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Many studies have misapplied the definition of muscle volume with respect to classifying muscles as “small” or “large.” Given frequent misapplication of the terms, we propose that they should be classified simply as multi-joint or single-joint exercises. A viable alternative classification would be compound exercises or isolation exercises
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COLUMN EDITOR: Brad Schoenfeld, PhD, CSCS,
Large and Small Muscles
in Resistance Training: Is
It Time for a Better
Alex S. Ribeiro, PhD,
Brad J. Schoenfeld, PhD, CSCS*D, NSCA-CPT*D, CSPS*D, FNSCA,
and Joa
˜o P. Nunes
Center for Research in Health Sciences, University of Northern Parana
´, Londrina, Brazil;
Exercise Science
Department, CUNY Lehman College, Bronx, New York;
Metabolism, Nutrition, and Exercise Laboratory, Londrina
State University, Londrina, Brazil
Resistance training (RT) is a type
of physical exercise recommen-
ded to improve a wide range of
health-related parameters including
neuromuscular fitness, cognitive
abilities, insulin sensitivity, bone den-
sity, and cardiovascular wellness
(1,2,21), and is also practiced to
enhance aesthetics and sports-
performance. The benefits associated
with RT are dependent on the proper
manipulation of the variables that
make up the RT program, which
include magnitude of load, number of
sets and repetitions, frequency, rest
interval, exercise selection, time under
tension, muscle action, velocity of
movement, and exercise order (1,15).
Regarding exercise order, there is evi-
dence that this variable can acutely
affect the volume and intensity of
a RT session (1). However, the chronic
effect of exercise order on muscular
adaptations is still a matter of debate,
especially because of the lack of longi-
tudinal investigations on the topic.
Many studies focusing on exercise
order have misapplied the definition
of muscle volume (defined in this
column as the total amount of muscu-
lar tissue, expressed in cubic units),
with respect to classifying muscles as
“small” or “large.” These erroneous
classifications persist both for muscles
of the upper and lower body. The
issue seems to exist based on visual
perception of muscle size as opposed
to the actual volume of a given muscle.
For example, several studies have
classified exercises for the triceps
brachii as working a small muscle
(3–9,16–19), but in fact, this muscle
has one of the greatest volumes of
all upper-body muscles; even larger
than the latissimus dorsi and pectora-
lis major (11,12,20), which are typi-
cally considered as large muscles
(3–9,16–19). It is noteworthy that val-
ues of muscle volume consider its
3-dimensional amount, not simply its
length and width (surface area), and
therefore these terms should not be
confused with one another.
Address correspondence to Alex S. Ribeiro,
Copyright ÓNational Strength and Conditioning Association Strength and Conditioning Journal | 33
Several studies have endeavored to
quantify the volume of various human
muscles. Holzbaur et al. (11) created
3-dimensional images from magnetic
resonance imaging data to establish
the volume of the upper limb muscles
crossing the glenohumeral joint,
elbow, forearm, and wrist in 10 young,
healthy subjects. Results indicated
that the deltoid (anterior, middle,
and posterior heads combined)
presents the largest muscle volume
(380.5 6157.7 cm
), followed by the
triceps brachii (long, middle, and lat-
eral heads combined) (372.1 6177. 3
), pectoralis major (clavicular and
sternocostal portions combined)
(290.0 6169.0 cm
), and latissimus
dorsi (262.2 6147.2 cm
Similarly, Vidt et al. (20) and Langer-
derfer et al. (12), analyzed the muscle
volumes of older subjects and corp-
ses, respectively. Both studies re-
ported that the deltoid was the
largest upper limb muscle followed
by the triceps brachii and, contrary
to popular belief, each of these
muscles were larger than the pector-
alis major and latissimus dorsi irre-
spective of sex. These results
indicate that it is misguided to classify
the triceps brachii or deltoids as
a small muscle complex.
Moreover, misconceptions on nomen-
clature also occur in lower-body muscle
groups, in which some studies catego-
rize the knee extension as a small-
muscle exercise (4,5,16,19). However,
the quadriceps, the agonist in
this exercise, is the largest lower limb
muscle as noted by Lube et al. (13)
and Handsfield et al. (10).
Therefore, we propose that the claims
referring to knee extension and spe-
cific exercises for the triceps brachii
(i.e., triceps pushdown) and deltoids
(i.e., lateral raises) as working “small
muscles” is a misapplication of termi-
nology. Rather, given these exercises
are single-joint movements, it would
be more appropriate to say that the
total amount of muscle mass worked
is less than that during multijoint ex-
ercises. For example, the leg press
works many muscles in addition to
the quadriceps (i.e., gluteals, ham-
strings, calves); the back squat works
an even greater amount of muscle
mass because of the contribution of
stabilizer muscles (including the
abdominals, erector spinae, trapezius,
rhomboids, and many others) to carry
out performance (14). Thus, these
multijoint exercises necessarily
involve the activation of more muscle
tissue compared with a single-joint
exercise such as the knee extension.
The Table presents muscle volume
values for a variety of upper and
lower-body muscles.
Given this information, we propose
that rather than categorizing exer-
cises as pertaining to either large or
small muscle groups, they instead
should be classified simply as multi-
joint or single-joint exercises. A
viable alternative classification would
be compound exercises (squat, dead-
lift, bench press, lat-pulldown, rows,
etc.) or isolation exercises (knee
extension, leg curl, lateral raises,
arm curl, pec deck, triceps push-
down, etc.). Both definitions would
more accurately reflect the total
amount of muscle mass involved in
an exercise without making reference
to the volume of the individual
muscles worked; this avoids poten-
tially misleading statements on the
Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding:
The authors report no conflicts of interest
and no source of funding.
Alex S. Ribeiro is a professor and
Research Associate of the Center for
Biological and Health Sciences at
University of Northern Parana
Brad Schoenfeld is an assistant
professor and director of the Human
Performance Laboratory at CUNY
Lehman College in the Bronx, NY.
˜o P. Nunes is an Undergraduate
Scientific Initiation Student in
Metabolism, Nutrition, and Exercise
Laboratory at Londrina State
Tab l e
Volume of selected upper- and lower-body muscles
Muscle Average volume, cm
Latissimus dorsi
262.3 6147.2
Pectoralis major
290.0 6169.0
380.5 6157.5
Triceps brachii
372.1 6177.3
Biceps brachii
143.7 668.7
143.7 663.7
65.1 636
Quadriceps femoris
1,417.4 6440.8
Biceps femoris
269.8 687.1
Gluteus maximus
764.1 6138.0
353.0 6102.2
126.7 622.4
Data are presented as mean and standard deviation.
Holzbaur et al. (11).
Lube et al. (13).
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Strength and Conditioning Journal | 35
... The back squat is a lower-limb multijoint exercise that involves hip, knee, and ankle joints and recruits several lower-limb muscle groups (6,33,34,39). Despite its popularity, the role of this exercise and its variations in promoting hypertrophy remains controversial. ...
... The gluteus maximus is a voluminous muscle because it is the main hip extensor and can be highly recruited during a squat exercise and its variations (20,34). The gluteus maximus is greatly lengthened in the deeper ROM of the back squat, and because of the relation between hypertrophy in elongated muscles (24,28,29,32,38), it is reasonable to assume that the squat can elicit significant improvements in the size of this muscle. ...
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The squat is one of the most widely used exercises in resistance-training programs. The aim of the present narrative review was to analyze the effect of the squat on lower-limb muscle hypertrophy. Briefly, the available literature indicates that the squat is an effective exercise for inducing hypertrophy of the quadriceps, mainly the vastii, but also the rectus femoris, although to a reduced magnitude. Multiple lines of evidence suggest little to no hamstring hypertrophy from the back squat. While the gluteus maximus clearly participates mechanically in the back squat, few longitudinal studies exist on the topic. The limited evidence available on this topic suggests deeper squats may be more hypertrophic for the gluteus maximus, and that squat depth beyond 90 degrees of knee flexion may not provide further hypertrophy of the knee flexors. Despite the popularity of the many squat variations, there are still controversies surrounding their hypertrophic potential for lower-limb musculature. Further studies are needed to investigate the hypertrophic effects of different squat variations, as well as differences in hypertrophy due to squat depth, stance, barbell position, and different squat apparatuses/machines.
... Dentre os exercícios que compõe as sessões de treinamento resistido, o agachamento é um dos mais utilizados, sobretudo pela sua eficiência para o aumento da força e massa muscular de membros inferiores para variados objetivos. O agachamento é um exercício composto (multiarticular) por envolver, de forma dinâmica, mais de uma articulação (7) , e é classificado como de cadeia cinética fechada, no qual os membros da parte distal do corpo permanecem fixos durante a execução do movimento. ...
... Future studies should endeavour to investigate the effect of different EO with exercises for the same target muscles [e.g. pecdeck (SJ) and chest press (MJ), for pectoralis major] using site-specific measurement techniques, and compare the hypertrophic changes of muscles that act as agonists in both MJ and SJ exercise as opposed to just the synergists Ribeiro, Schoenfeld, & Nunes, 2017). ...
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The objectives of this paper were to: (a) systematically review studies that explored the effects of exercise order (EO) on muscular strength and/or hypertrophy; (b) pool their results using a meta-analysis; and (c) provide recommendations for the prescription of EO in resistance training (RT) programmes. A literature search was performed in four databases. Studies were included if they explored the effects of EO on dynamic muscular strength and/or muscle hypertrophy. The meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model with Hedges' g effect size (ES). The methodological quality of studies was appraised using the TESTEX checklist. Eleven good-to-excellent methodological quality studies were included in the review. When all strength tests, that is, both in multi-joint (MJ) and single-joint (SJ) exercises were considered, there was no difference between the EOs (ES = -0.11; p = 0.306). However, there was a difference between the MJ-to-SJ and SJ-to-MJ orders for strength gains in the MJ exercises, favouring starting the exercise session with MJ exercises (ES = 0.32; p = 0.034), and the strength gains in the SJ exercises, favouring starting the exercise session with SJ exercises (ES = -0.58; p = 0.032). No significant effect of EO was observed for hypertrophy combining site-specific and indirect measures (ES = 0.03; p = 0.862). In conclusion, increases in muscular strength are the largest in the exercises performed at the beginning of an exercise session. For muscle hypertrophy, our meta-analysis indicated that both MJ-to-SJ and SJ-to-MJ EOs may produce similar results.
... telah lama di praktiskan mungkin perlu di definisikan dengan lebih tepat. Adalah lebih baik membuat susunan senaman berdasarkan jumlah sendi-otot terlibat (Ribeiro, Schoenfeld, & Nunes, 2017). Sebagai cadangan, susun atur senaman latihan kekuatan dalam setiap sesi boleh bermula dengan senaman yang melibatkan banyak sendi-otot dalam satu kontraksi, diikuti senaman yang melibatkan satu sendi-otot dan diakhiri dengan senaman otot teras. ...
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... Recent studies have shown that EO influences chronic and acute outcomes, regardless of MJ or SJ and involving large or small muscles, suggesting that priority should be given to certain exercises or muscles by performing them at the beginning of the sessions (4,19,21,25). Regarding the acute responses, previous investigations have shown that when exercise loads are held constant among EO, the number of repetitions performed are affected, thus influencing volumeload, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and neuromuscular activity (19,24,25). It may occur due to local (i.e., agonists, antagonists, or synergist muscles) and non-local muscular fatigue (NLMF) (i.e., crossover fatigue of a non-exercised muscle group) brought about by neurological, biochemical, biomechanical, or psychological factors (9). ...
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The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of four resistance-training (RT) exercise orders on rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and RT variables with exercise load properly adjusted according to its position within the sequence in older women. That is, the load was adjusted so that it was possible that the sets were performed within the repetition-zone established. Fifteen trained older women (67.4 ± 5.3 years) participated in a crossover-design, combining single-joint (SJ) and multi-joint (MJ) exercises for upper-(UB) and lower-body (LB) in the following exercise orders: SEQA = UBMJ-UBSJ-LBMJ-LBMJ; SEQB = UBSJ-UBMJ-LBSJ-LBMJ; SEQC = LBMJ-LBSJ-UBMJ-UBSJ; SEQD = LBSJ-LBMJ-UBSJ-UBMJ. Each session was comprised of eight exercises with 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions. RPE was analyzed by a sequence (4) x sets (3) two-way ANOVA. Repetitions, time under tension, load, volume-load, and the average RPE of the session were analyzed by one-way ANOVA comparing the four sequences. No significant difference was identified between conditions for total repetitions, time under tension, training load, and volume-load. Lower average RPE of the session was obtained when LB exercises were performed earlier (SEQA: 7.2 ± 1.2, SEQB: 7.1 ± 1.0, SEQC: 6.7 ± 0.9, SEQD: 6.3 ± 1.1). We conclude that when lower body exercises are performed first in a training session, a lower RPE is noted throughout all the session.
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The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of resistance-training (RT) exercise order on muscle strength, hypertrophy, and anabolic hormones in older women. Forty-four older women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a non-exercise control group (CON, n=15) and two RT groups that performed a 12-weeks RT program in a multi-joint to single-joint order (MJ-SJ, n=14), or in a single-joint to multi-joint order (SJ-MJ, n=15). The RT protocol (3x/week) encompassed eight exercises, with three sets of 10-15 repetitions performed per exercise. 1RM tests were used to evaluate muscle strength; DXA was used to estimate lean soft tissue. Both training groups showed significant and similar increases in muscle strength (MJ-SJ=16.4%; SJ-MJ=12.7%) and mass (MJ-SJ=7.5%; SJ-MJ=6.1%), whereas there were no significant changes in testosterone and IGF-1. The results suggest that both approaches are similarly effective in eliciting morphofunctional improvements in older women.
... For example, performing the triceps pushdown would fatigue the triceps brachii, thereby impairing the ability to overload the pectoralis major during subsequence performance of bench press. However, paradoxically, athletes and practitioners usually perform exercises in the opposite order with paired sets (i.e., pre-exhaustion system) to maximize muscular adaptations (Ribeiro et al. 2017(Ribeiro et al. , 2018. This approach consists of performing an SJ exercise before an MJ exercise, with both exercises involving a common muscle group. ...
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The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of the order of resistance training (RT) exercises on hypertrophy in young adult men. Thirty-six young adult men (21.9 ± 2.5 years, 72.6 ± 12.1 kg, 176.9 ± 7.4 cm, 23.1 ± 3.3 kg/m²) were randomly assigned to one of two training groups that performed a 6-week RT program in either a traditional approach starting with multi-joint exercises (MJ) following to single-joint exercises (SJ) order (MJ-SJ, n = 19) or an inverse order (SJ-MJ, n = 17). Muscle thickness of the biceps brachii and mid-thigh were assessed by ultrasound. Lean soft tissue (LST) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both groups similarly increased (P < 0.05) biceps brachii thickness (MJ-SJ = +14.2%, SJ-MJ = +13.8%). Alternatively, only the MJ-SJ group presented an increase in mid-thigh thickness from pre- to post-training (MJ-SJ = +7.2%, SJ-MJ = +3.9%). Upper limbs LST (MJ-SJ = +5.2%, SJ-MJ = +7.5%) was statistically similar between conditions, and a trend for significance (P = 0.07) was found for trunk LST (MJ-SJ = +7.2%, SJ-MJ = +1.7%). Non-significant pre- to post-training changes were observed for lower limb LST (MJ-SJ = +0.7%, SJ-MJ = +1.8%). Our data suggest that both sequences are effective for increasing muscle hypertrophy over a short-term RT period; there may be a potentially beneficial hypertrophic effect for the mid-thigh to performing exercises in a manner that progresses from MJ to SJ exercises.
... Curiosamente, puede que lo mismo ocurra con los músculos del tronco y las extremidades superiores. Alex S. Ribeiro, Schoenfeld, and Nunes (2017) tras realizar un análisis del tamaño de los diferentes músculos, vieron que el tríceps braquial era aquel que tenía un mayor volumen de los músculos del tren superior, seguido del pectoral mayor y por último el bíceps braquial. Por tanto los músculos que parten con una mayor tamaño inicialmente, puede que consigan menos hipertrofia tras un protocolo de entrenamiento de manera relativa (Takashi Abe et al., 2000) aunque no se sabe si esto se traduce en mayores incrementos de forma absoluta. ...
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Variables de influencia en el proceso de hipertrofia en adultos sanos y su importancia en la elaboración de programas de entrenamiento
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This study compared the effects of order of muscle groups' exercised (larger to smaller muscles vs. smaller to larger muscles) on the acute levels of total testosterone, free testosterone and cortisol during resistance training (RT) sessions. Healthy male participants (n=8; age: 28.8 ± 6.4 years; body mass: 87.0 ± 10.6 kg; body height: 181.0 ± 0.7 cm; BMI: 26.5 ± 4.1) were randomly separated into two experimental groups. The first group (LG-SM) performed an RT session (3 sets of 10 repetitions and a 2 min rest period) of the exercises in following order: bench press (BP), lat pulldown (LP), barbell shoulder press (BSP), triceps pushdown (TP) and barbell cut (BC). The second group (SM-LG) performed an RT session in following order: BC, TP, BSP, LA, BP. Blood was collected at the end of the last repetition of each session. Control samples of blood were taken after 30 min of rest. Significant differences were observed in the concentrations of total testosterone (p < 0.05), free testosterone (p < 0.0001) and cortisol (p < 0.0001) after both RT sessions in comparison to rest. However, when comparing LG-SM and SM-LG, no significant differences were found. The results suggest that, while RT sessions induce an acute change in the levels of testosterone and cortisol, this response is independent of the order of exercising muscle groups.
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Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different exercise orders on the local muscular endurance of trained women. Methods. Nineteen women with a minimum of two years experience in resistance training volunteered to participate in the study (age 27.68 ± 5.24 years; body mass 60.31 ± 7.50 kg; height 161.83 ± 7.05 cm; body mass index 22.85 ± 1.85 kg • m-2). Data were collected in two phases: 1) determining the one repetition maximum (1RM) for the bench press (BP), machine lat pull-down (LPD), free-weight shoulder press (SP), standing free-weight biceps curl (BC), and triceps extension (TE); 2) the completion of two resistance training sequences including 4 sets of exercise at 60% of 1RM with 2 minute rest intervals between sets with exercises performed until failure: Sequence A (SEQ A) comprised of: BP, LPD, SP, BC, TE while sequence B (SEQ B): TE, BC, SP, LPD, BP. Results. The mean number of repetitions per set in BP and TE presented significant reductions (p = 0.001 and p = 0.026, respectively) when they were the last exercise performed in each exercise sequence. Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) was not significantly different between the exercise sequences; however, increases for BC (in SEQ A) and BP (in SEQ B) were observed when they were performed later in the sequences. Conclusion. These data indicate that in trained women, local muscular endurance is affected by exercise sequence, with exercises performed later in a workout sequence showing decreased exercise ability due to fatigue.
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Traditional exercise order dictates large muscle group or multi-joint exercises should be performed before small muscle group or single joint exercises. The purpose of this study was to exam-ine the influence of exercise order on strength and muscle thick-ness (MT) in untrained men after 12 weeks of linear periodized resistance training. The participants were randomly assigned into three groups. One group began with large and progressed toward small muscle group exercises (LG-SM) while another started with small and advanced to large muscle group exercises (SM-LG). The exercise order for LG-SM was bench press (BP), lat pull-down (LPD), triceps extension (TE), and biceps curl (BC). The order for the SM-LG was BC, TE, LPD, and BP. The third group served as a control group (CG). Training frequency was two sessions/week with at least 72 hours between sessions. One repetition maximum (1RM) for all exercises, biceps and triceps MT (assessed by ultrasound techniques) were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, all exercises for both training groups presented significant 1RM strength gains when compared to CG with exception of BC in LG-SM. Be-tween baseline and post training, all exercises for both training groups presented significant strength gains with exception of BC in LG-SM and BP in SM-LG. Triceps MT for both training groups were significantly higher when compared to the CG, but with no significant differences between them (p > 0.05). Signifi-cant differences in MT from pre- to post-training were found only for the SM-LG group (p < 0.05), while the biceps MT presented significant differences only between LG-SM and CG (p < 0.05), Effect size data demonstrated differences in 1RM and triceps MT based on exercise order. In conclusion, if an exercise is important for specific training goals, it should be performed at the beginning of the training session, whether or not it is a large or a small muscle group exercise.
PURPOSE: Muscle volumes are of crucial interest when attempting to analyze individual physical performance and disease- or age-related alterations in muscle morphology. However, very little reference data are available in the literature on pelvis and lower extremity muscle volumes originating from healthy and young individuals. Furthermore, it is of interest if representative muscle volumes, covering large anatomical regions, can be obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a setting similar to the clinical routine. Our objective was therefore to provide encompassing, bilateral, 3-T MRI-based datasets on muscle volumes of the pelvis and the lower limb muscles. METHODS: T1-weighted 3-T MRI records were obtained bilaterally from six young and healthy participants. Three-dimensional volumes were compiled from 28 muscles and muscle groups of each participant before the muscle volumes were computed. RESULTS: Muscle volumes were obtained from 28 muscles and muscle groups of the pelvis and lower extremity. Volumes were larger in male than in female participants. Volumes of the dominant and non-dominant sides were similar in both genders. The obtained results were in line with volumetric data obtained from smaller anatomical areas, thus extending the available datasets. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an encompassing and feasible approach to obtain data on the muscle volumes of pelvic and limb muscles of healthy, young, and physically active individuals. The respective data form a basis to determine effects of therapeutic approaches, progression of diseases, or technical applications like automated segmentation algorithms applied to different populations.
This study aimed to investigate the role of exercise order on total number of repetitions and to evaluate the possible importance on muscle damage and on rating perceived exertion (RPE). Ten trained participants completed two sequences: sequence A (SEQA) was leg press (LP), leg extension (LE), leg curl (LC), bench press (BP), shoulder press (SP), and triceps extension (TE) and in sequence B (SEQB), the order of execution of the exercises was reversed. Highest creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were observed 24 hours following both sessions, but no differences were found at any time between them, revealing that muscle damage has occurred. There were significant differences between SEQA and SEQB in the total number of repetitions for TE, LE, and LC. Our results suggest that differences in total strength production when exercise order is changed must be explained by some other mechanisms besides muscle damage and RPE.
This investigation looked at the effects of exercise order on performance of isotonic muscle contractions. Subjects, 17 trained men between the ages of 18 and 29, were strength tested using 6 standard lifts. Each then completed 2 sessions consisting of 4 sets of 8 contractions (or until muscle failure), for each exercise with 2 min rest between sets. The order for one trial was squat, leg extension, leg flexion, bench press, military press, and triceps pushdown; for the other trial it was leg flexion, leg extension, squat, triceps pushdown, military press, and bench press. When the triceps pushdown and military press preceded the bench press, the bench press total force (TF) was significantly reduced. The TF for squats, leg extensions, and triceps pushdown were all significantly greater when done first in the first exercise sequence. Cumulative TF was greater when structural exercises (multijointed) were done first. Fatigue rate and TF for the bench press were substantially decreased when single-jointed exercises preceded structural ones. (C) 1996 National Strength and Conditioning Association
The study investigated the effect of resistance exercise order on the number of repetitions, oxygen uptake (VO2), and perceived exertion (RPE) in younger [YG: N=10; 22±2yrs; VO2peak 42.2±2.9] and older [EG: N=8; 69±7yrs; VO2peak 22.7±2.5] women. Subjects performed 3 sets of each exercise until fatigue using 10 repetition-maximum in 2 sequences of opposite order: a) sequence A [SEQA]: bench press-BP, machine shoulder press-SP, pulley triceps extension-TE; b) sequence B [SEQB]: TE-SP-BP). The VO2 was assessed during the exercises, rest intervals, and 20 min after sequences (EPOC). The number of repetitions decreased in both groups (P<0.05) throughout sets. No difference (P>0.22) was found between sequences for total VO2 (exercise sequences + EPOC) in YG (SEQA=25.41±6.51L vs. SEQB=24.81±4.08L) and EG (SEQA=26.45±5.24L vs. SEQB=26.91±4.62L). In both groups the VO2 within the sequences was higher during BP when it was placed at the end of SEQB, the same occurring with TE in SEQA (P<0.05). The VO2 within sequences and RPE were higher in SEQB compared to SEQA (P<0.05) in EG, but not in YG. In conclusion, the exercise order did not affect total VO2. The VO2 within a given sequence was always lower when an exercise was performed first as compared with last regardless of the exercise order. Accumulated fatigue reflected by the VO2 within sequences and RPE was influenced by the exercise order only in EG, suggesting that to prevent early fatigue, resistance training sessions in this group should preferably progress from large toward small-muscle group exercises.