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Chapter 1
Vitamin C: Sources, Functions, Sensing and Analysis
Sudha J. Devaki and Reshma Lali Raveendran
Additional information is available at the end of the chapter
Vitamin C is a water-soluble compound found in living organisms. It is an essential nutri-
ent for various metabolism in our body and also serves as a reagent for the prepara-
tion of many materials in the pharmaceutical and food industry. In this perspective, this
chapter can develop interest and curiosity among all practicing scientists and technolo-
gists by expounding the details of its sources, chemistry, multifunctional properties and
Keywords: vitamin C, biomarker, antioxidant, sensors
1. Introduction
Vitamin C also known as ascorbic acid (AA) is an essential nutrient in many multicellular organ-
isms, especially in humans. Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin and is found in variable
quantities in fruits and vegetables and organ meats (e.g. liver and kidney). Deciency of vitamin
C causes scurvy, widespread connective tissue weakness and capillary fragility. Among chem-
ists, it is used as a reagent for the preparation of ne chemicals, enzymatic reagent and nanoma-
terials. Consequently, the detection and quantication of ascorbic acid in food samples, products
and nutraceuticals is receiving overwhelming importance among researchers, medical practitio-
ners and also in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Figure 1 shows the schematic representa-
tion of the sources and multifunctional applications of vitamin C in the metabolism of our body.
2. Sources
Vitamin C (Figure 2) is abundantly available in many natural sources, including fresh fruits
and vegetables. The richest sources of ascorbic acid including Indian gooseberry, citrus fruits
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distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
such as limes, oranges and lemons, tomatoes, potatoes, papaya, green and red peppers, kiwi-
fruit, strawberries and cantaloupes, green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, fortied cereals
and its juices are also rich sources of vitamin C.
Another source of vitamin C is animals. They usually synthesize their own vitamin C and are
highly concentrated in the liver part [1, 2]. Sources of vitamin C and its content are given in
Figure 3. Average daily recommended amounts of vitamin C for dierent ages are also given
in Table 1.
Figure 1. Sources and multifunctional role of vitamin C in metabolic processes in human body.
Figure 2. Structure of vitamin C.
Vitamin C4
Figure 3. Amount of vitamin C in dierent sources.
Age Adequate intake (AI) mg/day Upper intake level
0–6 monthsa25
7–12 monthsb30
Children and adolescents
mg/day mg/day mg/day
1–3 25 35 400
4–8 25 35 650
9–14 28 40 1200
14–18 28 40 1800
Men Women Both
mg/day mg/day mg/day mg/day mg/day
19–30 30 45 30 45 2000
31–50 30 45 30 45 2000
51–70 30 45 30 45 2000
>70 30 45 30 45 2000
Vitamin C: Sources, Functions, Sensing and Analysis
3. Functions
Vitamin C plays an important role in many physiological processes in humans. It is needed
for the repair of tissues in all parts of the body. The important functions of vitamin C include
the formation of protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels for healing
wounds and forming scar tissue, for repairing and maintaining cartilage, bones, and teeth
and aid in the absorption of iron. It can also act as a reducing and capping agent for metal
3.1. As reducing and capping agent
Ascorbic acid acts as a reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles
such as silver, gold, copper, etc. Ascorbic acid molecules can cap or surround the particle
and prevent the uncontrolled growth of the particles to micron-sized dimensions. A study
by Khan et al., in 2016 reported the synthesis of copper nanoparticle by using ascorbic acid
as both the reducing agent [6]. Sun et al. reported in Journal of Materials Science in 2009 that
gold nanoparticles can be synthesised in reverse micelles without the addition or introduc-
tion of any other reducing or capping reagent [7]. In analytical methods in 2014, D’souza
et al. reported the use of AA-Au NPs as a colorimetric probe for detection of dichlorvos in
water and wheat samples. The inuence of AA concentration on the aggregation induced by
dichlorvos in AA-AuNPs (Figure 4) and the optical property of the AA-Au NPs was investi-
gated by UV-Vis spectroscopy [8].
Age Adequate intake (AI) mg/day Upper intake level
Pregnancy Lactation Both
mg/day mg/day mg/day mg/day mg/day
14–18 38 55 58 80 2000
19–30 40 60 60 85 2000
31–50 40 60 60 85 2000
aCalculated as per the average intake of breast milk.
bCalculated on a body weight basis of infants.
cEstimated average requirement.
dRecommended dietary intake.
Table 1. Dietary intake of vitamin C [35].
Vitamin C6
3.2. Antioxidant activity
One of the important properties of vitamin C is its antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity of
vitamin C helps to prevent certain diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, common
cold, age-related muscular degeneration and cataract.
3.3. In cancer treatment
Since 1970, it has been known that high dose of vitamin C has benecial eects on the sur-
vival time in patients with terminal cancer, which was reported by Cameron, Campbell, and
Pauling. Research is undergoing in detail for using vitamin C in cancer treatment [911]. One
of the studies suggests that pharmacologic doses of vitamin C might show promising eects
on the treatment of tumours [12]. Vitamin C can act as pro-oxidant and it can generate hydro-
gen peroxide [13, 14]. Administration of high dose of vitamin C gives long survival times for
patients with advanced cancers.
The continuing aack of DNA by unquenched reactive oxygen species is believed to cause
cancer. As a physiological antioxidant, ascorbic acid plays a role in the prevention of oxida-
tive damage to DNA, which is elevated in cells at sites of chronic inammation and in many
pre-neoplastic lesions. Most DNA damage is repaired metabolically; however, the frequency
of elevated steady-state levels of oxidized DNA bases is estimated to be sucient to cause
mutational events. The base damage product 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine has been found
to be elevated in individuals with severe vitamin C deciency and to be reduced by supple-
mentation with vitamins C and E [15].
Figure 4. Analytical process for detecting dichlorvos using AA-Au NPs as a colorimetric probe [8].
Vitamin C: Sources, Functions, Sensing and Analysis
Oxidative stress, arising as a result of an imbalance between free radical production and anti-
oxidant defences, causes damage to a wide range of molecular species including lipids, pro-
teins and nucleic acids. Oxidative stress caused by free radicals is shown in Figure 5. The best
way to ensure adequate intake of the antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamins C and E and
various kinds of minerals, is through a balanced diet consisting of 5–8 servings of fruits and
vegetables per day.
3.4. In cardiovascular diseases
The antioxidant property of vitamin C helps for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
Vitamin C has the capability for reducing monocyte adherence to the endothelium, improv-
ing endothelium-dependent nitric oxide production and vasodilation and reducing vascular
smooth-muscle-cell apoptosis, which prevents plaque instability in atherosclerosis [15]. The
oxidative damage including the oxidative modication of low-density lipoproteins is a major
cause of cardiovascular disease. The antioxidant property of vitamin C helps to reduce this to
a certain extent [16, 17].
3.5. In common cold
Pauling in 1970 suggested that vitamin C can be used for the treatment of common cold [18].
There are so many reports in Cochrane Database Syst. Review showing the use of prophylactic
Figure 5. Oxidative stress by free radicals.
Vitamin C8
vitamin C reduces the cold duration in adults and children [19]. The use of vitamin C might
reduce the duration of common cold due to its anti-histamine eect of high dose of vitamin C
[20]. However, the results are inconsistent and still research is undergoing in this eld. There
are Database Syst. Review showing the use of prophylactic vitamin C reduces the cold dura-
tion in adults and children [19]. The use of vitamin C might reduce the duration of common
cold due to its anti-histamine eect of high dose of vitamin C [20].
3.6. In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts are two of the main causes of vision
loss in older. Oxidative stress might contribute to the aetiology of both conditions. Thus,
researchers have taken interest in the role of vitamin C and other antioxidants in the develop-
ment and treatment of these diseases. There are many reports to study the role of vitamin C
in AMD and cataract [2123]. Results from two studies indicate that vitamin C intakes greater
than 300 mg/day reduce the risk of cataract formation by 75% [16, 24, 25].
All the studies indicate that the vitamin C formulations might slow AMD progression and
reduce the high risk of developing advanced AMD. AMD is shown in Figure 6.
3.7. Antioxidant mechanism
Vitamins C can protect the body against the destructive eects of free radicals. Antioxidants
neutralize free radicals by donating one of their own electrons, ending the electron-stealing
reaction, as shown in Figure 7. The antioxidant nutrients themselves do not become free radi-
cals by donating an electron because they are stable in either form or act as scavengers, help-
ing to prevent cell and tissue damage that could lead to cellular damage and disease.
Ascorbic acid reacts with free radicals undergoing single-electron oxidation to produce a rela-
tively poor reactive intermediate, the ascorbyl radical, which disproportionates to ascorbate
and dehydroascorbate. Thus, ascorbic acid can reduce toxic, reactive oxygen species superox-
ide anion (O2
) and hydroxyl radical (OH), as well as organic (RO2) and nitrogen (NO2
) oxy
Figure 6. Age-related macular degeneration.
Vitamin C: Sources, Functions, Sensing and Analysis
radicals. Those reactions are likely to be of fundamental importance in all aerobic cells. This
reaction is the basis of most of the biological functions of ascorbic acid. The mechanism of free
radical action on DNA is shown in Figure 8.
Vitamin C also has role in protecting other vitamins (vitamin A and vitamin E) from the harm-
ful eects of oxidation. Vitamin C helps in protecting gums and retards ageing. It strengthens
the general physical condition by removing toxic metals from the body. Vitamin C reduces
the formation of cataract and hence useful in the treatment of glaucoma.
Figure 7. Antioxidant mechanism.
Figure 8. Mechanism of free radical action on DNA.
Vitamin C10
Vitamin C: Sources, Functions, Sensing and Analysis
Vitamin C12
4.2. Spectrophotometric method
Among many analytical methods, spectrophotometric methods are very simple and low-cost.
Several studies used the spectrophotometric method for the determination of ascorbic acid.
Güçlü et al. [51] have proposed a spectrophotometric method based on ascorbic acid oxida-
tion to dehydroascorbic acid, by using the Cu(II)-neocuproine complex, which is reduced to
Cu(I)-bis(neocuproine), the absorbance of the laer being determined at 450 nm. Other opti-
cal methods for vitamin C estimation include spectrophotometrical determination of iodine
reacted with ascorbic acid [52] and chemiluminescence [53].
A sensitive, simple and low-cost spectrophotometric method was introduced by Kobra and
Somayye in 2015. The present method was successfully applied to determine the ascorbic acid
in food and pharmaceutical samples. The samples were multivitamin tablet, eervescent tab-
let, vitamin C injection, natural orange juice, orange syrup powdered and commercial orange
liquid. The method is based on the reaction of AgNO3 with ascorbic acid in the presence of
polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and slightly basic medium to prepare silver nanoparticles [54].
Kapur et al. in 2015 reported a method that is based on the oxidation of ascorbic acid to
dehydroascorbic acid by bromine water in the presence of acetic acid. In this method, the
total ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid + dehydroascorbic acid) has been determined in 21 dierent
samples of fruits and vegetables by the spectrophotometric method [55]. Mohammed and
Hazim in 2016 reported a UV-spectrophotometric method for the determination of ascorbic
acid in fruits and vegetables from hill region with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine [56].
A new sensitive colorimetric method for the determination of ascorbic acid tablet in aqueous
solution was reported by Ahmed and Mohamed in 2013. The method is based on the forma-
tion of coloured azo dye by diazotization of 2,4-dichloroaniline, followed by azo-coupling
reaction between the resulting product and ascorbic acid [57].
Figure 9. HPLC plot of ascorbic acid detection.
Vitamin C: Sources, Functions, Sensing and Analysis
Figure 10. Cyclic voltammogram of electrochemical sensing of ascorbic acid using a polyaniline-modied platinum
electrode [70].
4.3. Electrochemical sensing
Electrochemical sensing methods are more widely applied as they are simple, sensitive and
moderate methods. Ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine and catecholamine are important neu-
rotransmiers in the human body. Hence, the low-level detection of ascorbic acid is very
important. All the methods mentioned above involve complicated pretreatment techniques
and expensive instruments. Hence, researchers have developed a more simple, sensitive
and accurate electrochemical method for the detection of ascorbic acid. Several studies have
reported the electrochemical sensing methods for detection of ascorbic acid. Aempts to sim-
plify such methods have resulted in the development of new methods such as the nickel
hexacyanoferrate lm-modied aluminium electrode [58] and graphite epoxy electrode [59].
These methods use specic and modied working electrode systems that are complicated
[60]. These electrochemical methods are widely used to monitor AA metabolites in vivo or
in vitro [61, 62]. For example, batch injection amperometric methods can achieve a detection
limit as low as 450 mg/L [63]. The metallic nickel electrode (2610–6 M), chemiluminometric
ow method (5l M) [64], carbon paste mixed electrode (1.08610–5 M) [65], polyviologen-mod-
ied technique (0.38l M) [66] and NiGCNF plating-modied electrode (2610–6 M) [67] achieve
very sensitive detection ranges.
Suw et al. in 2004 developed a stripping voltammetric technique that manifests faster response,
more cost-eective and sensitive preconcentration techniques, which was used along with a
simpler glassy carbon electrode [68]. In this method, low ascorbic acid concentrations were
detected by the square wave stripping voltammetry and a glassy carbon electrode. The lower
detection limit reported as 0.30l g/L (S/N = 3). This method can be used to detect biological
materials, pharmaceuticals, food and drugs.
Many reports are there for the simultaneous electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid in the
presence of dopamine and uric acid on the glassy carbon electrode. From our own group,
we have synthesized electrically conducting poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanospindles
(PEDOTSs) and used for the electrochemical sensing of ascorbic acid [69] (Figure 10).
Vitamin C14
In another study, our group developed a low-cost electrochemical sensor based on a platinum
electrode for ascorbic acid conductive polyaniline-based composite. This unique low-cost and
user-friendly sensor was validated for the nanomolar detection of AA. The lower detection
limit for AA was observed at 0.1 nm. The aqueous PPICS/Pt electrode could serve as a pro-
spective low-cost and ecient electrochemical sensor and provide promising and outstand-
ing contributions to the food, beverage and medical industries [70].
Electrochemical methods have aracted much aention from clinical diagnostic perspectives
because of their easy operation, low cost, rapid response, high sensitivity and good selectivity.
5. Conclusion
Vitamin C plays a pivotal role in body-building process and in disease prevention. The
various functions of vitamin C, including the antioxidant activity, formation of protein,
tendons, ligaments and blood vessels, for healing wounds and form scar tissue, for repair-
ing and maintaining cartilage, bone, and teeth, and aiding in the absorption of iron, were
discussed. This chapter will denitely benet the students, researchers and technologists
Author details
Sudha J. Devaki* and Reshma Lali Raveendran
*Address all correspondence to:
Chemical Sciences and Technology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary
Science and Technology (CSIR-NIIST), Thiruvananthapuram, India
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Vitamin C20
... These micronutrients have an essential role in the immune response (Shakoor et al., 2021). According to several studies, vitamin E (Lee and Han, 2018), vitamins A (Huang et al., 2018), vitamins D (Hribar et al., 2020), and vitamin C (Devaki and Raveendran, 2017) can boost the immune system response (Table 1) and increase protection against various infectious diseases. Vitamin D is needed by the body to support the work of T cells, which play a role in producing cytokines. ...
Microgreens were tiny vegetables with a higher nutrient content than mature vegetables. Microgreens could be consumed directly as a garnish or salad. It was a high source of antioxidants and suitable for consumption. This review focused on providing a general description of microgreen production techniques, the nutritional content of microgreens, and their role in stimulating the immune system, mainly in preventing COVID-19. Several microgreens from various vegetables show high antioxidants, phytochemicals, and nutrients. This component is suitable for consumption to improve immunity system performance. The micronutrients contribute to immune function. There are four phases of the immune response in the body, namely physical barriers, innate immune response, inflammatory response, and adaptive immune response. When the body detects the presence of a foreign substance, the immune system will immediately respond by activating the immune function that utilizes T and B cells to kill them. Therefore, microgreen is one of the great dietary antioxidants for consumption.
... Pharmacologic amounts of some of these vitamins, particularly vitamin C, which may have promising roles in cancer treatment, operate as a pro-oxidant, thereby producing hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, vitamin C-rich algal diets reduce monocyte adherence to the endothelium, increase endothelium-dependent nitric oxide generation, vasodilation, and vascular smooth muscle cell death [46,47]. The pharmacokinetics of bioactive compounds locked up in edible algalbased foods and food products coupled with the underlying mechanisms release of beneficial nutrients after consumption, is, however, not yet fully understood. ...
... Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water soluble compound found in fruits, vegetables, and meat, and is known to exhibit various physiological effects such as anticancer activity, activation of amino acid metabolism, and collagen synthesis (Fig. 1, Vitamin C). [34] Numerous cancer cells exhibit the Warburg effect, which increases glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis. [35] Therefore, glucose transporters are overexpressed on their cell surfaces. ...
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A field experiment was conducted to assess the growth and yield of watermelon Citrullus lanatus [(Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] under acidic soil conditions in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. The experiment was a 3 × 3 factorial experiment laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The factors studied were varieties (Heracles F 1 , Kaolack and Sugar Baby), lime rates (0 t ha-1 , 2.7 t ha-1 and 5.7 t ha-1), and their interactions on watermelon growth and yield traits. Heracles F 1 and Kaolack outperformed Sugar Baby (p ≤ 0.05) regarding growth and yield traits. Lime rates of 2.7 t ha-1 and 5.7 t ha-1 increased the initial soil pH range (4.6-4.9) by 21.74% (5.4-5.8) and 43.48% (6.4-6.7), respectively. These rates improved the soil pH to a range suitable for watermelon cultivation in the study area. Vine length, number of leaves, transverse and longitudinal sections of the fruits and sugar content of the fruits had ≥ 50% heritability, a useful index in the selection of choice growth and yield traits in watermelon. Overall, GAM was greater than GA for each of the traits except for the total number of seeds per fruit. Multi-location studies are recommended to give further insights to this pilot study.
Background: Ascorbic acid is a potent natural antioxidant that protects against oxidative stress and performs various bodily functions. It is commonly found in fruits and vegetables. Objective: The manuscript has been written to provide valuable insights into ascorbic acid in managing Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The data has been gathered from web sources, including PubMed, Science Direct, Publons, Web of Science, and Scopus from 2000-2022 using AA, ascorbic acid, Alzheimer's diseases, memory, dementia, and antioxidant Keywords. Results: In the present manuscript, we have summarized the impact of ascorbic acid and its possible mechanism in Alzheimer's disease by, outlining the information currently available on the behavioral and biochemical effects of ascorbic acid in animal models of Alzheimer's disease as well as its usage as a therapeutic agent to slow down the progression of Alzheimer disease in human beings. Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the advancement of AD. AA is a wellknown antioxidant that primarily reduces oxidative stress and produces protein aggregates, which may help decrease cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. The current paper analyses of ascorbic acid revealed that deficiency of ascorbic acid adversely affects the central nervous system and leads to cognitive defects. However, the results of clinical studies are conflicting, but some of the studies suggested that supplementation of ascorbic acid improved cognitive deficits and decreased disease progression. Conclusion: Based on clinical and preclinical studies, it is observed that ascorbic acid supplementation improves cognitive deficits and protects the neurons from oxidative stress injury.
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Background In-hospital hypovitaminosis C is highly prevalent but almost completely unrecognized. Medical awareness of this potentially important disorder is hindered by the inability of most hospital laboratories to determine plasma vitamin C concentrations. The availability of a simple, reliable method for analyzing plasma vitamin C could increase opportunities for routine plasma vitamin C analysis in clinical medicine. Methods Plasma vitamin C can be analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical (EC) or ultraviolet (UV) light detection. We modified existing UV-HPLC methods for plasma total vitamin C analysis (the sum of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid) to develop a simple, constant-low-pH sample reduction procedure followed by isocratic reverse-phase HPLC separation using a purely aqueous low-pH non-buffered mobile phase. Although EC-HPLC is widely recommended over UV-HPLC for plasma total vitamin C analysis, the two methods have never been directly compared. We formally compared the simplified UV-HPLC method with EC-HPLC in 80 consecutive clinical samples. Results The simplified UV-HPLC method was less expensive, easier to set up, required fewer reagents and no pH adjustments, and demonstrated greater sample stability than many existing methods for plasma vitamin C analysis. When compared with the gold-standard EC-HPLC method in 80 consecutive clinical samples exhibiting a wide range of plasma vitamin C concentrations, it performed equivalently. Conclusion The easy set up, simplicity and sensitivity of the plasma vitamin C analysis method described here could make it practical in a normally equipped hospital laboratory. Unlike any prior UV-HPLC method for plasma total vitamin C analysis, it was rigorously compared with the gold-standard EC-HPLC method and performed equivalently. Adoption of this method could increase the availability of plasma vitamin C analysis in clinical medicine.
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Ascorbic acid is frequently determined by titration with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. The determination is rapid, but the method is neither specific for ascorbic acid nor very sensitive. The coloring matter in the assay solution interferes with the visual endpoint, and iron(II), copper(I), sulfite, and sulfhydryl substances such as cysteine and glutathione interfere with the color reaction. Sample cleanup by solid-phase extraction with C18 bonded silica was developed to remove the coloring matter. Extraction sorbent impregnated with 2,2′-bipyridyl, 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine) and N-ethylmaleimide removes Fe(II), Cu(I), and sulfhydryl compounds, respectively. The procedure was applied to highly colored multivitamin pharmaceuticals, soft drinks, and fruit and vegetable juices. In contrast to the results from the original method, which is not applicable to such samples, the results obtained by the method incorporating cleanup were accurate and selective for ascorbic acid. The sample cleanup also permitted determination of dehydroascorbic acid by reducing it to ascorbic acid with cysteine and titrating the ascorbic acid formed with indophenol. As little as 3 ng ascorbic acid was determined by the method incorporating cleanup.
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Development of improved methods for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles is of high priority for the advancement of material science and technology. Herein, starch-protected zero-valent copper (Cu) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a novel facile route. The method is based on the chemical reduction in aqueous copper salt using ascorbic acid as reducing agent at low temperature (80 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements were taken to investigate the size, structure and composition of synthesized Cu nanocrystals, respectively. Average crystallite size of Cu nanocrystals calculated from the major diffraction peaks using the Scherrer formula is about 28.73 nm. It is expected that the outcomes of the study take us a step closer toward designing rational strategies for the synthesis of nascent Cu nanoparticles without inert gas protection.
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A simple and sensitive procedure was proposed for spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid. It was found that the reduction of Ag+ to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by ascorbic acid in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizing agent produce very intense surface plasmon resonance peak of Ag-NPs. The plasmon absorbance of the Ag-NPs at λ = 440 nm allows the quantitative spectrophotometric detection of the ascorbic acid. The calibration curve was linear with concentration of ascorbic acid in the range of 0.5–60 μM. The detection limit was obtained as 0.08 μM. The influence of potential interfering substances on the determination of ascorbic acid was studied. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in some powdered drink mixtures, commercial orange juice, natural orange juice, vitamin C injection, effervescent tablet, and multivitamin tablet.
Total vitamin C (ascorbic acid + dehydroascorbic acid) has been investigated using two methods, the first UV-spectrophotometric method and the second titration method. In the two methods, a blended sample of various fruit and vegetable in Hill region is homogenized with 85% Sulphuric acid-10% acetic acid solution, the effect of bromine water has been added to oxidize ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid with using acetic acid. In this step the excess of percentage of bromine has been removed when added 3-4 drops of 10% thiourea. After coupling with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine at 37°C temperature two hours the solution has been cooled by using ice bath after that solution must treated with dilute sulphuric acid to produce a red color complex all prepared solution of fruits and vegetables has been measured at maximum absorbance 280nm. The results revealed that ascorbic acid content was very high in Orange and Kiwi while it was very low in Red pepper, Cabbage and Tomato. The comparison between the two methods the spectroscopy method has been preferred to obtain the value of ascorbic acid than the titrimetric method. The scientists prove that the vitamin c have been important vitamin for the human health .Ascorbic acid is reversibly oxidized to form L-dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) which also exhibits biological activity. Dehydroascorbic acid has been converted into acetic acid in the human body. For determine the activity of vitamin c its important determined both acetic acid and Dehydro ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables. Vitamin C is the real water-soluble antioxidant within the body. It lowers blood pressure and levels cholesterol .Recently many articles bas been shown that the effect of vitamin c reduced the risk of developing cancers of breast, colon, rectum, lung, mouth. Vitamin C is generally non-Toxic. Vitamin c very important for everybody such as formation bone and tissue repair. Vitamin C is generally non-toxic. To maintain a good and sound health and the prevention of colds a healthy body, the human must remain saturated with vitamin C. Keeping in view its importance; the estimation of vitamin C containing this vitamin assumes significance. And a wide range of nutrients present contains vitamin C. It is known widely by ordinary people today that the best sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits and juices. To make better use of fruits and vegetables as food, mortal, and a clear understanding of the nutritional value, as well as estimating the content of vitamin C is necessary. The aim of this project has been estimate the value of ascorbic acid .Ten common Iraqi fruits using methods iodometric titration and UV-spectrophotometry under three temperature regimes representing the ranges the fruits may be exposed to during processing and storage. The redox reaction is preferable to an acid base titration because a number of other species in juice can act as acids. This work helped to demonstrate the effects of processing and storage on the ascorbic acid contents of these fruits. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials: 10% Acetic acid, 10% Thio Urea, 2,4-Dinitrophenyl Hydrazine, 85% Sulphuric acid, 5-Bromine water, 10% potassium iodide, 1 M potassium iodate (KIO3), Sodium thiosulphate, 3% Starch Solution Instrument: Apple-UV-visible spectrophotometer with 1 cm cell was used. Sample preparation and evaluation of ascorbic acid by method spectrophotometer: In this work different kind of fruits and vegetables has been choice for investigated to determine the amount of ascorbic acid in this samples. All samples has been blended then filtered using Buchner, 10 gm of each sample was transferred into a 100ml volumetric flask homogenized by using 50ml acetic acid solution with shaken, 4-5 drops of bromine water has been added until the solution became colored, Then a few drops of thiourea solution were added to it to remove the excess bromine and thus the clear solution was obtained. Then 2, 4-Dinitrophenyl hydrazine solution was added thoroughly with all standards and also with the oxidized ascorbic acid. Then complete the solution up to the mark with acetic acid. The absorbance for all samples has been measured using Apple-UV-visible spectrophotometer to determine the concentration of ascorbic acid in the fruits and vegetables under testing. Sample preparation and evaluation of ascorbic acid by method redox Titration: 10 ml of each of the fruit and vegetable samples was pipetted into a pre-washed conical flask and 5 ml of 10% potassium iodide (KI) with 1 ml of 0.3 M sulphuric acid (H2SO4) were added into the flask. 10 ml of 0.01 M potassium iodate (KI03) was also added into the flask. The excess iodine generated was titrated against 0.01 M sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) solution blank titration was carried out with 10 ml of distilled water.
A polyviologen-modified glassy carbon electrode (PV-GCE) was applied to directly determine vitamin C (i.e., ascorbic acid) in deeply colored, viscous, and turbid fruit juice samples. Compared to the results obtained at a bare GCE, the oxidation of vitamin C showed a large increase in current response at the PV-GCE in pH 4 buffer solutions. Preconcentration is the major factor for the signal enhancement. Square-wave voltammetry (SWV) was used for vitamin C detection at the PV-GCE. Under the optimized conditions, the SWV current signals showed a very wide linear range (up to 900 muM) with slope band regression coefficient of 0.051 muM muA(-1) and 0.998, respectively. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.38 muM after 20 s of accumulation at open circuit. Since the content of vitamin C and pH value of most fruit juices are lower than 900 muM and close to pH 4, the determination can be done without dilution and other pretreatment of the samples. The results demonstrated a good precision and are in agreement with those obtained with other method.