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Content may be subject to copyright. Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rajasekhar Pinnamaneni*
Department of Biotechnology, K L University, Greenfields, Vaddeswaram, Guntur Dt-522502,
Andhra Pradesh, India.
The different parts of the Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) belonging to
the family Caricaceae such as leaves, seeds, latex and fruit possess
excellent medicinal properties for treatment of different ailments. The
stem, leaf and fruit of papaya contain plenty of latex. The latex from
unripe fruit contains enzyme papain, other components include a
mixture of cysteine end peptidases, chitinases and an inhibitor of serine
protease, alkaloids, glycosides, flavanoids, saponins, tannins, phenols
and steroids. This review focuses on the nutritional value,
phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and free radical scavenging
activity, treatment for dengue fever and anticancer activity of papaya.
Papaya acts as a multi-faceted plant. It is also essential to identify the
mechanism of the plant compounds and studying the active principle of
the extract. It is recommended to include the papaya in our diet as fruit
salads, fruit juice, leaf extract, decoction prepared through papaya leaves, etc.
KEYWORDS: Carica papaya, Papaya, antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anticancer.
Carica Papaya Distribution
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) belongs to the family Caricaceae comprising 31 species in four
genera of which three genera are from America (Carica, Jacaritia and Jarilla) and one from
equatorial Africa (Cylicomorpha). It is an economically important fruit crop in Hawaii,
Australia, India, Srilanka, Phiilipines and South-east Asia including Thailand. It is also
known as papaw, pawpaw, papayer (French), melonenbaum (German), lechosa (Spanish),
mamao, mamaociro (Portuguese), mugua (Chinese) and malakol (Thailand).[1] The origin of
SJIF Impact Factor 6.647
Volume 6, Issue 8, 2559-2578 Review Article ISSN 2278 4357
*Corresponding Author
Dr. Rajasekhar
Department of
Biotechnology, K L
University, Greenfields,
Vaddeswaram, Guntur Dt-
522502, Andhra Pradesh,
Article Received on
19 June 2017,
Revised on 09 July 2017,
Accepted on 30 July 2017
DOI: 10.20959/wjpps20178-9947 Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
papaya is tropical America. Its seeds were distributed from the Caribbean to Malacca and
India by travellers and botanists in the eighteenth century. Its distribution was continued
throughout Asia and Pacific. Papaya is grown in all tropical countries and many subtropical
countries between 32° North and South latitudes but the high commercial production is found
between 23° North and South latitudes.[1]
Biology of papaya
The genus Carica is from the Latin for a kind of fig which the leaves and fruits of papaya
resemble and the specific epithet papaya probably comes from the common name for the
fruit.[2] It is a dicotyledonous, polygamous (having male, female or hermaphrodite flowers on
the same plant), diploid species with a small genome of 372 Mbp/1C[3] and nine pairs of
Chemical Constituents of papaya
Papaya is a valuable plant of medicinal value. Leaves, fruit, seeds, root, bark and latex of the
papaya are used as ethno medicine (Table.1).
Table 1: Chemical composition of various parts of papaya plant.[5,6,7,8]
Part of
the Plant
Nutritional value of papaya Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Papaya is common man‟s fruit with a high nutritive value available at a reasonable price. It is
rich in natural vitamins, minerals and low calorific value. The low calories content (32 Kcal /
100 g of ripe fruit) makes a favourite fruit of obese people who are into weight reducing
regime. Papaya has low carotene which helps to prevent damage by free radicals compared to
other fruits but all other nutrients are present. The fruit is rich source of different types of
enzymes. Papain present in good amount in unripe fruit is an excellent aid to digestion, which
helps to digest the protein in food at acid, alkaline and neutral medium. The celiac disease
patients, who cannot digest the wheat protein gliandin, can tolerate it, if it is treated with
crude papain. Papaya has the property of tenderizing meat. This knowledge is being put to
use by cooking meat with raw papaya to make it tender and digestible.[9,10] The fermented
papaya fruit is a promising nutraceutical as an antioxidant. It improves the antioxidant
defence in elderly patients even without any overt antioxidant deficiency state at the dose of 9
g/day orally. The papaya lipase, a hydrolase enzyme tightly bonded to the water insoluble
fraction of crude papain, is considered as a “naturally immobilized” biocatalyst10. Papaya
markedly increases iron (Fe) absorption from rice meal, which was measured in parous
Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The black seeds
edible and have a sharp, spicy taste. They are sometimes ground up and used as a substitute
for black pepper. In some parts of Asia the young leaves of papaya are steamed and eaten like
Table.2: Nutritive value of 100 gm of raw papaya.
Value per 100 g
88.06 g
43 kcal
179 kJ
0.47 g
Total lipid (fat)
0.26 g
0.39 g
Carbohydrate, by difference
10.82 g
Fiber, total dietary
1.7 g
Sugars, total
7.82 g
4.09 g
3.73 g
Calcium, Ca
20 mg
Iron, Fe
0.25 mg
12,13,16,18 Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Magnesium, Mg
21 mg
Phosphorus, P
10 mg
Potassium, K
182 mg
Sodium, Na
8 mg
Zinc, Zn
0.08 mg
Copper, Cu
0.045 mg
Manganese, Mn
0.04 mg
Selenium, Se
0.6 µg
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid
60.9 mg
0.023 mg
0.027 mg
0.357 mg
Pantothenic acid
0.191 mg
Vitamin B-6
0.038 mg
Folate, total
37 µg
Folic acid
Folate, food
37 µg
Folate, DFE
37 µg
Choline, total
6.1 mg
Vitamin B-12
Vitamin B-12, added
Vitamin A, RAE
47 µg
Carotene, beta
274 µg
Carotene, alpha
2 µg
Cryptoxanthin, beta
589 µg
Vitamin A, IU
950 IU
1828 µg
Lutein + zeaxanthin
89 µg
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)
0.3 mg
Tocopherol, beta
0.02 mg
Tocopherol, gamma
0.09 mg
Tocopherol, delta
0.01 mg
Vitamin D (D2 + D3)
Vitamin D
Vitamin K (phylloquinone)
2.6 µg
Alcohol, ethyl
Total isoflavones
Source: (National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28, 2016 USDA,
Agricultural Research Service)
Antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
The leaves, seeds and juice of papaya show free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity.
The antioxidant activity of various fractions (ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-
butanol and aqueous extract) from seeds of C.papaya showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol
fractions demonstrated antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity than other
fractions.[23] Papaya juice is an efficient scavenger of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals
(OH)[24], which significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation levels and increased the
antioxidant activity in rats.[25] The leaf extract of papaya evidenced significant antioxidant
and free radical scavenging potential.[26] The peroxidase is present in the unripe fruit of
papaya but it gradually decreased after fruit ripening.[27] Whereas, the pulp of papaya is rich
in benzyl glucosinolate in the premature stage, which is present in the seed after fruit
ripening.[28] The benzyl glucosinolate is hydrolyzed to benzyl isothiocyante (BITC). The seed
extract of papaya demonstrated rich source of BITC.[29]
The major groups of phytochemicals that have been suggested as a natural source of
antioxidants may contribute to the total antioxidant activity of plant materials including
polyphenols, carotenoid and traditional antioxidant vitamins such as vitamin C and E.
Antioxidant is any substance that when present at low concentration compared to those of an
oxidisable substrate signifcantly delays or prevents oxidation of that substrate.[30] Antioxidant
functions are associated with decreased DNA damage, diminished lipid peroxidation,
maintained immune function and inhibited malignant transformation of cells.[31] Several
studies showed that phenolic compounds are the major bioactive phytochemicals with human
health benefits.[32] In fact, many authors have reported a direct relationship between total
phenolic content and antioxidant activity in numerous seeds, fruits and vegetables.[33]
The extract with the lowest β-carotene degradation rate exhibit the highest antioxidant
activity. All extracts had lower antioxidant activities than had standard -tocopherol). The
highest antioxidant activity among the samples was observed in unripe fruit whereas seed had
the lowest antioxidant activity. Result showed that there was considerably variation in the
antioxidant activities where it ranges from the lowest of 58% to the highest of 91% where the
orders of the antioxidant activity are as follow: α-tocopherol > unripe fruit > young leaves >
ripe fruit > seed (Table.3).
Reactive scavenging activity Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
The idea of a single measurement of total antioxidant capacity is insuffcient. There is various
antioxidant activity methods have been used to evaluate and compare the antioxidant activity
of foods. Therefore, in this study, radical scavenging activity was determined for the selected
parts of papaya plant. Being a stable free radical, the DPPH assay is a simple and rapid
method frequently used to evaluate the ability of antioxidants to scavenge free radicals. It
gives reliable information concerning the antioxidant ability of the tested compounds to act as
free radical scavengers or hydrogen donors.[34]
This showed that the young leaves exhibit a strong scavenging activity and it has been
reported that phytochemicals especially plant phenolics constitute a major group of
compounds that act as primary antioxidant (Table.3). Their protection mechanisms are
through the reaction with the oxygen radicals, superoxide radicals and lipid peroxyl
Total phenolic content and total favonoid content
Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in plants[36], which have gained greatly attention,
due to their antioxidant activities and free radical-scavenging abilities, which potentially have
beneficial implications for human health.[37]
The total phenolic content (TPC) was observed in the selected papaya plant as: young leaves
> unripe > ripe > seed. The result also indicates that the young leaves contained high phenolic
content that may provide good sources of dietary antioxidant. For this reason, it is obvious
that TPC present in the samples have strong effects against the scavenging activity rather than
discoloration of β-carotene (Table.3). However, the radicals scavenging activity is not only
due to the phenolic content itself, but with other various antioxidant compounds.[38] They
respond differently depending on the number of phenolic groups that they possess.[39] More to
the point, TPC does not incorporate necessarily to all the antioxidants that may present in the
extracts. Therefore, sometimes there is a vague correlation between TPC and antioxidant
activity of several plant species.[40]
In recent years, studies have shown that papaya fruit contains not only vitamins and other
nutrients but also contains biologically flavonoids.[41] Previous study reported that antioxidant
activity of plant material is very well correlated with thecontent of phenolic compounds.[42]
Contribution of phenolic compounds is one of the mechanisms of the overall antioxidant
activities. This mainly due to their redox properties involve in the plant material. Generally, Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
the mechanisms of phenolic compounds for antioxidant activity are neutralizing lipid free
radicals and preventing decomposition of hydroperoxides into free radicals.[36] The study
clearly indicates that it is vital to measure the antioxidant activity using various radicals and
oxidation systems and to take both phenolic content and antioxidant activity into account
while evaluating the antioxidant potential of plant extracts. The results obtained in this work
have considerable value with respect to the antioxidant activities of the selected parts of the
papaya plant. In brief, by taken into account all the parameters measured, antioxidants were
highly remarkable in the sequence of young leaves > unripe fruit > ripe fruit > seed (Table.3).
Table. 3: Antioxidant activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content
and total flavanoid content[43]
activity (%)
EC50 (mg/ml)
DPPH radical
scavenging activity
Total Phenolic
Total Flavonoid
6.5 ± 0.01
272.66 ± 1.53
92.95 ± 7.12
4.3 ± 0.01
339.91 ± 9.40
53.44 ± 6.63
1.0 ± 0.08
30.32 ± 6.90
59.54 ± 12.23
7.8 ± 0.06
424.89 ± 0.22
333.14 ± 1.02
Medicinal value of Papaya
Papaya contains two important biologically active compounds vis: hymopapain and papain
which are widely used for digestive disorders.[44] It showed that papaya-derived papain,
caricain, chymopapain and glycine endopeptidase can improve acidic pH conditions and
pepsin degradation. Other active compounds of papaya are lipase, or CPL, a hydrolase, which
is tightly bonded to the water-insoluble fraction of crude papain and is thus considered as a
naturally immobilized” biocatalyst.[45] According to the folk medicine, papaya latex can cure
dyspepsia and also applicable for external burns and scalds.
Seeds and fruits are excellent antihelminthic and anti-amoebic.[46] Dried and pulverized
leaves are sold for making tea; also the leaf decoction is administered as a purgative for
horses and used for the treatment of genito-urinary system.
Unripe and semi- ripe papaya fruits are ingested or applied on the uterus to cause abortion.
However, the consumption of unripe and semi-ripe papaya fruits could be unsafe during
pregnancy, but consumption of ripe fruits during pregnancy causes no risk.[47] The latex, ripe
fruits, unripe fruits, seeds, seeds juice, root, leaves, flower and stem bark of papaya are used Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
as antimicrobial, anthelmentic, antimalarial, antifungal, anti-amoebic, hepatoprotective, male
and female antifertility, immunomodulatory and against histminergic.[48]
Papaya against Dengue
Papaya leaves were collected and thoroughly washed with water. The leaves were grinded
and as the taste of papaya leaves extract was very bitter, some amount of sucrose was added
for easy administration. About 25 mL of leaves extract was administrated orally, twice daily
for five consecutive days. Before extract administration, the patient blood was evaluated for
total platelets counts, after 24 hours each time. After extract administration the patient blood
was rechecked for platelets counts again for five consecutive days. After which the patient
starts improvement. Before administration of leaves extracts, the patient blood test have been
taken. From the tests results it was observed that PLT, WBC and NEUT decreased from
normal level. After the infection the patient immediately felt fatigue and fever, these
symptoms aggravated over the night. Different antibiotics and anti-malarial drugs were
administrated orally and intravenously, but no successful results.
This case report shows the activity of papaya leaves extract against Dengue fever. The
papaya leaves extract in water was given to the patient twice daily. The patient started
vomiting as eating, so physicians recommended fruits and fruit juices. 25 mL of extract was
given to the patient in the morning and evening. After two consecutive days the blood
samples were checked for different parameters. In the first blood report, it was observed that
the PLT count, WBC and NEUT increased to 73 X103/µL, 3.8 X103/µL and 56.0%,
respectively. With similar dose of extracts, on the next day the blood report indicated that the
PLT count reached to120 X103/µL while WBC and NEUT reach to 4.4 X103/µL and 64.2%,
respectively. On the third day, it was observed that PLT count (137 X103/µL), WBC (5.3
X103/µL and NEUT (71.1%) increased. In the fourth blood report (PLT: 159 X103/µL, WBC:
5.9 X103/µL and NEUT: 73.0%) and fifth report (PLT: 168 X103/µL, WBC: 7.7 X103L and
NEUT: 78.3%) the PLT, WBC and NEUT reached their normal levels.
The Dengue fever repeats every year and causes several deaths. The rise of PLT count in the
present case from 55X103/µL to 168X103L indicates the activity of papaya leaves extract.
However, this is a preliminary work and more works on isolating the active compounds from
this valuable species are needed which may help in control of such infectious diseases.[49]
Phytochemicals in papaya with reported anticancer activities Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Papaya contains a broad spectrum phytochemicals including enzymes (in the latex),
Carotenoids (in fruits and seeds), alkaloids (in leaves), phenolics (in fruits, leaves, and
shoots), glucosinolate (in seeds and fruits).[48, 50] Some important Phytochemicals found in C.
papaya are Lycopene, Betacarotinoid, Benzylisothyocynate, Betacryptoxanthin,
Benzylglucosinolate, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, protocatachuic acid, Quercetin, Among
more than 5000 compounds from plants that have been identified to be associated with
anticancer properties[51], three groups of bioactive compounds-phenolics, Carotenoids, and
glucosinolate-have attracted considerable interest in anticancer studies. Pure compounds of
these three groups have been extensively researched in vivo and in vitro studies on many
types of cell lines for their potential effects in cancer treatment and prevention. These
bioactive compounds act via multiple mechanisms such as cancer cell signalling,
proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, as well as angiogenesis and carcinogen
elimination[51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58] to exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities.
Papaya is rich source of enzyme papain, effective against cancer
Papain (EC is an endolytic plant cysteine protease enzyme which is isolated from
papaya latex.[59] Papain is a relatively heat-resistant enzyme, with an optimal temperature
range of 60 and 70 °C.[60] Papain prefers to cleave in between at hydrophobic-(Arg or Lys)
cleaves here -(not Val). Hydrophobic is Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Phe, Trp, or Tyr.[61, 62] The unique
structure of papain gives its functionality that helps to understand how this Protieolytic
enzyme works and it‟s useful for a variety of purposes.[63]
Figure 1: Papain Structure.[63]
The protein is stabilized by the three disulfide bridges. Its three-dimensional structure
consists of two distinct structural domains with a cleft between them. The active site,
consisting of a cysteine and a histidine, lies at the surface of the cleft. Apart from four short Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
α-helical segments and one short segment of β-structure, the conformation of the chain is
Many cancer cells are undetected for many years as they have a protective coating of fibrin.
Papain breaks down that fibrin coat of cancer cell wall. So ultimately it helps against the
Mechanism of functions of Papain
The mechanism in which the function of papain is made possible is through the cysteine-25
portion of the triad in the active site that attacks the carbonyl carbon in the backbone of the
peptide chain freeing the amino terminal portion. As this occurs throughout the peptide
chains of the protein, the protein breaks apart. The mechanism by which it breaks peptide
bonds involves deprotonation of Cys-25 by His-159. Asparagine-175 helps to orient the
imidazole ring of His-159 to allow this deprotonation to take place. Although far apart within
the chain, these three amino acids are in close proximity due to the folding structure. It is
though these three amino acids working together in the active site that provides this enzyme
with its unique functions. Cys-25 then performs a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon
of a peptide backbone.[61, 64] In the active site of papain, Cys -25 and His -159 are thought to
be catalytically active as a thiolate imidazolium ion pair. Papain can be efficiently inhibited
by peptidyl or non-peptidyl N-nitrosoanilines. The inactivation is due to the formation of a
stable S-NO bond in the active site (Snitroso- Cys25) of papain.[65]
Papaya is a store-house of cancer fighting lycopene
Lycopene is a member of the carotenoid family, which is synthesized by many plants and
microorganisms. It is a highly unsaturated open straight chain hydrogen compound consisting
of 11 conjugated and 2 unconjugated double bonds.[66, 67, 68] The red colour of many fruits and
vegetables is due to the presence of lycopene. Because of the presence of double bonds in the
structure of lycopene, it can exist in both the cis and Trans isomeric forms. Lycopene is
present in foods primarily in the all-trans isomeic form.[69] However, it can undergo mono-or
poly-isomerization by light, thermal energy, and chemical reactions to the cis isomeric form.
It is highly stable at high temperatures and can be stored.[70] Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Figure 2: Structure of lycopene.[71]
Molecular weight: 536.89, Exact mass: 536, Molecular formula: C40H56
Molecular composition: C-89.49%, H-10. 51%
Mechanism of Lycopene
Lycopene enhances cell-to-cell communication by increasing 'Gap junctions' between
cells.[71] Two major mechanisms have been proposed to explain the ant carcinogenic
activities of lycopene: non oxidative and oxidative mechanisms. Lycopene is hypothesized to
suppress carcinogen-induced phosphorylation of regulatory proteins such as p53 and Rb
antioncogenes and to stop cell division at the G0-G1 cell cycle phase.[72] Astorg and
colleagues proposed that lycopene-induced modulation of the liver metabolizing enzyme
cytochrome P4502E1 was the underlying mechanism of its protection against carcinogen-
induced preneoplastic lesions in rat liver. Preliminary in vitro evidence also indicates that
lycopene reduces cellular proliferation induced by insulin-like growth factors-which are
potent mitogens-in various cancer cell lines.[73] Regulation of intrathymic T-cell
differentiation (immune modulation) was suggested to be the mechanism for suppression of
mammary tumour growth by lycopene treatments in SHN retired mice.[74, 75] This is an
important mechanism by which cells communicate with each other, and helps to ensure
proper cell and organ functions. It also prevents uncontrolled growth of cancer cells and
modulates cell-cycle progression. The cell cycle is a highly ordered set of events that
culminates in cell division. The use of lycopene appears to be a potential anticancer strategy
of regulating the cell cycle by inhibiting abnormal cellular growth.[76] Lycopene has been
hypothesized to prevent carcinogenesis by protecting critical cellular bimolecular, including
lipids, lipoproteins, proteins, and DNA.[77, 78, 79]
Isothiocyanate found in papaya restore the cell cycle to eliminate cancer
Organo-sulfur compounds called isothiocyanate are found in papaya. In animal experiments,
isothiocyanate protected against cancers of the breast, lung, colon pancreas, and prostate, as
well as leukemia, and they have the potential to prevent cancer in humans. Isothiocyanate Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
have shown them capable of inhibiting both the formation and development of cancer cells
through multiple pathways and mechanisms.[80]
Fig 3: Possible mechanisms of action of BITC as an anticancer agent.[81]
Researchers in Japan clarified the mechanisms of action in a type of isothiocyanate found in
papaya known as BITC. That underlies the relationship between cell cycle regulation and
appropriate cell death. When cancerous cells die on schedule, they are no longer a problem.
The researchers established that BITC exerted cancer cell killing effects that were greater in
the proliferating cells than in the quiescent cells.[81] Cancer cells that are proliferating are
much more dangerous than cancer cells that are in a state of dormancy.[80]
C. papaya is a multi faceted plant originally native to southern Mexico and Central America
and now cultivated in many tropical countries. Papaya is referred to as the fruit of the angels.
Sometimes known as a tree melon or pawpaw, papaya is known not just for its rich sweet
flavor, but also for its use as a meat tenderizer. Fruit is sweet and succulent with satiny
consistency. Slice open a papaya and see hundreds of shiny black seeds that all need to get
there start in life from the nutrition found in the fruit. This implies that fruit must be power
packed. Initially green and somewhat bitter in taste, papayas are butter-yellow when fully
ripened and shaped like a pear. Their pale-orange flesh has dozens of small, black, gelitonous
seeds at the center, similar to a melon. Unripe papaya is used in some areas of the world as a Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
vegetable substitute, but is not recommended as a food when green, unless
cooked. Recommended ways to eat papaya includes its juice, which is sometimes added to
other natural fruit juices because of its pleasing taste, but it's also wonderful in salads, salsa,
and, of course, all by itself.
Papaya is very low in Saturated Fat, Cholesterol and Sodium. It is a good source of dietary
fibre and potassium, and a very good source of Vitamin A, Vitamin C and folate. Vitamin C
is one of the strong points of papaya, providing a whopping 144% of the daily recommended
value per serving, which is great as an infection fighter as well as a free radical-scavenging
antioxidant. Other vitamins include 31% of the daily value in vitamin A, required for healthy
skin, mucous membranes, and vision, and especially effective against macular degeneration.
Papaya provides 13% of the daily recommended value in folate, and good amounts of fibre
and potassium, a cell and body fluid component that helps control heart rate and blood
The B vitamins in papayas such as folic acid, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), riboflavin, and
thiamin (vitamin B1) are called "essential" because they're required by the body, but not
produced within, so they are required through the diet to provide what is to be metabolized,
thus including foods like papaya in your diet is important.
Papaya is a natural remedy for many ailments, including atherosclerosis, heart disease,
and rheumatoid arthritis, and helps keep digestive and immune systems healthy. Papaya also
contains the flavonoid beta carotene, which studies have proven to help protect against lung
and mouth cancers. Other flavonoids, namely lutein, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthins, have
potent antioxidant properties against free radicals that can wear down your body and cause
premature aging and degenerative diseases. Papaya contains 212 amino acids and several
enzymes, including papain, a proteolytic enzyme that has an anti-inflammatory effect on the
stomach, including swelling and fever that can develop post-surgery. Juice of papaya seeds
plays an essential role to protect kidney from becoming dysfunctional because seeds contains
flavonoids and phenolic, which provides prevention from germs of such diseases. Besides
this papaya seeds can also protect from number of infections and could also be used to clean
intestines insects. Its seeds can be used with milk to avoid typhoid disease and it can also cure
from hemorrhoids-kind diseases and dengue fever. Vol 6, Issue 8, 2017.
Pinnamaneni. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Papain helps proteins digest faster, which discourages acid reflux, and has demonstrated
effectiveness in treating ulcers and even relieving irritable bowel syndrome. Papaya seeds
have been used in folk medicine to treat parasite and ringworm infections. Papaya is an
effective anti-cancer agent against cervix, breast, liver, lung and pancreas cancers. Studies
were carried out by using a tea made from the extracts of dried papaya leaves and put them in
dishes which contain cancerous cells and found that the papaya leaf extract boosted the
production chemicals that regulate the immune system. Cancer can be eradicated through
daily intake of papaya, as it contains chemical integrates such as lycopene and others.
C. papaya is a multi faceted plant originally native to southern Mexico and now cultivated in
many tropical countries. Fruit is sweet and succulent with satiny consistency. Slice open a
papaya and see hundreds of shiny black seeds that all need to get there start in life from the
nutrition found in the fruit. This implies that fruit must be power packed. Papaya is referred
to as the fruit of the angels. It is also imperative to identify the mechanism of the plant
compounds and studying the active principle of the extract. The papaya plant has been touted
by traditional hearlers for counties as source of powerful medicine. Papaya possesses rich
source of phytochemicals which includes vitamins, antioxidants, flavanoids, polyphenols,
several minerals and having some important enzyme like papain, lycopene, Isothyocynate
and some proteolytic enzyme which help to treat health problems and hence, regular intake of
papaya will improve our health by quenching the free radicals generated in the body and
enhance our immune system to fight against the foreign pathogens. Papaya promotes immune
system. It is a potent cancer fighter that is highly effective against hormone related to cancer
as well as other cancers. Papaya can stop the growth of cancer cell halt metastasis and
normalized cell cycle. Thus, intake of papaya as fruit salads, fruit juice, leaf extract,
decoction prepared through papaya leaves, etc. should be a part of our diet.
The author thanks Management, K L University, Vaddeswaram for their valuable support.
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... It has been chosen as the earliest crop species which has gone under genome sequencing (Wei et al. 2008). Papaya leaves are the only known source of natural cure against dengue fever (Ahmad et al. 2011;Pinnamaneni, 2017). Different portions of this particular species (Carica papaya L.) can also be exploited as an effective natural antidote against viral diseases (Ahmad et al. 2011). ...
... Another cancer-fighting agent lycopene (which is under the carotenoid family) is also present in papaya. Again, a phytochemical isothiocyanate found in papaya which can restore the cell cycle to destroy cancerous cell (Pinnamaneni, 2017). ...
... So, biochemical traits have great importance while selecting any accession for varietal development. Moisture percentage, carbohydrate, protein, fiber content, total antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids, lycopene content, chlorophyll content, vitamin C and minerals like sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe) are the most important chemical properties of papaya (Pinnamaneni, 2017). ...
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Papaya is one of the most valuable horticultural crops in Bangladesh. Still there is a lack of variety of papaya at farmers level. Only two released varieties of papaya (BU Papaya-1 and BARI Papaya-1) is available in Bangladesh. Therefore, this study was undertaken to characterize the indigenous and exotic papaya germplasm at morphological, biochemical and molecular level to make the desired traits available in the future papaya breeding program. Among the studied 29 genotypes, 22 genotypes consisted of a population which had 100% fruit bearing plants. The genotypes G5, G11, G14 and G27 were found to be suitable for kitchen garden purpose while G1 and G6 were found to be suitable for commercial cultivation based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. All the nine Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were found to be polymorphic. The Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value was above 0.5 suggesting that all these markers were highly informative for the genetic study of papaya. But, among them, the marker P3K1024CC detected the maximum number of alleles (8) along with the highest PIC value (0.77) and detected the second highest gene diversity (0.79). Based on the molecular analysis, the total population was divided into six sub-populations. Among them, population VI had the maximum number of pure genotypes (6). The molecular variation among the population was 11% and within the population was 89%. The results of combined analysis suggested that some genotypes were always grouped together, regardless of the strategy used to study genetic diversity. These are the duplicate or close genotypes which must be considered as a single accession when assessing germplasm conservation or selecting germplasm for crop improvement. The results indicated moderate to high variation in the studied genotypes. These variations can be utilized to develop papaya variety with desired characteristics.
... Other vitamins (aside from vitamin C) found in papaya, according to (21), include 31 percent of the daily value in vitamin A, which is needed for healthy skin, mucous membranes, and vision, and is notably beneficial against macular degeneration. ...
... Papaya also includes beta carotene, a flavonoid that has been shown in trials to help protect against lung and oral cancers. Other flavonoids, such as lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthins, are powerful antioxidants that fight free radicals, which can wear down your body and cause premature aging and degenerative disease (21). ...
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Phytomedicinal plants include various types of plants used in place of antibiotics or other synthetic drugs in order to reduce the residual effects of drugs on man hence the clamour for organic livestock. Carica papaya is one of such plants that are underutilized as the seeds of the fruits waste on a yearly basis especially in Africa as the focus of many consumers are on ripe fruits of Carica papaya. Ripe fruits of Carica papaya were obtained from Ilishan-Remo environs in Ogun State, Nigeria and the seeds were carefully removed and processed by sun-drying and oven drying. The data were subjected to t-test. The phytochemical analyses, proximate composition, vitamin and mineral concentrations were determined using standard procedures. The proximate composition of sun-dried and oven-dried seeds of ripe Carica papaya were significantly different (p<0.05) while the oven-dried samples had significantly higher (p<0.05) crude fat, ash and crude fibre. The phytochemicals were significantly different (p<0.05) from each other such that the values are saponin (8.14mg/100g and 5.54mg/100g), alkaloid (7.18mg/100g and 5.00mg/100g), hydrogen cyanide (0.64mg/100g and 0.26mg/100g), tannin (52.92mg/100g and 66.50mg/100g) for the sun-dried and oven-dried seed samples of Carica papaya. The sun dried and oven-dried seeds of Carica papaya fruits contained essential minerals which are significantly different (p<0.05) from each other. The sun-dried samples however had significantly higher (p<0.05) vitamins A, B1 and B6. The nutrient composition of Carica papaya seed meal revealed that it contains some bioactive components which can serve as feed supplements in animal production and improve human health.
... Many natural products rich in polyphenols, and strong antioxidant activity have been studied for their positive benefits in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The presence of these bioactive compounds as well as the significant antioxidant activity in vitro has been observed in the pulp of papaya (34). Tijjani et al. (2020) reported that the phytochemicals detected in papaya fruit consisted of alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids (25). ...
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Papaya (Carica papaya L) is one of the fruits that is easily found in Asian countries. Papaya has been studied to have good benefits in hyperlipidemia. Papaya contains fiber, vitamins A and C, alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids which are with antihyperlipidemic properties. The objective of this research was to systematically review studies that have probed into the effect of papaya on triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein in hyperlipidemia. This research was conducted to review the effect of papaya fruit as an anti-hyperlipidemic through searching scientific articles related to the topic. Article searches were conducted through Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science-Direct article databases. The selection of articles in the systematic review according to the inclusion criteria was based on articles published from 2016 to 2021, enrolling animals or patients with hyperlipidemia. The experimental design, main outcomes such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and body weight (BW) were investigated. Totally, three articles were reviewed in full to discuss the effect of papaya fruit as antihyperlipidemia in a systematic review. The systematic review reported that administration of papaya juice could improve lipid profiles. The content of fiber, vitamins A and C and phytochemicals in papaya has the potential of anti-hyperlipidemia by improving lipid profile.
... Moreover, significant decreases in serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were observed in comparison to untreated diabetic rats after a 4-week administration of 3 g/100 mL of papaya leaf extract to diabetic rats [31]. The whole plant has high medicinal value as a result of its broad spectrum of vitamins, enzymes, and other active compounds [13]. ...
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Fermented foods have been used for several years all over the world, due to their unique nutritional characteristics and because fermentation promotes conservation and food security. Moreover, fermented foods and beverages have a strong impact on human gut microbiota. Papaya is the fruit of the Carica papaya plant, traditionally used as a medicinal fruit, but there are also references to the use of the fermented form of this fruit. The main purpose of this review is to provide an improved understanding of fermented papaya nutritional and health applications. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Both in vitro and in vivo studies were included. According to the retrieved studies, fermented papaya has proven to be an excellent antioxidant and an excellent nutraceutical adjuvant in combined therapies against several diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, allergic reactions, anticancer activity, and anemias. Therefore, it is concluded that fermented papaya has many benefits for human health and can be used as prevention or aid in the treatment of various diseases.
... In recent years, increasing attention has been attracted to metabolite profiles of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants (Kaul et al., 2012). Papaya, Carica papaya L. (papaya), an edible and medicinal plant cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, has been used as topical dressings for ulcer and dermatitis treatment, has gastrointestinal uses such as anti-helminthic and antibacterial activity treatments, has been used as anti-arthritis treatment, and has traditional uses for fertility control (Krishna et al., 2008;Pinnamaneni, 2017). ...
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Three new humulane-type sesquiterpenoids, penirolide A ( 1 ), penirolide B ( 2 ), and 10-acetyl-phomanoxide ( 3 ), together with three known compounds aurasperone A ( 4 ), pughiinin A ( 5 ), and cyclo( l -Leu- l -Phe) ( 6 ) were isolated from the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp . derived from the leaves of Carica papaya L. Their structures including their absolute configurations were determined based on the analysis of NMR and HRESIMS spectra, NMR chemical shifts, and ECD calculations. Compounds 2 , 3 , 5 , and 6 significantly inhibited glucagon-induced hepatic glucose production, with EC 50 values of 33.3, 36.1, 18.8, and 32.1 μM, respectively. Further study revealed that compounds 2 , 3 , 5 , and 6 inhibited hepatic glucose production by suppression of glucagon-induced cAMP accumulation.
... It is cultivated in America and African countries. Pawpaw fruit is rich in sugar, vitamin C, β-carotene (vitamin A precursor), thiamin, riboflavin and Niacin (Pinnamaneni, 2017). Pawpaw fruits are also good sources of minerals (calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium) which are beneficial to man (Chukwuka et al., 2013). ...
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Cashew is a tree crop that is valued for its nuts, with the fleshy fruits (cashew apple) receiving little attention due to its high acidity. In this study, ascorbic acid, total solid, total soluble solid, pH, titratable acidity and microbial stability of cashew-pawpaw juice prepared by mixing varying proportions (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50) of raw or steamed cashew and pawpaw puree were evaluated. Increased in ascorbic acid (10.20-23.96 mg/100 g), total solid (8.03-12.37%), total soluble solid (1.37-3.5%) and pH (3.68-4.65) were recorded for the cashew-pawpaw juice samples. The titratable acidity (TTA) of the juice samples decreases (0.39-0.19%) with increasing amount of pawpaw puree in the juice blends. Total yeast and total coliform were not detected in the juice samples, however, the juice had low (1 × 10 5-1.5 × 10 5 log10 cfu/ml) total viable count. Cashew-pawpaw juice blend prepared from 50% raw cashew juice and pawpaw puree was highly rated in terms of taste, colour, flavor and overall acceptance. In conclusion, acceptable low acid juice that is also rich in ascorbic acid can be produced from blend of raw cashew and pawpaw puree.
... It is low in calorie and rich in vitamins and minerals. Moreover, the ripe papaya fruits contains water (88 g/100g), carbohydrate (10.82 g/100g) and Protein (0.47g/100g) and are known to be a rich source of phyto-nutrients, potassium (182 mg/100 g), calcium (20 mg/100g), dietary fibers (1.7g/100g), vitamin A (950 IU) and Vitamin C (60.96 mg/100g) (Pinnamaneni, 2017). Apart from using as a dessert fruit, a variety of products such as tutti-frutti, jam, jelly, sauce, toffee, bar, leather, pickles, crystallized fruits and dried slices may also be prepared from unripe or ripe papaya fruits. ...
... Air-dried Carica papaya. L was used for the quantitative determination of ash values, extractive values, moisture content, swelling index, foaming index and foreign organic matter, via standard methods [16] . The total Ash value for a crude drug is not always reliable since there is a possibility of the presence of non-physiological substances such as earthy matters. ...
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Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) is generally known for its food and health benefits all through the world. The restorative properties of papaya leafy foods parts of the plant are additionally notable in customary arrangement of medication. Since, each piece of papaya tree has financial worth; it is developed on business scale. During the most recent couple of many years extensive advancement has been accomplished with respect to the natural movement and therapeutic use of papaya and now it is considered as significant nutraceutical organic product plant. Phytochemical analysis of papaya leaves in presence of absences in natural for different modern and drug items for different illnesses. The fluorescence analysis presence of chemical nature. Inorganic elements iron concentration high levels and physicochemical parameters maximum Ash value 11.2% and Minimum value Sulphated Ash 9.2%. Medicinal papaya leaf powdered and products thereof are used in many countries in the treatment and management of diabetes. In the current survey dietary benefit of the foods grown from the ground properties of its different parts have been examined to give aggregate data on this multipurpose business organic product crop.
... This plant family is already known to be effective against several diseases [7]. The leaves of papaya contain many active ingredients such as papain, chymopapain, cystatin, tocopherol, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, cyanogenicglucosides and glucosinolates, which can increase the total antioxidant pool in blood, and consequently reduce lipid peroxidation level, [8]. ...
Nanotechnology is an emerging technique currently used in the field of new generation pharmaceutics. Green synthesized manganese oxide (MnO2) nano-conjugate has now been widely used as biomarkers in several clinical manifestations. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the possible remedial role of green synthesized MnO2-NP against the dysfunctions of the liver cell. Phytochemicals conjugated MnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a green route using papaya (Carica Papaya) leaf extract, followed by the characterization of nanoconjugate by XRD, FTIR, UV–Vis, and SEM, and later on tested for treatment against Hyperbilirubinemia through the removal of bilirubin from blood in mice model. In order to comprehend the effect of nano-conjugate in degrading bilirubin, it was intraperitoneally injected in paracetamol intoxicated mice, suffering from hyperbilirubinemia. The effectiveness of the green synthesized nano-conjugate was further confirmed by the histopathological study for symptomatic treatment in hyperbilirubinemia. After one week of paracetamol induction on a regular basis and subsequent treatment with nano-conjugate, the activity of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Malate dehydrogenase (LPO) were investigated, which indicated the commendable ameliorative response of the MnO2nanoparticles.results implicates that these green synthesized nanomaterials could emerge as a promising ameliorative agent and an ideal for jaundice as well as other associated hepatic disorders.
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The active cysteine of papain was labeled with ¹⁴C-iodoacetate and the cystine residues were reduced and coupled with unlabeled iodoacetate. The heptacarboxymethyl papain was then maleyalated and hydrolyzed with trypsin. Key peptides were isolated from this hydrolysate which have permitted completion of the amino acid sequence of the protein. Thus, an earlier tentative and incomplete version of this sequence has been corrected and shown to be in accord with the studies of Drenth et al. (Drenth, J., Jansonius, J. N., Koekoek, R., Swen, H. M., and Wolthers, B. G., Nature, 218, 929 (1968)) by x-ray crystallographic methods.
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Problem statement: Boiled white brined cheese (Nabulsi cheese) is the mostly consumed cheese in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries. However, these characteristics are rarely available when usual processing and preservation methods were used. Approach: This study was based on the hypothesis that it would be possible to imply meltability and stretchability to the cheese by proteolytic enzymes to the original brine that may specifically act on cross linking bonds of casein. In this study, six commercial proteases were used. Results: It was found that Nabulsi cheese treated with papain developed an outstanding fibrous structure, this gives superiority in the application in kunafa, pizza and pastries. The meltability and stretchability of Nabulsi cheese treated with papain were still excellent after 4 weeks of storage; this indicated the restricted enzyme action, probably due to high salt concentrations (18%) in storage brine. Conclusion: Use of proteolytic enzymes to induce meltability and stretchability of Nabulsi cheese was proved to be an efficient method.
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Papaya (Carica papaya linn) is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as a traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish-green skin and yellow flesh. Nowadays, Papaya is considered as a Nutraceutical fruit due to its multi-faceted medicinal properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Papaya include Anti-fertility, Uterotonic, Diuretic, Anti-hypertensive, Hypolipidemic, Anti-helmintic, Wound-healing, Anti-fungal, Anti-bacterial, Anti-tumor and Free radical scavenging activities. Phytochemically, the whole plant contains enzymes (Papain), carotenoids, alkaloids, monoterpenoids, flavonoids, minerals and vitamins. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit. This tasty fruit of Papaya is popular among family members of all ages for the delicious dishes derived from it.
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This study was conducted to compare the total antioxidant activity (TAA), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) from the different parts of papaya tree including their ripe and unripe fruit, seeds and the young leaves. Two methods namely DPPH radical scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching assay were used to determine the TAA, whereas TPC was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu's method while TFC by aluminium trichloride (AlCl3). For these purposes, methanolic extracts (80%) were prepared. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity through β-carotene bleaching assay was observed in unripe fruit (90.67 ± 0.29%) followed by young leave, ripe fruit and the seed. In other hand, young leaves exhibited a significant higher scavenging effect compared to others and the dose required in reducing the absorbance of DPPH control solution by 50% (EC50) was calculated at 1.0 ± 0.08mg/ml. The EC50 values were 4.3 ± 0.01mg/ml, 6.5 ± 0.01mg/ml and 7.8 ± 0.06mg/ml for unripe fruit, ripe fruit and seeds respectively. Interestingly, both TPC and TFC also showed that young leaves had the highest antioxidant content (424.89 ± 0.22mg GAE/ 100 g dry weight and 333.14 ± 1.03mg rutin equivalent/ 100 g dry weight, respectively). Statistically, Pearson correlation showed there were positive correlations between TPC and TFC with antioxidant activity assayed by DPPH radical scavenging assay (r=0.846 and r=0.873, respectively). However there was no correlation between TPC and TFC with β-carotene bleaching activity. In brief, taken into account all the parameters measured, antioxidants were highly remarkable in the sequence of young leaves > unripe fruit > ripe fruit > seed. Nevertheless, further investigation for isolation and identification of the phytoconstituents responsible for antioxidant activity is desirable.
Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) is commonly known for its food and nutritional values throughout the world. The medicinal properties of papaya fruit and other parts of the plant are also well known in traditional system of medicine. Since, each part of papaya tree possesses economic value, it is grown on commercial scale. During the last few decades considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal application of papaya and now it is considered as valuable nutraceutical fruit plant. It can be chosen as a source of papain for the development of various industrial and pharmaceutical products. In the present review nutritional value of the fruit and medicinal properties of its various parts have been discussed to provide collective information on this multipurpose commercial fruit crop.
The scavenging effects of twenty-five tannins including low-molecular polyphenols on the superoxide anion radical (O2-) generated in the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of the adducts formed by 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and the radical. The scavenging effects of tannins and related polyphenols having ortho-trihydroxyl (pyrogallol) structure [galloyl, hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) groups in hydrolyzable tannins, galloyl group in acylated proanthocyanidins, and the B-ring of some flavan-3-ols] were stronger than the effects of unacylated proanthocyanidins. The effects of tannins and related polyphenols on the superoxide anion radical were also compared with those on the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Each tannin in an ethanol solution of DPPH radical reduced the intensity of the signal of the DPPH radical, and gave a weak signal assignable to a radical derived from that tannin, in a similar way to the appearance of the signal of dl-α-tocopherol radical, accompanied with reduction of the signal of DPPH radical, in a mixture of dl-α-tocopherol and the DPPH radical. In contrast to the case of the superoxide anion radical, the effects of unacylated proanthocyanidins on DPPH radical were comparable with those of the other types of tannins. The scavenging effects of all of the tannins and related polyphenols tested in the experiments on DPPH radical were stronger than that of dl-α-tocopherol.
Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and flame atomic emission spectrometry (AES) were used to determine calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, and zinc in 32 fruits. Samples were wet ashed using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and calibration was accomplished using calibration against aqueous standards. Data obtained are reported in mg/100 g and are compared with literature values. Data for less commonly consumed fruits such as tangerines, nectarines, kiwi, star fruit (carambola), mangos, papayas, and plantains are also presented. Fruits are identified which may be considered good sources of the trace elements studied based on the FDA definition that a serving contains 10% of the Daily Value. When possible, differences in elemental content for multiple varieties is studied.