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WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR VARIOUS CROPS AND IMPACT OF IRRIGATION IN BARIND AREA

Authors:
Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA) 1(1) (2017) 04-07
Cite this article Dr. Md. Kumruzzaman a, Anirban Sarker b Water requirements for various crops and impact of irrigation in barind area Malaysian Journal of
Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA) 1(1) (2017) 04-07
ARTICLE DETAILS
Article history:
Received 12 August 2016
Accepted 12 December 2016
Available online 20 January 2017
Keywords:
Consumptive use, consumptive
irrigation requirement, Blaney-
Criddle Method.
ABSTRACT
In this paper successive depletion of groundwater level with expansion of ground water irrigation in Barind Tract
has been discussed from 1985 to 2015. Rajshahi is a city in western Bangladesh. It is located in the north-west part
of the country and situated on the northern banks of the river Padma. After starting of groundwater irrigation in
Bangladesh, it spread rapidly all over the country, and about 80% of agricultural land is now supplied irrigation
from groundwater. This study was conducted to estimate the Consumptive use and Crop Irrigation Requirement for
various crops like Amon(rice), Boro(rice), Wheat and Potato. Blaney-Criddle Method was used in this study. In this
study, data was collected from the zonal office of Barind Multipurpose Development Authority (BMDA), Rajshahi
and Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Meteorological complex, Green Road, Dhaka. From the data analysis,
the maximum value of consumptive use is 27.88 cm in the month of April, 1989 and minimum value of consumptive
use is 2.02 cm in the month of February, 2011. The maximum value of Crop Irrigation Requirement is 21.66 cm in
1987.
1. INTRODUCTION
In order to achieve sustainable agricultural growth and to maintain
ecological balance under the Barind Multipurpose Development
Authority (BMDA) was launched during late eighties century Chapai
Nawabgang, Noagan and Rajshahi districts which includes 25
Upazillas (sub-district) in the ‘Barind Area’ at the north western part
of Bangladesh covering an area of 7500 km2.[1] In this area there is
limited scope to conserve rain water for irrigation and lack of modern
agricultural technology resulted in agricultural and socio-economic
backwardness.
Under Kӧppen climate classification [2] Rajshahi has a tropical wet
and dry climate. The climate of Rajshahi is generally marked with
monsoons, high temperature, considerable humidity and moderate
rainfall. The hot season commences early in March and continues till
the middle of July. The maximum mean temperature observed is
about 32 to 36°C (90 to 97°F) during the months of April, May, June
and July and the minimum temperature recorded in January is about
7 to 16°C (45 to 61°F). the highest rainfall is observed during the
months of monsoon. The annual rainfall in the district is about 1,448
millimeters (57.0in).
Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is
used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of
landscapes and re-vegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and
during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has
a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants
against frost, suppressing weed growing in grain fields and helping in
preventing soil consolidation.[3] In contrast, agriculture that relies
only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming.
Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal of
sewage and in mining. Irrigation is often
studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial
removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. [4]
Climate is the most important to decide the rate of
evapotranspiration. Several empirical formulas are available to
estimate evapotranspiration from climate data. FAO expert group of
scientists has recommended four methods for adoption of different
regions of world. Among all of these methods Penman Method
provides more accurate result.[5] One of the practical application of
estimation of evapotranspiration is in the design of irrigation system
to meet the water demand of plant growth during the period of
sufficient water.
Water is needed mainly to meet the demand of evaporation,
transpiration and metabolic needs of the planets, all together is
known as consumptive use. . Since water used in the metabolic
activities of plant is negligible, being only less than one percent of
quantity of water passing through the plant, evaporation and
transpiration, i.e. evaporation is directly considered as equal to
consumptive use.[6] In addition to evapotranspiration, water
requirement includes losses during the application of irrigation
water to field (percolation, seepage and run off) and water required
for special operation such as land preparation, transplanting,
leaching etc. [7]
MacDonald (1978) studied that that transmissivity values of the
aquifer ranges from 1000 m2/day to 2000 m2 /day but it less than
1000 m2/day in Paba upazilla and average storage coefficient value
was estimated 0.01. [8] Consequently ground water is being
withdrawn from storage and water levels are declining resulting in
crop failure adverse salt balance, sea waters intrusion in costal
aquifers and subsidence in areas where draft resulting compaction of
sediment. Even in high rainfall areas of the state, water scarcity is
Contents List available at RAZI Publishing
Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
ISSN: 2521-2931 (Print)
ISSN: 2521-294X (Online)
WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR VARIOUS CROPS AND IMPACT OF IRRIGATION IN
BARIND AREA
Dr. Md. Kumruzzaman a, Anirban Sarker b
a Professor, b Undergraduate Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi-6204,
Bangladesh.
Journal Homepage: http://www.razipublishing.com/journals/malaysian- journal-
of-sustainable-agriculture-mjsa/
https://doi.org/10.26480/mjsa.01.2017.07.08
Dr. Md. Kumruzzaman a, Anirban Sarker b Water requirements for various crops and impact of irrigation in barind area Malaysian Journal of Sustainable
Agriculture (MJSA) 1(1) (2017) 04-07
Cite this article Dr. Md. Kumruzzaman a, Anirban Sarker b Water requirements for various crops and impact of irrigation in barind area Malaysian Journal of Sustainable
Agriculture (MJSA) 1(1) (2017) 04-07
5
experienced in summer months [9].
The proper management of ground water resources requires an
adequate knowledge of the extent of the storage, the rate of discharge,
the rate of recharge to ground water body and the use of economical
of extraction.[10] Ground water has been the source of irrigation in
the agro based Barind area by installation of Deep Tube wells (DTWs)
and Shallow Tube wells (STWs). At present the total cultivable area is
about 0.58 m-ha of which only 26% (0.58mha) have been brought
under irrigation by both surface and groundwater. Study also
included analysis of available metrological data. [11]
The objectives of this study is to determine the consumptive use and
crop irrigation requirement of the Barind area. The consumptive use
and crop irrigation requirement is to be compared. Total irrigation
water requirement is to be calculated by using Blaney-Criddle
Method. The study helps to know the total amount of water that is
required for crops during its base period, the maximum amount of
irrigation water required for growing crops, the Fluctuation of
ground water level in Barind area.
2. STUDY AREA
Rajshahi is a city in western Bangladesh and the divisional
headquarters of Rajshahi Division as well as the administrative
district that bears its name and is one of the seven metropolitan cities
of Bangladesh. Silk of Rajshahi was of great quality once upon a time,
so this city is often referred to as Silk City and Education City for its
calm environment. Rajshahi is located in the north-west part of the
county and has an estimated population of 853,000 people. Its total
area is 96.69 km2 (37.33 mile2) and it’s situated on the northern
banks of the river Padma (or Ganges which is one of the major rivers
of the Indian subcontinent).
FIGURE 2.1: PHYSIOGRAPHIC MAP OF STUDY AREA
The hard red soil of this area is very significant in comparison to the
other part of the county (BMDA). The Rajshahi district is located in
between 24 degree 23 minute to 25 degree 15 minute north latitude
and 88 degree 2 minute to 88 degree 57 minute east longitude.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Blaney-Criddle Method
Blaney and Criddle (1950) observed that the amount of water
consumptive use by
crops during their growing seasons was closely correlated with mean
monthly temperature and day light hours and developed an empirical
relationship stated as follows:
Cu= [1.8t+32]… … … … … … … … …. …. … …. … (4.1)
Where, Cu= Monthly consumptive use in cm
K = Crop factor, determined from experiment
for each crop and depends
upon the environmental condition of the area.
P = Monthly percentage of annual day light
hours T = Mean monthly temperature in °C
Let, f =
So, Cu= K×𝑓 … .… … … … … … … … …. …. … …. … …(4.2) Where, f =
Summation of ‘f’ values during the crop season.
The above formula involves the use of crop factor, the value of which is
to be
determined for each crop and for different places and now this
information is not available in our country for different places and
different crops. Moreover, this formula does not take into consideration
the factors such as elevation wind velocity and humidity etc. on which
consumptive use depends.
It is the amount of irrigation water required in
order to meet the evapotranspiration
needs of the crop during its full growth. It is, therefore, nothing but the
consumptive use itself, but exclusive of effective precipitation, stored
soil moisture, or ground water. When the last two are ignored, then we
can write,
C.I.R = Cu-Re… … … … … … … … …. …. … ….(4.3)
Total water requirement = C.I.R×Area… … … … … …. …. … ….(4.4)
4. DATA COLLECTION
Rainfall and static water level data collect from the zonal office of
Barind Multipurpose
Development Authority (BMDA), Rajshahi. Temperature and monthly
sun shine hour’s data has been collected from Bangladesh
Meteorological Department, climate division, Dhaka
5. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
Monthly variation of Crop Irrigation Requirement(C.I.R) and
Consumptive use(Cu) for Amon
(rice) crops for maximum, minimum temperature are given from figure
5.1-5.4
Figure 5.1: Monthly Variation of C.I.R for minimum Figure 5.2: Monthly Variation of C.I.R for maximum
temperature for Amon (rice) temperature for Amon (RICE)
Figure 5.3: Monthly Variation of Cu for maximum Figure 5.4: Monthly Variation of Cu for minimum
temperature for Amon(rice) temperature for Amon(RICE)
Monthly variation of Crop Irrigation Requirement (C.I.R) and
Dr. Md. Kumruzzaman a, Anirban Sarker b Water requirements for various crops and impact of irrigation in barind area Malaysian Journal of Sustainable
Agriculture (MJSA) 1(1) (2017) 04-07
Cite this article Dr. Md. Kumruzzaman a, Anirban Sarker b Water requirements for various crops and impact of irrigation in barind area Malaysian Journal of Sustainable
Agriculture (MJSA) 1(1) (2017) 04-07
3
Consumptive use(Cu) for Boro
(rice) crops for maximum, minimum temperature are given from figure
5.5-5.8
Figure 5.5: Monthly Variation of C.I.R for minimum Figure 5.6: Monthly Variation of C.I.R for maximum
temperature for Boro (rice) temperature for Boro (RICE)
Figure 5.7: Monthly Variation of Cu for maximum Figure 5.8: Monthly Variation of Cu for minimum
temperature for Boro (rice) temperature for Boro (RICE)
Monthly variation of Crop Irrigation Requirement (C.I.R) and Consumptive
use(Cu) for Wheat crops for maximum, minimum temperature are given
from figure 5.9-5.12
Figure 5.9: Monthly Variation of C.I.R for maximum Figure 5.10: Monthly Variation of C.I.R for minimum
temperature for Wheat temperature for Wheat
Figure 5.11: Monthly Variation of Cu for maximum Figure 5.12: Monthly Variation of Cu for minimum
temperature for Wheat temperature for Wheat
Figure 5.13: Monthly Variation of C.I.R for maximum Figure 5.14: Monthly Variation of C.I.R for minimum
temperature for Potato temperature for Potato
Figure 5.15: Monthly Variation of Cu for maximum Figure 5.16: Monthly Variation of Cu for minimum
temperature for Potato temperature for Potato
Figure 5.17: Yearly minimum groundwater depletion F igure 5.18: Yearly maximum groundwater depletion
rate of Boalia & Tanore rate of Boalia & Tanore
6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Crop water requirement from 1985 to 2015 in Barind area Rajshahi
for Amon (rice) for average temperature is 558.8cm, for maximum
temperature is 683.2cm and for minimum temperature is 684.5cm.
Maximum water requirement for Amon (rice) is in november. No
additional water is required for Amon (rice) is in july.
Crop water requirement from 1985 to 2015 in Barind area Rajshahi
for Boro (rice) for average temperature is 423.6cm, for maximum
temperature is 540.4cm and for minimum temperature is 571.7cm.
Maximum water requirement for Boro (rice) is in february. No
additional water is required for Boro (rice) is in june.
Crop water requirement from 1985 to 2015 in Barind area Rajshahi
for Wheat for average temperature is 164.9cm, for maximum
temperature is 165.3cm and for minimum temperature is 166.8cm.
Maximum water requirement for Wheat is in November.
Crop water requirement from 1985 to 2015 in Barind area Rajshahi
for Potato for average temperature is 167.7cm, for maximum
temperature is 168cm and for minimum temperature is 168.9cm.
Maximum water requirement for Potato is in November.
Total Consumptive use from 1985 to 2015 in Barind area Rajshahi for
average temperature for Amon(rice), Boro(rice), Wheat, Potato are
312.9cm, 609.6cm, 232.5cm, 138.4cm respectively. Total
Consumptive use from 1985 to 2015 in Barind area Rajshahi for
maximum temperature for Amon(rice), Boro(rice), Wheat, Potato are
1345.8cm, 2868.1cm, 1276cm, 810.5cm respectively.
Total Consumptive use from 1985 to 2015 in Barind area Rajshahi for
minimum temperature for
Amon(rice), Boro(rice), Wheat, Potato are 1123.2cm, 2095.5cm,
871.2cm, 553.6cm respectively.
7. CONCLUSION
Total irrigation requirement for the crops Amon, Boro, Potato and
Wheat were determined. From calculation it is seen that maximum
irrigation water is required in the month of April and groundwater
extraction is more due to less rainfall and no additional water is
required in the month of June and groundwater recharge is more due
to excessive rainfall for rice. The maximum irrigation water is
required for Potato crops in the month of January and groundwater
extraction is more due to less rainfall and continuous water is to be
supplied for the base period. For Wheat crops the maximum
irrigation water required in the month of December to January and
groundwater extraction is more due to less rainfall and continuous
water has to be supplied for its base period. This conclusion can be
drawn for aa crops that are included in this study.
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area, Bangladesh University Applied Sciences Cologne, Germany.
Dr. Md. Kumruzzaman a, Anirban Sarker b Water requirements for various crops and impact of irrigation in barind area Malaysian Journal of Sustainable
Agriculture (MJSA) 1(1) (2017) 04-07
Cite this article Dr. Md. Kumruzzaman a, Anirban Sarker b Water requirements for various crops and impact of irrigation in barind area Malaysian Journal of Sustainable
Agriculture (MJSA) 1(1) (2017) 04-07
7
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Principle and practice of irrigation engineering, S. Chand And Company Ltd. Ram Nagar, New Delhi-110055-crop water requirement by modified penman method using Hymos. The Indian Society for Hydraulics (ISH), Volume-14 and others (1962)-Irrigation Principles and practice
  • Das
  • Sumon Buet
  • S K Sarma
  • M N R Dhamge
  • A M Badar
  • N Baiswarey
[1] DAS KUMAR SUMON (2007)-M.Sc thesis on " study of irrigation efficiencies and crop water requirement in various crops under barind area, BUET, DHAKA 1000 [2] SARMA, S.K.(1984)-" Principle and practice of irrigation engineering, S. Chand And Company Ltd. Ram Nagar, New Delhi-110055. [3] Dhamge, M.N.R, Badar, A.M and Baiswarey, N.Z (2008)-crop water requirement by modified penman method using Hymos. The Indian Society for Hydraulics (ISH), Volume-14, Issue-3, pp. 28-42. [4] Israelsen, W. O. and others (1962)-Irrigation Principles and practice. John Weilly and Sons, Inc, New York, London, Sydney. [5] Rahman Azizur Md (2006)-M.Sc. thesis on estimation of potential recharge and ground water resources. A case study in low Barind area, Bangladesh University Applied Sciences Cologne, Germany.
Kumruzzaman a , Anirban Sarker b Water requirements for various crops and impact of irrigation in barind area
Cite this article Dr. Md. Kumruzzaman a, Anirban Sarker b Water requirements for various crops and impact of irrigation in barind area Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA) 1(1) (2017) 04-07