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Design and Development of Variable Frequency Ultrasonic Pest Repeller

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Abstract

The main objective of this research work is to develop a prototype model of a variable frequency ultrasonic pest repeller. In order to protect human being from the pest disease such as leptospirosis, typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, poliomyelitis, yaws, anthrax and dengue, a highly efficient pest repeller is required. The diseases caused by the pests in the environment should be controlled. Thus, it leads to the design and development of an ultrasonic pest repeller where the frequency of emission of ultrasonic sound is continuously varied step-by-step automatically from the range of 25 kHz to 65 KHz. This electrical pest repeller can be used to repel rats, cockroaches, mosquitoes, and other pests. It is controlled by a built-in microcomputer, carrier wave pulses circuit, and carrier frequency pulse circuitry. The pest repeller using high-frequency pulse acoustic waves and electromagnetic waves to attack the nervous system of pests. The only way for them to survive is to leave the area. No smell, no poison, no fumes, non-audible and no side effect to human. It can be used continuously and suitable for use in homes, offices, restaurants, warehouses etc..
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JARDCS Special Issue On Signal and Image Processing Technique 22
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF VARIABLE FREQUENCY
ULTRASONIC PEST REPELLER
*1Pratap Nair, 2K.Nithiyananthan ,3P.Dhinakar
1,2Faculty of Engineering and Computer Technology,AIMST University, Bedong ,Kedah, Malaysia
3Karpagam College of Engineering, Coimbatore, India
pratap_n@aimst.edu.my, dhinakarpalani@yahoo.co.in, nithiieee@yahoo.co.in
ABSTRACT
The main objective of this research work is to develop a prototype model of a variable frequency
ultrasonic pest repeller. In order to protect human being from the pest disease such as leptospirosis,
typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, poliomyelitis, yaws, anthrax and dengue, a highly efficient pest
repeller is required. The diseases caused by the pests in the environment should be controlled. Thus,
it leads to the design and development of an ultrasonic pest repeller where the frequency of
emission of ultrasonic sound is continuously varied step-by-step automatically from the range of 25
kHz to 65 KHz. This electrical pest repeller can be used to repel rats, cockroaches, mosquitoes, and
other pests. It is controlled by a built-in microcomputer, carrier wave pulses circuit, and carrier
frequency pulse circuitry. The pest repeller using high-frequency pulse acoustic waves and
electromagnetic waves to attack the nervous system of pests. The only way for them to survive is to
leave the area. No smell, no poison, no fumes, non-audible and no side effect to human. It can be
used continuously and suitable for use in homes, offices, restaurants, warehouses etc..
Index TermsVariable Frequency, Ultrasonic, acoustic waves, pest repeller, electromagnetic
waves and pulse width modulation
I. INTRODUCTION
It is evident that lot of research work has been carried out in the field of software and hardware
applications to Electrical Engineering. [1-36] .The proposed research work is one among them. A
traditional pest repeller in the market usually will emit a constant frequency. This constant
frequency will repel the pest for short term period and it is not very effective [37]. This is because
usually loud sounds and novel sounds, including ultrasonic sounds which rodents can hear, will
frighten them and may cause temporary avoidance lasting from a few minutes to a few weeks.
However, most rodents can quickly become accustomed to these new sounds, especially when they
3 2
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are heard repeatedly the same frequency. On the other hand, some pest repellers are designed for a
particular pest only. So this kind of pest repeller cannot use for repel some other pest. This pest
repeller that being design is different from other repellers because this is functioning with multi-
frequency modulated sounds. This device automatically changes the frequency every 30 seconds
once, assuring complete coverage of all the communication frequencies of mice, rodents, insects
and many other pests, and make them not get used to the ultrasonic waves. It emitted the modulated
frequencies, which sweep automatically from 25 KHz to 65 KHz that repulses pests.
Ultrasonic radiation gets rid of rodents, cockroach, insects and many other pests [38]. Ultrasonic
pest controlling system with multi-frequency modulated sounds. It doesn't kill pest but it drives
them out. These high-intensity ultrasonic sound waves (25~65 KHz) are out of the range of hearing
of humans are most household pets, but pests. These nerve-crushing sounds (to rodents and insects)
directly penetrate their brain and nervous systems causing them severe pain and discomfort, and
make them uneasy and act abnormal, such as to become frantic jumping, stampeding and fighting
each other, which result in the voluntary repulsion against ultrasonic wave areas and pests are
impossible to stay at such radiated areas.
II. ULTRASONIC FREQUENCY
Ultrasonic is the study and application of high-frequency sound waves, usually in excess of 20
KHz (20,000 cycles per second). Modern ultrasonic generators can produce frequencies of as high
as several gigahertz (several billion cycles per second) by transforming alternating electric currents
into mechanical oscillations, and scientists have produced ultrasound with frequencies up to
about10GHz (ten billion vibrations per second). There may be an upper limit to the frequency of
usable ultrasound, but it is not yet known. The Higher frequencies have shorter wavelengths, which
allow them to reflect from objects more readily and to provide better information about those
objects. However, extremely high frequencies are difficult to generate and to measure. Detection
and measurement of ultrasonic waves are accomplished mainly through the use of piezoelectric
receivers or by optical means. The latter is possible because ultrasonic waves are rendered visible
by the diffraction of light [39]. Ultrasound is far above the range of human hearing, which is only
about 20Hz to 18 KHz. However, some mammals can hear well above this. For example, bats and
whales use echolocation that can reach frequencies in excess of 100 KHz.
Figure 1: The type of pest repelled at each frequency range.
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The frequency ranges 25 kHz to 65 kHz is chosen for the design and development of this prototype
model. Most of the pest will be repelled within this frequency range [40]. Following figure 1 briefly
explains the variable insects and its specified range of frequency in which the pest will be
controlled.
III. THE DESIGN OF ULTRASONIC PEST REPELLER
The design part of multi-frequency pest repeller is achieved by generation of Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM) wave frequency by PIC microcontroller [6-9]. Figure 2 briefly explains the
details of a block diagram of variable frequency ultrasonic pest repeller. PIC16F767 requires 5V
regulated voltage to operate. This process requires an IC called LM7805.The input of LM7805 is
between 9V to 12V dc. The output regulated the voltage of LM7805 is 5V without any ripple
voltage [41-43].The LCD is connected to the microcontroller to display the emitted frequency at a
current time. Whereby the speaker is connected to PIC microcontroller at PORT C .The amplifier
used to raise power at the emitted frequency of the speaker. The electrode system was arranged to
simulate three-phase electric field in three-phase equipment. The conductors were arranged in an
isosceles triangle construction. The layout and dimensions of the model are shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Block Diagram of the pest repeller system
IV. IMPLEMENTATION OF ULTRASONIC PEST REPELLER
Figure 3 shows an overall circuit diagram of multi-frequency ultrasonic pest repeller. The first stage
of implementation of the prototype board is soldering the power supply to the strip board. Once
soldered, the power supply circuit’s outputs are measured to ensure that a steady +5.0 V is present.
This is to ensure that the power supply circuitry is working and not shorted, to prevent damage to
other components. The power supply circuit’s inputs may come from three different sources, a +9.0
V battery, an AC/DC adaptor’s DC jack, or a DC power supply jack.
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Figure 3: Complete design of Variable Frequency Pest Repeller
All three connectors were soldered onto the stripboard in parallel so that either one may be used
at any time. The battery mode was meant to be used when the device is ready to be used while the
other two was to be used extensively during design and troubleshooting only. Once the power
supply was confirmed to work, then the next stage of implementation was started. The
microcontroller’s IC holder is placed on the stripboard in a position with the considerable amount
of space around its I/O ports to accommodate future modifications. In addition to that, a row of
male headers was soldered on both sides of the microcontroller IC holder. These male headers
would later be used when an external device needs to connect to any I/O ports of the
microcontroller. Once the microcontroller IC holder was in place, the relative positions of the reset
button, crystal oscillator, and all other components were determined and soldered onto the
stripboard [44].
Once the LM386 IC was installed, the output power of LM386 is around 1W (100mA, 9V). And
thus, only low power speaker is suitable for this amplifier. The output of the preamplifier is
connected to a 10KR variable resistor to adjust the input amplitude of LM386 from 0 to maximum.
By adjusting the variable resistor the volume of the speaker will change. The output of the amplifier
is low pass filtered by RC filter (18ohm, 100nF) [45].Then the component for the LCD is soldered
onto the stripboard [46-47]. The variable resistors, pull-up registers, and wires were done with
header pins and header connectors as shown in Figure 4.
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Figure 4 Prototype model for a variable frequency
Ultrasonic Pest Repeller
This program is running in automatic mode which the output frequency will change automatically
by itself. Figure 4 briefly explains on program flow chart and the sequence of the output frequency.
The first stage is set the output frequency as 25kHz.Then the speaker will emit 25 kHz for 10
seconds. Then, the frequency automatically increases by 5 kHz. The same process repeats until the
output frequency reaches 65 kHz. Finally, it will reset frequency to 25 kHz the same process will
repeat again. The frequency generated through Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).The formula that
used to generate frequency is:
This formula is found in PCW C Compiler to generate high frequency using pulse width
modulation. The frequency Table I below desired output frequency which shows the pulse (X)
needed to generate
TABLE I. OUTPUT FREQUENCY VS PULSE
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The result obtained from the experiment showed an AC output voltage and its frequency. In this
research work, there are total 9 outputs frequencies, 25 KHz , 30 kHz ,35 kHz , 40 kHz , 45 kHz ,
45 kHz , 50 kHz , 55 kHz and 60 kHz.
Figure 5: Output frequency graph of 25 kHz and 30 kHz
Figure 6: Output frequency graph of 35 kHz and 40 kHz
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Figure 7: Output frequency graph of 45 kHz and50 kHz
Figure 8: Output frequency graph of 55 kHz and 60 kHz
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The output graph Figure 5-8 shows is a square wave graph. For the first 25 KHz, 30 kHz, 35 kHz,
40 kHz, 45 kHz, the output graph show square type waveform. However for 50 kHz, 55 kHz, 60
kHz, and 65 kHz it starts to change square wave to a sinusoidal waveform. The time period is the
time taken for the signal to complete one cycle. It is measured in seconds. Frequency is the number
of cycles per second. When there is constant output frequency emission, the output waveform will
be in a square wave. The least desirable output waveform type, a square wave is sort of a "flattened-
out" version of a sine wave. Instead of the voltage smoothly increasing from the negative maximum
to the positive maximum and back again, it shifts suddenly from negative to positive, stays there for
half a cycle, and then jumps to full negative and stays there for half a cycle, then repeats In
particular, square waves are mathematically equivalent to the sum of a sine wave at that same
frequency. Besides that, there is an error of + 1 KHz from the graph due to noises and ripple voltage
in the circuit.
From the experiment done on the pest, some of the pests get repelled and some are not. Before
running the system, there are 2 hamsters, 4-5 red ants, 2 cengkerik and 2 cockroaches. After the
system is activated, the number of hamsters is reduced to 0 and other pest remains. The hamsters
get repelled due to the frequency emitted by the speaker. (Hamsters get repelled at the frequency of
25 kHz to 35 kHz) .But the other smaller pests never repelled because due to the failure of the
speaker to emit the high-frequency sound from 35 KHz to 65 KHz .This failure is because the
highest possible frequency that can be emitted by the speaker is 35 KHz. Nevertheless, almost all
PIC controller is designed using flash technology which reads/writes the program from the operated
system where it responds to the pest controller device using advanced features installed inside the
device itself. The reason is due to the cheapest way to control a device within an invisible frequency
range. However, there are some disadvantages associated with ultrasonic pest repeller
characteristics. Since the pest repeller using varied frequency but most of the pest will become
immune with the ultrasonic sound and will return to its favorite place in no time. Another following
problem, the normal speaker can only emit up to 35 KHz of frequency.
V. CONCLUSION
An ultrasonic pest repeller is the best way to repel the pest without killing it using pesticide. Nearly
all appliances now are getting to make use of this technology and further research needs to be
conducted for the system advancement. Mostly all technology built systems have their own
misdirection whereby as such errors leads to the improvising of the initial device. Further research
has been conducted to upgrade this PIC controlled system to enhance new breed technology so that
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it portrays a user-friendly device without bringing side effect to human but the core reason is met
that is to repel the pest that brings harm to human daily life. Extra effort has been made in
developing the frequency varying range and constructing the LCD display. Basically, this design
has adopted pulse width modulation technique to ensure successful frequency emission of PIC
microcontroller. The utilization of microcontroller has enabled the communication between input
and output device to be carried out more effectively. The reason for some other pest did not get
repelled is because the speaker initially can’t emit more than 35 KHz of frequency. Regardless of
this error, although this system can produce between 25 kHz to 65 KHz, due to some error occurred
in the speaker the device had limited frequency produced. This is the core reason why the other pest
did not respond to the device working condition. However, this problem could be solved by using
‘super ultrasonic transducer’ where all the features such as applied varied frequency and the
tolerance value can’t be measured but this device can only be obtained from overseas where the
technology is advanced and as usual it very expensive than a normal ultrasonic transducer. For this
research work utilization of PIC16F767 is strongly recommended especially for controlling the
frequency emission between the speaker and PIC microcontroller. Besides that this ultrasonic pest
repeller could be further upgraded to make it as a ‘super ultrasonic pest repeller which can be called
a perfect pest repeller.
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... Due to physiological constraints of the cochlea, humans are normally unable to hear sounds louder than 20 kHz, while there is considerable variation between people, especially at such high frequencies. Bats, dogs, and rats, for example, can perceive well into the ultrasonic range [9]. Figure 3 below shows the Repeller Frequency for various Animals. ...
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