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Entrepreneurship Education: Concept, Characteristics and Implications for Teacher Education


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Entrepreneurship education has the mandate to equip the youth with functional knowledge and skill to build up their character, attitude and vision. It has vital role in developing eco-system that promotes innovation (European Union, 2006).QAA (2012) remarks its importance for providing the base for innovation and creating a value system; and developing entrepreneurial culture, which drives wealth creation and gives further push to innovations. This necessitates pro-active policy interventions in favour of entrepreneurship. Initiating a fruitful discussion on entrepreneurship education, this article tries to conceptualise the phenomenon of entrepreneurship education, starting form genesis of term 'entrepreneur', its definition, nature and new role of teachers and teacher training institutions in fostering young entrepreneurs. The article also tries to facilitate an understanding about 'entrepreneurial teacher and training institution' and emphasizes the active role of teacher as a 'facilitator'. For this new role teachers have to be ready initially by going through rigours of teacher training and by continuing professional development. The paper also deals with the urgency of policy interventions in India in this regard. Key-words: Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurial Teachers, Teacher Education.
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Shaikshik Parisamvad (An International Journal of Education)
SPIJE, ISSN 2231 – 2323 (Print), 2231 – 2404 (Online)
Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2015, pp - 21-35 .
© 2015 AAEBHU
(Manish Kumar Gautam, Research Scholar and
Dr. Sunil Kumar Singh, Professor, Faculty of Education ,
Banaras Hindu University, Kamachha, Varanasi- 10,U. P., India)
Entrepreneurship education has the mandate to equip the youth with functional knowledge and
skill to build up their character, attitude and vision. It has vital role in developing eco-system that
promotes innovation (European Union, 2006).QAA (2012) remarks its importance for providing
the base for innovation and creating a value system; and developing entrepreneurial culture,
which drives wealth creation and gives further push to innovations. This necessitates pro-active
policy interventions in favour of entrepreneurship. Initiating a fruitful discussion on
entrepreneurship education, this article tries to conceptualise the phenomenon of
entrepreneurship education, starting form genesis of term 'entrepreneur', its definition, nature
and new role of teachers and teacher training institutions in fostering young entrepreneurs. The
article also tries to facilitate an understanding about 'entrepreneurial teacher and training
institution' and emphasizes the active role of teacher as a 'facilitator'. For this new role teachers
have to be ready initially by going through rigours of teacher training and by continuing
professional development. The paper also deals with the urgency of policy interventions in India
in this regard.
Key-words: Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurial Teachers, Teacher
Education has been the axle for social, economic and political transformation in all societies.
It acts as an integrative force in society, imparting values that foster individual excellence, social
cohesion and national development. Recognising the importance of education in national
development, the policy makers (European Union, 2006; UNESCO, 2013; QAA, 2012) have placed
an unprecedented focus on a recently identified concept in the field of education across all levels
named as 'entrepreneurial skill development through education' In this review paper an effort has
been made to conceptualize, the term entrepreneurship education? How it came into an action? Its
nature , the new role to be played by teachers for promotion of entrepreneurship education, followed
by its implications for the field of teacher education.
Genesis and Concept of Entrepreneurship
Transforming an idea into action has been done since the beginning of civilization around the
globe. It has really transformed the world. Businesspersons have been creating ventures for masses
based on such ideas materializing them into useful actions Entrepreneurs have a vision for doing
things in a better way, thinking beyond the constraints of current rules and resources. Perhaps more
importantly, they have the passion and urgency that literally compell them to take risk necessary to
realize their vision .They want to look deeper in the world and by doing so, they inspire their fellow
men and women. Therefore, entrepreneurship is not just a venture creation process; its essence goes
beyond contemporary times with maturity and serves as an agent of change. It is universal and is
reflected in all major dimensions of civilization viz. social, political, and economic etc. across the
Entrepreneurship is a multifaceted phenomenon. Gangaiah and Viswanath (2014) explained the
genesis of term 'entrepreneurship' from the French word 'entreprendre' which originally means an
organizer of musical or other entertainments. The word has been in use since the 16 century. In
Middle Ages the term 'entrepreneur' was referred to a person who was managing large projects. He
was not taking risk but was managing the projects using the resource provided (Lakeus, 2014).
Further, he added that in the 17 century the word was extended to cover architects and contractors
engaged in activity, such as construction, fortification and public work. Robert &Albert (1986)
stated that only in the beginning of 18 century it was used to refer to economic aspects. Some
economists say that the term has been derived from German word 'unternehmen' which literally
means 'to take' or 'operation' or 'to undertake' which indicates the minimum characteristics of an
entrepreneur. The French economist Richard Cotillion is generally accredited with being the first to
coin the phrase in the context of what we view today as 'entrepreneurship' in about 1730 (Ahmad &
th th
Seymour, 2006). Further they pointed out that in 19 and 20 century many eminent economists and
scholars including Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall and frank etc. elaborated on Cotillion's
contribution, adding leadership and recognizing entrepreneurship through organization ,but the key
tenets of risk taking and profit were nearly always retained as important features of
In this era of global work practices and technological innovations, there are individuals who
always 'think outside the box'. These individuals have a passion for novelty and like to distinguish
themselves from the others. Legendary world entrepreneurs like Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Narayana
Murthy and young entrepreneurs like Larry Page, Sergey Brin (co-founders of Google) and Mark
Zuckerberg (CEO of Facebook) have set the bar for being the most inspirational and influential
entrepreneurs in their respective fields. Balasubramanian ( 2012) argued that entrepreneurship is a
key facet of any nation's economy and is the crucial driver for employment and economic growth. It
touches human lives through introduction of new technologies, products and services. Entrepreneurs,
through their creativity and dogmatic approach to overcome failure, improve the world by
innovation and help build a society that is richer, socially adept and technically advanced.
Entrepreneurship Education: Concept and Meaning
A definition is a starting point to a full understanding of the phenomena under discussion.
Through it one may be able to discover the essence, concerns and objectives of the phenomena too.
Similarly , the essence, concerns and objectives of entrepreneurship as a field of study (Hytti
2002;Hytti and O'Gorman, 2004; Jones and English, 2004; Henry et al., 2005a, b; Gartner, 1990) can
be speculated here. These basic issues, emanating from a definition may be taken later to be the basis
for conceptually aligning entrepreneurship education with the appropriate target audience, course
contents and teaching methodologies. However, for the sake of convenience , here opinion of some
reviewers in the field are being reflected in forthcoming paragraph.
By reviewing the existing literature conflicting sides of entrepreneurship schools of thoughts,
and an inherent lack of a common definition of entrepreneurship has been found (Sexton and
Bowman, 1984). A debate was noticed in the application of terms like entrepreneurship education
versus enterprise education (Hynes, 1996; Garavan and O'Cinneide, 1994a, b.) also a substitution of
entrepreneurship education with entrepreneurial education (Jones and English, 2004. Garavan and
O'Cinneide (1994a, b) argue that there is a conceptual difference between entrepreneurship
education and enterprise education: the former has to do with creating an attitude of self-reliance and
the later is for creating opportunity-seeking individuals. But to others, like Gibb (1993) as cited in
Fank et al.(2005), the two terms are conceptually the same, but contextually different. According to
22 | SPIJE, Vol.5, No.1, January 2015
Gibb (1993) as cited in Fank et al. (2005) entrepreneurship education is a term mainly used in
America and Canada, and enterprise education in the UK and Ireland. Another interesting
observation is in the work of Jones and English (2004) who have constantly substituted
entrepreneurship education with entrepreneurial education; and defining it as “a process of providing
individuals with the ability to recognize commercial opportunities and the insight, self-esteem,
knowledge and skills to act on them” (Jones and English, 2004, p. 2 ). Apart from the above
controversy, most of the articles have interchangeably used these terms (entrepreneurship education,
enterprise education or even entrepreneurial education) as Gorman et al. (1997); Wai and Man
(2007) and Hynes (1996) cited in their article. By analysis of different definitions some commonality
can be traced. Contillon (1931) as cited in Ahmad & Seymor (2006); Schumpeter (1934) as cited in
Faoite et al. (2003) and Kirby (2004) characterised entrepreneurs as 'innovator'. While, Drucker
(1985) and NKC (2008) mentioned entrepreneurs as a wealth creator, challenge taker.
Entrepreneurship education is study of source of opportunities and process of discovery (Shane &
venkataraman,2000;NKC,2008;Timmons,1989), in which an individual endeavours ability of
creativity, risk taking and turn their ideas into action (Communication Commission 2006; European
commission 2003;oxford dictionary 2005; and Jones and English 2004). Some researchers have
pointed out that entrepreneurship education is training for uncertain future (Kratko, 1997), which
provides the capabilities of venture creation (Kirby, 2004; Garavan and O'Cinneide, 1994). But the
focus of most of the reviewed literatures on entrepreneurship education is on: fostering
entrepreneurial attitude, skill, managerial attributes (Co and Mitchell, 2006; Henry et al., 2005a;
Galloway et al., 2005; Hytti and O'Gorman, 2004; Kirby, 2004; Bechard and Toulouse, 1998; Gibb,
1993 as cited in Fank et al. 2005; Hills, 1988). Accordingly it has been shown in Figure 1 that 32
percent of the reviewed articles related entrepreneurship education to some kind of educational (or
training) process that is aimed at influencing individuals' attitudes, behaviours, values or intentions
towards entrepreneurship either as a possible career or to enhance among them an appreciation of its
role in the community. An equally strong observation ( 32 percent) related entrepreneurship
education with the acquisition of personal skills in entrepreneurship, whereas others related it to new
business formation (18 per cent), opportunity recognition (9 per cent) and, managing of existing
small firms (9 per cent).
SPIJE, Vol.5, No.1, January 2015 |23
Thus we can say that, an entrepreneur refers to an individual who has the ability to turn ideas into action.
It includes creativity, innovation and risk taking, as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in
order to achieve objectives. Accordingly, entrepreneurship education can be defined as the process of
professional application of knowledge, attitude, skills and competencies. It is more than teaching
students how to become independent business owners. It is about creating and nurturing a learning
environment that promotes entrepreneurial traits and behaviours, such as becoming creative and
independent thinker, risk taker, assuming responsibility, and valuing diversity.
Characteristics of Entrepreneurship education
Entrepreneurship education basically focuses on creation of entrepreneurial culture. It helps
potential entrepreneurs to identify and pursue opportunities. It is not limited to boosting start-ups,
innovative ventures and new jobs. Entrepreneurship is a competency for all, helping young people to
become creative and self confident in whatever they undertake. The basic characteristics of
entrepreneurship education as a discipline as obtained from the critical review of the works related
to it have been identified by the authors as follows :
1. It is a function of innovation (Contillon, 1931 and Kirby, 2004).
2. It is a function of fostering leadership (Kuratka & Harnsby, 1996).
3. It is an organizational building function (Vesper & William, 1997).
4. It is a function of high achievement (Vesper & William, 1997).
5. It involves creation and operation of an enterprise (Kuratka & Jenning, 1999).
6. It is process of creating value for customers by exploiting untapped opportunities
(McGrath, MacMillan & Scheinberg, 1992).
7. It is strong and positive orientation towards growth in wealth, knowledge and
employment (Robert, 1998).
8. It is concerned with attitudinal change, risk taking abilities and turning idea in to actions
(Gundary & Kickal, 1998).
Thus as a discipline entrepreneurship education always tries to inculcate some skill, so that one can
play a role of catalyst for socio-economical change. It gives force to shape the future society and one's
own life simultaneously.
Entrepreneurship Education and the New Role of Teacher
Entrepreneurship education includes all activities aiming to foster entrepreneurial mindsets,
attitudes and skills and covering a range of aspects such as idea generation, start-up, growth and
innovation (Fayolle, 2009). Entrepreneurship education was pioneered by Shigeru Fijii, as cited by
Mwasalwiba (2010), who started teaching in this field in 1938 at Kobe University in Japan. Courses
in small business management began to emerge in the 1940s .In 1947 Myles Mace introduced the
first course in entrepreneurship in USA at Harvard Business School. Only half a century later did
this phenomenon gain a more universal recognition (Alberti et al., 2004). Entrepreneurship courses
are taught at nearly every American Assembly of College Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited
institution, at over 1400 postsecondary schools. These courses enjoy a considerable world-wide
growth (Karsson, 2003; Honig, 2004). In the 1990's India exerted greater effort to promote and
nurture entrepreneurship (Liyan,NA 2015 retrieved ). According to Balasubramanian (2012) many
top business schools in the country such as Indian Institute of Management( IIM), Indian Institute of
Technology (IIT) and XLRI etc. offer specific programmes in Entrepreneurship. IIM Ahmedabad's
24 | SPIJE, Vol.5, No.1, January 2015
Centre for Innovation, Incubation and Entrepreneurship has short and long term programmes.The
Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDI), which operates under the Government of
India at designated locations, offers post graduate diploma courses in business entrepreneurship,
management, NGO management, etc. It also provides programmes for working professionals with
flexible schedules and a distance learning option for those unable to attend on campus programmes.
Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) in 2001 had also introduced entrepreneurship
education at Senior Secondary level as an elective paper (CBSE, 2001).
In the midst of continuous growth in the number of universities offering entrepreneurship
courses, large numbers have opined whether entrepreneurial goals can be achieved and enhanced
through education and training, or whether certain people are 'born' to be entrepreneur or to act
entrepreneurially. Some people still argue that it is not possible to teach entrepreneurship. For them,
entrepreneurship is a matter of personality and psychological characteristics. One of the arguments
that have been advanced is that talent and temperament cannot be taught (Fayolle et al, 2008;
Fayolle, 2007; Thompson, 2004). But one could argue that this is true for many professions and
professional situations. Nobody will dispute the fact that medicine, law, engineering and teaching
skills can be taught and yet there are doctors, lawyers, engineers and teachers who are talented and
others who are not. A similar argument can be made for entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs (Fayolle
et al, 2008; Hindel, 2004; Fayolle, 2007). Rae and Carswell (2001) and Shepherd and Douglas
(1997) have discussed that there is a distinction between the teachable and the non-teachable
elements of entrepreneurship. The key to a successful entrepreneurship education is to find the most
effective way to manage the teachable skills and identify the best match between student needs and
teaching techniques (Lee et al, 2007). Despite of all ongoing debates on teaching and training
aspects of entrepreneurship, Mwasalwiba (2010) agreed that it is beyond any doubt that the basic
entrepreneurial skill, knowledge, and attitude can be inculcated in young entrepreneurs.
Jamieson (1984, p.19) as cited in Faoite et al. (2003) characterised entrepreneurship education
as a discipline stating it as, “the teaching of skill, knowledge and attitude for people to go out and
create their own returns and solve their problems”. Scatt et al. (1998) & Matlay and Mitra (2002)
categorised entrepreneurship education in following three different ways:
i. Education 'about' enterprise (Awareness Creation),
ii. Education 'for' enterprise (The preparation of aspiring entrepreneurs for innovation); and
iii. Education 'in' enterprise (The growth and development training for established
Similar categorisation has been suggested by Jamieson (1984) as cited in faoite et al.
(2003).They also refer to such education as 'about' enterprise (as key agent of social and economic
change); 'through' enterprise (teaching style which used entrepreneurial situation); and 'for'
enterprise (training both potential and existing entrepreneurs).
Thus as a discipline entrepreneurship education believes that entrepreneurs are not born rather
they become through the experience of their lives. According to Kurtako and Hogges (2004)
entrepreneurship education is a dynamic process of vision, change and creation. Johannisson and
Olaison (2006) found two frequently used perspectives on entrepreneurship: entrepreneurship as a
tool or instrument for management and entrepreneurship as forms of social creativity (Johannisson
1992; Hjorth 2003; Dey & Steyaert 2006 as cited in Ruskovaara, E. & Ikävalko, M. 2007). The
Consortium for Entrepreneurship Education (2008) states that entrepreneurship education is not just
about teaching someone to run a business, it is about encouraging creative thinking and promoting a
SPIJE, Vol.5, No.1, January 2015 |25
strong sense of self-worth and empowerment.
The development of the entrepreneurship key competence is not simply a question of
knowledge acquisition .Since entrepreneurship education is about developing the ability to act in an
entrepreneurial manner, attitude and behaviours are perhaps more important than knowledge about
how to run a business. European commission (2011) stated in his final report that entrepreneurship
education means developing a culture which is through, for and about entrepreneurship. Such
competencies are best acquired through people-led enquiry and discovery that enable students to
turn ideas into action. They are difficult to teach through traditional teaching and learning practices
in which the learner tends to be a more or less passive recipient. They require active, learner-centred
pedagogies and learning activities that use practical learning opportunities from the real world.
Furthermore, since entrepreneurship education is a transversal competence it should be available to
all students and be taught as a theme rather than as a separate subject at all stages and levels of
education (ECOTEC, 2010). Thus to develop above entrepreneurial competencies in youth, the role
of teachers has to change (European commission, 2004). Entrepreneurship education means
significant change in core aspect of teaching approach like- how teacher teaches, moving from
communicators of knowledge to facilitator of learning (European commission, 2013; World
Economic Forum, 2009).Clearly, the implication of these changes for teachers is substantial. They
mean nothing less than a new role for every teacher: that of 'learning facilitator'. Teachers are at a
crossroads at which several transformation processes embedded in entrepreneurship education
converge (Hannon, 2006; Hytti and O'Gorman, 2004). They have at times had difficulties in
identifying how to respond to the inherent challenges Jaana, 2008 as cited in Ruskovaara, E. &
Ikävalko, M. 2007; Fiet, 2001). All this reveals that a great deal of interest has been shown in
successful entrepreneurship education ; expectations run high, and teachers have to play a central
role in realisation of expectations. Therefore, the new role of Teacher Educators (TE) have to be
visualized in light of expectations from teachers in achieving goals of entrepreneurship education.
Here, the field of Teacher Education has the real challenge.
The Implications for Teacher Education
The above deliberations clearly reflect that, in the contemporary world entrepreneurship
education has been widely recognized as a field of special significance for individual and social
development glocally.Consequently, entrepreneurial learning and teaching have become more
relevant issues in the field of entrepreneurship education research. Implicitly,the field of Teacher
Education has to be geared up by teacher educators to handle this issue and meet the challenge of
developing teachers to perform the above mentioned new roles in the classrooms and school. As
rightly acknowledged by Jaana et al. (2010) that teachers have an essential role to play in enhancing
student's entrepreneurial learning. Entrepreneurship Education requires the use of active learning
method that places the learner at the centre of educational process and enables them to take
responsibility for their own learning to experiment and learn about themselves. Thus teachers need
the professional competencies to be able to guide student through the learning process rather than, as
in traditional method, communicating knowledge and information mainly through 'chalk and talk'
(European Commission.2013). Researches carried out by the European Commission (2010, 2011)
shows that the core skills and values linked to entrepreneurship education are seldom a priority in
initial teacher education programs. Creativity is not fully embedded into these programs.
Approximately 90% of teachers say that they would like to receive some further training on
creativity. Teachers also feel that educational and school cultures do not fully support them in
fostering creative and innovative approaches to learning. Thus, the following questions are of special
26 | SPIJE, Vol.5, No.1, January 2015
i. How teachers understand entrepreneurship education?
ii. How they value it, how professional competency develops in them? and
iii. How willing they are to adopt new pedagogical methods?
Hence, teacher education and training has to play a vital role. But currently preparations for
meeting challenges of entrepreneurship education are almost absent as pointed out by European
Commission (2013). Regarding teaching method, there is an accepted view that entrepreneurs are
action-oriented and that learning occurs through experience and discovery (Pittaway & Cope, 2007).
Specifically, entrepreneurs learn by doing, by experimenting, by coping, and by problem-solving
(Gibb, 1996). Recently, researchers have suggested that entrepreneurs learn and act using a
prediction approach called “effectuation” reasoning rather than the conventional strategies or causal
reasoning used by managers and business people (Sarasvathy, 2008). Thus, in order to foster
entrepreneurial learning, skills and thinking in students, the teaching models in Entrepreneurship
Education (EE) need to be more innovative than the traditional form being used currently (Fayolle &
Gailly, 2008; Kirby, 2004; McMullan & Long, 1987; Neck & Greene, 2011; Solomon, Weaver &
Fernald, 1994). In his review paper Mwasalwiba (2010) has identified twenty six entrepreneurial
teaching method from review of 21 articles, out of them the most effective methods identified by
him were: 'game simulations' (Hinde, 2002), video and filming method (Verduyn et al., 2009), case
study (Keogh & Galloway, 2004), workshop and project method (Bennett, 2006; McMullan &
Boberg, 1991), group discussions & team based learning ( Michaelsen and sweet,2008) etc.
Looking at the future of entrepreneurship education in an ever-changing world, teaching
potential entrepreneurs requires transferring entrepreneurial skills to students using innovative and
unconventional teaching approaches based on action and practice. Thus the entrepreneurial teachers
have to ready for the encounter with these challenges. This can be effectively possible in two ways
namely- (i).Strengthening of teacher education for pre-service training of entrepreneurial future
teachers; and (ii) .Continuing professional development for fostering entrepreneurship competency
of in-service teachers.
Evidence from several interventional cases in teachers training and school education (FEE-YE,
2013, SEECEL, 2009; ASE, 2014) indicates that raising the awareness of teachers about
entrepreneurship increases the likelihood that they will engage in entrepreneurship, use relevant
tools and actions and be more motivated to setup entrepreneurial activities. Moreover, sensitised
teachers seem to be better able to support their students' entrepreneurial learning processes. A
comprehensive whole-school approach seems to be especially successful in doing so. These
interventions also encouraged schools to intensify their collaboration with the local community,
especially with entrepreneurs. Teachers also learn to understand that entrepreneurship is relevant for
all educational levels and not just in economic subjects. However, Young Enterprise Denmark (2013)
reported in his study that the impact on teachers that were already familiar with entrepreneurial
teaching and learning concepts before the intervention is higher than on others.
To fulfil these challenges European Commission (2011, p.25) conducted two consecutive
Symposia of European Union countries in Budapest and Istanbul. In these symposia they have
concluded that entrepreneurship education and in-service training are highly dependent in many
countries on national/regional programmes and other external agencies (business organisations,
NGOs etc). National policies and practices provide the overall framework as well. But local support
measures are the essential corollary of continuing professional development. These relationships
have been shown below in Figure 2.
SPIJE, Vol.5, No.1, January 2015 |27
Figure 2: The relationship between areas for action in teacher education for entrepreneurship
European commission has laid great emphasis on Initial teacher training and continuing
professional development, with active coordination of national and local support. India is far behind
from European countries in entrepreneurship education (Aggrawal, 2013). In India entrepreneurship
education is concentrated to business schools only. Aggrawal (2013) also noticed that recently India
has also recognized the importance of entrepreneurship education after world recession in 2009.
Now a days in many documents like 'Skill India Mission' and 'National Youth Policy 2014', policy
makers have shown their will for enhancing entrepreneurship culture in India. On his South Korea
visit Indian PM has made agreement to open a National Institute of Entrepreneurship ( Dainik
jagran,19 May 2015). Therefore efforts are on move in the right direction.
As many policy documents like European commission, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2011, 2012; QAA,
2012; World Economic Forum, April 2009 stated that to enhance entrepreneurial skill and
competency in youth, it is important to inculcate these skill from their childhood through primary
level schooling and onwards education. Regarding this India has long way to move. At present
CBSE offers entrepreneurship education at secondary level only ,as an elective paper. This may not
lead to any serious change in student's attitude. Without sufficient number of trained teachers we
cannot achieve above goals. In this regard CBSE and NIESBUD have jointly organized workshop
th th
for teachers to teach entrepreneurship education recently on 14 -15 May 2014
( At university level ,
very few universities have taken lead .Only Pune University (Maharashtra) offers entrepreneurship
education ( ) for future teachers in the Faculty of Education.Such moves at all
levels have to be speeded up .
In India,over 300 million people are living below the poverty line (Planning commission,
June, 2012). It is simply impossible for any government to provide means of livelihood to everyone
suddenly. Therefore, to meet the challenge Indian government has launched 'Skill India” programme
in March, 2015.Its primary objective is to foster entrepreneurial skill in youth. This scheme also
wishes to support 'Make in India' campaign by producing skilled man power (Lyer, April 2015). In
India there is a dearth of quality people in industry, which demands high level of entrepreneurship
28 | SPIJE, Vol.5, No.1, January 2015
development programmes throughout the country for the growth of Indian economy. The scope of
entrepreneurship development in developing country like India is tremendous. India has urged upon
the Nation, besides other things to ensure entrepreneurship with adequate education as a part of
sustainable employment generation strategy to accommodate 540 million youths for nation
development. The ongoing uncertainties before youths after completion of their education is a matter
of serious concern for all of us. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (
UNESCO,2012) emphasized that focus of education should not only be on preparing students for
employment but more important towards developing employability skills. Today, the focus is on rote
learning and the education system does not actively encourage students to think on their own and
take on responsibilities. It neglects the importance of developing a creative mindset among children,
which means that the significance of education as a tool for personal development is severely
hampered by such a form of education (UNESCO 1996, 2004).Therefore, NKC (2008) has also
stressed the importance of entrepreneurship education to overcome the above challenges
concerning the productivity of education.
Such situations surely demand for a continuous effort from the society, where the people are
encouraged to come up with their entrepreneurial initiative. Recently on 03 March, 2015, Amway
India in association with Indicus Analytics released the India Entrepreneurship Report (2014). They
ranked Gujarat, Delhi and Himachal Pradesh as the most entrepreneur-friendly states as reflected by
the Current Entrepreneurial Confidence Index. These three states also offer the most conducive
environment for future entrepreneurs as revealed by the Future Entrepreneurial Readiness index of
the report. However in global perspective India has been placed very low on entrepreneurship
(entrepreneurial attitudes 69, entrepreneurial activity 77 entrepreneurial aspiration 68) with rank 74
among 79 countries. On innovation too, India does only marginally better (ranked 62 out of 125
nations) as GEDI (2014) report said. Maheshwari and Shahu (2013) pointed out that in India; there
is a dearth of quality people in industry as well as in society, which demands high level of
entrepreneurship development throughout the country for sustainable growth of Indian economy.
In the future, innovation and entrepreneurship needs to be encouraged at Social levels,
Governmental levels and Managerial levels. There must be a social attitude that views innovations
with positive attitude. The role that the government can play in the encouragement of entrepreneurial
efforts has already been noted in the above narrative. Clearly, the government can develop policies
concerning educational and financial support.
First and foremost thing we need is the entrepreneurial spirit. The attitude and skill will follow.
Entrepreneurs needs the indefatigable energy and incurable optimism that enables them to take the road
less travelled and convert their dreams into reality. It is a force that beckons an individual to pursue
countless opportunities. Entrepreneurs must learn how to overcome the risk of failure, or of
vulnerability. Entrepreneurship education can give them valuable insights and also support them in this.
Carrying out discussion on entrepreneurship education the article has tried to conceptualise the
phenomenon of entrepreneurship education, starting form genesis of term 'entrepreneur', its definition,
nature and role of teachers and teacher training institutions in fostering in young entrepreneurs. This
article has also reflected on minimum basic understanding about entrepreneurial teacher and challenges
before the teacher education/training institutions. The active role of teacher as a 'facilitator' has been
focussed. For this new role teachers have to be ready by initial pre-service teacher training or by
continuing professional development while in-service. The paper has also pointed out urgency of
policy interventions at all levels in India in this regard. This is also the right time for National council for
Teacher Education (NCTE) in India to accept the above reflected challenge in Teacher Education in
India and take initiative to meet the challenge.
SPIJE, Vol.5, No.1, January 2015 |29
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... Por lo tanto, la política educativa actual exige a las Instituciones de Educación Superior (IES) públicas llevar a cabo la EE, sin embargo, varios estudios muestran las dificultades y limitantes que enfrentan la mayoría de las IES públicas para cumplir con esta nueva tarea, mismas que van desde la falta de preparación de los docentes para desarrollar los temas de emprendimiento, débil sistema organizativo administrativo, carencia de infraestructura y la falta de integración de la universidad al ecosistema emprendedor del país (Damián, 2020) y, en consecuencia la enseñanza de emprendimiento es un tema emergente en el campo de la investigación tanto empresarial como educativa (Kumar & Kumar, 2015). ...
... La enseñanza del emprendimiento presenta muchas exigencias, principalmente en los profesores y sus actitudes hacia el emprendimiento (Kumar & Kumar, 2015;Pesonen & Remes, 2012). Al respecto Eva (2019), menciona que un profesor de emprendimiento es entusiasta, rompe los viejos patrones y es una fuerza para el cambio; actúa como guía otorgando a los alumnos la libertad necesaria para desarrollar sus habilidades emprendedoras; plantea preguntas creativas para ayudar a los alumnos a desarrollar habilidades empresariales necesarias como identificar posibilidades en lugar de problemas y aprender a utilizar sus conocimientos fuera del aula. ...
... La forma de evaluar algunas veces es subjetivamente, sin reconocer a los trabajos mejor desarrollados y llevados a cabo en tiempo y forma; ello puede generar inconformidad en el resto del alumnado" (Esmeralda). La enseñanza se centra en mostrar teóricamente la estructura de un proyecto de emprendimiento, privilegiando la elaboración de un plan de negocios que sirve para evaluar el grado de desarrollo de capacidades de emprendimiento (Kumar & Kumar, 2015). Se observa cómo lo mencionan Pesonen & Remes (2012), que los profesores son una limitante pues no muestran evidencias de su interés por mejorar o estar en constante búsqueda de mejores prácticas de enseñanza sobre emprendimiento. ...
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En México a finales del siglo XX se incluyó el tema del emprendimiento en la educación superior pública, como una política educativa derivada de las recomendaciones de organismos internacionales. El objetivo de la investigación es mostrar cómo se asume la enseñanza del emprendimiento en una pequeña universidad establecida en un contexto con fuertes rezagos económicos y educativos, para describir su correspondencia con las políticas educativas al respecto. Mediante una investigación cualitativa participaron todos los egresados de la cohorte 2015-2020 de un programa de pregrado relacionado con los negocios, quienes proporcionaron información mediante relatos de vida narrando las actividades de emprendimiento realizadas durante los cinco años de formación universitaria. Se encontraron debilidades institucionales, principalmente, el trabajo de los profesores que limitan el alcance de los objetivos de la enseñanza del emprendimiento, además se identifica una brecha importante entre lo que dictan las políticas educativas que debe caracterizar este tipo de enseñanza con lo que realmente sucede en la praxis.
... Some scholars have provided insights on the issue of the introduction of entrepreneurship education. According to Gautama, M., and Kumar, S.(2015) a growing number of universities are pursuing research in entrepreneurship and establishing education programs, courses, activities, and services to promote entrepreneurial spirit and train entrepreneurs. Different countries have introduced entrepreneurship subjects in their education system. ...
This study aimed at examining the perceptions of educational stakeholders on the introduction of entrepreneurship subjects at secondary schools in Zanzibar and the challenges of its integration. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Questionnaires, focus group discussions, and interviews were used in data collection. A sample of 67 respondents, 30 students, 30 teachers, 6 headteachers, and 1 educational officer was used. The study employed stratified sampling and purposive sampling techniques in selecting the sample. Purposive sampling was used to select the teachers, headteachers, and the educational officer while stratified sampling was used to sample the students. Interviews were conducted with headteachers and educational officers whereas focus group discussions and questionnaires were administered to students and teachers respectively. The data collected through the questionnaires were analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20, while data collected using interviews and focus group discussion was analyzed qualitatively. The results were unequivocal as about 89.6% of respondents accepted the idea of the introduction of entrepreneurship subjects at secondary schools. Meanwhile, the findings showed that the integration would be faced with a myriad of challenges such as a shortage of competent entrepreneurship subject teachers, a shortage of teaching and learning materials, and the use of traditional teaching methods. The study recommended that the entrepreneurship subject can be introduced at secondary schools in Zanzibar but the use of modern teaching methods, frequent training of entrepreneurship subject teachers, and teaching entrepreneurship subject in an appropriate environment must be respected for better performance.
... Entrepreneurship education if integrated into school"s administration may create a school environment which in the opinion of Ekpiken and Ukpabio (2015) can help in fostering the spirit of enterprise among student and in solving the difficulties experienced in securing jobs among young Nigerians. Singh (2015) asserted that entrepreneurship education as the process of professional application of knowledge, attitude, skills and competences. ...
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This paper discussed the relevance of science and technology education, as important instruments for acquiring innovative and entrepreneurial skills for poverty eradication towards sustainable development in Nigeria. Specifically, this paper explained some of the best and easiest ways of eradicating poverty in order to achieve sustainable development as to be through acquisition of innovative and entrepreneurial skills embedded in the science and technology curriculum from secondary and tertiary levels of education. Innovative and entrepreneurial skills acquisition in Nigeria entails focusing on what should be done to bridge the gap between the school and labour market, where the learner will work after graduation, so as to be self-sustain and self-reliant in the society and also to guarantee sustainable development. Entrepreneurship is considered as an alternative way to tackle some of the socio economic problems that bedeviled many nations presently and Nigeria is not an exceptional, especially the problem of high rate of poverty due to the high rate of unemployment in Nigeria. Innovative and entrepreneurial skills are acquired through training that emphasizes the acquisition and development of appropriate knowledge and skills and enable an individual tomaximize the resources around him within the limit of his capability which could invariably lead to poverty eradication and thereby resulting to sustainable development. It was concluded that science and technology education must be given due attention by the ministry of education and the teachers in secondary and tertiary institutions as it could equip learners with the appropriate innovative and entrepreneurial skills for poverty eradication; stimulating employment and economic growth and thereby resulting to sustainable development. The paper recommended among others that, since innovative and entrepreneurial skills can be acquired through efficient and effective knowledge of science and technology; science and technology education should be taught with relevant and appropriate tools by teachers.
... Therefore, entrepreneurship education can help in promoting entrepreneurial knowledge, which could be an effective way of stimulating entrepreneurial intentions (Turker and Selcuk, 2009). Student's attitude toward entrepreneurship is influenced by entrepreneurship education (Ediagbonya, 2013;Gautam et al., 2015). Using the TPB, Souitaris et al. (2007) determined the influence of entrepreneurship programs on entrepreneurship attitudes and intentions and confirmed that such programs raise overall intention and attitude toward entrepreneurship, therefore, supporting TPB and education. ...
Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify factors instrumental in developing entrepreneurial intentions among youth. Although, numerous studies have been conducted focusing on entrepreneurship intention, however, this study attempts to provide an integrated model by means of analyzing the impact of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors in developing entrepreneurial intentions. Design/methodology/approach This cross-sectional study is based on primary and secondary data. A sample of 358 respondents belonging to the age group of 21–25 years from various universities and colleges in Kashmir participated in the study. Primary data collection was done using self-administered questionnaires. A purposive sampling approach was used to identify respondents for the current study. Structural equation modeling has been used for testing hypotheses besides other statistical methods and techniques. Findings The study identifies three important antecedents of entrepreneurship intentions, namely, personal competencies, contextual factors and entrepreneurial exposure and tests the relationships using path analysis. It further suggests that there exists a significant relationship between personal competencies, entrepreneurial exposure, contextual elements and entrepreneurial intention. Originality/value The paper presents an integrated and comprehensive model of entrepreneurial intentions discussing important antecedents instrumental in developing entrepreneurship intentions among youth considering both personal and environmental factors. It is, therefore, an important contribution toward entrepreneurship literature and of interest to different policymakers and institutions related to entrepreneurship.
A good deal of study has already been revealed compact bilateral relationships between creative thinking, entrepreneurship, and emotional intelligence among teacher candidates. However, a compact review of the literature will not find a study with a sample of teacher candidates investigating the mediating effects of creative thinking in the relationship between their emotional intelligence and entrepreneurship. In this respect, missing from the literature is an actual constructed data-driven knowledge that promotes to understanding of systematic rationality of supposed associations. To that end, the current research designed in a descriptive-correlational structural equation model (Covariance based) to test a developed hypothetical model bearing upon the literature. A survey was deployed to gather the data of 412 teacher candidates. 297 of these were females and 115 were males. The data analysis techniques were confined to descriptive, correlational, and prediction algorithms of the SPSS and the AMOS's standardized regression coefficients and the goodness of fit indices for the path model. The results uncovered that the emotional intelligence positively predicted the entrepreneurship and creative thinking. In this way, we understand that when the emotional intelligence increases, entrepreneurship and creative thinking also increase. On the other hand, creative thinking positively predicted the entrepreneurship. Specifically, entrepreneurship increases when creative thinking increases. In closing, teacher candidates’ creative thinking played a significant role in the relationship between their emotional intelligence and entrepreneurship. The implication of these results can be advantageous for the planning and designing more effective courses of teacher education in accordance with the 21st century educational trends.
Due to the tragic past of South Africa, associated with racial profiling and apartheid, the majority of South Africans who were Black were excluded by repressive policies from active participation in the economy. This led to Black South Africans being underrepresented in tourism. The growth of tourism had not benefited the majority of South Africans who happen to be Black. The lack of participation of the previously disadvantaged groups on the Airbnb platform did not resonate with the principles of Airbnb to achieve shared prosperity. In the Black-owned townships such as Khayelisha in Cape Town, Kayamandi in Stellenbosch, and Soweto in Johannesburg, there had been existing tourism businesses especially in accommodation. These guesthouses and homestays were not attracting enough customers to economically benefit the hosts and make these townships viable tourism destinations. The Airbnb Africa Academy was pioneered to train South African homestay and guesthouse owners to register and become successful hosts on the Airbnb platform.
Even though there is an increase in tourism research in India during the last 2-3 decades, researchers within the domain of tourism education made an insignificant contribution to entrepreneurship education (henceforth ‘EE') programs. The objectives of this research are to study the current status of EE in tourism, to analyse and compare course title, core concepts, major references, and further readings. This study follows a content analysis design, focusing on an in-depth analysis of syllabi of post-graduation tourism programs in Indian higher educational institutions. The syllabi contents were analyzed using the Atlas.ti. The major findings of this study indicate that in India EE in tourism programs is mostly considered as one of the core modules itself than optional/elective modules and part of other courses. Almost all syllabi have included chapters on basic concepts of entrepreneurship, capital financing, business plan, opportunities, innovations, etc. This finding has major implications for designing innovative entrepreneurship courses in tourism programs.
Entrepreneurship teaching and training is an imperative educational domain for business and economy. An additional insight into the teaching and learning process in Entrepreneurship related courses will enable better policy making and better pedagogy. With a focus on learning in entrepreneurial courses, the primary objective of the research is to understand the impact of faculty traits on learning in the context of three moderator variables (age, gender, educational qualification). The study highlights that three faculty traits are significant to entrepreneurship learning and should be considered in the teaching-learning process. These traits are gender, diversity in educational background and real life work experience. The study is based on a sample (204 respondents) from the Egyptian population and uses the regression techniques to draw inferences.
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Background: In the first quarter of 2021, the official unemployment rate in South Africa was 32.6%. Among young persons between the ages of 15 and 34, the figure was 46.3%. One in two young people in the labour market are unemployed, Entrepreneurship is widely recognised as an effective mechanism to address the tripartite challenges of unemployment, inequality, and poverty. Aim: The study’s aim was to look into the factors that influence matric commerce students’ entrepreneurial intentions in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Setting: A survey was conducted among commerce students in 11 districts of KwaZulu-Natal. Methods: The study was based on a sample of 433 commerce students from the matric commerce students, South Africa. Data were gathered through a self-administered questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale. Descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were performed on the data. Results: The results of the study show that attitude towards entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial education are key drivers of entrepreneurial intention. The study found no evidence of innovativeness as a driver of entrepreneurial intention. Conclusion: The study recommends that the department of basic education should develop strategies that will help innovative and creative students to embrace entrepreneurship. This is because entrepreneurs typically operate in perfect market conditions, with homogeneous products and freedom of entry and exit, so innovativeness is critical.
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The new industrial policy 1991 focused on the rapid industrial developments in India. This led to the drastic economic transformations in India. The new terms called Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization rightly coined with the background of Indian economic context. Indian education system faced a typical phase of paradigm shift as per the global economy demands. New courses were introduced as per the industry needs. During the same time Management Education in India also gained huge demand and reputation. Indian Institute of Management's (IIM's) number significantly increased from 1990's to 2012. Indian industrial and service sectors continuously registering a progressive growth rates, this is one side to a coin and the other is talent crunch. It requires a micro level study on Indian management education. The reach of IIM's and B-Schools in India is another issue, typically Private Colleges (affiliated to universities) or B-grade colleges are playing vital role in proving management education. In short, there are many problems associated with the Indian management education in developing and motivating the students to become entrepreneurs. Hence, this paper discusses all those issues and concerns with an in-depth analysis.
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The theoretical foundation, overall structure and teaching elements of the US text have been retained, yet a high proportion of material has been updated to describe the Asia Pacific business environment. The text maintains a balance between regional examples and a global focus.<br /
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Despite the ubiquity of business planning education in entrepreneurship, there is little evidence that planning leads to success. Following a discussion of the theoretical and historical underpinnings, three pedagogical models are compared, including two alternative experiential methods: simulations and the contingency approach. The contingency model, as introduced, utilizes Piaget's concept of equilibration, and is asserted to provide both cognitive tools and flexibility in accommodating unanticipated environmental factors faced by future entrepreneurs.
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PROFESSOR ALLAN A. GIBB IS chairman of the Small Business Centre, Durham University Business School, England. The overall objective of this paper is to produce a clearer understanding of the meaning and process of enterprise education, in particular as it has been developed as a distinctive model within the education system in the United Kingdom. It seeks to remove the confusions relating to the links of enterprise education with small business and entrepreneurship education and training, with personal transferable skills and with the political ideology surrounding certain notions of the enterprise culture. It defines enterprise education as concerned with encouraging certain enterprising behaviours; skills and attributes associated with self-reliance and through this process also providing students with greater insight into subjects studied. The links with small business are explored through the development of a model which demnonstrates how the basic organisational essences of the small firm task structures and learning modles within the business stimulate enterprising behaviour. It then demonstrates how these components are embodied in a model of enterprise education which can be applied to any subject context in education. The relationship of enterprise education to broader educational goals is explored. The links with the so-called enterprise culture are examined and thereafter a nuumber of challenges — to industry and education management, and to small business and entrepreneurship education and training — are discussed. The paper concludes by reference to a number of steps that need to be taken to place, more accurately, the enterprise concept within the education system.
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National education systems are facing new challenges as entrepreneurs hip education and, consequently, its effectiveness measurements are to be brought in. The European Union has stated entrepreneurship as one of the key competences for Europeans. To achieve these challenges EU has named entrepreneurial skills, encouraging entrepreneurship by fostering the right mindset and awareness of career opportunities as an entrepreneur as goals and methods for European education system. (European Commission 2003) The aim of this paper is to discuss the challenges of building a measurement tool for entrepreneurship education and effectiveness of entrepreneurs hip education. Lappeenranta University of Technology is starting a national project where the aim is to create a measurement tool for the teachers and headmasters to measure entrepreneurship education or entrepreneurship education in the whole school or at one' s own teaching. The target group is comprehensive school teachers, but parts of the tool can be utilised by secondary and vocational schools.
Role of Women in Economic Development is vital to achieve the inclusive growth. Entrepreneurship is one of the means to make involve them in Nation building and Economic Development. Till 1980s, only a very few women took Entrepreneurial activities in India1. In 1980, "New Delhi Declaration and Plan of Action" adopted to emphasize on development of entrepreneurial skills among the women. The decade (1980-1990) witnessed several institutional initiatives towards women entrepreneurship. Its only after the liberalization of Indian economy in 1990s, with the opportunities poured in and along with institutional support, Women entrepreneurship started to flourish. In this paper the concept and classification of Women Entrepreneurs is discussed. The hurdles faced by Women to set up the enterprises and the government schemes for Women Entrepreneurship development are also analyzed. The Success story of few Indian Women Entrepreneurs is narrated in brief. Finally it is concluded that the success of Women Entrepreneurship among City dwelling Upper middle Class Women should also be spread to Women in country side.
A practical teaching difficulty provided the opportunity to turn a problem into a useful case study with generic implications for the pedagogical effectiveness of simulation games in teaching entrepreneurship. Students playing the simulation game submitted written assessments that became the units of analysis for a single-case research project. Analysis produced a grounded theory consisting of four attribute categories and associated properties required of a simulation game to make it an effective teaching device in entrepreneurship contexts. The theory provides at the very least a useful checklist for teachers of entrepreneurship and, potentially, a basis for developing a quality standard for educational simulation games.