Benefiting from the booming of deep learning, the state-of-the-art models achieved great progress. But they are huge in terms of parameters and floating point operations, which makes it hard to apply them to real-time applications. In this paper, we propose a novel deep neural network architecture, named MPDNet, for fast and efficient semantic segmentation under resource constraints. First, we ... [Show full abstract] use a light-weight classification model pretrained on ImageNet as the encoder. Second, we use a cost-effective upsampling datapath to restore prediction resolution and convert features for classification into features for segmentation. Finally, we propose to use a multi-path decoder to extract different types of features, which are not ideal to process inside only one convolutional neural network. The experimental results of our model outperform other models aiming at real-time semantic segmentation on Cityscapes. Based on our proposed MPDNet, we achieve 76.7% mean IoU on Cityscapes test set with only 118.84GFLOPs and achieves 37.6 Hz on 768 × 1536 images on a standard GPU.