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A Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain.

Authors:
1
Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
CONTENTS
Chapter Title Page No
No.
1 Introduction..................................................................................................... 2
2 Methods of Makhana Production.................................................................. 5
2.1 Cultivation......................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Harvesting......................................................................................................... 8
2.3 Post-Harvesting……………………................................................................. 9
3 Technologies for Makhana Processing.........................................................14
3.1 Constraints and technologies for Makhana Harvesting.................................. 14
3.2 Constraints and technologies for Makhana Processing ................................. 15
4 Makhana Supply Chain................................................................................ 20
4.1 Supply Chain in Bihar .................................................................................... 20
4.2 Makhana Export ............................................................................................. 21
4.3 Reference………………………………………………………………...…. 22
Annexure I
Annexure II
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Euryale ferox Salisb is an important crop, belonging to family Nympheaceae. It is
commonly known as Makhana, Gorgon nut or Foxnut and grown in stagnant perennial
water bodies like ponds, Oxbow lakes, and swamps.
Makhana plant is considered as a native of South-East Asia and China, but distributed to
almost every parts of the world. In general, its distribution is extremely limited to tropical
and sub-tropical regions of South-East Asia and known to exist in Japan, Korea, Russia,
North America, Nepal, Bangladesh and some parts of India. In India, it is distributed in
West Bengal, Bihar, Manipur, Tripura, Assam, Jammu & Kashmir, Eastern Odisha,
Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. However, its commercial cultivation is
limited to North Bihar, Manipur, parts of West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.
In the state of Bihar, major Makhana producing districts include Darbhanga, Sitamarhi,
Madhubani, Saharsa, Supaul, Araria, Kishanganj, Purnia and Katihar. Approximately, 80%
of the total production of processed Makhana comes from Darbangha, Madhubani, Purnia,
and Katihar districts alone. Area under Makhana cultivation is about 13,000 ha.
Keeping in view its commercial importance, a regional Centre was set-up to conduct
research on various aspects of Makhana in Darbangha districts of Bihar under the
administrative control of ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region. [1]
A single Makhana plant produces about 100 seeds and there are about 10,000 plants in one
ha of pond area. The yield of raw Makhana seed is about 1.8-2.0 t/ha of pond area. [2]
Edible part of Makhana contains 12.8% moisture, 9.7% protein, 0.1% fat, 0.5% minerals,
76.9% carbohydrates, and 1.4 mg/100 g of carotene. Calorific analysis gives a value of 362
kcal/100 gm for raw Makhana and 328 kcal/100 gm for popped Makhana. Thus, the
calorific value of Makhana compares well with staple food materials such as wheat, rice,
etc. Makhana is considered superior to dry fruits such as almonds, walnut, coconut and
3
Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
cashew nut in terms of sugar, protein, and ascorbic acid and phenol content. The medicinal
properties of Makhana are also well established at least in China where it has been made
mandatory ingredient in baby foods. [3]
Figure: 1 a: Young leaves of Makhana, b: Dorsal view of gigantic leaf of Makhana, c: Makhana flowers in
bloom, d: Fruits of Makhana, e: Fresh seeds of Makhana, f: Makhana seeds at time of collection, g: Makhana
Popping, h: Popped Makhana (Source: [1, 4, 5])
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Figure: 2 Makhana Cultivation, Harvesting, Drying and Popping (Source: [6])
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Chapter 2
METHODS OF MAKHANA PRODUCTION
2.1 Cultivation
Makhana is cultivated either in perennial water bodies having water depth of 4-6 ft or in
the field system.
Pond System: This is the traditional system of Makhana cultivation. Seed sowing is not
required in old Makhana growing ponds since left over seeds of the previous crop serves as
a planting material of subsequent crop. However, Makhana cultivation may not be started
either through direct seed sowing or transplanting the plantlets in new water bodies.
In the traditional system, apart from Makhana, air breathing fishes get enter into the ponds
as wild fishes along with flood water and harvested by the farmers as an additional crop.
Field system: This is a new system of Makhana cultivation, which has been standardized
by the research institute. In the system, Makhana cultivation is carried out in agriculture
fields at a water depth of 1 ft.[20] This system is very easy to operate and provides
opportunities of cultivate the same fields in a year for cereals and other field crops. The
Makhana seedlings are first raised as a nursery and then transplanted in the main filed at
the optimum time. Depending upon the availability of field and nursery, the transplanting
can be done in between first week of February to the third week of April. Through this
system, the duration of Makhana crop is reduced up to the four months. [1]
Constraints in Makhana cultivation: lack of ownership of the pond/land, highly skilled
nature of operations, lack of credit facility, lack of scientific knowledge of cultivation, lack
of improved variety, short lease period and labour intensive cultivation is identified as
constraints for Makhana cultivation. Majority of Makhana growers cultivate Makhana in
leased government or private ponds/land and hence the Makhana growers realised it as
main constraints that hinders them to make Makhana a profitable venture. As most of the
cultivation is done by traditional methods, "Lack of scientific knowledge of cultivation" is
also considered as one of the major constraints. [7]
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Makhana cultivation in pond eco-system & agricultural fields - a comparative view is listed
in table 1.
Parameter
Pond Eco-System
Field System
Water Requirement
At least 4-6 feet
Just 1 feet
Seed Requirement
80-90 kg/ha
20 kg/ha
Source of water
Natural water as
perennial water bodies
Irrigation water
or any other
perennial source
of water
Fertilizers and manure
Not possible due to
high depth of standing
water
Can be applied
very easily
before and after
the
transplantation
Weed management
Very tedious
Very easy
Crop duration
Long to very long (8-10
months)
Short (4-5
months)
Seed yield
1.8-2.0 t/ha
2.6-3.0 t/ha
Scope for grain and
fodder production
Not possible
Water Chestnut,
Rice, Wheat,
Barseem and
other field crops
can be grown in
rotation.
Possibility of maximum
no. of crops in a year
Two
Three
Intensification of
cropping system
Makhana with Water
Chestnut
Makhana - Water
Chestnut
Makhana -
Barseem, and
Makhana - Rice -
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Wheat
Crop protection
measures
Very tedious
Quite feasible
Cropping Intensity (%)
In genereal, 100 % in
traditional system
200-300%
Net Income
Low to medium in
traditional system
High to very high
Feasibility of
harvesting
Very tedious. It can be
done only be trained
labourers
Very simple. It
can be done even
by unskilled
labourers
Capital investment
High to very high,
depending on the
situations
Invariably,
medium to low
Scope of horizontal
expansion of Makhana
cultivation
Limited scope because
it would depend upon
the availability of
natural water bodies
Wide scope
Table: 1 Comparison of Makhana cultivation in pond and field system (Source: [8])
Figure: 3 Makhana crop in full grown stage field system (Source: [4])
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Figure: 4 Makhana crop in full grown stage pond system (Source: [5])
2.2 Harvesting
Harvesting refers to the collection of scattered seeds, either from bottom of the pond or
shallow water filed.[1] Harvesting of Makhana is done in the month of August-October by
divers of “Mallah” community in the morning around 6.00- 11.00 am and it involves
drudgery. A diver goes deep into the bottom surface of pond, lies down, hold his breath
and drag the mud towards the bamboo pole locally known as “Kaara” with both palms. A
heap of mud is formed near the base of bamboo pole which is later sieved with locally
made bamboo screen called “Ganjaa”.[9] The time required for collection depends upon the
amount of seeds lying in the bottom of the pond or the fields.[1] While sweeping the bottom
surface of the pond in awkward posture, mud enters into the diver’s ears, eyes, nose and
mouth. The divers also get affected from skin diseases due to this problem. An improved
system was developed to reduce the drudgery of divers. Harvesting of Makhana seeds
using the improved system involve less drudgery in comparison to traditional system with
significantly higher work output. [9]
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Figure: 5 Harvesting of Makhana (Source: [5])
2.3 Post-Harvesting
Steps involved in Makhana processing are explained in table 2.
Makhana Seed Moisture 37% (As per fresh weight)
Sun Drying Moisture 31 %
Storage (Water spray at few minute intervals)
Grading as per size
First Roasting (till moisture 20.8 %)
Keeping at Room temperature for 40-60 hours
Second Roasting (till moisture 10-12 %)
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Breaking of Seed Coat by Thaapi
Separation of Pop and Seed
Grading of Pop as per size
Packaging in different size gunny bag (9-15 Kg)
Marketing/Trading
Table: 2 Steps in Makhana Processing (Source: [10])
Processes during Post Harvesting: Following are the processes that are followed by the
processors after harvesting the Makhana seed.
Sun drying and Storage of seeds: The cleaned seeds of Makhana are sun dried where these
are spread on a mat or cemented yard for 2-3 hrs. under bright sun light to lose moisture to
an extent of around 31% for ease of transportation and temporary storage. Storage of
Makhana nuts poses problems to the growers, as it cannot be stored for longer period even
under ambient conditions. Usually, the seeds are stored for 20-25 days before processing. It
is necessary to sprinkle water at regular intervals during storage of nuts to keep them fresh
and to maintain the quality of the seed.
Size grading: The sun-dried seeds are then categorized into 5 to 7 grades according to their
sizes by means of a set of sieves. Grading of Makhana seed facilitates uniform heating of
each nut during roasting and it increases the efficiency of processing. (Figure: 6)
Pre-heating: The sun-dried nuts are generally heated in earthen pitcher or cast iron pan by
placing them over fire and stirring them continuously. The surface temperature of the pan
varies from 250° C 3000° C and required time is nearly 5 to 6 minutes at full capacity of
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
the pan. After pre heating of nut, moisture content reduces to approximately 20 percent.
(Figure: 2)
Tempering: The storage of pre-heated seeds for duration of 48-72 hrs at ambient condition
is known as the tempering of the seeds. Tempering of seeds is done purposefully to loosen
the kernels within hard seed coat. (Figure: 2)
Roasting and popping: It is the most important but laborious and painful operation of
Makhana processing. About 300 gm of pre-heated and tempered nuts are taken and roasted
in a cast iron pan in single layer over the fire at 2900° C to 3400° C surface temperatures
with continuous stirring. After about 1.5 to 2.2 min, a cracking of sound is heard from the
seed being roasted (Jha and Prasad, 2003). The roasted seeds five to seven are scooped
quickly by hand and kept on hard surface and sudden impact force is applied on them by
means of a wooden hammer. As the hard shell breaks, the kernel pops out in expanded
form, which is called Makhana pop or lawa. Depending upon the quality of raw material,
the yield of Makhana varies from 35-40% on raw seed weight basis. (Figure: 7)
Polishing: It is done by rubbing action of Makhana pops among themselves in bamboo
baskets. Polishing facilitates more whiteness and luster to the Makhana.
Grading: The popped Makhana lawa is generally graded into two grades at the producer
level- lawa and thurri. The lawa is swollen and white with reddish spots whereas, thurri is
semi-popped, hard and reddish in colour.
Packaging: Ordinary gunny bags for local markets and gunny bags with polythene lining
are used for distant markets to pack popped Makhana. One bag having capacity of one
quintal of sugar may contain 8 to 9 kg of good quality of Makhana. [8,10]
Tools and Equipment Used During Post Harvesting:
Khonnghi or Deli: It is a small bamboo stick bucket with cylindrical shape. It is used for
storing raw, popped seed and in polishing operation.
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Sieves: Sieves are made of iron sheets with wooden frames. In general seven to ten sieves
of different mesh sizes are used for grading of raw Makhana seed.
Mats: Mats are used for sun-drying raw Makhana seeds before roasting.
Iron pan: It is a cooking pan or utensil which is used for pre-heating and roasting of
Makhana seeds.
Aphara, Batna and Thaapi: These are wooden appliances made of hardwood, mostly of
shisum or mango. Aphara is a platform on which roasted seeds are hit with flat wooden
hammer called Thaapi.
Chula’s (Earthen Pans): They are utilized for roasting the sun dried seeds or guris without
sand mix.
Bamboo Sticks: These are utilized to stir the Makhana seeds while roasting them. [4]
Figure: 6 Sieves of various mesh size (Source: [5])
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Figure: 7 Roasting and Popping of Makhana (Source: [8])
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Chapter 3
TECHNOLOGIES FOR MAKHANA PROCESSING
Constraints and technologies for Makhana Harvesting: The harvesting of Makhana,
during winter season, is done manually by fishermen diving under water and taking out
Guri (Makhana seeds) embedded underwater (1.5-2.5 feet of standing water body) for long
hours under tiring conditions. [3] The manual harvesting of Makhana involves lot of drudge-
ry. During collection of Makhana seeds from the ponds, mud enters into the worker's ears,
eyes, nose and mouth. The worker also gets affected from skin diseases due to this. To
alleviate the drudgery involved in harvesting of Makhana seeds from ponds, a protocol has
been tested utilizing appropriate diving gear. The diving gear permits the diver to remain
under water for sufficiently long time, without any drudgery and health risk. Since, the
worker is safe and comfortable; the output in this system is better compared with the
traditional system. Also, there are no injuries and skin related problems as the operator is
protected from mud, thorns/prickles and insects while working inside the pond. [11]
The improved system consists of a floating platform supported by 10 litre cylinder having
compressed breathing air with regulator, 10 m hose pipe with regulator and a mini diving
kit having suit with cap, mask and content guage. A comparative study was made for
traditional system (T1) as well as improved system (T2) for harvesting Makhana seeds
from ponds. The results indicated that the average output was only 3.8 kg/h with T1 system
whereas it was 11.3 kg/h with T2 system. [9]
Figure: 8 Protective equipment for Makhana harvesting in ponds (Source: [11])
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Bhola Paswan Shastri Agricultural College, Purnia has developed Makhana Harvester
under the project “Design & Development of Makhana Harvester”. This technology has the
potential to simplify the labor-intensive collection of Makhana. [12]
A pedal operated Makhana grader was designed and developed at ICAR Research
Complex for Eastern Region, Patna for small Makhana growing farmers. It consists of
three major components, namely main frame, sieve unit and operator unit. The grading unit
was found to be very efficient in the separation process of Makhana seeds. Seeds were
graded by the machine, into four categories, obtained at four separate outlets. The
maximum seed graded for grade one, two, three and four were 99.15, 98.74, 95.68 and
83.65 percent, respectively and obtained at crank speed of 45 rpm and sieve angle of 15
degrees. The capacity is about 700-750 kg/hour. Two persons are required for the smooth
operation of the grader, one for pedaling and one for filling Makhana seeds from the sieve
mouth. [14]
Figure: 9 Pedal operated Makhana grader (Source: [13])
Constraints and technologies for Makhana Processing: Lack of processing machinery,
High dependence on climate for drying and Health risk are main constraint in Makhana
processing.
The roasting and splitting of Makhana seeds is very tedious work. The hot seeds are hand
placed in a platter for splitting for hours together which damages the left palm of the
worker.
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
The whole process right from planting to roasting needs a re-look to ensure areas where the
process can be reengineered to not only bring relief to the workers but also increase
productivity. The Makhana seeds are graded, cleaned, dried. Grading is done so that the
heating and pressure for pop making remain uniform. The method is crude, unhygienic and
risky for the processors. There is scope of developing mechanized processing. [3]
Processing of Makhana seed is done by old traditional practices, which is laborious, time-
consuming and causes pain or burns and injuries to the processors hands as it involves
handling of hot roasted nuts manually. Processing machine developed by CIPHET and
NRC was not successful due to less efficiency.
Sun drying of Makhana seed during processing depends on climatic conditions. During
popping season, a day for processors typically starts at 3 AM and ends at 11 AM usually.
Continuous sitting in squatting posture leads to backaches, spine problems and inhaling
smoke from the dingy kitchen leads to breathing related health problems. [4]
Professional Design Project Approved under Design Clinic Scheme for MSMEs (as on Apr
il2015):
Name of MSMEs/Associations
Makhana processors development society
Name of Designer/Firm
Dirty hands
Project
Cluster project: designing of 1) Smokeless chulha,
2) Grating + sun drying semi atomized machinery,
3) Polishing, and 4) Popping machine
Approved Cost
15,00,000
Zone /State
EAST Bihar
Table: 3 Project approved for Makhana processing under Design Clinic Scheme for MSMEs (Source: 14])
National Research Centre, NRC had developed Makhana-popping techniques using
mechanical methods in conjunction with Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana, which was developed in 2009. The machine however
did not yield desired results (Figure: 11).
Figure: 10 Makhana processing machine developed in 2003 in collaboration with ICAR and CIPHET, Ludhiana
(Source: [8])
Post-Harvest Processes In general, involves sun drying, size grading pre-heating &
popping, polishing and grading & packaging. Still entire system of Makhana processing is
manual as till date no successful machine has been developed. The processing is
cumbersome, labour intensive and time consuming and involves human drudgery to a great
extent. Most of the experts of this technology belong to the specific community of ‘Mallah’
of North Bihar. The entire process is conventional, which is passed on to the generation
from time immemorial. The natural distribution of these experts is limited to the some parts
of North Bihar. Perhaps this is the only reason, that the processing of Makhana is restricted
to Bihar only. [8]
An Organization called Dirty hands proposed a machine which can be used by all the
members of the family for long hours and process the Makhana Lawa. (Figure: 12)
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Figure: 11 Proposed machine diagram for Makhana Popping by Dirty hands (Source: [8])
A Makhana (Gorgon nut) popping machine was developed with the design and
development of Makhana popping and decorticating machine with 25-30 kg/h capacity of
conditioned nut and more than 90% popping efficiency at CIPHET, Ludhiana.
The machine can be divided into two parts namely roasting unit and decortication/popping
unit. The roasting unit is essentially a thermic heating system of specified length with a
conveying mechanism to convey the roasted nuts towards outlet. Temperature and duration
of roasting are controlled electronically and feed rate is controlled mechanically. This unit
is used for initial roasting for conditioning of as well as final roasting to produce popped
Makhana.
The decortications/popping unit consist of a casing and impeller assembly with hard
impact surface. When the hot roasted nuts strike to the impact surface, the shell breaks and
due to sudden pressure drop and popping of the kernel takes place. This unit can also be
used for decortications of conditioned Makhana nuts to produce Makhana flour for various
food and industrial applications.
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
The process for conditioning, roasting, decortications and popping were optimized. The
overall dimensions of machine are 1.5m × 0.75m × 2.0 m. Two electric motors of 1 hp
each are required to run the machine. At optimum conditions, the popped Makhana
recovery is more than 90% with less than 3% un decorticated nuts. Most importantly,
flattening of Makhana does not take place in this machine and uniform shaped popped
Makhana is obtained. This machine gives better quality popped Makhana and almost
eliminates drudgery involved in present system of makahna processing. The same machine
can be used for decortications of Makhana seeds to produce flour for further value
addition.
This machine developed by Dr. S. N. Jha and Dr. R. K. Vishwakarma, ICAR-CIPHET,
Ludhiana. (Patent application no. 674/DEL/2013; dated 07.03.2013; Mechanized system
for popping and decortications of Makhana seeds). This machine is now available and used
for commercial production of Makhana. [15]
Figure: 12 Makhana processing machine developed in 2013 in collaboration with ICAR and CIPHET, Ludhiana
(Source: [15])
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Chapter 4
SUPPLY CHAIN OF MAKHANA
Supply Chain in Bihar: The state Bihar has monopoly in Makhana production. Bulk of
Makhana is sold directly either to wholesalers or retailers. Wholesalers themselves,
purchased the Makhana directly from growers, bearing various charges of marketing. [16]
Supply Chain of Makhana in Bihar is explained in table 3.
Farmer/Producer
Processor
Whole seller (Local Market)
Commission Agent (Distant Market)
Whole seller (Distant Market)
Retailer (Distant Market)
Consumer
Table: 4 Supply Chain of Makhana in Bihar (Source: [4])
As per a rough estimate 50,000 Tonnes of Makhana worth INR 550 Crores in market are
produced annually. However, there is need of undertaking an extensive survey of its actual
coverage, production and productivity in North Bihar, Lower Assam and other places in
India as well as abroad including Japan, China, North America, Korea etc. [10]
As being a cash crop, Makhana exhibits high marketable surplus. Home consumption of
edible Makhana amounted to only 1.72 percent of total production. However, wastage was
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
estimated at 3.46 percent and about 3.55 percent of total production was paid as wages and
others. Overall about 88 percent of the total production among the selected producers was
estimated as marketed surplus. [16]
Figure: 13 Price Composition Makhana Patna market (July-August 2009) (Source: [17])
In traditional Makhana markets, four quality types of pop are distinguished, i.e. lava,
murha, turi, and mix. The differences in quality are almost exclusively linked with the size
of the pop. Makhana transactions in these traditional markets are done in gunny bags.
These gunny bags are standardized in size and the weight of such a gunny bag is indicative
of the quality of Makhana. If Makhana is processed well, Makhana pops are larger and
weigh less and a low-weight bag is thus an indication of good quality. The general thumb
rule is that a bag of 8 kg is an indication of high-quality lava Makhana and a bag that
weighs more than 10 kg contains mostly lower quality Makhana (murha and turi). [18]
Makhana Export: Analysis of Exports of phool Makhana
India exported phool Makhana worth USD 1,049,544. United States is the largest buyer of
phool Makhana accounting for exports worth USD 536,550 followed by United Kingdom
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
and Canada which imported phool Makhana worth USD 133,133 and USD 102,072
respectively.
Nhava Sheva Sea accounted for 37.1% of exports followed by Mundra and Sabarmati ICD
which account for 36.7% and 6.7% of exports respectively. Average price of phool
Makhana per unit is USD 4 and average value per shipment is INR 1,073. [19]
References:
[1] Kumar Lokendra, Gupta V.K., Jha B.K., Singh I.S., Bhatt B.P., Singh A.K., 2011, Status of
Makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.) Cultivation in India, ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region,
Patna, Research Centre for Makhana, Darbhnga, Bihar-846005, India
[2] Khatatkar Abhijeet, Gupta V. K., Bakudkar Harsha, Singh Bhagwan N., Sharma Snigdha, 2014,
Drudery Involved In Traditional Way of Harvesting Makhana Seeds (Euryle Ferox Salisb) From
Ponds, Central Agriculture Engineering Institute, Nabibag, Bhopal-462038, India
[3] IL&FS, 2014, Food Processing in Bihar The Road Ahead, 46/89, India
http://foodprocessingindia.co.in/state_pdf/Bihar/BiharPolicy.pdf (Last accessed: 22/10/2016)
[4] Sah Nitesh K., 2013, Project report: A Study on Production Cost, Processing Cost And
Marketing Channel Efficiency of Makhana (Euryale Ferox) in Madhubani District of Bihar, School
Of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural
University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India
[5] Verma Anand M., 2007, Integration of Carp Culture with Makhana (Euryale ferox salisb.) A
Route to Crop Diversification, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Kolkata-91, India
[6] Business Plan for Makhana Clusters in Bihar, India
http://www.udyogmitrabihar.in/docs/data/makhana_report.pdf. (Last accessed: 22/10/2016)
[7] Kumar Ujjwal, Kumar Abhay, Singh K. M., 2011, Constraints and Drudgery in Makhana
Cultivation, ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna, Bihar-800 014, India
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Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
[8] Interactive Design Study Cluster Level Report, Makhana Cluster, MSME scheme, 2012,
Dirtyhands Design
[9] Khadatkar Abhijit, Gite L.P., Gupta V.K., 2015, An Improved System to Reduce Drudgery of
Workers in Harvesting of Makhana Seeds from Ponds, Central Institute of Agricultural
Engineering, Bhopal-462038, India
[10] Agricultural Finance Corporation Ltd., 2007, Project Report on Export Promotion of Makhana
from Bihar Under GoI-UNCTAD DFID Project on Strategies and Preparedness for Trade and
Globalization in India
[11] DARE/ICAR Annual Report 2014-15, Chapter 10. Mechanization and Energy Management,
Makhana Harvesting in Ponds
http://www.icar.org.in/files/reports/icar-dare-annual-reports/2014-15/mechanization-ar-2014-
15.pdf (Last Accessed: 22/10/2016)
[12] Newsletter, 87th Issue, 2014, Bihar Agriculture University, Sabour, Bihar-813210, India
http://bausabour.ac.in/files/Happening/ad0d4887-a489-4937-a134-a384017afba9-87.pdf (Last
accessed: 22/10/2016)
[13]Sundaram Prem K., Sarkar Bikash, Mondal Surajit, 2014, Design and Performance Evaluation
of Pedal Operated Makhana (Euryale Ferox Salisb) Seed Grader, ICAR Research Complex for
Eastern Region, Patna, Bihar-800 014, India
[14] Professional Design Project Approved under Design Clinic Scheme for MSMEs, 2015
http://www.designclinicsmsme.org/download/designproject/16_ListofapprovedProfessionalDesign
Project.pdf (Last accessed: 22/10/2016)
[15] DARE/ICAR Annual Report 2013-14, Chapter 11. Post-harvest Management and Value-
addition, Makhana Popping and Decorticating Machine
http://www.icar.org.in/files/reports/icar-dare-annual-reports/2013-14/PHT-13-14.pdf. (Last
accessed: 22/10/2016)
24
Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
[16] Sinha S.P., A study on Dynamics of Marketing of Selected Fruits in Bihar, Bihar Institute of
Economics Studies, Patna, Bihar, India
http://agmarknet.nic.in/resproj3.htm#Project5 (Last accessed: 22/10/2016)
[17] Minten Bart, Singh K.M., Sutradhar Rajib, 2010, The Makhana value chain in Bihar An
assessment and policy implications, 28/46, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI),
New Delhi, India
[18] Minten Bart, Singh K.M., Sutradhar Rajib, 2012, Branding and Agricultural Value Chains in
Developing Countries Insights from Bihar, India, 11/33, International Food Policy Research
Institute (IFPRI), New Delhi, India
[19] Analysis of Exports of Phool Makhana
https://www.zauba.com/exportanalysis-PHOOL+MAKHANA-report.html (Last accessed:
22/10/2016)
[20] Kumar Lokendra, Gupta V. K., Singh I. S., Bhatt B. P., Kumar Devendra, 2011, Sequential
Double Cropping System of Makhana (Euryale Ferox Salisb.) Cultivation In Agricultural Fields Of
North Bihar, India, ICAR- Research Complex For Eastern Region, Research Centre For Makhana,
Darbhanga, Bihar-846 005, India
25
Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Annexure I
Figure no. Title Page no.
1 a: Young leaves of Makhana, b: Dorsal view of gigantic leaf of Makhana, c: Makhana flowers in
bloom, d: Fruits of Makhana, e: Fresh seeds of Makhana, f: Makhana seeds at time of collection, g:
Makhana Popping, h: Popped Makhana 3
2 Makhana Cultivation, Harvesting, Drying and Popping 4
3 Makhana crop in full grown stage field system 7
4 Makhana crop in full grown stage pond system 8
5 Harvesting of Makhana 9
6 Sieves of various mesh size 12
7 Roasting and Popping of Makhana 13
8 Protective equipment for Makhana harvesting in ponds 14
9 Pedal operated Makhana grader 15
10 Makhana processing machine developed in 2003 in collaboration with ICAR and CIPHET,
Ludhiana 17
11 Proposed machine diagram for Makhana Popping by Dirtyhands 18
12 Makhana processing machine developed in 2013 in collaboration with ICAR and CIPHET,
Ludhiana 19
13 Price Composition Makhana Patna market (July-August 2009) 21
26
Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain
Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
Annexure II
Table no. Title Page no.
1 Comparison of Makhana cultivation in pond and field system 6
2 Steps in Makhana Processing 9
3 Project approved for Makhana processing under Design Clinic Scheme for MSMEs 16
4 Supply Chain of Makhana in Bihar 20
... b (Mahawar, 2016). Batches of preheated seeds are stacked for tempering in cow dung lined bamboo baskets, covered with jute bags for 60-72 hr, at ambient conditions, enabling build up internal pressure to loosen the kernel from seed coat. ...
... Post tempering roasting and popping job are painstaking. Single layer of around 200 g of seeds are consecutively heated in series of earthen pan with continuous stirring at 290-340 C also called second frying (Khadatkar et al., 2020;Mahawar, 2016). Within 1.5-2.2 ...
Article
Full-text available
Correlation between physical properties of Popped Makhana (variety: Sabour-1 Makhana) such as tri-axial dimensions, spatial diameters, projected areas, volumes and mass may aid in predicting pops quality besides fabrication of post-harvest machinery. Hence, the present work aims to predict the mass of Makhana pops as a function of its physical attributes using nonlinear mathematical models. Depending upon high variation in mass data (0.19–0.46 g), pops were categorized into small, medium and large groups presented with suitable mass models. The medium mass group (MMG) was found dominating since 70% of the overall selected samples belonged to this group approaching ellipsoid. Quadratic model was recommended to predict mass for MMG based on tri-axial dimension thickness (T), R² = 0.806; spatial diameter (Dg), R² = 0.898; projected area (PT2), R² = 0.873; and ellipsoidal volume (Vellip), R² = 0.895, respectively. Further investigation comprised of various physical, aerodynamic, gravimetric, frictional, color, and mechanical properties. The mean surface area, true volume, and bulk porosity of pops were 881.37 mm², 2,446.96 mm³, and 25.49%, respectively. The sphericity, aspect ratio, elongation, and flakiness ratio were determined as 0.85, 0.90, 1.12, and 0.79, respectively. Terminal velocity for pops and its associated drag force were obtained as 6.82 ms⁻¹ and 3.12 × 10⁻⁵ N, respectively. Galvanized aluminium sheet offered both lower angle of inclination and coefficient of static friction (11.53°, 0.20). L* (64.39) and whiteness index (59.95) values indicated “opaque white” tone. For lower measure of cohesiveness (0.38) and resilience (0.14), higher gumminess (21.80) was obtained along with bowl-life texture. Practical Applications Popped Makhana is a light, voluminous, traditionally expanded pseudocereal consumed as breakfast cereal or roasted snack. It involves labor intensive manual grading, bag filling, weighing, packaging in various sizes, etc., resisting its consumer acceptability, export promotion and domestic consumption as well. Appropriate grading could be efficiently achieved by mass modeling tool, establishing the relation between physical quantities and mass. Mass based grading is economically superior than size grading, slashing grading time, packaging and material handling costs. Mass based mathematical modeling optimizes packaging formations and reduces volume for low transportation cost to distance places for product development. The assessment of projected area for mass prognosis outlines usage of single camera as the vital part of grading system, ensuring economic feasibility. Thus, research was inducted to investigate mass modeling of Popped Makhana based on the selected engineering attributes to develop an automatic grading system based on combined approach of mass and size.
Research
Full-text available
Makhana is grown in stagnant perennial water bodies like ponds, land depressions, jheel, swamps, ditches or wetlands having stagnant shallow water (4-6 ft) which are of perennial in nature. In India, its production is spread over in the states of Bihar, West Bengal, Manipur, Tripura, Assam, Jammu & Kashmir, Eastern Odisha and Uttar Pradesh for its starchy white edible seeds. The state of Bihar has the monopoly in Makhana production in the country. The districts of Darbhanga, Madhubani, Saharsa, Katihar, Purnea, Supaul, Kishanganj, Araria and Sitamari are major pockets for Makhana cultivation. The present study was concentrated in four blocks namely Pandaul, Rahika, Kaluahi and Benipatti of the Madhubani district which have the highest area and production. Altogether a total sample size of 100 was taken for study. The all constraints were tabulated on the basis of frequency and percentage scores and further ranking of different constraints was made with the help of its percentage scores. The major constraints which were identified further divided into four groups as (a) Production Constraints, (b) Economic Constraints, (c) Technological Constraints and (d) Policy related Constraints. In order to eliminate the constraints as confronted by them and motivate them to adopt makhana production enterprise as their main occupation for doubling their farm income many suggestions were recorded through systematic observation based on field situation and reality
Data
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Integration of Carp culture with Makhana Integration of Carp culture with Makhana Integration of Carp culture with Makhana Integration of Carp culture with Makhana ((((Euryale ferox Euryale ferox Euryale ferox Euryale ferox Salisb.) Salisb.
Article
Full-text available
A pedal operated makhana grader was designed and developed at ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna for small makhana growing farmers. It consists of three major components, namely main frame, sieve unit and operator unit. The grading unit was found to be very efficient in the separation process of makhana seeds. Seeds were graded by the machine, into four categories, obtained at four separate outlets. The maximum seed graded for grade one, two, three and four were 99.15, 98.74, 95.68 and 83.65 percent, respectively and obtained at crank speed of 45 rpm and sieve angle of 15 degrees. The capacity is about 700-750 kg/hour. Two persons are required for the smooth operation of the grader, one for pedaling and one for filling makhana seeds from the sieve mouth. Euryale ferox Salisb is an aquatic crop, belonging to the family of Nympheaceae. It is commonly known as Makhana or Gorgon nut or Fox nut, and grown in stagnant perennial water bodies like ponds, land depressions, swamps and ditches. Makhana seeds are also called as black diamond (Dutta 1984). In India, it grows as a natural crop and is distributed sparsely in parts of Bihar, Manipur, Orissa, Jammu and Kashmir etc (Mondal 2010). Makhana is considered as a superior dry fruit, as it is endowed with several rich and nutritional ingredients. Makhana seed grading is an important operation in a number of processes connected with the handling of seed after harvest. These intermixtures may comprise different shapes and sizes. Presently farmer's uses five to six sieves of different mesh sizes for grading of raw seed. These sieves are made of iron sheets with wooden frames. However, the manual operation takes quite long time and gradations are not appropriate. Thus, it is necessary to study the physical properties of makhana seeds in order to properly design a sieving and grading machine. The information about makhana grader is limited. A few authors have reported on physical properties of makhana seeds and other grading machine for horticultural/vegetables crops such as physical properties of makhana as a function of moisture content. A pedal-type sieving machine for chickpea, sorghum and wheat (Kachru and Sahay 1990), design and development of chickpea sieving and grading machines (Aghagoolzadeh 2001) has been developed. Grading of seeds depends upon setting of different parameters of the machine such as coefficient of friction, angle of repose and bulk density etc. The purpose of the present investigation is to develop and evaluate a pedal operated inclined grading unit for grading of raw makhana. This make the unit suitable for wide range of seeds, increases the quality of grading and the production rate of processing.
Article
Full-text available
As part of the National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP), a makhana value chain study was organized in Bihar, in collaboration between the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) in Patna, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), as makhana is one of the core crops that the NAIP project in Bihar is focusing on. Primary surveys were fielded with producers, traders, processors, and retailers in 2009 and 2010 on the rural-urban makhana value chain in Bihar, more in particular from the disadvantaged districts part of the NAIP project (Darbhanga) to urban consumers in Patna. The value chain as a whole. Farmers in production areas receive about 55% of the final retail price in Patna, in the case that makhana is sold loose. As there are no benefits to the farmer of the branding process, this share declines to 50% in the case of the final price for low-price branded products. In both cases, farmers are thus the agent in the value chain that gets most of the rewards, reflecting also most of his effort for the product. The retail margin is the second most important component in the final price, accounting for 19% and 22% in the final retail price of loose and low-price branded products respectively. Processors and urban wholesalers count for equal shares in the final retail price.
Article
Full-text available
Makhana is an aquatic crop with immense export potential and it is an important source of income for poor fishermen. Out of total makhana produced in India, more than 80% makhana is produced in Bihar alone. Although it is a high value crop but farmers associated with makhana are still very poor. The study is based on information obtained from 400 farmers of two major makhana growing districts, namely, Madhubani and Katihar of Bihar; to identify the constraints associated with makhana cultivation under different eco-systems. Since makhana cultivation is labour intensive, attempts were also made to know the drudgery involved in different operations of makhana cultivation. Based on focus group discussions with the different stakeholders, seven main constraints were identified for preferential ranking by the makhana growers. Lack of ownership of the pond/land was the major constraint followed by lack of scientific knowledge of cultivation and highly skilled operations involved in makhana cultivation in both the district. Harvesting was found to be the most difficult operation in makhana cultivation as reported by farmers of Katihar and Madhubani.
Article
Full-text available
Local brands are rapidly gaining agricultural market share in developing countries. However, it is not well understood how they reshape agricultural value chains. In a detailed case study of the value chain of makhana in Bihar, we see the fast emergence – a doubling over 5 years – of more expensive packed and branded products. The effect on consumers is ambiguous. While the emergence of brands leads to increasing differentiation in retail markets, the brands in these settings provide however mostly incomplete or misleading information for the consumer and quality contained in branded bags is often lower than for loose products. We further also find that there are little direct benefits to the farmers from the presence of these brands.
Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas
  • Makhana Report On
Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India)
7% and 6.7% of exports respectively Average price of phool Makhana per unit is USD 4 and average value per shipment is INR 1,073 Status of Makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.) Cultivation in India
  • Kumar Lokendra
  • V K Gupta
  • B K Jha
  • I S Singh
  • B P Bhatt
  • A K Singh
Nhava Sheva Sea accounted for 37.1% of exports followed by Mundra and Sabarmati ICD which account for 36.7% and 6.7% of exports respectively. Average price of phool Makhana per unit is USD 4 and average value per shipment is INR 1,073. [19] References: [1] Kumar Lokendra, Gupta V.K., Jha B.K., Singh I.S., Bhatt B.P., Singh A.K., 2011, Status of Makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.) Cultivation in India, ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna, Research Centre for Makhana, Darbhnga, Bihar-846005, India [2] Khatatkar Abhijeet, Gupta V. K., Bakudkar Harsha, Singh Bhagwan N., Sharma Snigdha, 2014, Drudery Involved In Traditional Way of Harvesting Makhana Seeds (Euryle Ferox Salisb) From Ponds, Central Agriculture Engineering Institute, Nabibag, Bhopal-462038, India [3] IL&FS, 2014, Food Processing in Bihar The Road Ahead, 46/89, India http://foodprocessingindia.co.in/state_pdf/Bihar/BiharPolicy.pdf (Last accessed: 22/10/2016)
Integration of Carp Culture with Makhana (Euryale ferox salisb.) – A Route to Crop Diversification, Central Institute of Fisheries Education
  • Sah Nitesh
Sah Nitesh K., 2013, Project report: A Study on Production Cost, Processing Cost And Marketing Channel Efficiency of Makhana (Euryale Ferox) in Madhubani District of Bihar, School Of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India [5] Verma Anand M., 2007, Integration of Carp Culture with Makhana (Euryale ferox salisb.) – A Route to Crop Diversification, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Kolkata-91, India [6] Business Plan for Makhana Clusters in Bihar, India http://www.udyogmitrabihar.in/docs/data/makhana_report.pdf. (Last accessed: 22/10/2016)
Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas A study on Dynamics of Marketing of Selected Fruits in Bihar
  • Makhana Report On
  • S P Sinha
Report on Makhana (Foxnut) Production, Processing and Supply Chain Compiled by: Hitesh Kumar Mahawar (M. Tech Student, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India) [16] Sinha S.P., A study on Dynamics of Marketing of Selected Fruits in Bihar, Bihar Institute of Economics Studies, Patna, Bihar, India http://agmarknet.nic.in/resproj3.htm#Project5 (Last accessed: 22/10/2016)