Article

Benchlearning as professional development of school leaders in Norway and Sweden

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Abstract

In this paper, we investigate a new national collaborative Benchlearning program for principals in Norway and Sweden. Four process leaders have been running the program. The aim is to give the participants the knowledge to develop a leadership practice and school environment that are more innovative. The program includes theoretical inputs, sharing experiences, school visits, training, and trialing of new leadership practices. Drawing on data from surveys, participants’ reflections, and the leaders’ descriptions of new leadership practice, we examine and identify successful and critical aspects of the learning process. The findings show that principals’ motivation and willingness to start change processes can be created in a synergy between structured school visits, work in learning groups, and a theoretical foundation. Working in groups across schools in two countries seems to enhance principals’ sense of efficacy, which in turn is shown to have a positive effect on their willingness to trial new practices. Two implications of the study are suggested. First, in the design of principal programs, systematic and critical reflection about authentic practice should be the basis. Second, educators should be trained to be process leaders who can support principals’ learning during a critical and social construction of a new practice.

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... Participants easily recognized the realistic problems of the cases, and freed from personal responsibility for the problem, diagnosis, or treatment, they boldly engaged in thought experiments. Similar experiences are described by Aas and Blom (2018) and Aas and Paulsen (2019), where a program for school principals included carefully planned school visits. Tailored theoretical preparation in the classroom before the visits helped the students focus and describe what they observed during the school visits, leading to subsequent discussions of the visits and their own management practices. ...
... The researchers argue that the fixed and homogeneous groups in three LDPs for school principals in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, respectively, allowed the participants to go more in depth, reflect more directly on each other, and draw on more practice-specific cases (Aas & Paulsen, 2019;Aas & Vavik, 2015;Mouritzen & Søndergaard, 2018). The mere fact that such programs bring fellow school principals together and force them to find time for careful reflection was considered a value in itself (Aas & Blom, 2018). ...
... Gergen and Hersted (2016) find that the way in which instructors express themselves, including through their body language, is important for creating a learning space characterized by inclusive and constructive dialogue. In school principal programs in three different countries, Aas and Blom (2018) and Hersted and Frimann (2017) find that the key role of the instructors was to prompt reflection with carefully considered and open-ended questions and interruptions, enabling the participants to reach practical conclusions themselves. Adriansen and Knudsen (2013) likewise emphasize that concrete solutions must come from the participants themselves, as the role of the instructors is primarily to facilitate and guide the process of translating theory into practice. ...
Article
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Leadership development programs (LDPs) have proliferated and diversified but still usually share the ambition of involving the participants’ on-the-job experiences. Yet, the dominant view hereof is crude, not acknowledging the variety of ways used to accomplish it. The Scandinavian context is illustrative for reviewing what we term ‘customization devices’ because of its tradition for LDPs with collective reflection, practice orientation, and broad participation. This review curates and synthesizes 31 studies evaluating empirical experiences with customization devices in Scandinavian university-based LDPs from no earlier than 2010. Such devices fall within three key categories, namely theories, cases, and relationships, and have three key effects: distancing from practice, dedicating to the program, and devising future action. Based on our findings, we challenge the dominant view that open enrollment programs cannot adequately mobilize participants’ experiences by theorizing the distinction between open and closed customization. The review further serves as a resource for LDP designers and instructors to carefully choose and mix customization devices that are complementary in their effects.
... Blandt de få studier, der rapporterer empiriske erfaringer med bestemte typer af teori, er der en variation mellem mere praksisnaere og mere generiske teorier. På en lederuddannelse for ledere fra folkeskoler i Sverige og Norge beretter Aas & Blom (2018) om gode erfaringer med at bruge såkaldt praksisbaseret teori -dvs. teori primaert generet på baggrund af empirisk forskning om folkeskoler -som forberedelse til besøg på udvalgte skoler og efterfølgende plenumdiskussioner. ...
... Mouritzen & Søndergaard (2018) rapporterer om saerdeles gode erfaringer med selvkørende studiegrupper, hvor deltagerne opnåede et indgående kendskab til hinanden, en stor indbyrdes åbenhed og en høj grad af seriøsitet. Ligeledes beskriver Aas & Vavik (2015) og Aas & Blom (2018), at deltagerne på en skolelederuddannelse rapporterede om stor villighed i studiegrupperne til at dele oplevelser, reflektere over information og sparre med hinanden om konkrete udfordringer. Alene det, at uddannelsen bragte de deltagende norske og svenske skoleledere sammen og tvang dem til at finde tid til refleksion, blev betragtet som havende stor vaerdi i sig selv. ...
... Alene det, at uddannelsen bragte de deltagende norske og svenske skoleledere sammen og tvang dem til at finde tid til refleksion, blev betragtet som havende stor vaerdi i sig selv. Hertil hjalp inddeling i forpligtende studiegrupper med obligatoriske opgaver før, imellem, og efter de forskudte kursusgange og opkobling til en faelles virtuel platform (Aas & Blom, 2018). Knudsen & Adriansen (2016) beskriver, at deltagerne på et lederkursus for uddannelsesledere nemmere fik anlagt en analytisk distance til og en ny vinkel på praksisnaere eksperimenter, når de samarbejdede i grupper af to. ...
Research
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Dette analysenotat identificerer og beskriver litteratur, der dels beskæftiger sig med didaktiske virkemidler og rammer for efteruddannelse af offentlige ledere. Kortlægningens arbejdsspørgsmål er følgende: Hvilke elementer i en lederuddannelse er særligt nyttige for de deltagende ledere med hensyn til at opnå praksisnære effekter? Se også oversigtsnotatet fra kortlægningen her (PDF): https://ufm.dk/publikationer/2021/filer/kortlaegning3_didaktiske_virkemidler_og_rammer_for_lederuddannelser_oversigtsnotat.pdf Rapporten er udarbejdet i regi af ’Eftersyn af de offentlige lederuddannelser’, der blev igangsat i forlængelse af Ledelseskommissionens anbefalinger. Analysen er én af i alt ni analyser, som er blevet udarbejdet i forbindelse med eftersynet. Læs mere om eftersynet og eftersynets analyser her: https://ufm.dk/uddannelse/videregaende-uddannelse/efter-og-videreuddannelse/eftersyn-af-de-offentlige-lederuddannelser
... There exist many examples within the research and practice literature where 'teacher communities' has been successfully used as an approach to teacher professional development. Aas and Blom (2018) describe, in Practice Example 3, the use of structured learning groups for school principals within the 'Benchlearning programme', a professional development programme aimed at equipping principals in Norway and Sweden with the knowledge to develop more innovative leadership practice and school environments. Practice Example 4 details how collaborative practice and communities of learning evolved organically within the Irish National Teachers Association Literacy Initiative within 5 urban disadvantaged primary schools in the Republic of Ireland (King, 2016). ...
... The intervening period is then used to put ideas into practice and reflect on their impact in school. The second module begins with principals sharing experiences and reflections of the intervening period and new innovations tried, before repeating the cycle of theoretical learning, school visits, reflection, training and planning for the future (Aas and Blom, 2018). ...
... An evaluation of the 2015 and 2016 programmes identified positive changes in school leadership (increased motivation, commitment and confidence among principals) and practice (leadership responsibilities shared within schools; greater emphasis placed on collegial professional development; use of learning principles in school development; management of schools' digital development). Furthermore, the structured school visits linked to theory, learning groups and systematic reflective practice were identified as the critical aspects of the learning process (Aas and Blom, 2018). ...
... There exist many examples within the research and practice literature where 'teacher communities' has been successfully used as an approach to teacher professional development. Aas and Blom (2018) describe, in Practice Example 3, the use of structured learning groups for school principals within the 'Benchlearning programme', a professional development programme aimed at equipping principals in Norway and Sweden with the knowledge to develop more innovative leadership practice and school environments. Practice Example 4 details how collaborative practice and communities of learning evolved organically within the Irish National Teachers Association Literacy Initiative within 5 urban disadvantaged primary schools in the Republic of Ireland (King, 2016). ...
... The intervening period is then used to put ideas into practice and reflect on their impact in school. The second module begins with principals sharing experiences and reflections of the intervening period and new innovations tried, before repeating the cycle of theoretical learning, school visits, reflection, training and planning for the future (Aas and Blom, 2018). ...
... An evaluation of the 2015 and 2016 programmes identified positive changes in school leadership (increased motivation, commitment and confidence among principals) and practice (leadership responsibilities shared within schools; greater emphasis placed on collegial professional development; use of learning principles in school development; management of schools' digital development). Furthermore, the structured school visits linked to theory, learning groups and systematic reflective practice were identified as the critical aspects of the learning process (Aas and Blom, 2018). ...
... Most principals have been prepared for an industrial world that does not exist anymore, as nowadays they are facing new challenges-which reinforces the need to adapt and update leadership development programmes [5][6][7]. As Aas and Blom [8] recently pointed out, "the professional development of school leaders is lacking a robust research base and continues to be inadequate" (p. 63). ...
... Peterson [31] alludes to "study groups" or "reading and discussion groups", related to peer-learning groups through the development of specific activities and group self-reflection. Following these suggestions, the creation of principals' networks [32], meaning groups of principals working together in learning groups [8,33], or knowledge management networks [34], is also recommended both online or face-to-face, to enhance peer support and collaboration [4]. In line with these cooperative and communicative methods, job shadowing/work shadowing [35] is especially suggested for novice principals; this means placing principals in a different school setting [36], visiting other schools [8] and applying projects [37] using highly experienced principals as role models [36], or doing internships in schools [38]. ...
... Following these suggestions, the creation of principals' networks [32], meaning groups of principals working together in learning groups [8,33], or knowledge management networks [34], is also recommended both online or face-to-face, to enhance peer support and collaboration [4]. In line with these cooperative and communicative methods, job shadowing/work shadowing [35] is especially suggested for novice principals; this means placing principals in a different school setting [36], visiting other schools [8] and applying projects [37] using highly experienced principals as role models [36], or doing internships in schools [38]. Similarly, to improve instruction in schools, City [39] recommended instructional rounds and Stephens [40] and Aas [41] added also learning walks or "school walks", which is about "visiting classes and having conversations with teachers afterwards" [41] (p. ...
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Due to the crucial role principals have on school outcomes, investing in their training is a cost-effective approach for schools’ improvement. Research shows that principals attribute pertinence to their ongoing professional development. However, little research has been conducted on principals’ training needs from their viewpoint, particularly in Portugal. Through individual interviews (n = 19) and a questionnaire (n = 117) to principals, we collected data that enable us to understand principals’ perceptions on their training needs, focusing on learning areas, skills to be developed and learning methods. Results show considerable variability, reinforcing the relevance of tailored and contextualised approaches to professional development. Globally, principals request management skills and training opportunities that enable them to develop leadership skills (e.g., personal, interpersonal/socioemotional). Moreover, principals need training on instructional and distributed leadership practices. Collaborative and reflective methods are the ones principals prefer. Practical implications for the design of systematic professional development practices, in a lifelong perspective, are also discussed.
... Such programs should be accompanied by field-based projects, such as action research, analyses, and discussion of case studies, as well as a portfolio of evidence about practice. This paper reports from a larger study of the Benchlearning program for principals in Norway and Sweden, which aims to inspire changes in the principals' leadership practices to encourage the development of innovative school environments (Aas and Blom 2017). In this paper, we investigate the Norwegian principals' experience of changes in leadership and school practices that have evolved through their participation in the program, and how the program has supported the changes. ...
... For the third and fourth groups, leadership and Information and communication technologies (ICT) were given particular attention. The design of the program includes theoretical inputs, sharing experiences, school visits, and training in new leadership practices (Aas and Blom 2017). ...
Article
In this paper, we investigate how a Benchlearning program for principals in Norway and Sweden supports changes in Norwegian principals’ leadership practices. The program design builds on principles for practical action research. The aim of the program was to inspire changes in the principals’ leadership practices that encourage innovative school practices. The program includes learning modes such as theoretical inputs, sharing experiences, school visits, training, and trialling of new leadership practices. Drawing on data from participants’ reflections on their learning and changes in their leadership practices, we identify transformations that have been realized and the ways in which the Benchlearning program has supported the transformations. The findings indicate that the program can be seen as a systematic and disciplined process, a ‘meta-practice’, that supports changes in the principals’ leadership practices, their understandings, and the conditions of their practice. More specifically, the findings show that the theoretical inputs and practical learning modes stimulated transformations of the principals’ thinking about leadership practices, what they do in practice and how they relate to others. In particular, the study suggests that the principals’ active participation in trialling new leadership practices in their own schools stimulated transformations.
... They establish precise standards and unambiguous expectations for what should be done when and how. These leaders typically anticipate that their followers would follow their directives without question and without delay [6]. ...
... In the Swedish context, research focusing on principals' instructional leadership from the perspective of PD is limited, although some does exist (e.g. Aas and Blom, 2017;Forssten Seiser, 2019;Nehez and Blossing, 2020;Salo et al., 2015). Forssten Seiser (2019) arranged a university-school partnership with 12 principals who regularly met over one and a half years to explore their leadership. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to increase the knowledge of principals' professional development (PD) by focusing on the arrangements that shape a PD practice initiated to enhance principals' instructional leadership. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on findings from a three-year PD initiative in a Swedish school district. The data consist of field notes and semi-structured interviews with principals and managers. Theoretically, the paper takes its starting point in the theory of practice architectures and the cultural-discursive, material-economic and social-political arrangements that shape practices. Findings Practices for principals' PD require a fine balance to prevent the perception of hierarchical control. Designated time, common artifacts and external expertise are arrangements of practice that enable principals' PD. High expectations and relations between principals and managers both enable and constrain principals' PD. As trustful relations are of particular importance, the implication for managers and others organizing for principals' PD is to make sure that collaborative work settings also become a natural way of working for principals. As building relations takes time, a longer time perspective is also recommended. Practical implications The findings have practical implications for educational leaders responsible for organizing PD practices for principals in any context. Originality/value This paper adopts a practice theory approach to its study of principals' PD and provide an elaborated illustration of arrangements that enable and constrain principals' PD in collegial settings.
... Generally, professional development of school leaders is viewed as initial leadership training before the award of a qualification, whereas continuous professional development or CPD is the continuation of school leaders' professional development beyond their initial training. Professional development and CPD for school leaders are crucial for school improvement and school effectiveness as there is a continuous connecting of theory and practice, resulting in raising the quality in education (Cowie and Crawford 2007, Darling-Hammond and McLauglin 2011, Haris et al. 2013, Aas and Blom 2017. ...
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Continuing to learn is universally accepted and expected by professionals and other stakeholders across all professions. However, despite changes in response to research findings about how professionals learn, many professional development practices still focus on delivering content rather than enhancing learning. In exploring reasons for the continuation of didactic practices in professional development, this article critiques the usual conceptualization of professional development through a review of recent literature across professions. An alternative conceptualization is proposed, based on philosophical assumptions congruent with evidence about professional learning from seminal educational research of the past two decades. An argument is presented for a shift in discourse and focus from delivering and evaluating professional development programs to understanding and supporting authentic professional learning.
Book
The International Handbook of Leadership for Learning brings together chapters by distinguished authors from thirty-one countries in nine different regions of the world. The handbook contains nine sections that provide regional overviews; a consideration of theoretical and contextual aspects; system and policy approaches that promote leadership for learning with a focus on educating school leaders for learning and the role of the leader in supporting learning. It also considers the challenge of educating current leaders for this new perspective, and how leaders themselves can develop leadership for learning in others and in their organisations, especially in diverse contexts and situations. The final chapter considers what we now know about leadership for learning and looks at ways this might be further improved in the future. The book provides the reader with an understanding of the rich contextual nature of learning in schools and the role of school leaders and leadership development in promoting this. It concludes that the preposition ‘for’ between the two readily known and understood terms of ‘leadership’ and ‘learning’ changes everything as it foregrounds learning and complexifies, rather than simplifies, what that word may mean. Whereas common terms such as ‘instructional leadership’ reduce learning to ‘outcomes’, leadership for learning embraces a much wider, developmental view of learning.
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Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
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Despite group coaching being used to facilitate goal-focused change in a range of organizational contexts, there is little research evidence of its use or efficacy in continuing professional development programs for educational leaders. In the first part of this article we define coaching and consider the benefits and challenges of several forms of coaching for leadership learning. In the second part, we introduce the Professional Learning through Feedback and Reflection group coaching model and report on an international pilot of its use in a continuing professional development program for school leaders. The stimulus for group coaching with this model came from the completion of a self-assessment instrument and subsequent feedback report which provoked individual reflection on personal competencies. A protocol used within the coaching process itself provided structure for school leaders to clarify problems and issues, share perspectives and experiences, reflect and plan for change. Analysis of data from the pilot indicates that group coaching, informed by heightened awareness of personal competencies, may have the potential to assist school leaders to identify their personal strengths and challenges, better understand the dynamic and complex nature of their own organization, and inform change processes to improve learning outcomes.
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Professional learning and development of school leaders are considered keys to educational change. However, a growing body of research has identified how difficult it is to design professional leadership programmes that make a difference in leaders’ professional practice. Drawing on the framework of expansive learning and data from the six-year National Principal Training Programme in Norway, a case study is presented as a narrative of the development of one principal to illuminate the process. This article demonstrates how leadership learning and development can occur through critical investigations of the school leaders’ own leadership roles and practices. Reflections on the tensions revealed that 360-degree interviews, group coaching, theoretical studies and adopting the new leadership practice increase the leaders’ metacognitive skills, self-awareness and context understanding, and motivation and confidence to transform their leadership practice. Professional development that is designed for a variety of opportunities for individual and collective reflections supports leaders to become learners with the capacity to make changes in their leadership practice, as well as in their school.
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Group coaching has the potential to foster social learning for school leaders. In this article, we investigate the role of the coach in a group coaching process drawing on data from interviews and observations in a pilot study. The Professional Learning through Feedback and Reflection (PROFLEC) study ran in 10 countries and was funded by the European Commission. We report on data from two countries which took part in the study: Norway and Australia. We examine the steps used in an established group coaching protocol and identify critical aspects of the coaching role. We discuss the complexities of the role of the group balancing a goal-oriented coaching process along with the facilitation process. We suggest that the coaching role requires a unique set of skills and argue that research is needed to support the development of evidence-based training programmes to prepare coaches for this complex and challenging role.
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Coaching Educational Leadership is about building leadership capacity in individuals, and in institutions, through enhancing professional relationships. It is based on the importance of maximizing potential and harnessing the ongoing commitment and energy needed to meet personal and professional goals. Based on over a decade of research and development, nationally and internationally, Coaching Educational Leadership brings you the empirical evidence, the principles, and the skills to be able to develop your own leadership and that of others you work with.
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In view of the ever-increasing responsibilities of school leaders for ensuring the quality of schools, school leadership development has recently become one of the central concerns of educational policy. Based on data from an international study of school leadership development, international trends in school leadership preparation are identified and briefly discussed, for example, central quality assurance and decentralized provision; new forms of cooperation and partnership as well as preparatory qualification; extensive and comprehensive programs; multiphase designs and modularization; the communicative and cooperative shift; from administration and maintenance to leadership as well as change and continuous improvement; qualifying teams and developing the leadership capacity of schools; needs-, experience-, and application orientation; new ways of learning; adjusting the program to explicit aims and objectives; new paradigms of leadership; and orientation toward the school's core purpose. In addition, the article also highlights emerging issues and recent developments.
Article
The starting point for this article is the lack of a robust research base regarding details of what works and why for school leaders’ professional development. The article extends work undertaken for a recent commissioned literature review of selected international reports on supporting school leaders’ development strategies. The authors reveal that the leadership learning landscape seems to be one where system provision over-shadows individuals taking personal responsibility for their leadership learning. In an endeavour to create a balance between system and individual agendas, the authors have created an augmented version of a leadership learning heuristic tool originally developed by Clarke and Wildy. The tool is designed as a starting point only, intended to help leaders identify the state of their current knowledge about leadership as well as their future professional development needs using the tool’s five focal points – pedagogy, people, place, system and self. An example of the tool completed by a practising principal is used to show his current leadership knowledge profile and the knowledge fields on which he will need to focus his learning in the future. The authors conclude with suggestions for further research on personal agency in school leadership learning.
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How to best address the professional learning needs of those aspiring to leadership roles in schools is a crucial issue. Robust evaluation practices are needed to determine the quality of current provisions and to identify where improvements can be made. This paper considers the quality of professional learning programmes using a set of 10 criteria distilled from a synthesis of compelling international leadership learning research. We show the potential of the 10 criteria for judging the quality of professional learning programmes by applying them to examples of programmes drawn from five countries around the world. These examples provide a launching pad from which questions can be posed about the potential use and applicability of such criteria in making design decisions about the quality and value of professional learning programmes in a range of national and international contexts.
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Since the end of the 1980s, the Norwegian education system has gone through major reform, influenced largely by new managerialist ideas. Strategies to renew the public sector were promoted as the new public management (NPM). This paper investigates the way ideas connected to NPM reforms have been introduced and interpreted in the Norwegian education sector. Based on our studies of selected policy documents from the last two decades, we have identified three areas of discursive struggle. The first one is linked to ideologies and the national history of schooling, the second to contested issues of teacher professionalism and the third is associated with strategies for modernising and improving education. A main argument is that NPM reforms changed direction and sped up when Norway was listed among the ‘lower-performing’ countries according to Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and other international tests. Leadership and accountability became the dominant themes in Norwegian education.
We present a multi-phase coaching model that was implemented to help principals improve their instructional leadership practices. We then discuss a rubric based on this coaching model that we used to evaluate coaches’ implementation of key model phases and to identify principals’ responses to the coaching. After presenting the leadership coaching model, we introduce the implementation rubrics, and then we present contrasting cases from our analyses that illustrate two principals’ varying responses to coaching. We discuss how their coaches differed in two key dimensions of implementation: dose and the quality of program delivery. We conclude with a discussion of how these findings can inform development of future educational leadership coaching programs and guide additional research to evaluate the impact of coaching.
Article
Executive Summary One of the most frequently reported findings in the leadership literature is the relationship between a leader's self-confidence and successful leadership. Yet, absent from the literature is a theoretical explanation for this long recognized association. A new leadership approach is proposed based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory that posits leadership self-efficacy as the key cognitive variable regulating leader functioning in a dynamic environment. The full model considers leader cognitions in addition to leader behaviors and the situation resulting in a broader view of the leadership process. Implications and propositions for leadership research are discussed.
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In this article I examine approaches to school leadership in Scandinavia by applying a historical lens. I start by drawing attention to some aspects of the ideology and the history of the Scandinavian education systems in order to discuss how these aspects intersect with the globalised policy trends, and where there is likely to be tensions between the global trends and the cultural and historical imperatives of schooling and school leadership in Scandinavia. The devolution of greater responsibilities to schools has contributed to a number of demands upon them, in particular on school principals, but so far, the emerging age of accountability has had only small consequences on classroom practice. My main argument is that even though there is a growing homogenisation of approaches to school leadership due to global forces, local traditions ensure that they are played out differently in national contexts.
Article
There is great interest in educational leadership in the early part of the twenty-first century. This is because of the widespread belief that the quality of leadership makes a significant difference to school and student outcomes. In many parts of the world, including both developed and developing countries, there is increasing recognition that schools require effective leaders and managers if they are to provide the best possible education for their students and learners. More governments are realising that their main assets are their people and that remaining, or becoming, competitive depends increasingly on the development of a highly skilled workforce. This requires trained and committed teachers but they, in turn, need the leadership of highly effective principals with the support of other senior and middle managers.
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Two multisource studies address the interactive effects of personal and contextual variables on employees' proactive behavior. In line with previous work, we find positive main effects of transformational leadership, role breadth self-efficacy, and job autonomy on employee proactive behavior (personal initiative in Study 1 and prosocial proactive behavior in Study 2). As expected, a 3-way interaction qualifies these main effects: In situations of high autonomy, transformational leadership relates positively to proactive behavior for individuals high (but not low) on self-efficacy. Vice versa, in situations low on job autonomy, transformational leadership relates positively to proactive behavior for individuals low (but not high) on self-efficacy. This pattern is found both for self-ratings and peer-ratings of employees' proactive behavior in Study 1 and for supervisor ratings of such behavior in Study 2.
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