ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

This paper presents data about forestry and reforestation in the Republic of Macedonia. The country is characterized with great diversity of natural conditions and rich floral and faunal biodiversity Forests in Macedonia cover 38% of its territory. About 71% represent coppiced and degraded and 29% tall forests. Historical, social and natural conditions caused gradual deforestation, forest and land degradation. Foundations of artificial afforestation were laid in the first decade of XX century. First reforestation started already in 1913/14 and continued, with various intensity, in the next decades. In the period between two world wars a foundation of modern forestry was established, as forestry education, scientific work etc., to help dealing with reforestation of waste bare and erosive lands. The most intensive reforestation was performed in 1971-1990 and during the following years significantly decreases. There is room for improving of some aspects of the reforestation, in aim to improve survival and development of the young stands.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... V. Shјacki). [17] !930 -Law on torrent control of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia -there are notice that existed canals on central torrent on Vodno. Knowing that in the In the 30,s started construction of canals into the torrent beds everywhere, probably this canals are from this period . ...
... 1913/14 A special commission from the Kingdom of Serbia inspected the condition of the forests in South Serbia (Vardar banovina) including Vodno), where a catastrophic condition was determined.[17] ...
Full-text available
Human activities on the basin can significantly contribute to changes to all hydrological processes through large scale land use changes and land use practices. As a typical positive example can be pointed out Vodno Mountain. Thus, as a subject of this paper is the chronology of legal and institutional setup related to the mountain Vodno. During the research were used 2 basic methods: interviews face to face for obtaining primary data and method of content analyze for obtaiuni9ng secondary data. The results have shown that numerous decision about the status of Vodno have been adopted during the last 70 years. Firstly in 1952 part of Vodno was proclaimed as Erosive area according to the Law on erosion control from 1952. Even an Enterprise for Torrent control and afforestation Vodno was established. After launching of a set of planed erosion and torrent control measures, later the territory of Vodno Mountain was proclaimed as City Park forest according to the Law of natural rarities. Therefore, the main conclusion would be that continuing the procedure and insisting for re-proclaiming of Vodno according to the Law on Nature (adopted in 2004) is even pity taking in consideration that protection of biodiversity and geodiversity on Vodno Mountain is much less important than other roles of Vodno Mountain as follows: object important for the defense of Skopje and the country; object for protection of the City of Skopje and surrounding settlements from erosion and torrent floods; the most important recreational area in Skopje.
The Western Balkans is a neologism coined to describe the countries of “ex-Yugoslavia (minus Slovenia and Croatia) plus Albania”. The region includes: Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Albania. Western Balkan Countries (WBC) are located in Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Full-text available
With an estimated < 50 adult individuals remaining, the Critically Endangered Balkan lynx Lynx lynx balcanicus is one of the rarest, most threatened and least-studied large carnivores. To identify priority conservation areas and actions for the subspecies, during 2006–2014 we conducted 1,374 questionnaire surveys throughout the potential range of the Balkan lynx to (1) evaluate human–lynx interactions and identify potential threats, and (2) determine the probability of site use in 207 grid cells through occupancy modelling. Human–lynx interactions were related mainly to poaching of lynx, and damage to livestock by lynx. Poaching was intense throughout the potential range of the subspecies, apparently having affected 50–100% of the total estimated extant population. Damage to livestock was recorded only in relation to sheep, mainly in the southern part of the lynx's potential range. Occupancy modelling indicated 108 grid cells with high probability of site use, which was affected mainly by increased terrain ruggedness and reduced forest cover. Based on the combined results of our study we identified five priority areas for conservation, as well as in situ habitat protection, community participation in the conservation of the subspecies, and the improvement and implementation of the existing legal framework as the priority conservation actions for the Balkan lynx.
Full-text available
Projections of the regional climate model for Southeast Europe generally predict an increasing of temperature and a decrease in precipitation, with some local variations. Higher frequency of extreme weather events and increased flooding can also be expected. This climate change will, among other things, result in changes in habitats and species distribution, and a decrease in biodiversity. In most cases, forest ecosystems will be unable to adapt fast enough to keep pace with changes in climate. Extreme weather events and low precipitation during the growing season will cause high mortality of seedlings after planting. New forests will face the whole range of these changes because of the long lifetime of trees. Reforestation programs must take projections of climate change into consideration. In the long term, new guidelines for site-species matching, provenance selection, and genetic diversity need to be adopted. In the short term, site preparation, planting techniques, and post planting protection need to be improved. In addition, seedling quality (morphological, physiological, and genetic) and planting time need to be specific for each site. New site preparation, planting, and post-planting protection methods are useful tools for short term success measured in seedling survival and initial growth. Seedling quality is essential for short and long term success. Different strategies, such as assisted migration and increased genetic diversity of planting material, can provide better chances for long term success measured in growth, fitness, and capability to produce the next, better adapted generation.
Full-text available
Soil erosion has been occurring over the geological time. Inappropriate human activities accelerate this process. Soil erosion by water is a widespread problem throughout Europe. The South and Southeast regions of Europe are significantly prone to water erosion. In parts of the region, erosion has reached a stage of irreversibility and in some places erosion has practically ceased because there is no soil left. Scientists from the Balkan countries faced with the erosion problem for years, paid significant attention to solving problems with erosion. The aim of this study is to compare the results of water erosion intensity in the Balkan countries with other European countries. The basic methodological approach in this paper is an analysis of secondary data, using the method of " content analyses " of various data sources. Inductive and deductive qualitative analysis was used and finally the method of " comparative analysis " is applied too. Through the analysis of national researches, it was estimated that erosion intensity in Balkan countries is 548 m 3 km-2
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper deals with the issues of the legislative and policy related to erosion and torrent control in the Republic of Macedonia. The main goal of this work is identification and analysis of the present status of legal and institutional capacities for successful erosion and torrent control and comparison with previous period. For these purpose, historical data about this matter was analysed. Beside it, assessment of present conditions was carried out. In the past, erosion and torrent control was obligation of water management enterprises. Forest enterprises were obligated to carry out forest activities that not increase erosion processes, but this was only declarative. The only real large contribution of forestry was afforestation. The “gold period” for erosion control especially hydraulic works was from 60’s -80’s of the XX century. Afforestation of bareland was intensive in the period 1971-1990 (during the period of the existing of Fund for Afforestation). Now erosion control works are in a phase of “deep lethargy”. With the recent administrative changes: decentralisation program, establishing new risk management policy, new forest policy and transformation of the water management, administrative status of erosion and torrent control is not clearly defined. There are a lot of institutions, but none of them take responsibility for it. Situation with the legislation is similar. There is no special act for erosion, even there isn’t act for soil, but erosion control mostly is encompassed with Law on water. Perhaps one of the crucial problem for this situation is because of specific “land resource management system” in RM that is very specific and problematic.
Following the chain of past historical, economic and political events that occurred within the region, a truly organised and functional forest management planning system and forest inventory was initiated in the Republic of Macedonia after the Second World War.
Experiences in production of seedlings in containers Yukosad and Makosad and results of afforestation bare lands with the seedlings
  • M Arsovski
  • B Stankovski
Arsovski M, Stankovski B (1980) Experiences in production of seedlings in containers Yukosad and Makosad and results of afforestation bare lands with the seedlings. In Serbian: Искуства из производње садница у контејнерима Јукосад и Макосад и резултати од пошумљавања голина тим садницама). Beograd.Forestry, volume 3.
State of land degradation and desertification in the Republic of Macedonia -UNCCD Workshop
  • I Blinkov
  • P Petrovski
Blinkov I, Petrovski P (2000) State of land degradation and desertification in the Republic of Macedonia -UNCCD Workshop, Brussels, Belgium, Proceeding, National report.
Natural and Socio-Economic Effects of Erosion Control in Mountainous Regions
  • I Blinkov
  • A Trendafilov
Blinkov I, Trendafilov A (2002) Effects of antierosion activities on the Vodno Mountain. International Conference "Natural and Socio-Economic Effects of Erosion Control in Mountainous Regions", 10-13 December 2002, Belgrade/Vrujci Spa.
Managing of forest as a natural resources
  • I Blinkov
  • M Stojanovska
Blinkov I, Stojanovska M (2003) Difference between land management in Macedonia and EU countries. International Conference "Managing of forest as a natural resources", 18-21 June 2003, Ohrid/Macedonia.
Support to the Republic of Macedonia in development of National action plan to combat desertification in accordance with the 10-year strategy of UNCCD and the process of reporting to UNCCD
  • I Blinkov
  • D Mukaetov
  • O Cukaliev
Blinkov I, Mukaetov D, Cukaliev O (2014) Elaboration of NAP DLDD -first findings. The First stakeholder workshop related to the project "Support to the Republic of Macedonia in development of National action plan to combat desertification in accordance with the 10-year strategy of UNCCD and the process of reporting to UNCCD", 9-10 June, Ohrid.
The Balkans, the most erosive part of Europe Bulletin of the Faculty of Forestry 111
  • I Blinkov
Blinkov I (2015) The Balkans, the most erosive part of Europe. Bulletin of the Faculty of Forestry 111, University of Belgrade‐Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade: 9‐20.