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An Overview on Panax ginseng

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Abstract

The origin of ginseng dates back to prehistory. In China, Shennong also known as Emperor Yan, the Yellow Emperor, or one of the " Three Emperors " (the Emperor who is said to have started herbal medicine about 5,500 years ago) is reported to have tasted hundreds of plants to discover many medicinal herbs. For many many years, mankind has been using various plants as nutrient, beverage, cosmetics, dye and medicine to maintain health and to improve quality of life. In Asia, particularly, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is considered to be the most precious plant among herbs, and ginseng has been in the spotlight worldwide. Even in the Western world, where there are greatly advanced research facilities and highly qualified manpower available, and are regarded to be capable of conquering any hard-to-cure ailments, many people has recently been reported to use herbal medicine, particularly ginseng. In the present compilation of papers, many scientists contributed papers pertaining to " Chemopreventive effects of ginseng ". In order to facilitate the readers understand easier and better, I catalogued this collection as follows: The spiritual nature of ginseng in the Far East, the history of ginseng, nomenclature and geographical distribution of ginseng, and type of ginseng products. INTRODUCTION Ginseng refers to the root of several species in the plant genus Panax (C. A. Meyer Araliaceae). Among them, Panax ginseng is the most widely used ginseng and is indigenous to the Far East countries (most notably China and Korea). Panax ginseng was first cultivated around 11 BC and has a medical history of more than five thousand years. The genus name of Panax ginseng " Panax " was given by the Russian botanist, C.A. Meyer, and is derived from the Greek words " pan " meaning all and " axos " meaning cure. The species name " ginseng " comes from the Chinese word " rensheng " which means " human " as ginseng root resemble the human body [1]. In China, ginseng roots are harvested when the plant is 3-6 years old and then, the roots are submitted to air drying (white ginseng) or are steamed (red ginseng). Interestingly, after these two ways of treatment the roots differ in their content of saponins [1] and this may be the reason for the variable actions of different ginseng products. Other species of the genus Panax include Panax quinquefolius (found in southern Canada and in the United States), Panax japonicus (grown in Japan), and less frequently Panax notoginseng (grown in China), Panax pseudoginseng (grown
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______________________________________________________________Review Article
An Overview on Panax ginseng
Jai Narayan Mishra* and Navneet Kumar Verma
Department of Pharmacy, Kailash Institute of Pharmacy and Management, GIDA,
Gorakhpur -273209, Uttar Pradesh, India.
__________________________________________________________________
ABSTRACT
The origin of ginseng dates back to prehistory. In China, Shennong also known as Emperor Yan, the Yellow Emperor,
or one of the“Three Emperors(the Emperor who is said to have started herbal medicine about 5,500 years ago) is
reported to have tasted hundreds of plants to discover many medicinal herbs. For many many years, mankind has been
using various plants as nutrient, beverage, cosmetics, dye and medicine to maintain health and to improve quality of life.
In Asia, particularly, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is considered to be the most precious plant among herbs, and ginseng has
been in the spotlight worldwide. Even in the Western world, where there are greatly advanced research facilities and
highly qualified man-power available, and are regarded to be capable of conquering any hard -to-cure ailments, many
people has recently been reported to use herbal medicine, particularly ginseng. In the present compilation of papers,
many scientists contributed papers pertaining toChemopreventive effects of ginseng. In order to facilitate the readers
understand easier and better, I catalogued this collection as follows: The spiritual nature of ginseng in the Far East, the
history of ginseng, nomenclature and geographical distribution of ginseng, and type of ginseng products.
Keywords: Ginseng; Chemoprevention; Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.
INTRODUCTION
Ginseng refers to the root of several species in
the plant genus Panax (C. A. Meyer Araliaceae).
Among them, Panax ginseng is the most widely
used ginseng and is indigenous to the Far East
countries (most notably China and Korea).
Panax ginseng was first cultivated around 11 BC
and has a medical history of more than five
thousand years. The genus name of Panax
ginseng “Panax” was given by the Russian
botanist, C.A. Meyer, and is derived from the
Greek words “pan” meaning all and “axos”
meaning cure. The species name “ginseng”
comes from the Chinese word “rensheng” which
means “human” as ginseng root resemble the
human body [1]. In China, ginseng roots are
harvested when the plant is 3-6 years old and
then, the roots are submitted to air drying (white
ginseng) or are steamed (red ginseng).
Interestingly, after these two ways of treatment
the roots differ in their content of saponins [1]
and this may be the reason for the variable
actions of different ginseng products. Other
species of the genus Panax include Panax
quinquefolius (found in southern Canada and in
the United States), Panax japonicus (grown in
Japan), and less frequently Panax notoginseng
(grown in China), Panax pseudoginseng (grown
in Nepal and eastern Himalayas) and Panax
vietnamensis (grown in Vietnam) [2]. Ginseng is
a widespread herbal medicine [3] and it has
served as an important component of many
Chinese prescriptions for thousands of years [4,
5]. Today it still occupies a permanent and
prominent position in the herbal (best-sellers) list
and is considered the most widely taken herbal
product in the world [6]. Moreover, it is estimated
that more than six million Americans are
regularly consuming ginseng products [7]. They
do not only believe that ginseng will engender
physical benefits, but that it will also have
positive effect on their cognitive performance
and well-being. Ginsenosides or ginseng
saponins are the principle active ingredients in
ginseng and more than thirty different
ginsenosides have been identified [8, 9].
Ginsenosides are unique to Panax species,
many of which exist in minute amounts and are
believed to be responsible for most of ginseng’s
actions [10-13]. Addition-ally, ginsenosides
operate by many mechanisms of action and it
was suggested that each ginsenoside may have
its own specific tissue-dependent effects [14].
The basic structure of ginsenosides is similar.
They consist of a gonane steroid nucleus with
17 carbon atoms arranged in four rings. The
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characteristic biological responses for each
ginsenosides are attributed to the differences in
the type, position and number of sugar moieties
attached by glycosidic bond at C-3 and C-6 [15].
Based on their structural differences, they can
be classified into three categories: the
panaxadiol group (e.g. Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd,
Rg3, Rh2, Rs1), the panaxatriol group (e.g. Re,
Rf, Rg1, Rg2, Rh1), and the oleanolic acid group
(e.g. Ro) [5, 16]. Interestingly, the ginsenoside
content of ginseng can vary depending on the
Panax species, the plant age, the part of the
plant, the preservation method, the season of
harvest and the ex-traction method [17, 18].
Table1: Scientific Classification
Kingdom:
Plantae
(unranked):
Angiosperms
(unranked):
Eudicots
(unranked):
Asterids
Order:
Apiales
Family:
Araliaceae
Genus:
Panax
Species:
Panax ginseng
Fig. 1: Panax ginseng
Active Constituents
Panax ginseng contains triterpene glycosides, or
saponins, commonly referred to as
ginsenosides. Many active compounds can be
found in all parts of the plant, including amino
acids, alkaloids, phenols, proteins, polypeptides,
and vitamins B1 and B2.3 Up to 40 distinct
ginsenosides have been identified by thin layer
chromatography (TLC) and methanol extraction
experiments. The nomenclature of ginsenosides
is by the designation Rx, where x represents the
retention factor (Rf) value from the sequence of
spots on TLC from bottom to top. The two major
sub-types of ginsenosides, protopanaxadiol and
protopanaxatriol, are classified according to the
arrangement and number of sugar residues
glucose, rhamnose, xylose, and arabinose on
the ginsenosides. Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd are
examples of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides. Re,
Rf, Rg1, and Rg2 are examples of
protopanaxatriols. [19-24] These ginsenosides
have varying concentrations in red and white
Panax ginseng extracts due to different
processing method that affect deacetylating
enzymes within the raw plant material.[25]
Fig. 2: Ginsenosides
Pharmacokinetics
Recent research supports the hypothesis that
ginsenosides are activated by intestinal bacteria
through deglycosylation and esterification.
Protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol glycosides
are absorbed into the blood or lymph and
transported to target tissues for esterification
with stearic, oleic, or palmitic fatty acids. The
transformation into ginsenoside metabolites, M1
(20S-protopanaxadiol 20-O-B-D-
glucopyranoside) and M4 (20S-protopanaxatriol)
affect excretion and utilization of the
metabolites.[26]
Mechanism of Action
Panax ginseng is often referred to as an
adaptogen, which suggests it has varied actions
and effects on the body that support nonspecific
resistance to biochemical and physical
stressors, improve vitality and longevity, and
enhance mental capacity. [20,27,28] Reviews
suggest Panax ginseng has immunomodulating
activity by affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-
adrenal (HPA) axis.3,11In vitro experiments
reveal enhanced natural killer (NK) cell activity
and increased immune cell phagocytosis after
ginsenoside exposure.[20] According to a 1999
World Health Organization review, ginseng
saponins “are thought to decrease serum
prolactin, thereby increasing libido” in male
impotence.[29]
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Clinical Indications
Panax ginseng has been widely studied in
double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled
trials (RCTs). Although ginseng has been used
by Asian cultures for thousands of years for
conditions such as fatigue, mental stress, blood
sugar regulation, improving libido, and
supporting longevity, modern clinical studies
have focused on the use of Panax ginsengin
cancer prevention, blood sugar regulation,
fatigue, and immunomodulation in human health
and disease.
Immune Modulation
A double-blind, placebo-controlled eight-week
study examined the immune effects of 100 mg
Ginsana (G115), 100 mg liquid ginseng extract,
or placebo twice daily in 60 healthy volunteers.
Blood samples collected at baseline, week four,
and week eight examined polymorphonuclear
(PMN) cell chemotaxis, phagocytosis, total
lymphocytes, T-helper and T-suppressor cells,
and NK-cell activity. The groups receiving
ginseng experienced consistent improvement in
immune system activity at week four and
statistically significant Differences at week eight,
evidenced by improvements in PMN cell
chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and total number of
T-helper and T-suppressor cells. The authors
concluded ginseng extract stimulates the
immune system and the standardized extract is
more effective than the liquid ginseng
extract.[30] Some of the same researchers
examined the effects of Panax ginseng extract
on the immune response to vaccination. The
multicenter, 12-week, double-blind RCT
compared immune response in 227 participants,
measured as NK-cell activity, at weeks eight and
12, post influenza vaccine given at week four.
The treatment group received 100 mg G115
twice daily. NK-cell activity for the ginseng group
was double that of the placebo group (p<0.0001)
at weeks eight and 12. Serum antibody titers
were 272 units in the ginseng group compared
to 171 units in the placebo group. A significant
decrease in the frequency of upper respiratory
infections during weeks 4-12 was noted in the
treatment group compared to placebo; 15 cases
versus 42 cases, respectively. This study
supports the role of ginseng in immune system
modulation. [31] An RCT compared the effects
of red Panax ginseng on HIV-1 infected patients
(n=61).[32] The purpose of this study was to
determine the effects of red Panax ginseng after
accounting for HLA type (I or II and class A, B,
and C), on CD4 counts, CD8 counts, and the
trend toward decreased resistance to anti-
Retroviral drugs. HLA type can be associated
with an improved prognosis in HIV patients,
based on an algorithm that also predicts risk of
disease progression.[33] The treatment group
received 5.4 g red Panax ginseng daily. Blood
samples were taken from the control group
(n=199) and HIV-1 infected patients every six
months throughout the study. Data analysis
revealed an inverse correlation between the
HLA score and the decrease of CD4 T cells over
time, a decrease in the decline of CD4 T cells
associated with the intake of red Panax ginseng,
and a significant (p<0.05) decline of CD4 T cells,
independent of the HLA class I effects on
immune system cells. The authors concluded
that red Panax ginseng and HLA type
independently affect the slow depletion of CD4 T
cells in HIV-infected patients.
Diabetes
Eclectic medicine texts reference Panax ginseng
for its beneficial use in blood sugar regulation.
[19,34] In a double-blind RCT, Sotaniemi et al
examined the efficacy of Panax ginsengin newly
diagnosed type 2 diabetics.[24] Parameters
measured included physical performance, mood,
serum lipids, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin
A1c (HbA1c), amino terminal propeptide
(PIIINP) concentration, and body weight. PIIINP
serum levels are associated with coronary artery
disease and were used as a safety parameter in
this study. The study participants (n=36) were
given 100 mg ginseng extract, 200 mg ginseng
extract, or placebo daily for eight weeks.
Compared to the placebo group, the 200-mg
ginseng group experienced elevated mood,
improved physical performance, and reduced
fasting blood glucose. The authors concluded
ginseng warrants further study as an adjuvant to
diabetes management. A 2005 double-blind,
crossover RCT examined the effects of Panax
ginseng on blood glucose levels and cognitive
performance during sustained mental
activity.[35] Healthy young adults (n=30) took a
10-minute test battery for baseline results, then
were given 200 mg G115, 400 mg G115, or
placebo. One hour later the test battery was
repeated six times in rapid succession. Blood
sugar levels were assessed at baseline and
twice during the testing procedure. The 200-mg
and 400-mg G115 doses reduced blood glucose
levels significantly (p<0.005). Significant
improvement was also noted in the ability to
complete the serial sevens subtraction task after
taking 200 mg G115 (p<0.05). The authors
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concluded Panax ginseng improves mental
performance, possibly by regulating glucose
metabolism. A double-blind, 12-week RCT
examined the effect of red Panax ginseng on
HbA1c levels in 19 subjects with well-controlled
type 2 diabetes.[36] Study participants received
2 g ginseng or placebo three times daily before
meals. Plasma glucose and insulin, insulin
sensitivity, and oral glucose tolerance were
secondary measures of efficacy, while blood
pressure checks and liver and kidney function
tests assessed safety. Although no change was
seen in HbA1c levels with ginseng, the
participants remained well controlled throughout
the study without pharmaceutical intervention
with average levels of HbA1c of 6.5 percent. A
significant 8- to 11-percent decrease in glucose
on the oral glucose tolerance test and 33-
percent decrease in plasma insulin (p<0.05) was
seen in the ginseng group compared to placebo.
No change was reported in safety parameters
throughout the study, which led the authors to
conclude red Panax ginseng is safe to use in the
treatment of type II diabetes.
Cancer Prevention
Numerous in vitro and animal studies have
examined the interaction of Panax ginseng with
carcinogenesis, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and
metastasis.[24,37-40] A recent paper proposed
an anti-inflammatory role of Panax ginseng in
the sequence of progression to promotion in a
model of carcinogenesis.[41] Panax ginseng
affects multiple points within the inflammatory
cascade, including inhibition of cyclooxygenase-
2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase
(iNOS), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-
κB).[42,43] In a review, Lee et al concluded
Panax ginseng has a radio protective effect
associated with antioxidant and immune-
modulation properties.8An epidemiological study
examined the protective effect of a variety of
Panax ginseng products on 3,974 patients with
different types of cancer compared to case-
matched controls for 67 weeks.[44] Patients
taking ginseng demonstrated a 50-percent lower
risk of cancer recurrence compared to patients
not taking ginseng. Red ginseng offered greater
protection than white ginseng. Cancer incidence
decreased by 36- and 69 percent in subjects
taking ginseng for one year or five years,
respectively. A greater protective effect was
seen in cancers of the lip, esophagus, pharynx,
lung, and liver. A prospective study examined
non-organ specific cancer prevention of Panax
ginseng.[45] This cohort study used case-
controlled matches (n=4,587) of Koreans over
age 40. A questionnaire was used to determine
pattern of ginseng intake, initial age of ginseng
intake, frequency, duration, and form of ginseng
(fresh, dried, etc.) used by study participants.
Ginseng intake correlated with a 60-percent
reduction in cancer incidence, with a direct
dose-response relationship. Drug-Botanical
Interactions According to a review by
Blumenthal et al, there are no known
interactions between Panax ginseng and
pharmaceuticals, as reported by the German
Commission E.[20,46] Caution is advised with
concomitant use with phenelzine, coumadin, oral
hypoglycemics, insulin, and caffeine, based on
preclinical studies and proposed mechanisms of
action.[28,47] A recent review by Seely et al
suggests cautious use of Panax ginseng in
pregnancy and lactation, although no specific
teratogenic or hormone-disrupting activity was
noted.[22]
Side Effects and Toxicity
Panax ginseng is associated with low toxicity;
few adverse events have been reported with
proper us-age. Adverse events have been
associated with high doses and long-term
usage, producing what has been cited in the
literature as ginseng abuse syndrome,[22,28]
although case studies associated with ginseng
abuse syndrome have been discounted by
several authors.[20] Side effects such as
hypertension, nausea, diarrhea, headache,
mastalgia, insomnia, and skin rash have been
noted.[19,22,28]
Dosage
Ginseng root can be chewed, or taken as a
powder, liquid extract, decoction, or infusion.
The level of ginsenosides can vary depending
on steeping time and type of preparation. The
ginsenoside concentration can vary from
approximately 64-77 percent. Crude
preparations of 1-2 g dried root powder can be
taken daily for up to three months, according to
recommendations by the German Commission
E.29 A decoction can be prepared by simmering
3-9 g dried root in 720-960 mL (24-32 oz) water
for 45 minutes. A fluid extract (1:2 concentration)
prepared from crude root can be dosed at 1-6
mL daily.31An infusion can be made by pouring
150-250 mL (5-8 oz) of boiling water over 1-2 g
root, steeping for 10 minutes covered, and then
straining before drinking. Dosage of Panax
ginseng extract standardized to 4-percent
ginsenosides is 200 mg per day, in divided
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doses, yielding 8 mg ginsenosides daily. Other
reports suggest significantly higher doses of 80-
240 mg ginsenosides daily might be warranted
in some cases. [20]
Warnings and Contraindications
The German Commission E and the World
Health Organization report no known
contraindications for Panax ginseng.[20, 29]
Caution is advised during pregnancy and
lactation due to a lack of controlled human
clinical studies.[20,22] Teratogenicity has been
documented in an in vitro rat embryo model, but
the implication for human health is questionable
due to dosages used that exceed possible
human consumption.[49] In Asian countries the
use of Panax ginseng in TCM formulas is
common throughout pregnancy and
lactation.[22]
TYPES OF GINSENG PRODUCTS
The conventional sun-drying of ginseng was
switched to the steaming method to meet the
great demand for ginseng which was stimulated
by active trade with China during the reign of
King Ae, the 14th King of Balhae. Xu-Jing of the
Sung Dynasty, an attendant to a special envoy
of the Chinese Emperor to Korea, wrote inKaoli
Tsuchingof the impression of his visit to the
(Korean) Kingdom of Koryo in 1123, during the
reign of King In Jong. He described in his book
that there were two kinds of ginseng products in
Koryo, sun-dried and steamed ginseng; red
ginseng [50]. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
cultivated in Korea (Korean ginseng) is
harvested after 4 to 6 yr of cultivation, and it is
classified into three types depending on how it is
processed:
(a) fresh ginseng (less than 4 yr old; can be
consumed in its fresh state);
(b) white ginseng (4-6 yr old; dried after peeling);
and
(c) red ginseng (harvested when 6 yr old, and
then steamed and dried).
Each type of ginseng is further subcategorized
as ginseng products; fresh sliced, juice, extract
(tincture or boiled extract), powder, tea, tablet,
capsule, etc. Two years old fresh ginseng is also
used as an ingredient in the Korean chicken-
ginseng soup known as Samketang.
CONCLUSION
The pharmacologically active ingredients of
ginseng are ginsenosides (ginseng saponins). In
the current time, there is increasing evidence in
the literature on the pharmacological and
physiological actions of ginseng. Ginseng had
been used primarily as a tonic to invigorate
week bodies and help the restoration of
homeostasis. However current in vivo and in
vitro studies have shown its beneficial effects in
a wide range of pathological conditions such as
cardiovascular diseases, cancer, immune
deficiency and hepatotoxicity. Moreover, recent
research has suggested that some of ginseng’s
active ingredients also exert beneficial actions
on aging, CNS disorders and neurodegenerative
diseases. In general, antioxidant, anti-
inflammatory, antiapoptotic and
immunostimulant activities are mostly underlying
the possible ginseng mediated protective
mechanisms.
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... Panax ginseng has immunomodulatory activity by influencing the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal (HPA) action. In vitro experiments also revealed increasing natural killer (NK) cell activity and increased immune cell phagocytosis after exposure to ginsenoside [28]. Fuzi, or lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, has been widely used in Chinese medicine for tumors, poor circulation, heart failure, and pain. ...
... Panax ginseng was initially grown around 11 BC and has a more than 5000-year medicinal history. 10 The main active compounds in ginseng are ginsenosides or ginseng saponins. 11 Other ingredients such as polysaccharides and polyacetylenes are also found in ginseng root. ...
Article
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the most frequent oral cancer. The management for OSCC are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have high toxicity and side effects, therefore effort are needed to reduce them. Several studies show that herbal medicines have anticancer effects with lower toxicity and side effects. The objective is to discuss about management of OSCC using chemotherapy and anticancer herbal medicines as adjunctive therapy. A 59-year-old man came to the oral medicine clinic complaining a painful ulcer on the right tongue since 8 months ago. The ulcer had been enlarged in the last 3 months and the tongue was difficult to be moved. He used pain relievers and aloe vera gel but there was no improvement. He smoked one pack a day since 40 years ago. Intraoral showed an irregular indurated endophytic mass with an ulcer on the right lateral of the tongue. An incisional biopsy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was poorly differentiated OSCC. The patient was referred to the oncology department and advised for chemotherapy 6 cycles per 3 weeks. He also used herbal medicines containing Panax ginseng radix, Panax pseudoginseng radix, Ophiopogonis japonicus, Ganoderma lucidum, Ligusticum wallichii rhizoma, and Atractylodes macrocephala rhizoma. The content of these herbal medicines have anticancer and immunomodulatory effects. After the second cycle of chemotherapy, there was a significant improvement. OSCC management with chemotherapy combined with anticancer herbal medicines can increase the success of therapy and reduce the side effects of chemotherapy.
... Panax ginseng commonly called ginseng has functioned as a vital component of many Chinese medicaments for centuries and currently it still fills an enviable and prominent position as the most extensively consumed herbal recipe in the world (Blumenthal, 2001). It is generally believed that ginseng does not only stimulate physical benefits but also has a positive effect on cognitive performance and well-being (Mishra and Verma, 2017). Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) is widely used as a nutritional supplement and in folk medicine to increase fertility and sexual function (Gonzales et al., 2001;Gonzales, 2012;Del Prete et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Jalin Herbal Mannex Liquid (JHML) is a polyherbal formulation from honey, Panax ginseng, Liriosma ovate, and Lepidium mehenil, intended for enhanced sexual performance and improve sperm count in men. JHML was studied via its effect on body weight, biochemical indices and histopathology of the testes. Twenty healthy Wistar rats of 120-150 g weight were allotted into groups A and B., of ten rats each, group A (control), were given 2 mL/kg B.W of tap water, group B were dosed with 2 mL/kg B.W of JHML for four weeks with the animals allowed access to feed and water ad-libitum. Blood were obtained through heart perforation, kidney and testes were excised, washed with normal buffered saline. Results from the investigation indicated that JHML had androgenic properties with marked significant increase (p˂0.05) in body weight of rats administered with JHML. Significant increase (p˂0.05) was observed in LH, FSH, testosterone and with a concomitant significant decrease (p˂0.05) in PRL. The JHML caused non-significant decrease (p>0.05) on triglycerides and cholesterol but with positive significant effect (p˂0.05) on LDL and HDL. No significant changes (p>0.05) on creatinine, urea, uric acid and serum electrolytes. Testicular sections of rats treated with JHML exhibited normal features, seminiferous epithelium and interstitial tissues with active spermatogenesis. The significant increase (p˂0.05) in testosterone, LH, FSH with a concomitant significant decrease (p˂0.05) in PRL may account for its sex invigorating potential, the non-significant changes observed in some biochemical indices of the rats showed that JHML is relatively safe at the studied dose.
... A chemically triterpenoid saponin with a structure that resembles that of steroid hormones, ginsenosides are the active constituent of ginseng. 90,91 Androgens regulate male sexual behavior, reproductive growth, and testicular functions. Because ginsenosides are structurally similar to steroid hormones, they may be able to stimulate steroid-hormone-receptors in reproductive tissues, which are involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis, gametogenesis, and other gonadal processes. ...
Article
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Male infertility is referred to as the lack of ability of the male to impregnate his fertile female partner even after 12 months of unprotected, frequent sexual contact. It affects anywhere from 9 percent to 15.8percent of the general population. Male infertility can be treated with a variety of conventional methods, but the effectiveness of this therapy is still under research. Complementary and alternative medicine is frequently sought by those suffering from infertility issues. In many cases, herbal medicine, for example maca, dang gui, or ginseng are applied try to ameliorate male fertility, libido, and sexual functions. Ginseng, as a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element modulator, has been shown in several preclinical investigations to stimulate spermatogenesis, as well as to improve testicular functions, sperm quality, and motility.
... 48 Ginseng Panax ginseng, also called Korean ginseng or Chinese ginseng, has a long history of medicinal use in TCM dating back thousands of years. 49 While P. ginseng (and other related Panax species) contain a number of bioactive constituents, ginsenosides (triterpene saponins) are thought to be the major medicinal compounds present in the plant. Ginsenosides are reported to have various antitumor effects, including inhibition of angiogenesis as well as tumor invasion and metastasis. ...
Article
Botanical medicines may prevent or hamper colon carcinogenesis through a variety of mechanisms, such as induction of apoptosis or cell cycle regulation. As evidenced by primary and secondary prevention studies using aspirin, inflammation and COX-2 expression are important drivers of colon carcinogenesis, promoting both the initiation and progression of colon cancer. Some botanical medicines may exert a protective effect by quelling such inflammation. This article reviews pertinent clinical or preclinical evidence for the preventive effects of garlic, curcumin, berberine, Boswellia, ginseng, ginger, resveratrol, and rosmarinic acid, in reference to colorectal cancer. While the data for medicinal plants and their constituents remain largely preclinical, there are several areas of interest that warrant additional study.
... Korean ginseng, the roots of P. ginseng, belongs to the Araliaceae family and is a perennial well-known medicinal plant extensively distributed in Korea and China [58][59][60]. The saponin content of P. ginseng differs according to the drying method. ...
Article
Background Since the beginning of medical history, plants have been exemplary sources of a variety of pharmacological compounds that are still used in modern medication. Respiratory infections are a serious and persistent global health problem, most acute and chronic respiratory infections are caused by viruses, whose ability to rapidly mutate may result in epidemics and pandemics, as seen recently with MERS-COV (2012) and SARS-COV-2 (2019), the latter causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods Highlight the tremendous benefits of plants that have been widely used as dietary supplements or traditional treatment for various respiratory infections, with a focus on the most effective constituents and studies that revealed their activities against COVID-19. Results Several traditional plants and their phytoconstituents have shown activity against respiratory viruses, including SARS-COV-2. The presented plants are Nigella sativa, Punica granatum, Panax ginseng, Withania somnifera, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Camellia sinensis, Echinacea purpurea, Strobilanthes cusia, Stephania tetrandra, and genus Sambucus. Conclusion The data discussed in this review can encourage carrying out in-vivo studies that may help to the discovery of herbal leads that can be feasibly used to alleviate, prevent or treat COVID-19 infection.
Article
The aging process predisposes numerous homeostatic disorders, metabolic disorders, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Changes in diet and lifestyle and therapeutic adjuvants are essential to minimize the effects of comorbidities associated with aging. Natural products such as Panax ginseng have been used to treat and prevent diseases related to aging. This review aims to investigate the effects of Panax ginseng in various conditions associated with aging, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. The ginsenosides, chemical constituents found in Panax ginseng, can inhibit the effects of inflammatory cytokines, inhibit signaling pathways that induce inflammation, and inhibit cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Besides, ginsenosides are involved in neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system due to anti-apoptotic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of ginseng extract showed actions on lipid homeostasis, positively regulating high-density lipoprotein, down-regulating low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, and producing beneficial effects on vascular endothelial function. The use of this plant in cancer resulted in improved quality of life and mood. It decreased symptoms of fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea, reducing anxiety. Panax ginseng has been shown to exert potent therapeutic benefits that can act as a complementary treatment in managing patients with chronic diseases related to aging.
Article
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Objective: Coronaviruses often cause acute complications in the respiratory system with cold-like symptoms. A number of them, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have killed thousands of people and have caused epidemics and pandemics. This review study aims to investigate the most common medicinal plants in Iran and introduce their natural products with antiviral effects on coronaviruses and strengthening the immune system in order to prevent and control them. Methods: In this review study, a search was conducted in national and international databases such as Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, SID, MagIran and IranMedex by using keywords such as COVID-19, Coronaviruses, SARS, MERS, SARS-CoV-2, PEDV in both Persian and English for studies published until 2020, and finally 51 articles were selected. Results: There are 10 plants with antiviral effects on members of the family Coronaviridae among which Ginger, Galangal, Cinnamon, Fennel flower, Grapefruit (peel), and Purple coneflower were effective on COVID-19. Elder, Ginseng, Aloe vera, Milkvetch, and Shirazi Thyme plants were effective in boosting the immune system and preventing viral diseases. Conclusion: Inhibiting the replication of viruses is the common mechanism in antiviral drugs, but natural compounds usually counteract it by disrupting key proteins and virulence factors of viruses. Therefore, the use of the antiviral components of reported plants can be useful in producing drugs for these viruses, especially the one causing COVID-19.
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Use of succulent bio-medicines and other succulent bio-healthcare products can bring a dramatic change in initiation, progression as well as expression of symptoms of various diseases among individuals. Succulent parts of some effective medicinal plants in the form of paste or pressure extract can be covered by some digestible capsular materials of biological origin without addition of any synthetic chemical and may be used as preventive oral medicines against COVID-19. Plants having ethnomedicinal reports of having strong immunomodulation and antioxidation activities and plants having role in protection of respiratory organs may be selected for such use to strengthen the immunity power of the people to become refractory to the viral infections. Name of such medicinal plants with relevant parts and previous reports on their related activities, discussion of various steps related with preparation of a design for efficacy based study on the medicines and their dose determination; production, marketing and transport of these medicines up to the patient level; searching of answer of the questions raised against such herbal medicines and discussion of pros and cons of the use of such medicines are added in this book. A brief analysis of possible mechanism of actions of the succulent bio-medicines is also included in this book.
Article
The present study was designed to investigate the possible neuroprotective activity of ginseng roots in 5-min ischemic gerbils using a step-down passive avoidance task and subsequent neuron and synapse counts in the hippocampal CA1 region. The following drugs were administered for 7 days before the induced ischemia: red ginseng powder (RGP), crude ginseng saponin (CGS), crude ginseng non-saponin (CGNS), and pure ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1 and Ro. Oral administration of RGP significantly prevented the ischemia-induced decrease in response latency, as determined by the passive avoidance test, and rescued a significant number of ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal injections of CGS exhibited a similar neuroprotective effect. CGNS had a significant but less potent protective effect against impaired passive avoidance task and degeneration of hippocampal CA1 neurons. Ginsenoside Rb1 significantly prolonged the response latency of ischemic gerbils and rescued a significant number of ischemic CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas ginisenosides Rg1 and Ro were ineffective. Postischemic treatment with RGP, CGS or ginsenoside Rb1 was ineffective. The neuroprotective activities of RGP, CGS and ginsenoside Rb1 were confirmed by electron microscopy counts of synapses in individual strata of the CA1 field of ischemic gerbils pretreated with the drugs. These findings suggest that RGP and CGS are effective in the prevention of delayed neuronal death, and that ginsenoside Rb1 is one of the neuroprotective molecules within ginseng root.
Article
The variation in panaxoside content of roots and commercial products of Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolium was evaluated by a new spectrodensitometric TLC method. The method is rapid and applicable to all commercial products, and it has a relative standard deviation of 6.4%. Panaxoside patterns of slurry-filled capsules and root extracts most closely resembled those of whole roots. Tablets did not contain detectable panaxosides while teas and granules for infusion yielded only low concentrations. The wide variation among these products indicates the need for more rigid control.
Article
Ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is a well-known Chinese traditional medicine. There have been more than 300 original papers in Chinese and in English during the last 10 years in China. This review paper summarizes some achievements from some of these published papers. Twenty-eight ginsenosides and some minor constituents were extracted and isolated from the root, root-stock, stems, leaves, flowers and flower-buds of ginseng. The chemical analysis demonstrated that the content of ginsenosides is related to the source, part and growth years of ginseng. The drug has a wide range of pharmacological and therapeutical actions, it acts on the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and endocrine secretion, promotes immune function and metabolism, possesses biomodulation action, anti-stress and anti-ageing activities, and so on. Many preparations of ginseng have been officially approved for clinical application in China. Clinical evaluation has shown that these preparations play a special role in medicinal use.
Article
The effect of Panax ginseng extracts on cell-mediated immune functions in man has been investigated. Three groups, each consisting of twenty healthy volunteers, were treated under conditions of double blindness with capsules containing lactose (Control Group B), with capsules containing 100 mg of aqueous extract of the drug (Group A), and with capsules containing 100 mg of standardized extract of the drug (Group C). All the patients took one capsule every 12 h for 8 weeks. Blood samples were withdrawn before beginning the treatment, at the fourth week and at the eighth week. The immune parameters examined were the following: chemotaxis of PMNs, phagocytosis index (PHI), phagocytosis fraction (PHF), intracellular killing, total lymphocytes (T3), T helper (T4) subset, suppressor cells (T8) subset, blastogenesis of circulating lymphocytes, natural killer-cell activity (NK). Chemotaxis proved to be enhanced (p less than 0.05) already at the fourth week in Group A as well as in Group C; the increase became even more marked (p less than 0.001) at the eight week in subjects belonging to Group C. PHI and PHF proved to be enhanced (p less than 0.05) at the eighth week in subjects of Group A; these increases were found to be higher in subjects of Group C (p less than 0.001) already starting at the fourth week. Intracellular killing was shown to be significantly increased (p less than 0.05) already at the fourth week in Groups A and C; the increase becomes highly significant in both groups (p less than 0.001) at the eighth week; however, a significant increase (p less than 0.05) at the eighth week was also noticed in the placebo group (Group B).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) and saponins isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer on the survival of chick and rat embryonic cerebral cortex neurons were examined. Ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) exerted a survival-promoting effect on both chick and rat cerebral cortex neurons in cell cultures. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) also had an effect in the rat and displayed some influence in the chick. NGF alone exerted no effect on both neurons, although it did potentiate the GRb1 effect on chick embryonic cerebral cortex neurons, but did not alter the GRb1 effect on rat embryonic cerebral cortex neurons. NGF did not alter the survival-promoting effect of GRg1 on either chick or rat embryonic cerebral cortex neurons. The other saponins alone or with NGF exerted no effect on the survival of cerebral cortex neurons in either the chick or rat.
Article
Panax ginseng occupies an important place among the tonic remedies of Oriental medicine. Pharmacological investigations show that crude ginsenosides can increase non-specific resistance of an organism to various untoward influences. The effects of purified derived derivatives have only recently become better studied in immunological and cell growth studies in animals and in man. This has now provided some evidence to suggest that ginseng is a drug that contains many derivatives with different pharmacological properties, which could be useful in clinical medicine.
Article
This study presents the risk of various cancers in relation to ginseng intake based on the data from a case-control study conducted in the Korea Cancer Center Hospital. Ginseng intakers had a decreased risk [odds ratio = 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.44-0.58] for cancer compared with nonintakers. On the type of ginseng, the odds ratios for cancer were 0.37 (95% CI = 0.29-0.46) for fresh ginseng extract intakers, 0.57 (95% CI = 0.48-0.68) for white ginseng extract intakers, 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22-0.41) for white ginseng powder intakers, and 0.20 (95% CI = 0.08-0.50) for red ginseng intakers. Intakers of fresh ginseng slice, fresh ginseng juice, and white ginseng tea, however, showed no decreasing risk. There was a decrease in risk with the rising frequency and duration of ginseng intake, showing a dose-response relationship. On the site of cancer, the odds ratios were 0.47 for cancer of the lip, oral cavity, and pharynx; 0.20 for esophageal cancer; 0.36 for stomach cancer; 0.42 for colorectal cancer; 0.48 for liver cancer; 0.22 for pancreatic cancer; 0.18 for laryngeal cancer; 0.55 for lung cancer; and 0.15 for ovarian cancer. In cancers of the female breast, uterine cervix, urinary bladder, and thyroid gland, however, there was no association with ginseng intake. In cancers of the lung, lip, oral cavity and pharynx, and liver, smokers with ginseng intake showed decreased odds ratios compared with smokers without ginseng intake. These findings support the view that ginseng intakers had a decreased risk for most cancers compared with nonintakers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)