Institute for
Prospective Technological Studies. European Commission.
Tess, P. A. (2013). The role of social media in higher education classes (real and virtual) – A literature review. Computers in
Human Behavior, 29(5), A60-A68. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.032
UNESCO. (2011). UNESCO ICT Competency Framework for Teachers. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
van den Akker, J., Gravemeijer, K., McKenney, S. & Nieveen, N. (2006). Educational design research. Francis & Taylor.
Author Information
Francesc M. Esteve-Mon (presenting)
Universitat Jaume I
Department of Education
Castellón
Emilio Peña-Martínez (presenting)
Universidad de Almería, Spain
Jordi Adell-Segura
Universitat Jaume I, Spain
... En el siguiente gráfico (Figura 1), se puede ver la evolución de los mensajes publicados en Twitter, utilizando el hashtag de una de las asignaturas (#MI1013B).En total, participaron 73 estudiantes y se publicaron 2.212 tuits a lo largo de todo el semestre. Tras la recogida y el análisis de los tuits, a través de la herramienta Ta-g2Learn(Esteve, Peña & Adell, 2017), se comprobó que los principales usos fueron: (a) compartir información, enlaces o contenidos relacionados con el desarrollo de la asignatura;(b) compartir los productos realizados en clase, pruebas, borradores o el trabajo final de las diferentes actividades; y (c) interacciones sociales, compartir con los demás compañeros, de manera desenfadada, ideas, pensamientos o vivencias de su día a día (Figura 2). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La tecnología educativa, la formación online y el uso de Internet como medio de aprendizaje, ha dado lugar a la aparición de rastros o huellas digitales -y a su registro- que permiten saber cómo se relacionan estudiantes y docentes. Dentro del marco de la interoperabilidad de datos entre entornos virtuales de aprendizaje, la herramienta Tag2Learn ofrece, gracias al uso del estándar IMS-LTI, de IMS Global Learning Consortium, la posibilidad de ampliar las funcionalidades básicas de plataformas de teledocencia, como Moodle o Blackboard, a través de la integración con redes sociales. Este trabajo, realizado siguiendo una metodología DBR (Design-Based Research), representa una nueva fase de investigación, desarrollo y evaluación del proyecto Tag2Learn y ofrece como resultado, (1) una propuesta de mejora del actual modelo de interoperabilidad entre plataformas de teledocencia y de redes sociales de Tag2Learn gracias a la integración de un estándar de almacenamiento de registros de actividad de estu- diantes que, además, abre las puertas a (2) nuevos principios de diseño que pueden aplicarse en investigaciones similares.
Article
Full-text available
The sciences are often perceived by students as irrelevant as they do not see the content of science as related to their daily lives. Web 2.0-mediated activities are characterized by user-driven content production, collaboration, and multi-way communication. It has been proposed that employing Web 2.0 in educational activities will promote richer opportunities for making learning personally meaningful, collaborative, and socially relevant. Since Facebook is already in use among youths, it potentially provides a communicative link between educational content and students’ lives. The present study was conducted as a case study to provide an inductive, explorative investigation of whether and how the integration of Facebook into upper secondary biology can affect interest in biology and participation in learning communication. The results indicate that the coupling of formal and informal communication practices on Facebook serves to maintain interest and open up new learning possibilities while at the same time creating barriers to communication. These barriers are due to distractions, ethical issues, and a certain depreciation of the activities ensuing from the everydayness of Facebook as a communication platform. In conclusion, use of Facebook as an educational platform is not clearly good or bad.
Thesis
Full-text available
Among ICT services offered by educational institutions are teleteaching platforms, such as Moodle or Blackboard, which made available their community a set of online tools such as content repositories, forums, mail, evaluation, etc. However, outside of these closed and controlled environments, Internet offers tools such as social networks with a range of possibilities in line with current trends and professional skills. The integration of both environments poses the dilemma of opening, which although could bring positive things, also not only makes a great technological challenge but also a training and evaluation challenge. This project, created with a participatory and interventionist methodology DBR (Design Based Research), aims to design and develop a tool called Tag2Learn, that can integrate social networks into elearning platforms. For the design and validation it has enjoyed the participation of many teachers and researchers, and students from different universities and areas. The tool is compatible with platforms using the IMS Global Learning Consortium protocol Learning Tools Interoperability (LTI). The result obtained in this work, after several cycles of refining the prototype and a pilot, is (1) a tool to manage and evaluate continuously and formatively the work done by students in social networks through elearning platforms; and (2) design principles that can be applied in similar research.
Article
Full-text available
The acquisition of teacher digital competence is a key aspect in the initial training of teachers. However, most existing evaluation instruments do not provide sufficient evidence of this teaching competence. In this study, we describe the design and development process of a three-dimensional (3D) virtual environment for evaluating the teacher digital competence of future teachers, through a performance-based, collaborative and contextual evaluation. This environment, named ETeach3D, has been constructed using the educational design research approach. It is based on successive iterative cycles and is in accordance with the criteria of usefulness, validity, and effectiveness. In addition to the research team responsible for the project, participating in this study were 187 Spanish undergraduate students of Education and 22 experts in the field of educational technology. Results show that these environments, in addition to other characteristics, should (a) function smoothly and have simple interfaces, realistic scenes, and interactive activities and (b) follow a systematic evaluation procedure that integrates several strategies and levels of complexity. This research helps to improve the initial training of preservice teachers and contributes to the growing number of educational design research studies that focus in the field of evaluation of the curriculum domain.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the growing interest in digital literacy within educational policy, guidance for secondary educators in terms of how digital literacy translates into the classroom is lacking. As a result, many teachers feel ill-prepared to support their learners in using technology effectively. The DigiLit Leicester project created an infrastructure for holistic, integrated change, by supporting staff development in the area of digital literacy for secondary school teachers and teaching support staff. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the critique of existing digital literacy frameworks enabled a self-evaluation framework for practitioners to be developed. Crucially, this framework enables a co-operative, partnership approach to be taken to pedagogic innovation. Moreover, it enables social and ethical issues to underpin a focus on teacher-agency and radical collegiality inside the domain of digital literacy. Thus, the authors argue that the shared development framework constitutes a new model for implementing digital literacy aimed at transforming the provision of secondary education across a city.
Article
This position paper focuses on how the new national curriculum for school and the new general plan for teacher education in Norway change the underlying premises for teaching and learning in today's teacher education. This has become particularly pressing as a result of the new educational reform ‘Knowledge Promotion’ in schools, whereby digital competence is now the fifth basic competence in all subjects at all levels, as well as in the new teacher education curriculum in Norway. Against this background, the aim of this position paper is to elaborate on how a digital competence model can function on a micro level to fulfil the intentions from the national and institutional policy level. The research question considered by this paper is whether (and if so, how) a digital competence model for TEs can function as a model on an individual level.
Article
Evidence-based practice in education entails making pedagogical decisions that are informed by relevant empirical research evidence. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss evidence-based pedagogical approaches related to the use of Web 2.0 technologies in both K-12 and higher education settings. The use of such evidence-based practice would be useful to educators interested in fostering student learning through Web 2.0 tools. A comprehensive literature search across the Academic Search Premier, Education Research Complete, ERIC, and PsycINFO databases was conducted. Empirical studies were included for review if they specifically examined the impact of Web 2.0 technologies on student learning. Articles that merely described anecdotal studies such as student perception or feeling toward learning using Web 2.0, or studies that relied on student self-report data such as student questionnaire survey and interview were excluded. Overall, the results of our review suggested that actual evidence regarding the impact of Web 2.0 technologies on student learning is as yet fairly weak. Nevertheless, the use of Web 2.0 technologies appears to have a general positive impact on student learning. None of the studies reported a detrimental or inferior effect on learning. The positive effects are not necessarily attributed to the technologies per se but to how the technologies are used, and how one conceptualizes learning. It may be tentatively concluded that a dialogic, constructionist, or co-constructive pedagogy supported by activities such as Socratic questioning, peer review and self-reflection appeared to increase student achievement in blog-, wiki-, and 3-D immersive virtual world environments, while a transmissive pedagogy supported by review activities appeared to enhance student learning using podcast.
Article
The ubiquity of social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) is no more apparent than at the university. Social media are increasingly visible in higher education settings as instructors look to technology to mediate and enhance their instruction as well as promote active learning for students. Many scholars argue for the purposeful integration of social media as an educational tool. Empirical evidence, however, has lagged in supporting the claim. Most of the existing research on the utility and effectiveness of social media in the higher education class is limited to self-reported data (e.g., surveys, questionnaires) and content analyses. This paper summarizes the scholarly writings as well as reviews the findings of empirical investigations. Some limitations are discussed, and future areas of research are proposed.