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Video steganography techniques: Taxonomy, challenges, and future directions

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... There are different techniques, namely cryptography, watermarking, and steganography, available for the data security system, as shown in Fig. 1 [3], for enhancing digital information security. These methods involve one-to-one encryption and decryption for the information to be transformed, copyright protected and concealed into the carrier object [4]. ...
... In steganography, the original data and modified stego data are very much similar such that the observer (third person) cannot identify the existence of an original secret message. The different components of a steganographic system are described as follows [3,5]. ...
... The extracting stage is having an extraction process of secret messages from the cover carrier object. Successful extraction of the secret message is measured by similarity coefficients between the original and extracted secret message [1,3,5]. ...
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In the technological era, the primary source of information is in the form of digital data, which has to be secured while storing or transmitting during communication over an unsecured network. Different approaches are used to provide security to digital data, viz. text, audio, image, and video. This paper initially explains the security system such as cryptography, watermarking, and steganography and their comparative analysis based on different characteristics, viz. satisfaction level of objective, type of carrier object and secret information to be used, dependency of security level, and quality assessment parameters. This review article focuses more on steganography methods applied over video. The various methods implemented for video steganography in compressed domain, viz. inter-frame and intra-frame prediction, motion vector estimation, entropy coding (CAVLC and CABAC), and transformed and quantized coefficients of DCT, DST, and DWT, etc. and the methods based on spatial and transform domain for uncompressed video are briefly described. It is followed by the detailed analysis of related work done by various researchers in video steganography and the obtained experimental results. Furthermore, the confidential data hiding in compressed videos are explained using Moving Picture Expert Group (MPEG—1, MPEG—2, MPEG—4), Advanced Video Coding (AVC)/H.264, and High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC)/H.265 that includes both spatial and transform domain. This paper summarizes and explains the detailed investigations of numerous techniques of video steganography based on the comprehensive literature survey. The methods used to assess the performance of video steganography are analyzed based on the quality assessment parameters such as imperceptibility; measured by peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), mean square error (MSE), and structural similarity (SSIM), robustness; measured by bit error rate (BER) and similarity (Sim), and embedding capacity; measured by hiding ratio. The overall review of past literature facilitates to have in-depth knowledge for upgrading the video steganography.
... The spatial domain approach conceals secret data by replacing the least significant bit (LSB) with original message bits, and other methods like bit-plane and modulation methods. Even though these methods are easy to implement, they are not robust against any type of attacks [20,22]. In the video steganography schemes to embed the secret message inside the video, frames can be utilized only the luminance (Y) component, and the security of the proposed scheme is strengthened by pre-processing the secret message with encryption before embedding and achieve high imperceptibility for still image steganography. ...
... To compute the PSNR, first calculates the mean-squared error using the following Eqs. (22) to (24) for gray image ...
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As today’s world are switching to the digital media through the Internet and multimedia tools like Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and WhatsApp which consists of a number of videos, hence it always better to take urgent problems of such digitally transmitted video in terms of information security. The current video steganography approach is not so effective for imperceptibility, robustness, security of hidden secret data, embedding capacity and very good visual recovery of a secret as well as original data. Hence, to maintain the balance between these issues is another big challenge. This work employs a novel and efficient Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of audio, video crypto steganography using General Modified Secured Diamond Encoding (GMSDE) scheme. The new proposed scheme is based on Diamond Encoding (DE), Exploiting Modification Direction (EMD) and Adaptive Pixel Pairing Matching (APPM) algorithms called as General Modified Secured Diamond Encoding (GMSDE). The DE method is always used for k > 1 which produces distortion, less embedding capacity and security of hidden data. The GMSDE scheme changed the Diamond Characteristic Value (DCV) to conceal more than one secret bit vertically and horizontally to create a modified diamond shape of secret data which is equal to log2(2x² + 6x + 5) - ary and produces the conceal capacity of 1.16 to 4.82 bpp for the values of x = 0 to 25 where x is the embedding parameter. Experimental results confirm that the conceal capacity measured by bit per pixel (bpp), security of hidden secret data, very good visual recovery of both original and secret data, Cross-Correlation (CC) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) values are better than existing approaches. Further through many attacks on stego video during transmission using forensic detection approach, the imperceptibility, security of hidden data and robustness is increased for secure communication.
... Further, Mstafa et al. [20] also discussed some of the latest techniques of video steganography in the compressed and raw domain in a comprehensive survey. In addition, Mstafa et al. [22] presented some of the challenges faced by researchers in video steganography with some future directions to help interested researchers in the field of video steganography. ...
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In this era of internet transfer of information is in digital form using multimedia files such as image, video, audio, etc. which relies on secure communication techniques to convey information safely. Due to the frequent transfer of videos over the internet nowadays they have become a good cover media for secure and covert communication in the form of video steganography. For efficient video steganography, it must fulfill its basic requirements such as capacity, imperceptibility, and robustness. In order to make a balance between imperceptibility and robustness, an efficient video steganography scheme is proposed for Standard Definition (SD) and High Definition (HD) videos. This scheme employs DWT (discrete wavelet transforms) for embedding the secret message inside the video frames utilizing only luminance (Y) component, and the security of the proposed scheme is strengthen by pre-processing the secret message with encryption before embedding. The embedding process is done by utilizing the middle-frequency sub-bands after applying second level 2-D DWT to the video frames to decompose it into 16 sub-bands. The performance of the proposed scheme is tested on different videos with quality metrics including peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM) index, bit error rate (BER) and also by applying Gaussian and salt & pepper noise attacks. Moreover, the scheme is tested for the different level of compression on stego-video and also compared with U and V components used while embedding. Experimental results show that for both types of videos (HD and SD) the proposed scheme is able to achieve high imperceptibility. Further, it also provides robustness against different types of noise attacks and different compression levels which makes the proposed scheme evident for secure data transmission.
... Mstafa et al. (Mstafa & Elleithy, 2017) presented a comprehensive survey on raw and compressed video format-based steganography techniques in which theoretical analysis of some of the latest techniques has been done. Further, Mstafa et al. (Mstafa et al., 2017b) also presented the classification scheme for video steganography with some of the challenges, and future recommendations for the researchers intended to research in this field. ...
Article
Videos are nowadays the most frequent and easy mode of communication over the internet; the reason behind the growth is the accessibility to video processing software available on the internet. Video steganography is a field where the data is embedded in video keeping the visual quality of the video intact. This study presents a new video steganography scheme with a stable trade-off between robustness and imperceptibility using 2D-DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) based on object detection and tracking. The main contribution of this paper includes embedding of secret data in the moving objects after applying object detection for the video frames where the secret bits are embedded in middle frequency sub-bands after applying 2D-DWT. To highlight the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, experimental results are carried out both quantitatively and qualitatively where quantitative analysis is done using different metrics such as PSNR, SSIM, BER and qualitative analysis is done using visual results of the frames. The experimental results illustrated that the proposed approach outperforms existing techniques in terms of qualitative and quantitative evaluation with high imperceptibility and robustness against noise attack. Eventually, the scheme has also been tested against existing steganalysis techniques to ensure the security of the proposed scheme.
... DFT techniques are discussed. A complete analysis based upon embedding capacity, video quality and robustness of all existing techniques is also represented in this paper [15]. Achmad Solichin et al. (2016) represent Least Significant Frame method in which a frame is used to embed secret data based on optical flow. ...
... In this paper, we have provided an extensive survey on the stego-crypto methods available in the literature with technical analysis. Although, there exists a number of review articles on the similar topic [4][5][11][12]19,23,33,[45][46]50,52,[68][69], where the authors have mostly classified and discussed the stego-crypto approaches in terms of the mechanism used followed by the comparison amongst those with respect to the cryptographic algorithms and steganographic algorithms that employed. We have, to the contrary, focused on the application oriented stego-crypto models and tried to establish their feasibility issues. ...
Article
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Secret message passing through an open channel needs an extreme level of privacy to protect it from theft or misuse. To achieve this objective, two parallel approaches are frequently used in digital media namely – Cryptography and Steganography. Cryptography encrypts the secret data into some unreadable format before sending through shared channel whereas Steganography conceals the secret message within an ordinary, non-secret file in such a way that an eavesdropper cannot suspect its existence. One layer of security, however, may be vulnerable from various security attacks. Hence, both the methods can be combined to achieve more secure as well as powerful model termed as Crypto-stego model. In this paper, an extensive survey is presented on Stegano-encryption techniques that are applied to various real-world systems which need high security. The survey also provides a thematic approach to classify available state-of-the-arts with regards to different application domains where it could be used. The rigorous survey follows the security threats along with various security-analysis that can establish a system as robust and safe from attacks.
... These techniques have been preferred recently for information hiding as information could be hidden in the frames so that its security can be improved. This is due to the fact that human eyes cannot recognize it compared to the simple data [17,18]. ...
... More especially, since the last two decades many information hiding techniques have been developed such as digital watermarking, Cryptography and Steganography [12]. The common objective of both steganography and cryptography is to provide confidentiality and protection of data [3]. Indeed, Cryptography and Steganography are two popular ways of sending essential information in a confidential way. ...
Article
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Communication security has taken vital role with the advancement in digital communication. The universal use of internet for communication has increased the attacks to users. The security of information is the present issue related to privacy and safety during storage and communication. This paper deals with the proposition of a multilayered secure channel to transfer sensitive data/video over an unreliable network. The secret video is first encrypted using the NOLSB algorithm. The cipher video produced is hidden in a video file with more size. This video file is in turn encrypted following the (m,k) firm technique to maximize resource utilization and to optimize the bandwidth. Then video shares are sent over many channels in the network in order to assure security. This method guarantee that, even if some shares got lost over network, video files could be recovered at the end receiver without need to resend the video file by the sender.
... With the passage of time, attackers developed tools to decrypt steganography messages and hence the protection of sensitive information once again emerged problematic. More on this science and surrounding issues can be learned from [12][13][14]. Some of these issues are listed below. ...
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The great developments in the world of communications and the advancement of the associated technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) with web-based and mobile applications, have changed our way of life. This has created a kind of linkage between virtual and real worlds, rendering applications and services to be ubiquitous. We are also witnessing a phenomenon in which the electronic devices that connect to the Internet and are widespread making use of technology and providing a better level of service to users. However, sending and receiving information over the Internet generates many issues and problems. The most serious of them is the security and protection of transmitted information. This issue has become one of the most important things which is a matter of concern to researchers as well as the users themselves. Ensuring privacy and security of the transmitted data is a matter of urgency and cannot be neglected while dealing with the transmission of data using the services and tools in the IoT. In this article, we provide an improved algorithm to increase the protection level of transmitted information by means of cryptographic encryption so that this information cannot be seen by others or disclosed to anybody. This algorithm has been evolved as an application that works on mobile phones so that any user can benefit from it when exchanging sensitive and confidential information such as account numbers and passwords with other users.
... Steganography is mainly used in secret communications through an unsecured communication channel and a cover media. The most commonly used cover media are texts, images, sounds and videos [6][7][8][9]. ...
Article
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Distributed steganography is an approach to concealing the secret in several files, leaving fewer traces than the classical approach. Recent work proposed by Moyou and Ndoumdan have improved this approach by preserving the integrity of these files in a multi-cloud storage environment. However, the approach requires a large size of the stego-key and the management of several cloud storage environments. Our contribution consists is to improve this approach by using a single cloud storage environment and reducing the size of the stego-key. In this work, a single cloud storage environment is used to solve the problems of managing several credentials, monetary costs and data controls associated with multi-cloud storage environments. The comparisons showed interesting results with simpler operations to be performed by the participants during the process.
... Video steganography is the process of embedding a confidential message into a cover video. Where, it is used in many fields such as copyright protection, access control, medical systems, law enforcement [17]- [19]. ...
Article
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Recent developments in the speed of the Internet and information technology have made the rapid exchange of multimedia information possible. However, these developments in technology lead to violations of information security and private information. Digital steganography provides the ability to protect private information that has become essential in the current Internet age. Among all digital media, digital video has become of interest to many researchers due to its high capacity for hiding sensitive data. Numerous video steganography methods have recently been proposed to prevent secret data from being stolen. Nevertheless, these methods have multiple issues related to visual imperceptibly, robustness, and embedding capacity. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a new approach to video steganography based on the corner point principle and LSBs algorithm. The proposed method first uses Shi-Tomasi algorithm to detect regions of corner points within the cover video frames. Then, it uses 4-LSBs algorithm to hide confidential data inside the identified corner points. Besides, before the embedding process, the proposed method encrypts confidential data using Arnold's cat map method to boost the security level. Experimental results revealed that the proposed method is highly secure and highly invisible, in addition to its satisfactory robustness against Salt & Pepper noise, Speckle noise, and Gaussian noise attacks, which has an average Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) of more than 0.81. Moreover, the results showed that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of visual imperceptibility, which offers excellent peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of average 60.7 dB, maintaining excellent embedding capacity. INDEX TERMS Arnold's Cat map, corner detector, embedding capacity, imperceptibility, robustness, security, video steganography.
... Seeing that the PSNR value of the original image and the stego-image is only slightly different. In addition, the studies [11,12,13,16] listed some video steganography methods, difficulties, challenges as well as the advantages and disadvantages of video steganography techniques. Besides, Spaulding et al. [14] presented the BPCS steganography method with the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) lossy compression. ...
... The practice of inserting a private message into a cover video is known as video steganography. It is utilized in a variety of applications, including copyright, remote access, health fields, and enforcement agencies [14][15][16]. ...
Article
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The rapid transmission of multimedia information has been achieved mainly by recent advancements in the Internet's speed and information technology. In spite of this, advancements in technology have resulted in breaches of privacy and data security. When it comes to protecting private information in today's Internet era, digital steganography is vital. Many academics are interested in digital video because it has a great capability for concealing important data. There have been a vast number of video steganography solutions developed lately to guard against the theft of confidential data. The visual imperceptibility, robustness, and embedding capacity of these approaches are all challenges that must be addressed. In this paper, a novel solution to reversible video steganography based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Quick Response (QR) codes is proposed to address these concerns. In order to increase the security level of the suggested method, an enhanced ElGamal cryptosystem has also been proposed. Prior to the embedding stage, the suggested method uses the modified ElGamal algorithm to encrypt secret QR codes. Concurrently, it applies two-dimensional DWT on the Y-component of each video frame resulting in Approximation (LL), Horizontal (LH), Vertical (HL), and Diagonal (HH) sub-bands. Then, the encrypted Low (L), Medium (M), Quantile (Q), and High (H) QR codes are embedded into the HL sub-band, HH sub-band, U-component, and V-component of video frames, respectively, using the Least Significant Bit (LSB) technique. As a consequence of extensive testing of the approach, it was shown to be very secure and highly invisible, as well as highly resistant to attacks from Salt & Pepper, Gaussian, Poisson, and Speckle noises, which has an average Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) of more than 0.91. Aside from visual imperceptibility, the suggested method exceeds current methods in terms of Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) average of 52.143 dB, and embedding capacity 1 bpp.
Article
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The proposed research work is presenting a novel approach in the field of steganography, especially in the compressed video domain with optimum imperceptibility to secure the secret information. In this approach, the specific secret cover video frames are selected from the sequence of video frame from which the non-dynamic region is separated. Discrete sine transform (DST) transforms this non-dynamic region from spatial domain to frequency domain. The least significant bits (LSBs) of the integer part of DST components are used to conceal the secret data. The H.264 codec is used to construct the compressed stego video using intra-frame, inter-frame prediction, motion vector estimation, transform coefficient, i.e., Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), quantization, and entropy coding. The efficiency of the proposed hybrid technique “DST- Secret Bit Positions of Non-dynamic Region for Message (DST-SBPNRM)” for video steganography is measured by evaluating imperceptibility, robustness and embedding capacity. Moreover, the proposed technique is experimented on the well-defined video dataset and the obtained results are compared with the related work to validate the significance of the proposed work.
Article
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In the last few decades, information security has gained huge importance owing to the massive growth in digital communication; hence, driving steganography to the forefront for secure communication. Steganography is a practice of concealing information or message in covert communication which involves hiding the information in any multimedia file such as text, image, or video. Many contributions have been made in the domain of image steganography; however, due to the low embedding capacity and robustness of images; videos are gaining more attention of academic researchers. This paper aims to provide a qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of various video steganography techniques by highlighting their properties, challenges, pros, and cons. Moreover, different quality metrics for the evaluation of distinct steganography techniques have also been discussed. The paper also provides an overview of steganalysis attacks which are commonly employed to test the security of the steganography techniques. The experimental analysis of some of the prominent techniques using different quality metrics has also been done. This paper also presented a critical analysis driven from the literature and the experimental results. The primary objective of this paper is to help the beginners to understand the basic concepts of this research domain to initiate their research in this field. Further, the paper highlighted the real-life applications of video steganography and also suggested some future directions which require the attention of the research community.
Chapter
Presently, fraud in online data transmission becomes a more critical and serious issue due to its security and authentication. This paper contributes and provides the correct path to these problems. Till date, many such aspects have been developed using the data embedding approach to embed the one-bit secret data into the video which produces less security and authentication. The implemented concept provides authentication and security aspects where more than three bits are embedded into video pixels using the forensic pixel adjustment mapping (FPAM) technique. The different types of image processing attacks are also tested which do not create any distortion. The extensive observed and verified software results of implemented approach have been compared to the state-of-the-art video data embedding methods. It is observed that the implemented forensic video data embedding technique is better as compared to any existing approaches.
Article
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In this research work, an efficient robust video steganography in compressed domain is presented based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) encoded with H.264 codec. In this method, a compressed video (.mp4) of different resolutions, frame rates and sizes are used as a cover and RGB image is used as a secret message. Using appropriate stego key, the secret frames from the sequence of video frames are selected and the non-dynamic pixels of these frames are identified. The least significant bits (LSB) of the DCT component of these non-dynamic pixels are used as carrier object for hiding the R, G, and B components of secret message individually. An appropriate embedding key is designed to embed secret message in cover video such that the quality assessment parameters viz. Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and mean square error (MSE) of imperceptibility can be optimized. Also, the successful extraction of secret message from the cover stego video is assessed by the robustness parameters viz. Bit error rate (BER) and similarity (Sim). The hiding capacity of proposed video steganography with respect to secret message and cover frame is measured by using hiding ratio (HR). The efficiency of proposed video steganography method is compared with the reported methodologies on the basis of the parameters of imperceptibility and robustness.
Chapter
The proposed research work presents a novel data hiding method for video steganography in the compressed domain. In this method, the random numbered secret frames are selected from the RGB cover video sequence. This method increases the complexity level of video steganography by considering the specific host to conceal confidential data. It extracts the specific non-dynamic region from the secret frame and transforms the pixel value to the frequency domain using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The usage of random Least Significant Bit (LSB) of the real part of FFT as a carrier object leads to good video quality and secret data-carrying capacity. Furthermore, the secure compressed stego video is reconstructed using the H.264 video compression technique. The proposed method is experimented on some well-known video datasets by considering RGB images with different resolutions as a secret message. Performance evaluation parameters evaluate the proposed method’s efficiency, imperceptibility, robustness, and embedding capacity, and the improved results are compared with reported methodologies. The results show a significant improvement in the imperceptibility as a Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) value is reached up to infinity (Inf) in some cases. At the same time, the similarity between embedded and extracted message is achieved nearer to 1 with the negligible Bit Error Rate (BER) less than 0.1%, and the embedding capacity greater than 0.5% in all cases indicates an excellent sign of carrying a big amount of confidential data.
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Kulkarni, VinayJoshi, YashwantManthalkar, RamchandraBrain–Computer Interface (BCI) is a vibrant topic in rehabilitation engineering. It is essential to have informative features and practical classification algorithms for the appropriate communication between humans and machines. This paper focuses on improving accuracy in detecting elbow movements and analyzing the effect of kinematic movement variability over the sensory-motor cortex with 10–20 EEG system. The EEG data from healthy volunteers was acquired by training them for a proposed protocol. These healthy volunteers were asked to play a PC game intended for rehabilitation with his/her elbow movement utilizing the ArmeoSpring treatment instrument. The input raw EEG signal is passed through 8–30 Hz bandpass filter. The Common Spatial Pattern (CSP), Event-Related Desynchronization (ERD)/Synchronization (ERS), and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) modeling features are estimated and tested with SVM classifier. The proposed framework can differentiate and classify the kinematic movements of the elbow with an average accuracy of 84.61, 92.77, and 97.26% for CSP, ARMA, and ERD/ERS features, respectively. The experimental results on the proposed dataset demonstrate that the combination of feature extraction techniques and classifiers improves the classification performance, which would benefit the BCI rehabilitation community.
Article
The proposed research work presents a comparative analysis of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) based video steganography in compressed domain. In this method, the random numbered secret frames are selected from the sequence of RGB cover video. This method increases the complexity level of video steganography by considering the specific host to conceal secret data. It extracts the specific non-dynamic region from secret frame, transforms the pixel value of non-dynamic region into frequency domain using transform coefficient DCT or DST. The random Least Significant Bit (LSB) of integer component of DCT and DST is used as a carrier object that leads to good video quality and secret data-carrying capacity. Furthermore, the secure compressed stego video is reconstructed by using H.264 video compression technique facilitates communication over the network channel between sender and receiver. The proposed method has been experimented on some well-known video datasets by considering RGB images with different resolutions as a secret message. The efficiency of proposed video steganography method is evaluated by performance evaluation parameters; imperceptibility, robustness, and embedding capacity and the improved results of proposed method have been compared with reported methodologies.
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Background In terms of data-hiding areas, video steganography is more advantageous compared to other steganography techniques since it uses video as its cover medium. For any video steganography, the good trade-off among robustness, imperceptibility, and payload must be created and maintained. Even though it has the advantage of capacity, video steganography has the robustness problem especially regarding spatial domain is used to implement it. Transformation operations and statistical attacks can harm secret data. Thus, the ideal video steganography technique must provide high imperceptibility, high payload, and resistance towards visual, statistical and transformation-based steganalysis attacks. Methods One of the most common spatial methods for hiding data within the cover medium is the Least Significant Bit (LSB) method. In this study, an LSB-based video steganography application that uses a poly-pattern key block matrix (KBM) as the key was proposed. The key is a 64 × 64 pixel block matrix that consists of 16 sub-pattern blocks with a pixel size of 16 × 16. To increase the security of the proposed approach, sub-patterns in the KBM are allowed to shift in four directions and rotate up to 270° depending on the user preference and logical operations. For additional security XOR and AND logical operations were used to determine whether to choose the next predetermined 64 × 64 pixel block or jump to another pixel block in the cover video frame to place a KBM to embed the secret data. The fact that the combination of variable KBM structure and logical operator for the secret data embedding distinguishes the proposed algorithm from previous video steganography studies conducted with LSB-based approaches. Results Mean Squared Error (MSE), Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) and Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) parameters were calculated for the detection of the imperceptibility (or the resistance against visual attacks ) of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm obtained the best MSE, SSIM and PSNR parameter values based on the secret message length as 0.00066, 0.99999, 80.01458 dB for 42.8 Kb of secret message and 0.00173, 0.99999, 75.72723 dB for 109 Kb of secret message, respectively. These results are better than the results of classic LSB and the studies conducted with LSB-based video steganography approaches in the literature. Since the proposed system allows an equal amount of data embedding in each video frame the data loss will be less in transformation operations. The lost data can be easily obtained from the entire text with natural language processing. The variable structure of the KBM, logical operators and extra security preventions makes the proposed system be more secure and complex. This increases the unpredictability and resistance against statistical attacks. Thus, the proposed method provides high imperceptibility and resistance towards visual, statistical and transformation-based attacks while acceptable even high payload.
Article
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The steganography is applied on text, image, video, and audio files. The steganography is useful for safe and secure data transmission. Video steganography is used to preserve confidential information of security applications. To improve security of the message, pixels locations are optimized using nature inspired algorithm. As conventional algorithms have a low convergence rate a new algorithm is proposed. A New algorithm is developed by combining two model algorithms namely, Water wave optimization (WWO) and Earth worm optimization (EWO) and is renamed as proposed Water-Earth Worm Optimization (WEWO) algorithm. The frames are preprocessed and extracted using Discrete Cosine transform (DCT) and Structured Similarity index (SSIM), respectively, as regular processing. For pixel prediction, the fitness function is obtained from neighborhood entropies in proposed algorithm. In this method, secret message is embedded with two level decomposition of Wavelet Transform (WT). In the proposed work is tested with 'CAVIAR' dataset. The Proposed WEWO-Deep RNN algorithm performance is tested with modular noises such as, pepper, salt and pepper noises. The proposed method gives enhanced performance, which is seen with the parameters, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), and Correlation Coefficient (CC) which defines image quality indices.
Chapter
Securing information has been very anxious regarding the advancement of data science, technology as well as research fields. To resolve the security issues, information hiding algorithms have developed based on deep learning technique. Steganography refers to the process of hiding information within specific files whereas Steganalysis refers the process of recognition of hidden information within those files. In this chapter, we have reviewed several existing work done by various researchers on steganography videos and images using both machine learning and deep learning algorithms. In addition, we focused on Convolutional Neural Network framework, block diagrams for performing Steganalysis process especially hidden information that referred by several researchers. It has five sections namely image steganography, video steganography, automatic detection, integration of audio and video steganography, and finally state of art using deep learning algorithms have illustrated. This proposed review creates an entire idea on steganography videos and image data hiding based on both ML and DL technique.
Chapter
Steganography is the art of hiding messages or files in a way that prevents the detection of the existence of these hidden messages. It encompasses several techniques, including physical methods like invisible ink on paper and digital techniques like hiding text on multimedia files like images and music files. In the modern digital era, steganography has become a useful tool to evade detection and perusal of secret messages. With the advent of social media, it is very easy to encode a message or file onto an image and upload it online for the intended recipients to access, decode, and read or use. In this case of digital steganography of messages or files onto images, an important factor to consider is the effect of image compression on the hidden message. Since most social media and other online image posting websites run some sort of compression, cropping, and other image transformations on the uploaded images, understanding these techniques and their effect on the hidden text can help one choose the most suitable steganography technique to use for a particular use case.
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Due to the significant growth of video data over the Internet, it has become a popular choice for data hiding field. The performance of any steganographic algorithm relies on the embedding efficiency, embedding payload, and robustness against attackers. Low hidden ratio, less security, and low quality of stego videos are the major issues of many existing steganographic methods. In this paper, we propose a DCT-based robust video steganographic method using BCH codes. To improve the security of the proposed algorithm, a secret message is first encrypted and encoded by using BCH codes. Then, it is embedded into the discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of video frames. The hidden message is embedded into DCT coefficients of each Y, U, and V planes excluding DC coefficients. The proposed algorithm is tested under two types of videos that contain slow and fast moving objects. The results of the proposed algorithm are compared with three existing methods. The results demonstrate better performance for the proposed algorithm than for the others. The hidden ratio of the proposed algorithm is approximately 27.53%, which is evaluated as a high hiding capacity with a minimal tradeoff of the visual quality. The robustness of the proposed algorithm was tested under different attacks.
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Due to the significant growth of video data over the Internet, video steganography has become a popular choice. The effectiveness of any steganographic algorithm depends on the embedding efficiency, embedding payload, and robustness against attackers. The lack of the preprocessing stage, less security, and low quality of stego videos are the major issues of many existing steganographic methods. The preprocessing stage includes the procedure of manipulating both secret data and cover videos prior to the embedding stage. In this paper, we address these problems by proposing a novel video steganographic method based on Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) tracking using Hamming codes (15, 11). The proposed method consists of four main stages: a) the secret message is preprocessed using Hamming codes (15, 11), producing an encoded message, b) face detection and tracking are performed on the cover videos, determining the region of interest (ROI), defined as facial regions, c) the encoded secret message is embedded using an adaptive LSB substitution method in the ROIs of video frames. In each facial pixel 1 LSB, 2 LSBs, 3 LSBs, and 4 LSBs are utilized to embed 3, 6, 9, and 12 bits of the secret message, respectively, and d) the process of extracting the secret message from the RGB color components of the facial regions of stego video is executed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves higher embedding capacity as well as better visual quality of stego videos. Furthermore, the two preprocessing steps increase the security and robustness of the proposed algorithm as compared to state-of-the-art methods.
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This paper presents a steganography method based on an embedded zerotree wavelet compression scheme and bit-plane complexity segmentation steganography. The proposed steganography enables us to use lossy compressed images as dummy files in bit-plane-based steganographic algorithms. Large embedding rates of around 25% of the compressed image size were achieved with little noticeable degradation in image quality.
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In this paper, a steganographic algorithm in MPEG compressed video stream was proposed. In each GOP, the control information for to facilitate data extraction was embedded in I frame, in P frames and B frames, the actually transmitted data were repeatedly embedded in motion vectors of macro-blocks that have larger moving speed, for to resist video processing. Data extraction was also performed in compressed video stream without requiring original video. On a GOP by GOP basis, control information in I frame should be extracted firstly, then the embedded data in P and B frames can be extracted based on the control information. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has the characteristics of little degrading the visual effect, larger embedding capacity and resisting video processing such as frame adding or frame dropping.
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This paper proposes a novel Video Steganography which can hide an uncompressed secret video stream in a host video stream with almost the same size. Each frame of the secret video will be Non-uniform rectangular partitioned and the partitioned codes obtained can be an encrypted version of the original frame. These codes will be hidden in the Least 4 Significant Bits of each frames of the host video. Experimental results showed that this algorithm can hide a same-size video in the host video without obvious distortion in the host video.
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This paper presents an improved data hiding technique based on BCH (n,k,t) syndrome coding. The proposed data hiding method embeds data to a block of input data (for example, image pixels, wavelet or DCT coefficients, etc.) by modifying some coefficients in a block in order to null the syndrome of the BCH coding. The proposed data hiding method can hide the same amount of data with less computational time compared to the existed methods. Contributions of this paper include the reduction of both time complexity and storage complexity as well. Storage complexity is linear while that of other methods are exponential. Time complexity of our method is almost negligible and constant for any n. On the other hand, time complexity of the existing methods is exponential. Since the time complexity is constant and storage complexity is linear, it is easy to extend this method to a large n which allows us to hide data with small embedding capacity. Note that small capacities are highly recommended for steganography to survive steganalysis. The proposed scheme shows that BCH syndrome coding for data hiding is now practical ascribed to the reduced complexity.
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This article reports that digital multimedia is exposed to a broad spectrum of security problems. From the standpoint of the media provider, protection of materials from unauthorized distribution or modification is a primary concern. At the delivery end, recipients want to ensure that downloads are virus-free and legitimately obtained. Ironically, encryption and digital branding tools can be employed both for securing multimedia as well as for circumventing laws pertaining to content and use. The most popular of these techniques are steganography and watermarking or the addition of an unremovable identifier to tag the content, indicating ownership. One popular method used for data encoding in digital audio files is Least Significant Bit, where the low bit of each sound sample is successively replaced by digits from a binary string. Another is phase coding, where the phase of an audio signal is replaced by a reference phase used to modulate a data signal. Echoes can even be altered in order to conceal information. All these techniques rely on the fact that the perception of sound is rather inaccurate.
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A new data hiding scheme for scene change detection in H.264 streams is presented. The proposed scheme takes advantage of the different block sizes used by the H.264 encoder during the inter prediction stage in order to hide the scene change information inside the encoded sequence. This information enables real time scene change detection directly from the H.264 stream.
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The recent finalization of MPEG-4 will make this standard very attractive for a large range of applications such as video editing, Internet video distribution, wireless video communications. Some of these applications are likely to get great benefit from watermarking technology, since it can enable a number of innovative services, such as conditional access policies, data annotation, data labeling, content authentication, to be implemented at a low price. One of the key points of the MPEG-4 standard is the possibility to access and manipulate objects within a video sequence. Thus object watermarking has to be achieved in such a way that, while a video object is transferred from a sequence to another, it is still possible to correctly access the data embedded within the object itself. The algorithm proposed in this paper embeds a watermark in each video object by imposing a particular relationship between some predefined pairs of quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients in the luminance blocks of pseudo-randomly selected macroblocks (MBs). Watermarks are equally embedded into intra and inter MBs. Experimental results are presented validating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
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One of challenges encountered in information bit hiding is the reliability of information bit detection. This paper addresses the issue and presents an algorithm in the discrete cosing transform (DCT) domain with a communication theory approach. It embeds information bits (first) in the DC and (then in the) low-frequency AC coefficients. To extract the hidden information bits from a possibly corrupted marked image with a low error probability, we model information hiding as a digital communication problem and apply Bose??Chaudhuri??Hocquenghen channel coding with soft-decision decoding based on matched filtering. The robustness of the hidden bits has been tested with StirMark. The experimental results demonstrate that the embedded information bits are perceptually transparent and can successfully resist common signal processing procedures, jitter attack, aspect ratio variation, scaling change, small angle rotation, small amount cropping, and JPEG compression with quality factor as low as 10. Compared with some information hiding algorithms reported in the literature, it appears that the hidden information bits with the proposed approach are relatively more robust. While the approach is presented for gray level images, it can also be applied to color images and video sequences.
A novel magic LSB substitution method (M-LSB-SM) using multi-level encryption and achromatic component of an image
  • K Muhammad
  • M Sajjad
  • I Mehmood
  • S Rho
  • S Baik