ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Introduction: Cognitive failures are simple mistakes in routine activities, such as forgetting commitments and have difficulties in concentrating. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was designed to assess the frequency of this errors in everyday life. Although widely used in psychiatry and psychology, both in clinical and research settings, we found no adaptation of the CFQ to Brazil. Our objective was to perform a transcultural adaptation of the CFQ to Brazil and assess its validity and reliability. Methods: the translation of the original version of the CFQ was performed by two independent researchers, analyzed by a multidisciplinary board of experts and back-translated to English. The final version was applied in 225 adults. Validity was assessed by correlations with the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) and the Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18). Reliability was analyzed by calculating CFQ internal consistency and test-retest stability. Results: the adapted version of the CFQ showed significant correlations with SRQ-20 (r=-0.311), ASRS-18 Inattention (r=0.696) and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity (r=0.405) scores. Reliability analysis suggests high internal consistency (0.906) and temporal stability (0.813). Conclusion: we performed the translation of the CFQ analyzed its psychometric characteristics. The test showed moderate-large correlations with other measures of mental health and showed adequate reliability.
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Brazilian version of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire
(CFQ): cross-cultural adaptation and evidence of validity
and reliability
Jonas J. de Paula,
1,2,3
Danielle S. Costa,
1,3
De
´bora M. de Miranda,
1,4
Marco A. Romano-Silva
1,5
1
Programa de Po
´s-Graduac¸a
˜o, Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte,
MG, Brazil.
2
Departamento de Psicologia, Faculdade de Cie
ˆncias Me
´dicas de Minas Gerais (FCM-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
3
Laborato
´rio de Ensino e Pesquisa em Neuropsicologia, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
4
Departamento de Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina,
UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
5
Departamento de Sau
´de Mental, Faculdade de Medicina, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
Objective: Cognitive failures are simple mistakes in routine activities, such as forgetting commitments
and experiencing difficulty concentrating. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was designed
to assess the frequency of these errors in everyday life. Although widely used in psychiatry and psychology,
both in clinical and research settings, it has not been adapted for use in Brazil. Our objective was to perform
cross-cultural adaptation of the CFQ for the Brazilian reality and assess its validity and reliability.
Methods: The original version of the CFQ was translated into Brazilian Portuguese by two indepen-
dent researchers, analyzed by a multidisciplinary board of experts, and back-translated into English.
The final version was administered to 225 adults. Validity was assessed by correlation with the Self
Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) and the Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-
Report Scale (ASRS-18). Reliability was analyzed by calculating internal consistency and test-retest
stability.
Results: The adapted version of the CFQ showed significant correlations with SRQ-20 (r = -0.311),
ASRS-18 inattention (r = 0.696), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (r = 0.405) scores. Reliability analysis
suggests high internal consistency (0.906) and temporal stability (0.813).
Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the CFQ showed moderate correlations with other
measures of mental health, as well as adequate reliability.
Keywords: Cognitive neuroscience; diagnosis and classification; memory; occupational psychiatry;
psychometric tests/interviews
Introduction
Cognitive failures are defined as simple mistakes in routine
activities, such as forgetting commitments, discarding
materials improperly, and difficulties in financial planning,
among others.
1,2
These mistakes appear to be represen-
tative of ecological cognitive functioning and are regarded
as an outcome of cognitive processing and other psycho-
logical factors, including psychopathology and personality.
2
Although they seem harmless, self-perception of cognitive
failures is strongly associated with mental disorders.
1-5
One of the measures most widely used to assess such
failures is the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ),
1
which consists of 25 questions designed to represent cogni-
tive errors in daily life. These questions reflect different aspects
of cognitive functioning, including attention (‘‘Do you fail to
notice signposts on the road?’’), perception (‘‘Do you fail
to see what you want in a supermarket (although it’s
there)?’’), memory (‘‘Do you find you forget appointments?’’),
impulsivity (‘‘Do you say something and realize afterwards
that it might be taken as insulting?’’), and language (‘‘Do you
find yourself suddenly wondering whether you’ve used a
word correctly?’’). Each question is answered on a frequency
scale, ranging from never (0 points) to very often (4 points).
The total scale ranges from 0 to 100 points.
The CFQ is widely used in psychiatric and psychological
research. Performance on this scale has been related to
affective symptoms,
3,5
dissociative states,
4
learning disabil-
ities,
6
stress, and anxiety,
7
among other aspects of psycho-
pathology and psychological functioning.
2,8
CFQ scores
have also been associated with objective cognitive perfor-
mance, especially on measures of executive attention,
9
although its association with objective tests is inconsis-
tent.
2
This may reflected the different demand involved in
controlled, usually simple objective cognitive tests when
compared to real-life situation, in which not only raw
cognitive abilities but also contextual and emotional factors
may affect the outcome.
2
In addition to the aforementioned
associations, CFQ shows robust psychometric prop-
erties, including high internal consistency and test-retest
stability
1,10,11
and multidimensional factor structure,
10
usually involving components of memory and attention.
Despite its widespread use and utility in psychiatric and
psychological research in several cultures, to the best of
Correspondence: Jonas J. de Paula, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais - Medicina Molecular, Av. Alfredo Balena, 190, CEP 30130-100,
Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
E-mail: jonasjardim@gmail.com
Submitted Jan 15 2017, accepted Aug 07 2017.
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. 2017;00:000–000
Associac¸a
˜o Brasileira de Psiquiatria
doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2017-2227
our knowledge, the CFQ has not been adapted for use
in Brazil. Thus, the objective of this study is to perform
translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the CFQ for
use in Brazil and analyze its validity and reliability in this
setting.
Methods
Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Cognitive
Failures Questionnaire (CFQ)
We obtained written authorization from one of the authors
of the original version of the CFQ, Professor Kathy Parkes,
to perform cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument into
Brazilian Portuguese. The translation was done by two
psychologists with expertise in cognitive functioning. Two
of the authors (JJdP and DSC) performed an initial transl-
ation of the CFQ, adapting some of the items for the
Brazilian context. A synthesis of this translation was then
sent to a panel of experts, composed of a researcher with
experience in neuropsychology (neuropsychologist, PhD),
a researcher with experience in functional evaluation
(occupational therapist, PhD), and another researcher
with experience in psychometrics (physical educator, PhD).
The reviewers’ feedback was summarized and implemen-
ted in a final version of the instrument, considering the
peculiarities of Brazilian culture and the necessary adapta-
tions. Finally, back-translation and reanalysis were per-
formed by a naı
¨ve professional and checked by the expert
translators. Table 1 presents the original and adapted
versions of the questionnaire.
Participants and procedures
We assessed 225 Brazilian adults in an online platform for
the present study. The mean (SD) age of participants was
29.21 (610.54) years. They were predominately female
(58%), white (52%), single (68%), with a high school educa-
tion (52%), and had studied in public schools (58%). None
of the participants had a history of psychiatric disorders,
neurological diseases, or current use of psychotropic drugs.
Beside the self-report CFQ, participants completed the
Self Reporting Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20),
12
a screening
measure for non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, and the
Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Self-
Report Scale (ASRS-18)
13
for the assessment of ADHD
symptoms. The clinical cutoffs of both instruments (47
and 421, respectively) were used to identify participants
with higher probability of presenting psychiatric disorders,
and scores below these cutoffs were defined as inclusion
criteria.
The participants completed the CFQ on an online plat-
form, which has been previously used in other research.
14
To ensure the equivalence of online and pen-paper
versions of the QFC, we compared the scores of 60 parti-
cipants who completed the pen-paper version to those of
the 225 online questionnaires. Both samples were similar
in terms of age, education, and sex (p 40.10 for all
comparisons). An independent-samples t-test showed no
between-group difference in scores (t= -0.289, p = 0.773,
d= 0.08).
This study was conducted in accordance with the
Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the local ethics
committee (CAEE: 57378016.5.0000.5134). All subjects
gave consent for participation.
Analysis of psychometric properties
In this study, we assessed both the validity and the reli-
ability of the CFQ. For analysis of validity, we computed
Pearson correlations between CFQ total score and SRQ-20
and ASR-18 scales, since both internalizing and exter-
nalizing are associated with cognitive failures.
2
ASRS-18
scores are particularly representative of cognitive pro-
blems, since they involve the inattention dimension of
ADHD. Assessment of reliability was done by the analysis
of internal consistency (McDonald’s omega, since latent
structure is multidimensional) and test-retest stability (intra-
class correlation coefficient). The latter was calculated in a
smaller subsample (n=22) with a 1-week interval. We also
computed correlations with sociodemographic data.
Results
The original items and final translation of each item are
shown in Table 1. We changed three items to better fit
contemporary issues, since the original questionnaire
was developed in 1982. The item ‘‘Do you forget where
you put something like a newspaper or a book?’’ was
changed to ‘‘Do you forget where you put something like a
newspaper, your cell phone or your keys?’’; the item
‘‘Do you find you accidentally throw away the thing you
want and keep what you meant to throw away – as in the
example of throwing away the matchbox and putting the
used match in your pocket?’’ was changed to ‘‘Do you find
you accidentally throw away the thing you want and keep
what you meant to throw away – as in the example of
throwing away candy and putting its wrapper in your
pocket?’’; and the item ‘‘Do you leave important letters
unanswered for days?’’ was changed to ‘‘Do you leave
important letters, messages, or e-mails unanswered for
days?.’’ The translated version is freely available at www.
labepneuro.com.
The mean CFQ score was 35.58 (standard devia-
tion, 12.14; range, 10-74). Most of the items showed
more frequent values in the intermediate categories
(very rarely, occasionally, quite often) when compared
to extreme responses (never, very often). Correlations
with sociodemographic measures suggest a weak asso-
ciation with age (r = -0.263, p o0.001) but no association
with formal education (r = -0.079, p = 0.237) and
socioeconomic status measured by the Brazilian Socio-
economic Classification Criteria (r = 0.005, p = 0.936). We
found no differences in scores between men and women
(z = -1.03, p = 0.301).
CFQ scores correlated significantly with SRQ-20 (r =
0.311, p o0.001, R
2
= 10%), ASRS-18 inattention (r =
0.696, p o0.001, R
2
= 48%), and ASRS-18 hyperactivity/
impulsivity (r = 0.405, p o0.001, R
2
= 16%) scores. Reli-
ability analysis suggests high internal consistency (0.909)
and temporal stability (0.813).
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2017;00(00)
2JJ de Paula et al.
Table 1 Translation of Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) and descriptive statistics for each item
# Original Translated M SD N VR OC QO VO
1 Do you read something and find you haven’t been thinking about it
and must read it again?
Voce
ˆle
ˆalguma coisa, percebe que na
˜o estava prestando
atenc¸a
˜o e precisa le
ˆ-la novamente?
2.53 0.93 12% 40% 30% 18% 6%
2 Do you find you forget why you went from one part of the house to
the other?
Voce
ˆse esquece por que
ˆfoi de um co
ˆmodo a outro
dentro de casa?
2.01 1.01 5% 28% 34% 25% 7%
3 Do you fail to notice signposts on the road? Voce
ˆdeixa de notar placas de sinalizac¸a
˜o ao dirigir? 1.28 0.97 20% 46% 24% 6% 4%
4 Do you find you confuse right and left when giving directions? Voce
ˆconfunde esquerda e direita ao indicar o caminho
a algue
´m?
1.14 1.21 37% 36% 11% 10% 7%
5 Do you bump into people? Voce
ˆesbarra (‘‘tromba’’) em outras pessoas? 1.40 0.98 12% 54% 19% 10% 4%
6 Do you find you forget whether you’ve turned off a light or a fire or
locked the door?
Voce
ˆesquece se apagou a luz, a chama do foga
˜oouse
trancou a porta?
1.64 1.08 12% 40% 25% 17% 6%
7 Do you fail to listen to people’s names when you are meeting them? Voce
ˆna
˜o se atenta ao nome da pessoa quando ela esta
´
sendo apresentada a voce
ˆ?
1.58 1.15 17% 37% 24% 15% 7%
8 Do you say something and realize afterwards that it might be taken
as insulting?
Voce
ˆdiz alguma coisa e depois percebe que isso pode
ter sido interpretado como um insulto?
1.61 0.87 7% 43% 36% 12% 2%
9 Do you fail to hear people speaking to you when you are doing
something else?
Voce
ˆtem dificuldade em escutar as pessoas falando com
voce
ˆquando esta
´fazendo outra coisa?
2.07 1.03 4% 28% 33% 25% 9%
10 Do you lose your temper and regret it? Voce
ˆperde a calma e se arrepende? 1.63 1.07 9% 46% 26% 10% 8%
11 Do you leave important letters unanswered for days? Voce
ˆdeixa cartas, mensagens ou e-mails importantes
sem resposta por dias?
1.28 1.10 25% 42% 18% 9% 5%
12 Do you find you forget which way to turn on a road you know well but
rarely use?
Voce
ˆesquece aonde virar em um caminho que conhece
bem, mas usa pouco?
1.18 1.03 27% 43% 19% 8% 4%
13 Do you fail to see what you want in a supermarket (although it’s
there)?
Voce
ˆtem dificuldades em achar o que voce
ˆquer no
supermercado, embora o produto esteja por la
´?
1.40 0.91 13% 47% 27% 12% 1%
14 Do you find yourself suddenly wondering whether you’ve used a
word correctly?
Voce
ˆse encontra subitamente pensando se usou uma
palavra de forma correta?
1.88 1.07 9% 30% 32% 21% 7%
15 Do you have trouble making up your mind? Voce
ˆtem problemas em se decidir? 1.97 1.16 8% 32% 29% 17% 14%
16 Do you find you forget appointments? Voce
ˆesquece os seus compromissos? 1.29 1.00 20% 47% 23% 5% 5%
17 Do you forget where you put something like a newspaper or a book? Voce
ˆesquece onde colocou alguma coisa, como o jornal,
o celular ou suas chaves?
1.87 1.10 8% 36% 28% 20% 9%
18 Do you find you accidentally throw away the thing you want and
keep what you meant to throw away – as in the example of throwing
away the matchbox and putting the used match in your pocket?
Voce
ˆacidentalmente joga fora algo que queria guardar e
fica com aquilo que queria descartar (por exemplo, joga
fora uma bala e guarda seu papel no bolso)?
0.88 0.91 39% 41% 15% 4% 2%
19 Do you daydream when you ought to be listening to something? Voce
ˆ‘‘viaja’’ ou fica ‘‘no mundo da lua’’ quando deveria
estar ouvindo alguma coisa?
1.86 1.06 7% 35% 31% 19% 8%
20 Do you find you forget people’s names? Voce
ˆesquece o nome das pessoas? 1.91 1.06 7% 32% 32% 22% 8%
21 Do you start doing one thing at home and get distracted into doing
something else (unintentionally)?
Voce
ˆcomec¸a a fazer alguma coisa em casa e se distrai
fazendo algo diferente (sem querer)?
1.79 1.13 12% 31% 29% 19% 8%
22 Do you find you can’t quite remember something although it’s ‘‘on
the tip of your tongue’’?
Voce
ˆna
˜o consegue se lembrar de alguma coisa, mesmo
que esteja ‘‘na ponta da lı
´ngua’’?
1.95 0.89 1% 32% 42% 19% 6%
23 Do you find you forget what you came to the shops to buy? Voce
ˆse esquece do que saiu para comprar? 0.98 0.84 30% 48% 18% 3% 1%
24 Do you drop things? Voce
ˆdeixa as coisas caı
´rem (as derruba)? 1.51 1.13 18% 40% 22% 13% 7%
25 Do you find you can’t think of anything to say? Voce
ˆna
˜o consegue pensar em nada para dizer? 1.44 0.95 14% 44% 29% 10% 3%
M = mean; SD = standard deviation.
Rating: N = never (0 points); VR = very rarely (1 point); OC = occasionally (2 points); QO = quite often (3 points); VO = very often (4 points).
Descriptive data for the total score: M = 35.58, SD = 12.14.
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2017;00(00)
Brazilian version of the CFQ 3
Discussion
This paper reports on the translation and adaptation of the
CFQ into Brazilian Portuguese, as well as preliminary evi-
dence of its validity and reliability for use in the Brazilian
reality. Total CFQ scores showed a weak negative cor-
relation with age, and no correlation with formal educa-
tion, sex, or socioeconomic status. Regarding validity,
we found moderate correlation with SRQ-20 scores
(a measure of non-psychotic psychiatric symptoms), mode-
rate correlation with ASRS-18 hyperactivity-impulsivity
scores, and a strong correlation with ASRS-18 inattention
scores. The CFQ also showed high internal consistency
and test-retest reliability.
We found a small contribution (8%) of sociodemographic
factors on CFQ scores. The only measure correlated with
cognitive failures was age. However, the correlation was
inverse, suggesting that subjects tend to experience fewer
cognitive failures at older ages. This may occur due to the
multidimensional nature of the CFQ, in which dimensions
such as forgetfulness/memory may elicit worse scores in
older groups while distractibility/attention may improve, as
seen in other studies.
10
Futures studies should address
these points in larger and more heterogeneous samples.
The correlations with measures of mental health are
in accordance with other studies which adopted the
CFQ.
1,8,15
The associations were stronger in measures
more related to attention than those related to depression/
anxiety and hyperactivity/impulsivity, which mirrors its
stronger correlations with cognitive functions (executive-
attention), as also seen in objective cognitive tests.
9
The moderate-to-strong associations suggest dependency
between the measures, but higher unique than shared
variance, which provides evidence of construct validity.
The internal consistency of the CFQ in this study (0.909)
was similar to that reported in other studies, such as Bridger
et al.,
15
who reported internal consistencies of 0.92 and
0.93 at two time points. Other studies reported lower coeffi-
cients, but usually in the intermediate to high range, as in
Merckelbach et al.
11
(0.85). The test-retest stability values
found in our study seem consistent with those reported in the
original study by Broadbent et al.
1
In their study, reporting a
sample relatively like ours, coefficients of temporal stability
were 0.824 and 0.803, at intervals of 21 and 64 weeks
respectively. These values are higher than those reported by
Bridger et al.,
15
who reported only moderate stability (0.71),
albeit at a 2-year interval.
Our study has limitations which need to be addressed.
First, our sample was recruited through online advertise-
ments, and is not representative of the Brazilian popula-
tion. This may generate a selection effect, and hinders
the generalization of our results. Our sample is also not
adequate for a comprehensive assessment of the internal
structure of the CFQ (which would require exploratory and
confirmatory factor analysis), and the amount of mea-
sures used to test its convergent and divergent validity,
including objective cognitive measures, was limited. We
also lacked an ecological measure of cognitive function-
ing, such as simulated ‘‘real-life’’ tasks, to better evaluate
cognitive failures. These issues should be addressed in
future studies.
In conclusion, we have translated the CFQ into
Brazilian Portuguese and presented preliminary evidence
of its validity and reliability for use in Brazil. The test
showed moderate-to-strong correlations with other mea-
sures of mental health, as well as adequate reliability.
Acknowledgements
This study received financial support from Instituto
Nacional de Cie
ˆncia e Tecnologia - Medicina Molecular
(INCT-MM), Fundac¸a
˜o de Amparo a
`Pesquisa do Estado
de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG; CBB-APQ-00075-09), Con-
selho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientı
´fico e Tecnolo
´gico
(CNPq; 573646/2008-2), and FAPEMIG (APQ-01972/12-10,
APQ-02755-10). We would like to thank the undergraduate
and graduate students who helped with data collection,
Professor Kathy Parkes for the authorization to adapt the
Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), and Professors
Gabriel Coutinho, Luciana Assis Oliveira, and Maicon
Albuquerque for revising the translation.
Disclosure
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
References
1 Broadbent DE, Cooper PF, FitzGerald P, Parkes KR. The cognitive
failures questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates. Br J Clin Psychol.
1982;21:1-16.
2 Carrigan N, Barkus E. A systematic review of cognitive failures
in daily life: healthy populations. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016;63:
29-42.
3 Hohman TJ, Beason-Held LL, Resnick SM. Cognitive complaints,
depressive symptoms, and cognitive impairment: are they related?
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59:1908-12.
4 Bruce AS, Ray WJ, Carlson RA. Understanding cognitive failures:
what’s dissociation got to do with it? Am J Psychol. 2007;120:553-63.
5 Sullivan B, Payne TW. Affective disorders and cognitive failures:
a comparison of seasonal and nonseasonal depression. Am J
Psychiatry. 2007;164:1663-7.
6 Smith-Spark JH, Fawcett AJ, Nicolson RI, Fisk JE. Dyslexic students
have more everyday cognitive lapses. Memory. 2004;12:174-82.
7 Mahoney AM, Dalby JT, King MC. Cognitive failures and stress.
Psychol Rep. 1998;82:1432-4.
8 Wagle AC, Berrios GE, Ho L. The cognitive failures questionnaire in
psychiatry. Compr Psychiatry. 1999;40:478-84.
9 Paiva GC, Fialho MB, Costa Dde S, Paula JJ. Ecological validity of
the five digit test and the oral trails test. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2016;
74:29-34.
10 Rast P, Zimprich D, Van Boxtel M, Jolles J. Factor structure and
measurement invariance of the cognitive failures questionnaire
across the adult life span. Assessment. 2009;16:145-58.
11 Merckelbach H, Muris P, Rassin E. Fantasy proneness and cognitive
failures as correlates of dissociative experiences. Pers Individ Dif.
1999;26:961-7.
12 Mari JJ, Williams P. A validity study of a psychiatric screening
questionnaire (SRQ-20) in primary care in the city of Sao Paulo. Br J
Psychiatry. 1986;148:23-6.
13 Kessler RC, Adler L, Ames M, Demler O, Faraone S, Hiripi E, et al.
The World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale
(ASRS): a short screening scale for use in the general population.
Psychol Med. 2005;35:245-56.
14 de Paula JJ. Propriedades psicome
´tricas do l
´ndice de Religiosidade
de Duke aplicado em plataforma virtual. Cad Saude Colet. 2015;
23:276-9.
15 Bridger RS, Johnsen SA
˚, Brasher K. Psychometric properties of the
cognitive failures questionnaire. Ergonomics. 2013;56:1515-24.
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2017;00(00)
4JJ de Paula et al.
... O QFC é um instrumento de autorrelato contendo 25 questões sobre falhas cognitivas cometidas por adultos no dia a dia. O instrumento foi padronizado para uso clínico 15 e validado para o contexto brasileiro 16 . O questionário possui aplicação breve e relativamente simples e fornece uma variável de natureza ecológica, representando a frequência, intensidade e padrão de falhas cognitivas que o sujeito apresenta no cotidiano. ...
... "Você esquece onde colocou alguma coisa, como o jornal, o celular ou suas chaves?" e "Você confunde esquerda e direita ao indicar o caminho a alguém?", e o sujeito responde em uma escala de cinco pontos, variando de nunca a quase sempre. A confiabilidade do QFC é superior a 0,9 16 . Os resultados variam de 0 a 100. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objetivo Falhas cognitivas são erros cometidos no dia a dia como perda de compromissos, falta de palavras ao conversar, dificuldades de memorizar o que é lido, erros de orientação, entre outros. Sintomas psiquiátricos internalizantes e externalizantes podem contribuir para a ocorrência de falhas cognitivas. O presente estudo objetiva avaliar como sintomas internalizantes e externalizantes contribuem para a ocorrência de falhas cognitivas no dia a dia. Métodos Foram avaliados 366 voluntários utilizando o Questionário de Falhas Cognitivas (CFQ) e as escalas Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20), como medida de sintomas internalizantes, e Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18), como medida de sintomas externalizantes. Os participantes foram classificados com base nos pontos de corte da SRQ-20 e ASRS-18 para a criação de quatro grupos: hígido, internalizante, externalizante e misto. Comparamos os grupos por meio de ANOVA e testamos a associação das variáveis estudadas por meio de correlações. Resultados Todas as escalas apresentaram correlações fortes entre si (r > 0,500, p < 0,001). A comparação dos grupos sugere que participantes com escores clínicos de sintomas internalizantes e externalizantes apresentam mais falhas quando comparados ao grupo hígido (d = 0,86 e d = 1,00), mas não apresentam diferenças entre si (d = 0,21). Participantes do grupo misto apresentaram mais falhas que o grupo hígido (d = 2,01), internalizante (d = 1,31) e externalizante (d = 1,05). Conclusão Tanto sintomas internalizantes quanto externalizantes contribuem para a ocorrência de falhas cognitivas no dia a dia. Observamos ainda um efeito aditivo de ambos os sintomas.
... Cognitive failure is simple mistakes in daily activities, such as forgotten commitments and difficulty concentrating, that can lead to human error (5). Cognitive failures occur daily in the process of information processing in the stages of perception, memory, and motor actions, and human errors due to cognitive failures may occur in one of three stages of perception, memory, and motor actions (6). The results of several studies have shown that occupational cognitive failure (OCF) can lead to decreased safety in job performance (7,8). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Nurses in intensive care units (ICU) are under a lot of stress because of special conditions caused by the work environment and the high level of knowledge and skills required to work in these units, which can lead to cognitive failures. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between occupational cognitive failures (OCF) and job content (JC) in nurses in the ICU of Ardabil hospitals in 2020.Methods The present study was a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2020. The study population included nurses working in the ICU of hospitals in Ardabil, from which 267 people who were eligible to enter the study were selected. OCF and JC questionnaires were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software 23.ResultsOCF with work records in the ICU, total work records, and work records in the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 units are significantly associated. OCF was inversely related to the JC subscales of skill discretion and decision authority. And directly related to other subscales of JC.Conclusions Develop job ability, reduce repetitive tasks, create diversity in work, create opportunities for creativity, have the authority and freedom to make decisions, facilitate work with new technologies, have enough time to do work, have a friendly work environment with colleagues, support by the supervisor, improving posture, especially for the upper body, feeling job security can help to reduce the cognitive failure of nurses.
... While the two groups did significantly differ in objective batteries of attention and concentration, learning and remembering, and executive functioning, they did not differ in selfreported cognitive difficulties. Previous studies have suggested high concordance between conventional neuropsychology batteries and indices of memory, absent-mindedness, or slips of action as tapped into by the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire [66]. But there is a dissenting view in the findings of this study [67]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The temporal relationship between work-life balance/imbalance, occupational burnout, and poor mental health outcomes have been widely explored. Little has been forthcoming on cognitive functioning among those with work-life imbalance. This study aimed to explore the rate of work-life imbalance and the variation in neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between affective ranges (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and work-life balance was also explored. The target population in this study are Omani nationals who were referred for psychometric evaluation. The study employs neuropsychology measures tapping into attention and concentration, learning and remembering, processing speed, and executive functioning. Subjective measures of cognitive decline and affective ranges were also explored. A total of 168 subjects (75.3% of the responders) were considered to be at a work-life imbalance. Multivariate analysis showed that demographic and neuropsychological variables were significant risk factors for work-life imbalance including age and the presence of anxiety disorder. Furthermore, participants indicating work-life imbalance were more likely to report cognitive decline on indices of attention, concentration, learning, and remembering. This study reveals that individuals with work-life imbalance might dent the integrity of cognition including attention and concentration, learning and remembering, executive functioning, and endorsed case-ness for anxiety.
... Na primeira seção, os voluntários deveriam informar o curso em que estavam matriculados e qual ano/período estavam cursando. O restante do questionário era composto por instrumentos psicométricos, a saber: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), analisando-se isoladamente seu componente depressivo (D) e o ansioso (A) [17]; Escala de Sonolência de Epworth (ESS) [18], para que fosse possível inferir transtornos relacionados ao sono; Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) [19]; Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS-18) [20], adotado como um instrumento para quantificar sintomas do transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH); e Questionário de Falhas Cognitivas [21] (CFQ). Esses instrumentos foram aplicados em suas versões devidamente traduzidas e adaptadas culturalmente ao público brasileiro. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introdução: Os smartphones são considerados um gadget fundamental entre os jovens porque oferecem uma infinidade de serviços e operam muitas funções diferentes, acabando por substituir vários dispositivos. O uso problemático de smartphones tem implicações físicas e psicológicas. Objetivo: Encontrar a prevalência de Uso Problemático de Smartphone (PSU) entre alunos de graduação de uma faculdade particular de saúde, em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, e correlacionar esse comportamento com transtornos de humor, sono, falhas cognitivas, déficit de atenção e hiperatividade. Método: A amostra foi avaliada por meio da Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão (HADS), Escala de Sonolência de Epworth, Inventário de Dependência de Smartphone, Escala de Autorrelato de Adultos (ASRS-18) e Questionário de Falhas Cognitivas. Resultados: 156 voluntários responderam à pesquisa, a maioria estudantes de medicina. A prevalência de PSU foi de 52,5%; que foi estaticamente correlacionado com sintomas de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade, transtornos de humor e transtornos do sono. A prevalência de sintomas de depressão e ansiedade foi de 66,6% e 82,69%, respectivamente. Conclusão: Concluímos que o PSU é um fenômeno prevalente entre estudantes da área de saúde, podendo estar associado a sonolência, transtornos do humor e sintomas de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade.
... These errors may occur in one or all three stages of the information processing (memory, attention, and functioning) (14). Cognitive failures are simple mistakes in everyday activities, such as forgotten commitments and difficulty to focus (15). Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ) is designed to assess the frequency of these errors in everyday life (16). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Job burnout is a common phenomenon in health care employees who need to deal with and witness people's problems and expectations. By definition, occupational cognitive failures appear as problems in performing daily tasks like forgetting them or having difficulty in focusing on them. The present study is an attempt to investigate the relationship between job burnout and occupation cognitive failures in nurses of educational hospitals. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was done in 2018 and consisted of nurses from the Ardebil Hospital (n= 2,250). Using the Cochran formula, 328 hospital nurses were selected from different units by simple random sampling method. The data were collected by two professional health experts through interviewing and completing demographic questionnaires, job burnout questionnaire, and occupational cognitive failure questionnaire. Statistical analyses was performed in SPSS19. Results: A total of 328 nurses participated in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 34±8 years, varying from 22 years to 58 years. Occupational cognitive failures increased with the increase in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; while it decreased with an increase in individual accomplishment. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between occupational cognitive failure and different dimensions of job burnout. In addition, different dimensions of job burnout (Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal accomplishment) could be associated with possible errors in information processing (memory, attention, and functioning).
Chapter
Subjective memory complaints are often reported in the elderly (but also in middle-aged) adults. In some cases, they can be part of neurocognitive disorders such as mild cognitive impairment. Several studies investigated the association between subjective memory abilities and objective memory functioning in older age showing that negative perceptions of one’s own memory abilities would be indicative of actual memory deficit or dysfunction related to psychological factors, such as depression or some personality traits. Growing interest in subjective memory complaints has led to development of different approaches to self-rate frequency and severity of one’s own memory failures by means of a series of simple questions or via structured questionnaires. This chapter describes the construct of subjective memory complaints and reviews the most widely used instruments characterized by well-established psychometric properties. The chapter provides suggestions to clinicians and researchers to identify the most suitable measures according to their specific aims.
Preprint
Full-text available
Work-life balance/imbalance has been increasingly recognized as being critically involved in poor adjustment in occupational settings. Little has been forthcoming on cognitive functioning among those with work-life imbalance. This study was to explore the rate of work-life imbalance, variation in neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between mood and work-life balance was also explored. The target population in this study are Omani nationals who were referred for psychometric evaluation. The study employs neuropsychology measures tapping into attention and concentration, learning and remembering, processing speed, and executive functioning. Subjective measures of cognitive decline and affective ranges were also explored. A total of 168 subjects (75.3% of the responders) were considered to be at a work-life imbalance. Multivariate analysis showed that demographic and neuropsychological variables were significant risk factors for work-life imbalance including age and the presence of anxiety disorder. Furthermore, participants indicating work-life imbalance were more likely to report cognitive decline on indices of attention and concentration and learning and remembering. This study reveals that individuals with work-life imbalance might dent the integrity of cognition including attention and concentration, learning and remembering, executive functioning, and endorsed caseness for anxiety.
Article
Impulsivity is highly associated with psychopathology and dysfunctional behavior. An abbreviated Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (ABIS) was proposed as a validated, reliable and less time-consuming scale. We tested in a sample of adults, its psychometric properties and computed a reliable change index for clinical use. Internal consistency, test-retest stability suggested high reliability, while significant correlations with measures of psychiatric symptoms, and the original scale were evidence of validity. If a patient presents a change of 4 points between two applications of ABIS this indicates a reliable change, which can be used to evaluate the effect of patients’ treatment or interventions.
Article
Full-text available
Tests evaluating the attentional-executive system are widely used in clinical practice. However, proximity of an objective cognitive test with real-world situations (ecological validity) is not frequently investigated. The present study evaluate the association between measures of the Five Digit Test (FDT) and the Oral Trails Test (OTT) with self-reported cognitive failures in everyday life as measured by the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). Brazilian adults from 18-to-65 years old voluntarily performed the FDT and OTT tests and reported the frequency of cognitive failures in their everyday life through the CFQ. After controlling for the age effect, the measures of controlled attentional processes were associated with cognitive failures, yet the cognitive flexibility of both FDT and OTT accounted for by the majority of variance in most aspects of the CFQ factors. The FDT and the OTT measures were predictive of real-world problems such as cognitive failures in everyday activities/situations.
Article
Full-text available
Introdução: O Índice de Religiosidade de Duke (DUREL) é um instrumento breve para a avaliação de aspectos relacionados à religiosidade organizada, à religiosidade não organizada e à religiosidade intrínseca. Seu uso em estudos ligados à saúde mental e coletiva tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Uma opção em contexto de pesquisa na área de saúde coletiva pode ser o uso de plataformas virtuais para coleta de dados. Objetivo: O presente estudo se propõe à avaliação das propriedades psicométricas do DUREL aplicado em uma plataforma virtual. Métodos: Avaliamos 253 adultos por meio de uma série de questionários on-line, incluindo o DUREL. Comparamos as pontuações de ateus/agnósticos, católicos, evangélicos e pertencentes a outras religiões na escala e calculamos sua consistência interna, estrutura fatorial e correlações com outras medidas. Resultados: O DUREL aplicado em plataforma virtual apresentou consistência interna moderada-forte, estrutura fatorial de um único componente e associações com variáveis sociodemográficas e de saúde mental. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que as propriedades psicométricas do DUREL aplicado via internet sejam semelhantes à aplicação convencional.
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) is used in ergonomics research to measure behavioural problems associated with attentiveness and memory in everyday life. CFQ scores have been related to constructs such as accident proneness and outcomes such as human error and psychological strain. The two-year test-retest reliability of the CFQ is reported together with the findings of factor analyses of CFQ data from 535 respondents. Evidence for the predictive and criterion validity and internal reliability of the CFQ is provided. Psychological strain was measured concurrently with CFQ on both testing occasions, two years apart. The test-retest reliability of the summated CFQ score was found to be 0.71, while for the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) strain measure it was 0.32.The relative variance stability was five times greater for the CFQ than the GHQ, indicating that scores on these questionnaires are not covariates. The use of the CFQ as a measure of cognitive control capacity is also discussed. Practitioner summary: Ergonomists have long been interested in human error and the role of high work demands due to poor equipment design and excessive workload. The CFQ measures attentiveness in daily life and is shown to have excellent psychometric properties that make it suitable for use in both laboratory and field studies as a trait measure of attentiveness in daily life.
Article
Full-text available
The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) is designed to assess a person’s proneness to committing cognitive slips and errors in the completion of everyday tasks. Although the CFQ is a widely used instrument, its factor structure remains an issue of scientific debate. The present study used data of a representative sample (N = 1,303, 24-83 years of age) from the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) to test and compare factor solutions for the CFQ previously reported in the literature by means of confirmatory factor analysis of ordered categorical variables. A three-factor model of the CFQ from an exploratory factor analysis was tested for increasing levels of measurement invariance across six age groups. Factor (co-)variances remained stable across the age groups, mean differences were observed for the factor Forgetfulness with higher means for older participants, and the factor Distractibility where participants older than 60 years of age had lower means.
Article
Full-text available
A validity study of the Self-Report Questionnaire (20 item version, Harding et al, 1980) against the criterion of a standardised psychiatric interview (Goldberg et al, 1970) was carried out at three primary care clinics in Sao Paulo; 875 patients filled in the SRQ-20 questionnaires and a subsample of 260 was interviewed by the psychiatrist. The SRQ-20 was shown to be a feasible screening instrument for psycho-emotional disturbance in these settings. Sensitivity was 83% and specificity 80%, and the questionnaire was a good indicator of morbidity. A correlation was found between questionnaire total scores and independent clinical judgment (r = +0.70). A sex difference in the validity coefficients is described.
Article
Full-text available
138 healthy volunteers in four age groups completed the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (Self and Other) as well as measures of attention, freedom from distractibility, daily stress, and trait-state anxiety. Self-reported and observed cognitive failures were strongly associated with stress and anxiety. Higher self-reported cognitive failure in one age group appeared tied to this finding. We discuss the usefulness of self-report of cognitive failures for neuropsychological practice.
Article
Cognitive failures are minor errors in thinking reported by clinical and non-clinical individuals during everyday life. It is not yet clear how subjectively-reported cognitive failures relate to objective neuropsychological ability. We aimed to consolidate the definition of cognitive failures, outline evidence for the relationship with objective cognition, and develop a unified model of factors that increase cognitive failures. We conducted a systematic review of cognitive failures, identifying 45 articles according to the PRISMA statement. Failures were defined as reflecting proneness to errors in ‘real world’ planned thought and action. Vulnerability to failures was not consistently associated with objective cognitive performance. A range of stable and variable factors were linked to increased risk of cognitive failures. We conclude that cognitive failures measure real world cognitive capacity rather than pure ‘unchallenged’ ability. Momentary state may interact with predisposing trait factors to increase the likelihood of failures occurring. Inclusion of self-reported cognitive failures in objective cognitive research will increase the translational relevance of ability into more ecologically valid aspects of real world functioning.
Article
The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) is a widely used instrument for screening dissociative psychopathology. Yet, some authors have argued that dissociation is a poorly defined concept and that the experiences tapped by the DES may well be related to everyday cognitive failures and/or fantasy proneness. To examine this issue, two independent studies were conducted. In study 1, a sample of 77 undergraduate students completed the DES, the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) and a fantasy proneness scale (i.e. the Creative Experiences Questionnaire; CEQ). Positive and significant correlations were found between DES, on the one hand, and CFQ and CEQ, on the other hand. Partial correlations showed that both CFQ and CEQ make an unique contribution in predicting DES scores. These findings were replicated in study 2 that also relied on a nonclinical sample (N=51). Taken together, the findings of study 1 and 2 underline the idea that relatively benign phenomena such as cognitive lapses and fantasy proneness drive the dissociative experiences sampled by the DES. This suggests that there are limitations to the DES's utility as a screening tool for dissociative pathology.
Article
To examine whether concurrent depressive symptoms and self- and informant-reported cognitive impairments are related to cognitive complaints. Longitudinal aging study of the relationship between depressive symptoms, reported cognitive impairments, and cognitive complaints. Mixed-effects regression models were used to determine whether scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) predicted cognitive complaints. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) assessed cognitive complaints. A community-dwelling sample in Baltimore, Maryland. One hundred five cognitively normal older individuals with a mean baseline age of 75 followed for an average of 4 years. The CES-D measured depressive symptoms. The CDR Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) measured self- and informant-reported impairment, and the CFQ measured cognitive complaints. Greater depressive symptoms and reported impairments are associated with higher CFQ scores. In addition, there was a significant interaction between depressive symptoms and reported impairment. Specifically, individuals without reported cognitive impairment had the strongest association between depressive symptoms and cognitive complaints. Finally, reported impairments interact with baseline age, suggesting that the relationship between reported impairments and cognitive complaints is strongest in individuals younger than 80. These findings confirm a relationship between reported cognitive impairment and cognitive complaints in older individuals and highlight the extent to which age and depressive symptoms account for variation in complaints. These factors should be considered when interpreting cognitive complaints in a clinical setting.
Article
This paper describes a questionnaire measure of self-reported failures in perception, memory, and motor function. Responses to all questions tend to be positively correlated, and the whole questionnaire correlates with other recent measures of self-reported deficit in memory, absent-mindedness, or slips of action. The questionnaire is however only weakly correlated with indices of social desirability set or of neuroticism. It is significantly correlated with ratings of the respondent by his or her spouse, and accordingly does have some external significance rather than purely private opinion of the self. The score is reasonably stable over long periods, to about the same extent as traditional measures of trait rather than state. Furthermore, it has not thus far been found to change in persons exposed to life-stresses. However, it does frequently correlate with the number of current psychiatric symptoms reported by the same person on the MHQ; and in one study it has been found that CFQ predicts subsequent MHQ in persons who work at a stressful job in the interval. It does not do so in those who work in a less stressful environment. The most plausible view is that cognitive failure makes a person vulnerable to showing bad effects of stress, rather than itself resulting from stress.