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Abstract

Sugarcane is a perennial grass belonging to Poaceae family and it has been cultivated worldwide more than 90 countries because of its economical and medicinal value of high-yielding products. Refined sugar is obtained as a primary product from sugarcane juice, an eminent raw material of sugarcane. Other commercial value-added by-products such as brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery are also obtained during the process in an unrefined form. The expensive carnauba wax is produced from sugarcane wax and utilized in cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications. Sugarcane juice is widely used in traditional medicine system of several countries mainly in India, to treat several health issues such as jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. In this chapter, various types of phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products are summarized. The phytochemistry of sugarcane juice, sugarcane wax, leaves, and its products also established the occurrence of various fatty acids, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. Necessity on advanced research for the production of various medicinal products from sugarcane and its phytopharmacological study has been summarized.
1© Springer International Publishing AG 2017
C. Mohan (ed.), Sugarcane Biotechnology: Challenges and Prospects,
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-58946-6_1
Chapter 1
Potential Health Benets ofSugarcane
ChinnarajaChinnadurai
Abstract Sugarcane is a perennial grass belonging to Poaceae family and it has
been cultivated worldwide more than 90 countries because of its economical and
medicinal value of high-yielding products. Rened sugar is obtained as a primary
product from sugarcane juice, an eminent raw material of sugarcane. Other com-
mercial value-added by-products such as brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery are
also obtained during the process in an unrened form. The expensive carnauba wax
is produced from sugarcane wax and utilized in cosmetics and pharmaceutical
applications. Sugarcane juice is widely used in traditional medicine system of sev-
eral countries mainly in India, to treat several health issues such as jaundice, hemor-
rhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. In this chapter, various types of
phytoconstituents and health benets of sugarcane and its valuable products are
summarized. The phytochemistry of sugarcane juice, sugarcane wax, leaves, and its
products also established the occurrence of various fatty acids, alcohol, phytoster-
ols, higher terpenoids, avonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids.
Necessity on advanced research for the production of various medicinal products
from sugarcane and its phytopharmacological study has been summarized.
Keywords Medicine • Molasses • Pharmacological properties • Phytochemical
prole • Sugarcane juice
1.1 Introduction
Sugarcane is a tall perennial true grass belonging to the genus Saccharum and tribe
Andropogoneae. It originated in Southeast Asia and is now cultivated in tropical and
subtropical countries throughout the world for sugar and by-products. The genus
Saccharum contains ve important species, viz., Saccharum ofcinarum, Saccharum
sinense, Saccharum barberi, Saccharum robustum, and Saccharum spontaneum.
C. Chinnadurai, Ph.D. (*)
Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Life Sciences, The University of the West
Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
e-mail: chinnadurai.chinnaraja@sta.uwi.edu
chinnadurai.chinnaraja@sta.uwi.edu
2
The cultivation of S. ofcinarum and its hybrids is mostly used for the production
of sugar and ethanol and other industrial applications in more than 90 countries
around the world. The stems and the by-products of the sugar industry are also used
for feeding livestock. S. ofcinarum was originally grown in Southeast Asia and
Western India. Around 327B.C. it was an important crop in the Indian subcontinent.
It was introduced to Egypt around 647A.D. and about one century later, to Spain
(755A.D.). Since then, the cultivation of sugarcane extended to nearly all tropical
and subtropical regions around the world. Portuguese and Spaniards introduced
sugarcane to the New World early in the sixteenth century. S. ofcinarum L. more
recently is utilized as a replacement of fossil fuel for motor vehicles.
Worldwide, sugarcane inhabits 20.42million ha area with a total production of
1900 million metric tons (FAO 2014). Sugarcane area and productivity differ widely
from country to country. Brazil occupies the highest sugarcane-growing area (5.343
million ha) followed by India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, and Mexico. Sugarcane is
a best example for renewable natural agricultural resource since it provides sugar,
besides biofuel, ber, fertilizer, and a myriad of by-products/coproducts with eco-
logical sustainability. White sugar, brown sugar (Khandsari), jaggery (Gur), and
ethanol are obtained from sugarcane juice and bagasse and molasses are the main
by-products of the sugar industry. Molasses are the chief by-products used as main
raw material for the production of alcohol. Excess bagasse is now being used as raw
material in the paper industry. In addition, cogeneration of power using bagasse as
fuel is considered feasible in most sugar mills.
Sugarcane holds potential health benets and generally most of them are not
aware of it. Sugarcane can be edible in the form of either pieces of stem or juice.
Sugarcane juice extracted from the cane is nutritious and refreshing. It contains
about 15% natural sugar that helps to rehydrate the human body and gives instant
energy. Sugarcane juice is rich in minerals such as phosphorus, potassium, calcium,
iron, and magnesium and vitamins such as vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, C, and
E. About 100 mL of sugarcane juice contains 39 calories of energy and 9 g of
carbohydrates.
1.2 Health Benets ofSugarcane
Sugarcane juice is used to cure several types of human diseases in different parts of
the world. It has been used in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine in India
since time immemorial either as single drug or in combination with other plant
products. Sugarcane extracts were established with a wide range of biological
effects such as immunostimulation (El-Abasy etal. 2002), anti-thrombosis activity,
anti-inammatory activity, vaccine adjuvant, modulation of acetylcholine release
(Barocci etal. 1999), and anti-stress effects. Sugarcane juice has broad biological
effects on raising innate immunity to infections (Lo etal. 2005).
Jaundice patients and people having liver-related disorders have been encour-
aged to consume sugarcane extract in traditional system of medicine in curing
C. Chinnadurai
chinnadurai.chinnaraja@sta.uwi.edu
3
diseases. Sugarcane juice is also used as aphrodisiac, laxative, demulcent, antisep-
tic, and tonic (Xu etal. 2005). According to the Unani system of medicine in India,
sugarcane juice is considered benecial for the liver by regulating the bilirubin lev-
els and it is recommended that consumption of large amount of sugarcane juice
helps for an immediate relief from jaundice. These assumptions have also been
supported by modern pharmacological studies, which revealed that sugarcane con-
tains various bioactivities like anti-inammatory, analgesic, antihyperglycemic,
diuretic, and hepatoprotective effects. Although apigenin, tricin, and luteoline gly-
cosides like orientin, vitexin, schaftoside, and swertisin were reported as the main
constituents in sugarcane juice, various policosanols and steroids were also reported
in different parts of S. ofcinarum. Based on these bioactivities and chemical con-
stituents of sugarcane, great attention has been given for the investigation of some
lead molecules of this cheapest crop for various diseases.
Sugarcane juice regulates natural immunity of host cells against different micro-
bial infections such as viral, bacterial, and protozoan having effects on the levels of
macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer cells (El-Abasy etal. 2002, 2003; Lo
etal. 2005). A wide range of biological activities are observed with by-products of
sugarcane juice including antioxidant activities (Tanaki et al. 2003), prophylactic
activities, and other physiological functions (Takara etal. 2002).
Sugarcane juice is a rich source of antioxidants. Free radicals have been con-
cerned in the etiology of several human ailments and many antioxidants are being
considered as potential therapeutic agents (Sies 1996; Spiteller 2001). The mecha-
nism involved in many human diseases such as hepatotoxicities, hepatocarcinogen-
esis, diabetes, malaria, acute myocardial infarction, and skin cancer includes lipid
peroxidation as a main source of membrane damage (Yoshikava et al. 2000).
Antioxidants are molecules capable of terminating the chain reaction of free radi-
cals before vital molecules are damaged. Supplementation of these antioxidants
became an attractive therapeutic strategy for reducing the risk of diseases caused by
free radicals (Brash and Harve 2002). Recent studies on the role of phenolic com-
pounds from foods and beverages against free radical-mediated diseases became
more signicant due to the nding of association between lipid peroxidation of
LDL and arthrosclerosis. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds can be
attributed to a wide range of pharmacological activities. These compounds in gen-
eral act by quenching free radicals, inhibiting the activation of pro-carcinogens, or
binding carcinogens to macromolecules. The phenolic and avonoid contents of
sugarcane juice were found with equal proportion of antioxidant effects
(Krishnaswamy 1996).
The polyphenols in sugarcane juice also induce metabolism and help keep weight
gain during pregnancy and its low glycemic index helps to maintain energy levels.
A glass of sugarcane juice with a dash of ginger helps to reduce morning sickness
of pregnant women. Small doses of sugarcane juice more than twice a day are rec-
ommended for morning sickness, a common complaint among pregnant women.
Since sugarcane juice is a rich source of calcium, magnesium, and iron, regular
consumption can help boost immunity and keep mineral deciency at bay during
pregnancy. Constipation is also an issue with pregnancy. The juice can also be used
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4
to boost digestion and treat constipation due to the presence of potassium. It helps
in proper functioning of digestive system and prevents stomach infections.
Sugarcane juice has been recommended for its diuretic property (Karthikeyan
and Simipillai 2010; Cáceres etal. 1987). Regular use of sugarcane juice leads to
clear urinary ow since it aids kidneys to perform their function properly. With
addition of lime juice and coconut water, sugarcane juice helps in reducing burning
sensation which is commonly associated with urinary tract infections, sexually
transmitted diseases, kidney stones, and prostatitis.
Intake of sugarcane juice is recommended for diabetic patients. It comprises
natural sugar which has low glycemic index that prevents steep rise in blood glucose
levels in diabetics. Noni fruit juice was mixed with sugarcane juice and kukui nuts
(Aleurites moluccana (L.) Wild, Euphorbiaceae) to be used as purgative, or diluted
with spring water to treat diabetes and high blood pressure or prevent intoxication
from kava (McClatchey 2002; Chun 1994). However, type 2 diabetes patients are
recommended to consume it in moderate levels after doctor consultation.
Cancer cannot survive in an alkaline environment. Sugarcane juice comprises
high concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, and manganese since it
is proven that regular consumption of sugarcane juice is effectively ghting against
cancer, especially prostate and breast cancer.
Studies established that sugarcane juice protects against tooth decay and bad
breath due to its high mineral content. Deciency of nutrients in the body can easily
be recovered by including sugarcane juice in our diet. Febrile disorder is quite com-
mon in infants and children resulting in fevers, which can lead to seizures and loss
of proteins in the body. Sugarcane juice helps in compensating the lost protein and
helps in recovery.
Alpha hydroxy acids help ght acne, reduce blemishes, prevent ageing, and keep
the skin hydrated. One of the most effective alpha hydroxy acids is glycolic acid and
is present in sugarcane and considered as one of its few natural sources. Even though
sugarcane juice has many advantages, it is also important to consume the juice as
soon as it is extracted because it tends to get oxidized within 15min. As it is rich
with medicinal values, sugarcane juice is considered as a miracle drink.
1.3 Phytochemical Prole ofSugarcane andIts By-products
1.3.1 Sugarcane Leaves
Sugarcane leaves are naturally coated with waxes which are considered as an impor-
tant source of various policosanols and D-003. In addition, various avones -O- and
-C- glycosides were isolated from methanolic extracts of sugarcane leaves through
HPLC microfractionation techniques.
C. Chinnadurai
chinnadurai.chinnaraja@sta.uwi.edu
5
1.3.2 Sugarcane Wax
Sugarcane wax deposits on the surface of stalks and leaves seem whitish to dark
yellow in color and are extracted from the sugarcane lter residue, the so-called
bagasse, during sugar production and utilized for industrial, cosmetic, and pharma-
ceutical applications (Hoepfner and Botha 2004). It is one of the important com-
mercial sources of long-chain fatty alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, and ketones.
Apart from that policosanols and D-003, some steroids and terpenoids have also
been isolated as by-products from sugarcane wax. Policosanols range from 2.5 to
80% and are a blend of long-chain primary aliphatic alcohols. Octacosanol consti-
tutes 50–80% of the total policosanols (Awika and Rooney 2004). Other active com-
ponents of sugarcane wax are long-chain aliphatic fatty acids that occur at lower
concentrations. The blend of these acids is known as D-003 (Mas 2004). Several
phytosterols, steroids, and higher terpenoids were also reported (Georges et al.
2006; Bryce etal. 1967) apart from the major constituents of fatty acid and fatty
alcohol in sugarcane wax (Goswami etal. 1984). The quantity of wax derived from
sugarcane is between the range of 0.1 and 0.3% and it differs from variety to variety
(Laguna Granja etal. 1999). The sugarcane wax is considered as a possible substi-
tute for the expensive carnauba wax.
1.3.3 Sugarcane Juice
Sugarcane juice is extracted by grinding the sugarcane stems for the production of
white/brown sugar, jaggery, and molasses. Sugarcane juice holds water (70–75%),
sucrose (13–15%), and ber (10–15%). Several color components with chlorogenic
acid, cinnamic acid, and avones were identied from sugarcane juice during 1971
(Farber etal. 1971). Further, all the colored components were categorized into four
major classes: plant pigments, polyphenolic compounds, caramels, and degradation
products of sugars condensed with amino derivatives.
The presence of phenolic acids such as hydroxycinnamic acid, sinapic acid, and
caffeic acid, along with avones such as apigenin, luteolin, and tricin, was also
identied in high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection
(HPLC-DAD) analysis of phenolic compounds from sugarcane juice. In that, tricin
derivatives were obtained with highest concentration (Maurício Duarte-Almeida
et al. 2006). Further, detailed chromatographic and spectroscopic studies estab-
lished the presence of various -O- and -C- glycosides of the above-mentioned a-
vones (Vila et al. 2008). Apart from that few minor avones swertisin,
tricin-7-O-neohesperoside-4-O-rhamnoside, tricin-7-O-methylglucuronate-4-O-
rhamnoside, and tricin-7-O-methylglucuronide (Colombo et al. 2009) and some
novel acylated avone glycosides, such as tricin-7-O-β-(6-methoxycinnamic)-
glucoside, luteolin-8-C-rhamnosyl glucoside, and
1 Potential Health Benets ofSugarcane
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tricin-4-O-(erthroguaicylglyceryl)-ether, were isolated, along with orientin, from
sugarcane juice (Duarte-Almeida etal. 2007).
1.3.4 Sugarcane Products
Brown sugar, molasses, syrups, and non-centrifugal sugar are the several important
by-products of sugarcane (Balasundaram etal. 2006). Apart from some identied
compounds of sugarcane juice, three new avonoid glycosides, tricin7-(2-
rhamnosyl)-α-galacturonide, orientin-7,3-dimethyl ether, and iso-orientin-7,3-O-
dimethyl ether, were isolated from mill syrups (Mabry etal. 1984). Along with the
already stated isoorientin-7 and 3-O-dimethyl ether, a novel O-glycoside and
dehydroconiferylalcohol-9-O-β--glucopyranoside were also isolated from sugar-
cane molasses and have been validated as antibacterial compounds (Takara etal.
2007). Through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of
aqueous and dichloromethane extracts of brown sugars, the presence of various
phenolic acids and eight major volatile constituents has been described.
1.4 Pharmacological Properties ofSugarcane andIts
By-products
Various phytochemicals including phenolic compounds, plant sterols, and polico-
sanols are present in sugarcane and help in defense against pest and diseases. Several
studies have proven the biological activities of sugarcane products including anti-
oxidant activity, cholesterol-lowering properties, and other potential health
benets.
1.4.1 Antithrombotic Activity
Antithrombotic activity was examined with policosanols and D-003 for their plate-
let aggregation and in rats. Plasma level of 6 keto-PGF1-α (a stable metabolite of
prostacyclin PGI) was signicantly increased with oral administration of D-003 at a
single dose of 200mg/kg and policosanols at a concentration of 25mg/kg in rats,
compared to control. In addition, D-003 signicantly reduced the thromboxane
plasma levels and weight of venous thrombus in collagen-stimulated whole blood of
rats (Molina etal. 2002). Also, the pharmacokinetic study established that the effect
of D-003 was detected after 30min of dosing and the maximal effect exhibited after
1–2h of treatment (Molina etal. 2000).
C. Chinnadurai
chinnadurai.chinnaraja@sta.uwi.edu
7
1.4.2 Diuretic Activity
Intragastric application of ethanol extracts (50%) of fresh leaves to rats at a dose of
40mL/kg was found with diuretic activity, while its decoction was not found with
any diuretic activity (Ribeiro Rde etal. 1986; Cáceres etal. 1987).
1.4.3 Analgesic andAntihepatotoxic Activity
Ethanol extracts (95%) from sugarcane leaves and shoots were recorded with anal-
gesic activity in mice with intragastric application at a dose of 1g/kg. The ethanol
extract of sugarcane shoots was found active only against the tail-ick method while
leaf extracts were active against benzoyl peroxide-induced writhing and tail-ick
response (Costa etal. 1989).
Intraperitoneal application of aqueous extract of dried stems to mice, at a dose of
25mg/kg, was found active against chloroform-induced hepatotoxicity (Jin et al.
1981).
1.4.4 Antihypercholesterolemic Effect
Oral administration of sugarcane policosanols (5–200mg/kg) on normocholesterol-
emic New Zealand rabbits revealed a signicant decrease in the level of total cho-
lesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a dose-dependent
manner. It also reduced the level of serum triglyceride, but it was not found as dose
dependent. However, the high-density lipoprotein levels remained unchanged
(Arruzazabala etal. 1994).
Policosanols also prevented atherosclerosis in male New Zealand rabbits fed on
a cholesterol-rich diet for 60days at doses of 25 or 200mg/kg. Interestingly, hyper-
cholesterolemia was not found in policosanol-treated rabbits and the intima thick-
ness was also found signicantly less compared to control animals (Arruzazabala
etal. 2000).
1.4.5 Antihyperglycemic Activity
Intragastrical application of ethanol extract of leaves at a dose of 1g/kg and 60mg/
animal, respectively, produced weak activity against alloxan-induced hyperglyce-
mia (Arruzazabala etal. 1994). Further, intraperitoneal application of juice of dried
stems exhibited hypoglycemic activity at a dose of 200mg/kg (Takahashi et al.
1985).
1 Potential Health Benets ofSugarcane
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1.4.6 Anti-inammatory Effect
Oral administration of the mixture of fatty acids isolated from sugarcane wax
showed anti-inammatory activity in the cotton pellet granuloma assay and in the
carrageenan-induced pleurisy test, both in rats and in the peritoneal capillary perme-
ability test in mice (Ledón etal. 2003).
1.4.7 Acetylcholine Release
The study on the effect of policosanols on the release of acetylcholine (ACh) at the
neuromuscular junction in mice revealed that policosanols enhanced a slight extent
of either the spontaneous or the evoked ACh release. Additionally, it was found that
increment in the level of conformational changes induced at the nicotinic receptor
channel complex, which established the release of Ach (Re etal. 1999).
1.5 Toxicity Prole ofSugarcane Juice
Incomplete combustion of the organic matter develops polycyclic aromatic hydro-
carbons (PAHs) in sugarcane juice at harvesting season and their presence origi-
nates mainly from processing and cooking of food. The presence of four PAHs,
benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)uoranthene, benzo(k)uoranthene, and benzo(a)
pyrene, was conrmed in HPLC analysis of sugarcane juice collected during differ-
ent harvesting period (Silvia Tfouni etal. 2009).
1.6 Conclusion andFuture Perspectives
This chapter provides a detailed analysis on health benets of sugarcane, its phyto-
chemical prole, and pharmacological applications. Sugarcane extract is utilized as
a regular nutritional drink in several Asian countries since it comprises signicant
amount of minerals, vitamins, and hydrophilic compounds with essential biological
activities. The presence of pharmacological activities is proven in sugarcane juice
and its unrened products such as brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery are consid-
ered as richest sources of phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, avonoids,
and different glycosides. The lipophilic compounds including various policosanols,
D-003, and phytosterols are the important components of sugarcane wax present in
sugarcane leaves and shoots are observed with several pharmacological effects such
as sympathomimetic, antihypercholesterolemic, and antithrombotic activities.
C. Chinnadurai
chinnadurai.chinnaraja@sta.uwi.edu
9
Further there is a wide scope for investigation to identify the presence of new
compounds with more activities in S. ofcinarum and its products. Even though the
presence of carcinogenic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was
reported in S. ofcinarum, yet advanced research associated with recent technolo-
gies has to be made. Further, a detailed examination has to be made in future in
sugarcane and its products since there is a lack of comprehensive investigation on
the large number of identied compounds and their pharmacological activities.
Although the chemical composition is known for several compounds of sugarcane,
future research has to be made to understand the metabolic pathways of these com-
pounds. Additional verication is needed to understand the phytochemistry of sug-
arcane products such as jaggery and thermostable chemical components of
sugarcane juice.
There is a need for further improvement on sugarcane production since there is a
product diversication and sugarcane has the potential to supply high-value niche
markets with a variety of products (Hildebrand 2002). Hence, recent researches
have been made to achieve cane improvement and industry diversication through
the application of biotechnology to make more protable sugarcane production.
Such new approaches to plant improvement might enable the cane plant to store
higher levels of sucrose or to produce and store new products with wider markets
than sugar.
Transgenic plants have been developed with new genes incorporated by genetic
engineering for the improvement of yield and enhance resistance to pests, diseases,
and herbicides and production of value-added traits (James 2011; Potrykus 2001).
In case of sugarcane, the rst successful transformation of sugarcane with reporter
genes using particle inow gun appeared in 1992 (Bower and Birch 1992). Later,
there has been several reports of genetically engineered sugarcane plants using par-
ticle gun and agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation methods including with
improved disease, pest and herbicide resistance to sugarcane mosaic virus (Joyce
etal. 1998), leaf scald (Zhang etal. 1999), stalk borers (Arencibia etal. 1999), and
herbicide resistance (Enriquez-Obregon etal. 1998; Manickavasagam etal. 2004)
were produced.
Transgenic sugarcane plants with altered metabolic pathways were developed
with a view to improve sucrose accumulation (Botha etal. 2001), sugar characteris-
tics (Vickers etal. 2005), as well as novel sugars (Basnayake etal. 2012) but none
are commercially available. Nevertheless, transgenic canes could have a key role in
industrial applications and in crop improvement.
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1 Potential Health Benets ofSugarcane
chinnadurai.chinnaraja@sta.uwi.edu
... It's cultivation in the Indian subcontinent dates back to ca. 327 B.C. It was introduced into Egypt at around 647 A.D. and about one century later, to Spain (755 A.D.) (Chinnadurai, 2017). Since then, cultivation of sugarcane has extended to nearly all tropical and subtropical regions around the world. ...
... It also has anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer (Srivastava et al., 2009) and antitumor activity (Wang et al., 2015). It is found to reduce salt stress in cultivars of wheat, maize and coriander when used as foliar spray (Asadi and Batool 2017;Perveen et al., 2014 and2017). Successful field trials have proved its efficacy for high yield in the case of a number of crops like barley, corn, paddy, maize, lettuce, cucumber, etc. Tea Research Institute, UPASI, Coimbatore has made successful field trials with n-Triacontanol on tea cultivation. ...
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Sugarcane is one of the major cash crops, used for the production of sugar and ethanol. Sugarcane processing, results in many by by-products like bagasse, molasses and press mud which have economic value. Also, the by-products serve to generate many value added products. Sugarcane wax is a value added product obtained by the processing of press mud. It has pharmaceutical, agricultural and industrial applications. n-Triacontanol, Policosanol, D-003 acids and waxes are some of the products derived from the sugarcane wax. This article attempt discusses the various methods of extraction of sugarcane wax, its constituents and its characteristics and applications of the products derived from the sugarcane wax.
... These numerous phytochemicals in the sugarcane plant establish its medicinal value. The mentioned bioactive compounds have therapeutic value such as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-hyperglycemic features (Ji et al 2019;Chinnadurai 2017;Alves et al. 2016;Karthikeyan and Samipillai, 2010;Duarte-Almeida et al. 2006). Rungjang et al. (2022) evaluated the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of leaves, stalk, and root (cane plant parts), 1st juice, mixed juice, clarified juice and syrup (intermediate products of cane processing in sugar mill), raw sugar as final product and molasses, bagasse, and filter mud from sugar process (by-products). ...
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Sucrose has been the major commercial product of the sugar industry for decades. Sugarcane is a C4 photosynthetic crop and has great diversification potential. It can be used to produce dozens of bioproducts, apart from ethanol, electricity, paper, vinasse, and other green products of commercial importance already being generated. The optimal processing of sugarcane can yield food, feed, biofertilizers, bioplastics, and biomolecules, apart from sucrose of several applications as sucrochemistry. The diversification of the sugar industry would not only enhance the commercial competitiveness of this sector but will also limit the wastes production from sugar mills, offering environmental benefits. Nevertheless, despite the exceptional possibilities of the biorefinery concept of the sugar industry, the industrial adoption of this strategy has remained limited in most of the sugarcane growing countries for some reasons. In the current scenario of sugarcane agroindustry in many areas of the world, sugarcane diversification is crucial for improving the sugarcane value chain, ensuring the efficient exploitation of sugarcane agriculture, and contributing to the 2030 sustainable development goals. The purpose of this review was to carry out an analysis of the factors and constraints that determine the potential of sugarcane supply areas and sugar mills to establish diversification projects. The analysis presented in this study would serve as a useful guide to formulate strategies for optimal utilization of sugarcane crop and sugar industry wastes, by maximizing its benefits through modifying/converting the sugar mills to so-called bio-refineries. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.
... Differences in phenolic and flavonoid content underlie different responses to abiotic and biotic stress (Close and McArthur 2002). Flavonoid compounds are well-known for their strong antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, radioprotective, antineoplastic, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and vasodilatory activities and have been shown to inhibit cancer development (Chinnadurai 2017;Gomes et al. 2020;Singh et al. 2014;Wang et al. 2017). Flavonoids are abundant in the leaves, juice, and bagasse of cultivated sugarcane; however, sugarcane varieties vary markedly in leaf phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents (Li et al. 2010;Rao et al. 2021a). ...
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Sugarcane is the primary crop cultivated around the world for sugar production, and its rind has an important role in the protection of the stem sugar. The rind produces many kinds of phytometabolites whose concentrations vary markedly among cultivated sugarcane varieties. Here, we quantified multiple classes of secondary metabolites in the rinds of eleven sugarcane varieties; we also measured their antioxidant activities and quantified the expression of associated genes. We found that the rinds of GL05-136 and YT71/210 had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents among the eleven varieties. Varieties with a dark rind color, such as GL05-136, YT71/210, and GL07-150, had higher levels of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and proanthocyanidins. These varieties also showed high expression of genes associated with flavonoid and antho-cyanin biosynthetic pathways, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase. GL05-136 had the highest rind content of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA), followed by GL07-150 and F172. Levels of anthocyanins and carotenoid pigments were the highest in the rind of GL05-136, and antioxidant assays revealed that GL05-136 and YT71/210 had the highest antioxidant activity and capacity. Pearson's correlation analysis showed significant positive correlations among different secondary metabolites and rind antioxidant capacity but significant negative correlations of secondary metabolites and antioxidant capacity with chlorophyll a and b contents. Our data indicate that GL05-136, YT71/ 210, and GL07-150 are promising cultivated sugarcane varieties whose rinds have high SA and secondary metabolite levels and exhibit strong antioxidant activities.
... Today, NCS is a marginal food, basically consumed in producing countries. It is still known as "medicinal sugar" in India (Rao et al. 2007) and is widely used in traditional medicine in South Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, where its potential health benefits are highlighted (Chinnadurai 2017;Weerawatanakorn et al. 2016). Given the controversial nature of sugars in the diet, it may be advantageous that the sweetening capacity of NCS is lower than muscovado and refined sugar. ...
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In Skyros Island, three public sectors have established an eco-community, which hosts students and volunteers from Greece and other countries, in order to promote a new eco-lifestyle, known as “SKYROS Ecovillage” model. Through its actions,it aims to spread the message of environmental awareness in order toeducate and transform the upcoming generations into environmentally responsible decision makers. Since 2015, a network of supporters has been established and they strongly believe that humans and nature can live in harmony.It is indispensable, to update the cultural software of our society and to cultivate an attitude of responsibility, consciousness and active environmental participation.This paper provides an analysis of a paradigmatic approach of an environmentally successful innovative community, stationed at a Greek port.
... The sugarcane bagasse waste from the sugar industries and street vendors is largely disposed or burned off which can cause further environmental issues. Considering this, sugarcane and its by-products have been heavily researched as raw materials in biofuel, fertilizer, livestock feed and paper production (Chinnadurai 2017). Adding to its wide application spectrum, the sugarcane bagasse waste has also been converted to ACs as a highly effective adsorbent for dye removal from wastewater via adsorption (Gardare et al. 2015). ...
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In this work, sugarcane bagasse waste (SBW) was used as a lignocellulosic precursor to develop a high-surface-area activated carbon (AC) by thermal treatment of the SBW impregnated with KOH. This SBW activated carbon (SBWAC) was characterized by crystallinity, porosity, surface morphology and functional groups availability. The SBWAC exhibited Type I isotherm which corresponds to microporosity with high specific surface area of 709.3 m2/g and 6.6 nm of mean pore diameter. Further application of SBWAC as an adsorbent for methylene blue (MB) dye removal demonstrated that the adsorption process closely followed the pseudo-second order kinetic and Freundlich isotherm models. Conversely, a thermodynamic study revealed the endothermic nature and spontaneity of MB dye adsorption on SBWAC with high acquired adsorption capacity (136.5 mg/g). The MB dye adsorption onto SBWAC possibly involved electrostatic interaction, H-bonding and π–π interaction. This work demonstrates SBW as a potential lignocellulosic precursor to produce high-surface-area AC that can potentially remove more cationic dyes from the aqueous environment. HIGHLIGHTS Microporous activated carbon was prepared from sugarcane bagasse via KOH activation.; The activated carbon was used for adsorption of methylene blue dye.; The adsorption capacity for methylene blue dye was 136.5 mg/g.; The adsorption thermodynamic indicates spontaneous and endothermic process.;
... With an area of approximately 415.66 thousand hectares in 2018, the sugar cane industry is a source of income for thousands of sugarcane farmers and workers in the sugar industry [6]. Figure 1 above shows the conditions of the sugarcane plantation until the sugarcane is ready for harvest. Sugarcane harvesting is carried out by cutting the sugarcane stalks by workers and then preparing the clean sugarcane stalks to be processed into sugar or sugarcane juice with a sweet taste [7]. The main product of sugarcane is its extract which is used as the main ingredient in producing sugar. ...
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Anionic surfactants are generally used in surfactant injections because they are good, resistant in storage and stable. Furthermore, Commercially, anions are produced in the form of carboxylates, sulfates, sulfonates, phosphates, or phosphonates. The surfactants used in the process of implementing Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) are generally petroleum-based, such as Petroleum Sulfonate. Therefore, an increase in oil price, leads to an increase in the price of surfactant and the operational costs becomes relatively expensive. Lignosulfonate is a type of anionic surfactant which is made with lignin as raw material. This lignin is found in many plants, including wood stalks, plant leaves, peanut shells, corn cobs, bagasse, empty bunches of oil palm and wheat straw. Based on the results of previous studies, 25% of lignin component was discovered in bagasse. This may be a consideration that there is enough lignin in bagasse to be used as raw material in the production of lignosulfonate vegetable surfactants. Furthermore, lignin from bagasse is used because bagasse is easy to obtain, cheap and an environmental friendly vegetable waste. Currently, bagasse is only used as fuel in steam boilers and papermaking, cement and brick reinforcement, a source of animal feed, bioethanol, activated charcoal as adsorbent and compost fertilizer. This is a consideration to optimize the use of bagasse to become lignosulfonate as an alternative for surfactants in the petroleum sector. The purpose of this study is to show that lignin from bagasse has the potential of becoming a lignosulfonate surfactant. There are several studies that have processed bagasse into sodium lignosulfonate. The component test on the results showed that the surfactant component of sodium lignosulfonate from bagasse was almost the same as the commercial standard lignosulfonate component. Furthermore, the results of the HLB (Hydrophilic–Lipophilic Balance) value test show that the sodium lignosulfonate surfactant from bagasse can function as an emulsion form which is a required parameter for the surfactant injection mechanism. Based on the discussion of the study results, bagasse has the potential as a raw material to be processed into lignosulfonates.
Chapter
Traditional and artisanal unrefined non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) is a solid obtained by concentrating clarified sugarcane juice at atmospheric pressure, which is then crystallized and traditionally molded into blocks of different colors, shapes and sizes. Like traditional brown sugar, NCS is made in sugarcane regions worldwide. However, in most NCS-producing countries, the product’s agro-industrial value chain faces numerous socio-economic constraints and a lack of technological innovations that hinder its ability to achieve competitiveness and sustainability for this natural product, such as excessive use of agrochemicals, harvesting with burning of sugarcane fields and GHG generation. Other problems include underuse of equipment built with food-grade stainless steel in industrial facilities or mills, inadequate safety measures in these workplaces, lack of standardization of processes and processes and unstable NCS markets. We present a systematic review of technological innovations and fieldwork with producers in this sector and its prospects in Mexico, one of the world’s leading NCS producers with a great tradition and history in this area, to analyze its socio-economic and environmental impact and develop strategies for its sustainability. Therefore, to innovate within traditional and artisanal processes, it is necessary to create public policies and agribusiness proposals linked to universities and research centers aimed at improving the productive value chain. Currently, the sector lacks legal certainty and a scientific basis to support sustainability, quality, production and marketing. It also faces diverse and complex problems during the production process, including issues with production capacity, sugarcane varieties, availability of infrastructure and equipment, energy use, environmental impact, organization of producers, uses of by-products, and inconsistency of product quality and marketing. Other aspects discussed include regional economic impact, political aspects surrounding legislation, and international certification.
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The paper focuses on collection of information on recent multifaceted usage of biomass materials with critical examination on its sustainability. The use of biomass is becoming popular, with wide global acceptance as it is considered as green technology. The use of biomass products across industrial parallels, the material combination and production processes were elucidated in this paper. Biomass materials are seen as affordable alternative to conventional materials for domestic and industrial applications. The multifaceted use of biomass, which includes, energy generation, metallurgical applications, construction purposes, reinforcement in metal matrix composite, microelectromechanical system, biochemical and traditional medicine were discussed. This underscores the need to develop a sustainable plan to meet with its diverse usage to be beyond laboratory efforts. This paper examined whether the availability of biomass can sustain its multifaceted usage or not. It also examined the modalities to ensure sustainable use of biomass. Different policies were highlighted and discussed in line with continuous multifaceted use of biomass.
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Одним из последствий глобализации как основной тенденции последних десятилетий является возрастание интереса потребителей определенного региона или страны к продуктам, в частности, напиткам, которые ранее локально не пользовались широкой популярностью. В статье приведена информация о напитках безалкогольных и алкогольных различной крепости, полученных из продуктов переработки сахарного тростника, представлен типичный химический состав данного виды сырья. Основное внимание уделено классификации кашасы и рома, технологическим стадиям процессов их производства, параметрам проведения этих стадий и их влиянию на потребительские характеристики этих напитков. Дана краткая история кашасы и рома, приведены сведения об их доле в сегменте крепких алкогольных напитков на мировом рынке. Отмечается, что принципы технологий кашасы и рома аналогичны, но может различаться последовательность проведения стадий производственного процесса. Подчеркнута роль вторичных дрожжевых метаболитов, накапливающихся при сбраживании сусла, в формировании качества готовых напитков, приведены основные группы этих соединений и их представители, их влияние на органолептические характеристики напитков брожения. Приведена информация о родах и видах микроорганизмов, развивающихся в процессе ферментации сусла при производстве кашасы и рома. Указана возможность использования различного оборудования для дистилляции сброженного сусла и организации этого процесса. В заключении отмечено, что в Российской Федерации целесообразно совершенствование технологии, в первую очередь, рома, например, за счет переработки нетрадиционного сахарсодержащего сырья.
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Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is generally popular as a major cash crop, from the view point of yielding white sugar. For the natives and traditional healers of the world, sugarcane (Ganna) is a valuable medicinal herb finding a significant place in alternative healing methods. In India, Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine recognize the invaluable medicinal properties of sugarcane and its derivatives. According to Ayurveda, it is oleaginous, diuretic, tonic, cooling, aphrodisiac and useful in fatigue, thirst, anaemia, ulcers etc., while according to the Unani system it is a laxative, diuretic, aphrodisiac and good for lungs. The sugarcane plant in its entirety is known to possess great therapeutic utility, the details of which are furnished in this paper. The recent researches on the by-products of sugarcane in medicine / therapeutics are highlighted.
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Color intensity of raw sugar is, in part, a result of the activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) acting on phenolic compounds to produce dark colored polymers when sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is crushed to release the juice. Paler colored sugar has a potential market premium over darker sugar. In an attempt to alter the level of PPO activity in transgenic plants, sense and antisense constructs containing the native sugarcane PPO gene were introduced into sugarcane by biolistics. In a series of field experiments, it was demonstrated that PPO activity among clones correlated significantly with juice color. In laboratory crystallizations of raw sugar using juice derived from clones with high and low PPO activity, the juice with the higher PPO activity produced darker colored crystals. PPO activity was elevated and juice color was darker in all types of transgenic plants. However, clones derived from a sense construct had higher PPO activity than the other transgenic clones, tissue culture control clones, or cultivars. Furthermore, northern blot analysis demonstrated that PPO sense transgenics had much higher levels of PPO transcripts in the stem than other clones. This is the first targeted manipulation of an endogenous metabolic enzyme-encoding gene in sugarcane that leads to altered enzyme activity. Although low PPO lines with good agronomic performance were not generated, this research demonstrates the principle that juice and sugar color are correlated with PPO activity, consistent with the hypothesis that lowering PPO activity in sugarcane could reduce the color intensity of juice and raw sugar.
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Sugarcane mosaic potyvirus (SCMV) is an important pathogen of sugarcane (Saccharum L. interspecific hybrids) and can cause significant yield losses in susceptible cultivars. Pathogen-derived resistance using the viral coat protein (CP) gene has been successfully demonstrated in other host/virus combinations and is being evaluated in sugarcane. Sugarcane plants were cotransformed with the CP gene of sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and the neomycin phosphotransferasell (nptll) (selectable marker) gene by microprojectile bombardment. These genes were constructed with either the Emu (an artificial promoter) or the ubiquitin (Ubi) promoter. Over 80 transgenic lines were assessed for nptll activity by dot-blot and ELISA. There was considerable variability between lines in npt expression, with the most active Ubi line producing npt enzyme to a level equivalent to 0.03% of total soluble protein. Initial results show no correlation between the number of copies of the transgene and the level of npt expression. Plants containing the CP transgene have been selected, propagated and challenged with SCMV in glasshouse trials. Ten lines were resistant to challenge inoculation with the virus and these lines are being further characterised.
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