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Determining the Benefits of Massage Mechanisms: A Review of Literature

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Abstract

Many coaches, athletes, and sports medicine professionals hold the perception, based on observations and encounters, that massage can provide several benefits to the body. These include improved blood flow, reduced muscle pressure and neurological excitability, and increased sense of well being. Massage can produce mechanical pressure, which is expected to increase muscle mass, compliance, resulting in increased collection of joint motion, decreased unaggressive stiffness, and decreased energetic stiffness, known as biomechanical mechanisms. Mechanised pressure might help to enhance blood circulation by increasing the arteriolar pressure, and accumulating muscle tissue temperature from rubbing. Regarding the massage technique, mechanical pressure on the muscle is likely to increase or decrease nerve organs excitability as measured by H-reflex, which is known as neurological mechanisms. This is seen in parasympathetic activity (as assessed by heart rate, blood pressure, and heart rate variability) and junk levels (as simply measured by cortisol levels following therapeutic massage, causing a relaxation response), known as physiological mechanisms. A reduction in anxiety and an improvement in mood condition also cause relaxation, which is referred to as psychological mechanisms after the massage. Post-exercise, therapeutic massage has been recognized to lessen the severity of muscle soreness, but massage does not have any effects on muscle practical loss. Nevertheless, regarding the belief that massage therapy has benefits for sports athletes, there are no clear effects of different types of massage (Petrissage, Effleurage, Friction) or the appropriate timing of massage (pre-exercise and post-exercise) on performance, recovery from injury, or as a personal injury prevention method. Explanations are lacking because the mechanisms of each massage technique have not been broadly investigated. Therefore, this article investigates the possible mechanisms of massage and provides a discourse on the limited evidence of therapeutic massage on performance, recovery, and muscle injury prevention. The main purpose of this article is to examine mechanisms of massage and its benefits in performance, muscle recovery, and injury prevention. This study may help coaches, sport and health professionals, and researchers to understand massage mechanisms and benefits for performance, muscle recovery, and injury prevention.
Rehabilitation
Sciences
2017; 2(3): 58-67
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/rs
doi: 10.11648/j.rs.20170203.12
Review Article
Determining the Benefits of Massage Mechanisms: A
Review of Literature
Qais Gasibat1, *, Wurida Suwehli2
1Faculty of Medicine, Sport Science and Rehabilitation, Sultan Zainal Abidin University, Gong Badak Campus, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
2Faculty of Medical Technology, Physiotherapy, High Institute of Medical Technology, Misurata, Libya
Email address:
drqaiss9@gmail.com (Q. Gasibat)
*Corresponding author
To cite this article:
Qais Gasibat, Wurida Suwehli. Determining the Benefits of Massage Mechanisms: A Review of Literature. Rehabilitation Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 3, 2017, pp. 58-67. doi: 10.11648/j.rs.20170203.12
Received: April 26, 2017; Accepted: May 3, 2017; Published: May 27, 2017
Abstract: Many coaches, athletes, and sports medicine professionals hold the perception, based on observations and
encounters, that massage can provide several benefits to the body. These include improved blood flow, reduced muscle pressure
and neurological excitability, and increased sense of well being. Massage can produce mechanical pressure, which is expected to
increase muscle mass, compliance, resulting in increased collection of joint motion, decreased unaggressive stiffness, and
decreased energetic stiffness, known as biomechanical mechanisms. Mechanised pressure might help to enhance blood
circulation by increasing the arteriolar pressure, and accumulating muscle tissue temperature from rubbing. Regarding the
massage technique, mechanical pressure on the muscle is likely to increase or decrease nerve organs excitability as measured by
H-reflex, which is known as neurological mechanisms. This is seen in parasympathetic activity (as assessed by heart rate, blood
pressure, and heart rate variability) and junk levels (as simply measured by cortisol levels following therapeutic massage, causing
a relaxation response), known as physiological mechanisms. A reduction in anxiety and an improvement in mood condition also
cause relaxation, which is referred to as psychological mechanisms after the massage. Post-exercise, therapeutic massage has
been recognized to lessen the severity of muscle soreness, but massage does not have any effects on muscle practical loss.
Nevertheless, regarding the belief that massage therapy has benefits for sports athletes, there are no clear effects of different types
of massage (Petrissage, Effleurage, Friction) or the appropriate timing of massage (pre-exercise and post-exercise) on
performance, recovery from injury, or as a personal injury prevention method. Explanations are lacking because the mechanisms
of each massage technique have not been broadly investigated. Therefore, this article investigates the possible mechanisms of
massage and provides a discourse on the limited evidence of therapeutic massage on performance, recovery, and muscle injury
prevention. The main purpose of this article is to examine mechanisms of massage and its benefits in performance, muscle
recovery, and injury prevention. This study may help coaches, sport and health professionals, and researchers to understand
massage mechanisms and benefits for performance, muscle recovery, and injury prevention.
Keywords: Massage benefits, Massage mechanism, Blood Flow, Massage Technique
1. Introduction
Therapeutic massage is believed to increase muscle mass
blood flow and muscle tissue temperature [1], thereby
enhancing performance [2]. It is also reduces cells adhesion
and increase muscles flexibility [3, 4] which could help to
decrease injury risk factors [5].
Therapeutic massage has been used for rehabilitation and
relaxation for thousands of years around the world. Latest
research from the United Kingdom demonstrated that in the
past years, therapeutic massage treatment was administered
for about 45% of the total amount of time in physiotherapy
treatment. Therapeutic massage is used in general approaches,
including preparation for competition, during competitions,
and in assisting restoration from competition, rather than
treatment for specific problems [6].
Therapeutic massage involves the application of
mechanical pressure on the muscle tissue in order to reduce
59 Qais Gasibat and Wurida Suwehli: Determining the Benefits of Massage Mechanisms: A Review of Literature
tissue adhesion. Increased muscle-tendon compliance is
believed to be attainable by mobilising and elongating reduced
or adhered connective cells. This leads to less stiff
muscle-tendon unit [11]. Biomechanically, three main
measures are accustomed to assessing muscle-tendon unit
conformity; dynamic passive stiffness, powerful active
stiffness, and stationary joint end range of motion [5].
A single study conducted by Stanley [12] examined the
effects of therapeutic massage on passive stiffness. According
to this study, a 10-minute Effleurage had simply no significant
effects on unaggressive Gastrocnemius stiffness properties as
compared to a 10-minute rest. The pressure of Effleurage
might possibly not have been enough to produce the
mechanical effects of massage. Also, if Effleurage could
create a reflexive response, the enhancements made on muscle
properties might be present in the contractile elements (active
muscle mass stiffness) rather than passive aspects of muscle.
Further research is required to investigate the effects of other
massage therapy techniques such as Petrissage and Friction,
which provide even more mechanical pressure on muscle
tissue and passive properties of muscles.
According to the identified online literature, there is no
research on the effects of therapeutic massage on active
stiffness. The amount of active muscle stiffness depends upon
passive joint properties, the intrinsic muscle and joint
properties, and the effects of stretch out reflex [13]. Massage
might be able to change active muscle stiffness simply by
changing the level of neurological service. However, the
optimal level of muscle mass, stiffness that benefit the dual
performance and injury avoidance is still unknown.
Stationary flexibility is defined as the range of motion
available in a joint or series of joints [5], and it is usually
measured with a goniometer [14]. The majority of research
that has evaluated the effects of therapeutic massage on
muscle and combinatorial tissue have been based on mobility
measurement [15, 4, 16]. For example, Leivadi [15]
investigated the consequence of neck and back massage
therapy on neck extension and shoulder abduction after
therapeutic massage was applied to the ulterior region of the
neck. The product range of neck extension movement was
limited by anterior muscle tissue and ligaments, bony contact
between spinous procedures [14]. Therefore, throat extension
was not a good end result measure for the effectiveness of
massage in this study. In other research, Nordschow and
Bierman [4] found that finger to floor ranges increased
significantly after massage from the back and lower
extremities. Nevertheless, this study did not provide an
appropriate control group, and sufficient evidence on whether
the subject had therapeutic massage or control is lacking. The
masseuse measured the distance between the fingertips and
the floor, which may have caused bias during dimension.
When the effects of massage upon a lower extremity range of
motion had been compared with the other pre-exercise
activities such as warm-up and stretching [16], massage
increased just the ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.
Meanwhile, stretching significantly increased almost all lower
extremity range of motion measurements. Thus, the
effectiveness of massage about range of motion is still
questioned, particularly when compared with more
economical techniques just like stretching. The following are
recognized physiological mechanisms employed in massage
that are beneficial to the body.
1.1. Increased Skin and Muscle Temperature
Shallow skin friction increases regional heating, and
consequently, causes hyperaemia within the massaged area. In
this regard, regional heating increases local blood flow [17].
There is established proof that skin and muscle mass,
temperature increases after therapeutic massage application,
known as Effleurage technique. Longworth [18] reported an
increase in pores and skin temperature during a six-minute
back again massage, but skin heat returned to baseline level
after ten minutes. Later, Drust, Atkinson, Gregson, French and
Binningsley [1] reported an increase in skin and intramuscular
temperature (2. 5 cm) of the Vastus lateralis muscle
irrespective of the massage period (5-10 and 12-15 minutes of
Effleurage). Although it was revealed that massage boosts
skin [18] and intramuscular temperature [1], such effects upon
skin and intramuscular temp might not be relevant to muscle
blood circulation.
It is still questionable if increased skin and intramuscular
temperature [1] without increasing muscle tissue blood flow
[19, 20] and muscles compliance [12] would be beneficial to
improve performance or prevent accidental injuries. The other
limitations which are obvious from Effleurage technique
supervision were that skin temperatures quickly returned to
primary level [18], and lean muscle temperature did not
increase deeper than 2.5 cm in profound muscle temperature
[1]. This may lead to the implication that massage therapy
(Effleurage technique) may not be appropriate as a preparation
and/or precautionary strategy for exercising.
1.2. Increased Blood Flow
A number of authors have agreed that massage could
increase blood circulation. Study results have already been
inconclusive largely due to the nature of their limitations.
Besides smaller test size, many of these studies had no
reported statistical analysis, neither did they use a control
group [10, 21, 22, 23, 24].
The venous occlusion pethysmography exhibited
underestimation of blood flow because of the inflation of the
cuff, and was very sensitive to movement artifacts [19, 20].
The changes of blood flow could not be indicated
quantitatively [23]. Moreover, the venous occlusion
pethysmography technique could hardly be used to measure
blood circulation during actual massage [19, 25, 20]. Pulsed
Doppler ultrasound has been utilized to investigate muscle
blood flow, and has indicated that hands-on massage did not
affect the flow of blood in the muscle after remedying the
muscle [19, 25]. However, the ultrasound utilized in these
studies detected modifications in large artery and line of
thinking, but did not detect microcirculation in muscle that
could be impacted by massage. In summary, there is an
Rehabilitation Sciences 2017; 2(3): 58-67 60
insufficient evidence confirming that therapeutic massage
does anything significant (with a few exceptions) for blood
flow physiological response. The exclusive studies to explore
blood flow with limited technique problems [19, 20] have
demonstrated no change in total muscle mass blood flow.
1.3. Parasympathetic Activity
Therapeutic massage has shown some evidence of raising
parasympathetic activity by minimizing heart rate, reducing
blood pressure [18, 26, 27, 28, 29], elevating relaxation
substances such as hormones [30], and increasing heart rate
variability [31]. Most studies in this area have been conducted
in nursing using a specific series of massage called “back
massage”, and has been performed in older people [26, 27, 28].
One study looked into people with chronic pain [30], whilst
other studies used combinatorial tissue massage and
myofascial trigger point massage [31]. Consequently, only
two studies, which usually met the criteria (participants had
been healthy persons and Swedish massage utilized as the
intervention) had been reviewed.
The effects of back therapeutic massage on several
psychophysiological directories of arousal such as heart rate,
blood pressure, galvanic skin response, Electromyography, skin
temperature, and psycho-emotional response using the
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were examined in thirty-two
female staff and college students in a nursing school [32, 18].
The participants had been massaged on the back intended for
six minutes using a sluggish stroke technique (Effleurage).
Heart rate, blood pressure, and skin heat increased after the
massage, suggesting an increase in autonomic arousal level.
Also the galvanic skin response increased, indicating a lower
degree of sympathetic stimulation. The disparity in responses of
the psychophysiological parameters might be due to people
having a unique responsive design. The participants in the
research were healthy females and were not in a stressful
scenario. Therefore, it may have been difficult to display an
excellent relaxation response. In some studies [33], there have
been no significance within stress, pulse, and temp after having
a 30-minute Swedish back and massage therapy in nine skilled
female students, one day prior to a main academic examination.
Only respiratory system rate decreased considerably. These
results may assist the unique response routine, whereas massage
can only generate some practices, implying parasympathetic
responses in healthful female participants.
1.4. Pain and Muscle Spasm
Therapeutic massage has been applied in order to reduce
pain [15, 34, 36, 37, 38]. The feasible, responsible
mechanisms are nervous, physiological (biochemical
substances), and mechanical (realignment of muscle mass
fibres). Massage may decrease pain by activating the
neural-gating mechanism in the spinal-cord. Tactile
information from therapeutic massage might Stimulate large,
fast nerve fibres and then, prevent the smaller, slower nerve
fibres that detect pain. This kind of effect, presumably results
from regional lateral inhibition in the spine [35] and explains
why coming in contact with the painful area is an efficient
strategy for relieving pain. Nevertheless, there are no
objective reports to support this idea. Massage therapy can
increase biochemical chemicals such as serotonin [15], which
is a brain chemical that plays a role in reducing discomfort
[35]. Physiotherapists usually use massage therapy to break
the vicious routine that causes muscle spasm and muscle pain.
Muscle spasm causes muscle pain straight by stimulating
mechanosensitive soreness receptors or simply by
compressing the blood vessels leading to ischaemia [35].
Massage might help to rearrange muscle fibres and increase
microcirculation.
The long run effects of a 30-minute therapeutic massage,
twice a week for four consecutive weeks were analyzed in 30
college dance students [15]. A progressive relaxation remedy
group was used for assessment. Both groups reported reduced
state of anxiety levels and depressed mood subscale [39].
Nevertheless, the particular massage group revealed a
significantly lower saliva cortisol after the massage session.
The research did not state the time of blood collection,
therefore the cortisol level should be interpreted cautiously
because of the effects of circadian tempo [35]. The
progressive relaxation remedy was not an appropriate control
group, as it was an active relaxation approach which the
participants had to perform by themselves, while massage
therapy was obviously a passive relaxation technique used by
the massage therapist. The rest group completed their
exercises at home by following a documented tape, which
raises the void of compliance to the intervention. Accordingly,
further studies associated with massage on anxiety have to
provide more appropriate control organizations.
1.5. Relaxation
The importance of massage on relaxation has already been
investigated using valid forms. However, indicating the
amount of relaxation is questionable because the
questionnaire is composed of six scales; tension, depression,
angriness, vigour, fatigue, and misunderstandings [39]. Only
the tension, vigour, and fatigue subscales are appropriately
intended for relaxation measurement, and it is additionally
considered too long to complete [40] as there are 65 items in
the original version and 72 in the bipolar edition. Interestingly,
there are no forms available to allow a direct analysis of
relaxation level. Weinberg [41] reported a preliminary study
associated with massage on mood improvement in 183
physical education students. Massage intervention was
compared with several physical activities including swimming,
jogging, tennis, and racquetball. The students completed a
battery of psychological forms before and after each
intervention such as the State Anxiety Products by hand, and
the high and the general activation subscales coming from
Thayer’s [42] adjective checklist [32, 42]. Surprisingly, only
the massage and operating groups reported a significant mood
enhancement with significant decreases in tension, fatigue,
anxiety, anger, and depression. Only the massage group
showed a significant decrease in the Thayer’s [42] high
activation subscale and the scores of State Anxiety Products.
61 Qais Gasibat and Wurida Suwehli: Determining the Benefits of Massage Mechanisms: A Review of Literature
A similar study conducted by Hemmings [43] compared the
psychological effects associated with massage, lying resting,
or perhaps touching control during boxing training.
Therapeutic massage application during training increased the
tension and fatigue subscales, which are relevant to
measurement of rest. Both studies by Weinberg [41] and
Hemmings [43] showed significant positive psychological
effects owing to massage, despite the mood of the participants.
1.6. Recovery from Fatigue
Great perceived psychological benefits of therapeutic
massage using the Perceived Recovery scale have been shown
throughout the recovery phase of boxing performances and
after training programs. Despite simply lack of changes in
physiological fatigue signals such as blood lactate and heart
rate, nine boxers reported that massage positively influenced
the perception of restoration following boxing performances,
and seemed to be a useful recovery technique. The Perceived
Recovery level is a useful inquiry because it is short and
straightforward to understand. However, the Recognized
Recovery scale has not been traditionally used in studies. To
date, there is absolutely no published article reporting the
correlation between Perceived Restoration scale and
physiological guns of fatigue [43, 45].
2. Methodology
Literature was located using three computer databases
(PubMed, google scholar, and ScienceDirect) in addition to
manual journal searches. The computer databases provided
access to biomedical and sport-oriented journals, serial
publications, books, theses, conference papers, and related
published materials since 1964. The key search phases used
included sport massage, massage performance, sport injury,
delayed onset muscle soreness, injury prevention, range of
motion, and muscle stiffness. This study did not include any
articles not published in English, scientific journals; articles
that focused on a specific type of massage or articles that
focused on the effects of massage in special populations. The
use of normal, healthy participants, age, gender, and fitness in
the articles were the inclusion criteria.
In selecting the articles, differences and the massage
techniques such as effleurage and petrissage were not
excluding factors. The article must have used Swedish-type
massage as an intervention, and should have discussed the
possible mechanisms of massage in relation to biomechanical
and/or neuromuscular properties of muscle, sport performance,
rate of injury, and muscle soreness.
3. Result and Discussion
Therapeutic massage involves several techniques including
effleurage, petrissage, and rubbing. Each technique is used for
diverse purposes and provides different results. Stanley [12]
used an Effleurage way of ten minutes on the cripple muscles,
and did not discover any change in passive tightness.
Generally, massage therapists use Effleurage techniques to
stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system and the
relaxation response. Consequently, the massage technique
used in the aforementioned study might not have been suitable
to produce changes in passive rigidity. Petrissage and friction
will be the techniques to mobilise profound muscle tissue, skin,
subcutaneous tissue, and boost local circulation.
Therapeutic massage is believed to benefit sports athletes by
enhancing performance and recovery, as well as promoting rest
through biomechanical, physiological nerve, and psychological
mechanisms. Regardless of the general belief of the advantages
of massage, there are limited scientific data on possible methods
of massage. Mechanical pressure from massage is thought to
increase muscle compliance. A number of studies reported an
increase in stationary flexibility as measured by joint range of
motion, but these studies were methodologically flawed. New
research reported poor effects of therapeutic massage (Effleurage
technique) on powerful flexibility as measured by passive
stiffness. Studies upon physiological mechanisms such as the
adjustments of blood circulation, hormonal amounts, and
psychophysiological parameters including blood pressure and
heart rate, continue to be inconclusive. The explanations may be
due to the unique response design of individuals and the variety
of massage interventions (electronic, massage technique,
duration of massage therapy, and pressure of massage) used in
each study. The consequences of massage on neurological
components have been reported to reduce the amplitude of the
Hoffman response. Nevertheless, the results were limited to the
Petrissage technique. Many studies reported that massage may
promote relaxation by enhancing psychophysiological response.
There are several western massage techniques, which are mostly
employed in different circumstances for their benefits to the body.
Some of these techniques are summarized in Table 1 as follows.
Table 1. Summary of typical western massage techniques.
Techniques Definition Suggested clinical advantage
Effleurage Gliding or sliding movement over the skin with a smooth, continuous
motion [7].
Stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system and evoke the
relaxation response. Enhance venous return.
Petrissage Lifting, wringing, or squeezing of soft tissues in a kneading motion, or
pressing or rolling of the tissues under or between the hands [7].
Mobilize deep muscle tissue or the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
Increase local circulation. Assist venous return.
Friction An accurately delivered penetrating pressure applied through the
fingertips [8]. Treat muscle spasm or breaks up adhesions from old injuries.
Tapotement Various parts of the hand striking the tissues at a fairly rapid rate [9]. Stimulate the tissues, either by direct mechanical force or by
reflex action.
Rehabilitation Sciences 2017; 2(3): 58-67 62
Therefore, additional studies are needed to investigate the
biomechanical, physiological, nerve, and psychological
mechanisms for every massage technique. The outcomes will
help to provide appropriate massage applications for specific
purposes of sports activities. Well handled studies that have
examined the opportunity of massage to influence overall
performance, recovery or injury-risks are relatively few.
Limited research has investigated the effects of pre-exercise,
massage on performance. The results are inconclusive due to
the improper massage techniques and end result measures
used. There is limited or no study that has looked at the effects
of pre-exercise massage on injury prevention. Therapeutic
massage is widely administered among events because it is
believed that massage might help to enhance restoration and
prepare athletes for upcoming events. Unfortunately, any
scientific data to back this claim is hardly found. A large
amount of research on massage has reported the psychological
benefits of therapeutic massage between events. Several
studies have reported that post-eccentric exercise and massage
could help to lessen muscle soreness sensation, and could not
affect the muscle practical loss.
Therapeutic massage is believed to benefit sports athletes
through its biomechanical, physical, neurological, and
psychological systems. Research has reported the effects of
therapeutic massage on physiological (investigated simply by
blood flow and blood-borne substances), neurological
(investigated by H-reflex), and psychological (investigated by
questionnaire and psychophysiological guidelines such as
heart rate, blood pressure) mechanisms. There are limited data
on the possible mechanisms of massage, especially
mechanical components of pressure and movement of
massage on muscle mass properties such as passive or perhaps
active muscle stiffness. There are many limitations of previous
studies on the effects of massage upon performance and injury
avoidance, which have led to inconclusive outcomes.
Therefore, further research is clearly required to establish the
possible advantages of massage.
The unclear description associated with massage on muscle
blood circulation led to uncertain benefits intended for
performance and recovery coming from fatigue. Only
Petrissage continues to be studied and shown to decrease the
Hr-eflex. Other massage methods have not been examined
when it comes to their neurological effects. Consequently,
there is no evidence to support the claim that some massage
approaches (e.g. Tapotement, vibration) can increase
neuromuscular excitability. The lack of studies on the
mechanised effects of massage on muscle tissue properties
such as active and passive stiffness, justifies unclear
information on the biomechanical systems of massage. The
knowledge of the exercise-induced muscle soreness
mechanism and the components of massage will help to pick
the appropriate massage technique, lifelong massage
application, and time for application of massage. Therefore,
even more research on the effects of therapeutic massage is
needed to clarify whether massage therapy is beneficial for
enhancing overall performance, recovery from damage, or
reducing the risk of muscle injury. The effects of different
types of massage therapy (e.g. Petrissage, Effleurage) or the
appropriate timing of massage (pre-exercise versus post
exercise) on performance, injury recovery, or as a personal
injury prevention method also needs to be examined.
3.1. Evidences for Massage on Performance, Recovery and
Preventing Muscular Injury
Massage has been used for prevention, recovery, and
enhancing performances particularly in sports. The following
are evidences for massage on performance, recovery, or
muscular injury.
3.1.1. The Effects of Massage on Performance
Sport massage is used in both pre and post-events in an
attempt to boost athletes' performance, overcome exhaustion,
and help recovery [46]. An increase in muscle blood flow
might hasten the delivery of oxygen, increase muscle heat, and
buffer blood pH level, which would then promote the
performance of exercise [2]. Theoretically, improved muscle
blood flow ought to help to remove waste products following
exercise, and would enhance delivery of protein and other
nutrition needed for muscle repair [25]. Increased lymph
circulation could reduce post-exercise, swelling and stiffness
simply by reducing muscle interstitial content material, and
thereby reduce muscle mass discomfort [47]. Nevertheless,
there are no data to aid these ideas, and the few studies on
massage and blood flow have shown no increase in blood flow.
Online literature search identified just two studies associated
with pre-exercise massage on overall performance.
Wiktorsson-Moller [16] found that 6-15 moments of
Petrissage, with the purpose of promoting relaxation, comfort
and ease, reduce muscle strength. Nevertheless, the author
used Isokinetic movement to check muscle strength. Research
has demonstrated that the tests of muscle function were not
suitable to monitor performance [56]. There were simply no
relationships between the percentage of modifications in the
tests of muscular function (concentric and eccentric
compression of Isoinertial and Isokinetic tests) and the
changes in efficiency (sprinting and cycling) following an
8-week weight-training program [56]. Another study
associated with 30 minutes of whole-body Swedish
pre-exercise massage, including effleurage, petrissage and
tapotement in 14 sprinters, showed that mean stride frequency
was not significantly different among massage and control
organizations [57]. However, it should be noted that the
absolute stride frequency was obtained in the trial right after
the massage. Stride frequency must be combined with a stride
length to determine functionality. Therefore, the effects of
pre-exercise therapeutic massage on performance are not yet
proven due to the lack of well conducted studies.
3.1.2. The Effects of Massage on Recovery
It is believed that one of the optimum advantages of sport
massage has been always to overcome fatigue and reduce
restoration time, especially during intervals of competition,
63 Qais Gasibat and Wurida Suwehli: Determining the Benefits of Massage Mechanisms: A Review of Literature
and consequently, improve performance at the next
celebration. Even though many leading sports athletes believe
that massage is an important part of their success [54, 58], the
effects of therapeutic massage itself are still questioned.
Therapeutic massage can improve some physical markers [59],
but some studies have shown no effect on any kind of recovery
parameters [43].
To examine the effects of massage on restoration, several
studies provided therapeutic massage between sport sessions.
Nevertheless, there were some limitations during these studies,
leading to inconclusive data. For example, Monedero and
Apporte [60] administered combination remedies (active
exercise and massage), so the true benefits of specific massage
treatments are still not clear. Some studies had issues with
credible data, including little sample size [43, 61] and
insufficient statistical analysis [59]. An appropriate style such
as cross-over design, use of a control group (placebo
treatment), and maximisation of motivation of individuals in
both control and massage groups are elements which need to
be considered in massage studies in order to reduce
psychological effects.
Curative massage therapy can facilitate soft cells healing
in a number of ways. Therapeutic massage may help reduce
both main oedema and the possibility of supplementary
oedema caused by the pressure of increased fluid in regards
to trauma [3, 49]. Starkey [49] found that mixture treatments
including cold, workout, and mechanical massage can reduce
the total time dropped from practice by around two days
when compared to the normal snow, compression, and
elevation treatment. Unfortunately, the published report
showed nor the results section neither the statistical analysis.
Practitioners apply massage to the site of the injury because
they expect a therapeutic massage to improve blood
circulation to the area of the injury and, consequently, to help
improve healing. The mechanical pressure of massage is
generally utilized to treat adherent or caught connective
tissue in order to bring back fibres to a more regular
alignment. Nevertheless, there is limited data to support
these recommended mechanisms.
3.1.3. The Effects of Massage in Preventing Muscular
Injury
Sport massage has been used for centuries in an attempt to
prevent and cure injuries [3, 46, 8, [47]. Massage is considered
in enhancing muscle relaxation [4, 16], reducing muscle
tension and soreness [20, 21, 48], promoting the healing
process [49], and consequently, improving athletic
performance [50, 51, 52]. Massage is also thought to provide a
soothing, sedative, invigorating feeling, and can give the
athlete confidence by the positive reaction that takes place
within the body [41, 43, 44, 45]. Massage might be an
effective way to prevent acute injuries resulting from
abnormal tissue conditions (muscle tears in tight muscle) and
chronic injuries caused by wear and tear [53] by rearranging
the muscle fibres [54]. As a result of these suggested benefits,
manual massage may be a useful modality to enhance
performance and prevent injury for athletes who use their
muscles strenuously. Sport massage may help to optimise
positive-performance factors, including healthy muscle,
combinatorial tissues and normal mobility [53]. Massage is
used to minimize negative-performance factors such as
dysfunctional muscle mass and connective tissue, limited
range of motion, pain and anxiety [53]. Therefore, preventive,
therapeutic massage is commonly recommended to help
sports athletes prepare both physically and mentally for any
forthcoming event [7]. In addition, sports activities massage is
believed to reduce injury-potential factors. Even though
therapeutic massage has benefited several injury-risk elements
such as increased range of motion [15, 4, 16], decreased pain
[34, 55], and anxiety [15, 41], there have been no treatment
studies that assessed the effects of these types of possible
injury prevention tactics. There is no clear evidence that
massage can actually improve overall performance, enhance
recovery, or stop muscular injury. Also the amount of massage
benefits compared with other strategies such as jogging or
stretching has not yet been looked into.
DOMS is a very important problem intended for coaches
and athletes, since it causes chronic pain and diminishes
muscle function and ability, combined treatment and active
recovery in bloodstream lactate removal to take part in sport
[62]. DOMS commonly occurs between 24 and 72 hours,
following unaccustomed eccentric exercise [63, 102, 64, 65].
The consequences of damage to muscle function include
continuous loss of muscle strength [66, 67, 102, 68, 69],
soreness sensation [65, 68, 69], reduced range of motion [67],
increased muscle tightness [66], increased resting metabolic
rate [70], and perturbed athletic performance [71, 72, 73].
These types of changes might increase the likelihood of sports
injury.
The sequence of DOMS occasions consists of the
mechanical tension of exercise on muscle mass fibres [63, 74,
75, 64, 76], causing sarcomeres to rupture [77], followed by
calcium homeostasis disturbance. The damage of
sarcoplasmic reticulum or muscle membrane layer can
increase intracellular calcium mineral and trigger
calcium-sensitive paths [78, 79]. The calcium activated
neutral protease plays a role in the ultrastructural muscle
tissue damage [102]. The inflammatory response to damaged
muscle fibres triggers a transfer of liquid and cells to the
broken tissue [81]. The increased fluid produces bloating after
injury. Neutrophils and macrophages migrate to the other sites
and play a role in both the damage and restoration processes
[102]. The exact mechanisms to describe how soreness
development and why there is a delay in pain sensation are not
fully understood [14, 75, 80, 82].
A number of treatments which aim to stop or reduce the
severity of muscle damage have been looked into, including
acupuncture [83], ultrasound [84, 99], Cryotherapy [86],
compression [66, 87], anti inflammatory drugs [88],
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy [89], warm-up [90, 103],
stretching [90, 91, 92], and massage [93, 94, 95, 48, 20, 96,
97]. These treatments have already been applied as a
prophylactic and a therapeutic intervention. Nevertheless, the
benefits of these treatments continue to be inconclusive. From
Rehabilitation Sciences 2017; 2(3): 58-67 64
a medical point of view, the treatment given prophylactically
is more desirable for minimizing or preventing injury, and for
reducing additional injuries, chronic pain, expense of injury
treatment, and periodically lost from training actions.
Therapeutic massage is one of the treatments commonly
used to ease DOMS because it is thought to boost local blood
and lymph flow, decrease oedema, and minimize pain.
Significant reductions in soreness perception of DOMS after
massage have been reported [98, 95, 48, 20]. Some studies
described the mechanism of DOMS reduction by increasing
neutrophils [48] and decreasing blood Creatinine kinase [48,
95], while some researchers did not explain the mechanism
whatsoever [20, 98]. However, many researchers reported
that massage was not helpful in reducing DOMS [93, 94, 96,
97, 99]. The unclear mechanisms of massage may also lead
to improper massage application. In practice, therapeutic
massage is often applied immediately after workout in order
to enhance blood circulation. The consequence of massage
on blood circulation continues to be questionable as
described earlier. The eccentric exercise, which usually
induces muscle damage, will not produce waste products that
require extra blood flow. Research, which looked into the
effects of massage immediately after work, found a decrease
of DOMS 48 hours after training, but did not find any kind of
change in blood circulation [20]. Also, some did not find any
increase associated with massage immediately after exercise
[96, 97].
A few researchers have speculated that massage may reduce
DOMS sensation by decreasing muscle mass oedema.
However, in studies conducted by Hasson [93] and Lightfoot
[94], large quantity and soreness sensation would not change
after massage and/or 24 hours following exercise. Massage
performed two hours post-exercise was reported to benefit
DOMS simply by reducing an inflammatory procedure [48].
The neutrophil ideals in the massage group had been
significantly higher than in the control group at eight and 24
hours. The authors believed that the elevation of the neutrophil
counts was the result of the mechanical action of therapeutic
massage by the shearing of the neutrophils from the vessel
walls. The increased blood flow from the suggested
physiological mechanism of massage therapy might prevent
the migration of the neutrophils from the circulation into the
injury sites. Thus, the neutrophil values would be raised in the
blood count. Two studies used the process of Smith’s [48]
approach to examine the effects of massage application two
hours following eccentric exercise [100, 101]. Farr tout autant
[101] and Hilbert [100] reported that massage performed two
hours post-exercise was successful in reducing soreness
feeling. It is important to note that a research conducted by
Farr [101] investigated massage on one lower-leg, and used
the additional leg as the control group. Therefore, it is likely
that therapeutic massage might provide a psychological
benefit, as only soreness experience – the subjective solution
reported by the participants – was reduced after massage
therapy application. There was simply no benefit of massage
for avoiding muscle strength and function reduction (as
determined by isometric and isokinetic tests and getting height
respectively) [100, 101]. Interestingly, the two studies did not
find any kind of change in neutrophil count.
4. Conclusion
Massage is believed to benefit sportsmen through its
biomechanical, physical, neurological, and psychological
devices. Research has reported the effects of massage on
physiological (investigated by simply blood flow and
blood-borne substance), neurological (investigated by
H-reflex), and psychological (investigated simply by
questionnaire and psychophysiological recommendations
such as heart rate, blood pressure) mechanisms. There is
limited information on the possible mechanisms of massage,
especially mechanical aspects of pressure and movement of
massage on muscle mass houses, such as passive or perhaps
energetic muscle stiffness. Therefore, there is no evidence to
support the claim that some massage techniques (e.g.
Tapotement, vibration) can increase neuromuscular
excitability. Understanding the mechanism of
exercise-induced muscle soreness and the mechanisms of
massage will help to select the appropriate massage
technique, duration of application, and time of application.
The effects of different types of massage (e.g. Petrissage,
Effleurage) or the appropriate timing of massage
(pre-exercise versus post-exercise) on performance,
recovery from injury, or as an injury prevention method also
needs to be examined. Simply, no published studies have
reported the effects of pre-exercise massage around the
severity of muscle harm. Massage can increase muscle mass
temperature and blood flow, and that might help to increase
muscle compliance and minimize muscle stiffness.
Nevertheless, research on the effects of therapeutic massage
on passive stiffness has not supported this claim.
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... This finding could be explained by the touch produced by foot reflexology after the intervention [16]. Massage activates receptors for pressure, temperature, and nociception, as well as increasing local blood flow and muscle relaxation in the cutaneous area of the feet [13,30]. ...
... Studies indicate that massage is capable of producing pain modulation, reducing muscle spasms and joint stiffness [18,30]. The tactile information evoked by massage stimulates the fast and large-caliber nerve fibers (Aβ and Aδ), inhibiting the slow, smallcaliber fibers, consequently reducing the perception of pain [18], as well as increasing the release of neurotransmitters and thus, playing an important role in modulation [30]. ...
... Studies indicate that massage is capable of producing pain modulation, reducing muscle spasms and joint stiffness [18,30]. The tactile information evoked by massage stimulates the fast and large-caliber nerve fibers (Aβ and Aδ), inhibiting the slow, smallcaliber fibers, consequently reducing the perception of pain [18], as well as increasing the release of neurotransmitters and thus, playing an important role in modulation [30]. Massage-induced mechanical pressure generated changes in muscle-tendon compliance by mobilizing and stretching connective cells, improving joint and muscle stiffness [30]. ...
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Objective: To verify the effect of foot reflexology on the electrical muscle activity of the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscle, and to examine the distribution, plantar pressure, and body sway in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This pilot randomized controlled trial enrolled 17 volunteers who were clinically diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. The sample was assigned to one of two groups: the control group (CG, n = 7), who received information on foot care and health, and the intervention group (IG, n = 10), who received the application of foot reflexology on specific areas of the feet, for 10 consecutive days. There was blinding of the evaluator and the therapist. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to assess the electrical activity of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles in maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and isotonic contraction (IC); baropodometry and stabilometry were used to analyze unloading, plantar weight distribution, and body sway. Results: There was a statistically significant difference for the variables of maximum peak electrical activity of the left medial gastrocnemius (p = 0.03; effect size = 0.87 and power = 0.81) and left lateral gastrocnemius muscles (p = 0.04, effect size = 0.70 and power = 0.66) respectively, in the intragroup IC, and median frequency of the left medial gastrocnemius muscle in the intragroup MVIC (p = 0.03; effect size = 0.64 and power = 0.59), and in the variables intergroups of the total area on the right side (p = 0.04; effect size = 1.03 and power = 0.50) and forefoot area on the left side (p = 0.02; effect size = 0.51 and power = 0.16). Conclusions: We conclude that foot reflexology influenced some variables of the intergroup plantar distribution and intragroup EMG in the sample studied. There is a need for a placebo group, a larger sample and a follow-up to strengthen the findings of these experiments.
... Longitudinal palmar gliding strokes were applied for 1 min to the entire back to flush out fluid and metabolites mobilized during the previous techniques, and reduce posttreatment soreness. (25,33) For the remaining 20 min, the patient was treated in supine. Massage techniques were applied to the upper trapezius, splenius capitus, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid, suboccipital group, and rule out other conditions. ...
... Longitudinal flushing strokes were used for the final minute of treatment, with the same goals as when the patient was in prone. (25,33) Active ROM in degrees by reducing fascial restrictions, improving tissue blood flow, and mechanical releasing of hypertonic muscles, which improved cervical ROM. (33,37) This supports the findings of other studies, which saw improvements in ROM following massage. ...
... (25,33) Active ROM in degrees by reducing fascial restrictions, improving tissue blood flow, and mechanical releasing of hypertonic muscles, which improved cervical ROM. (33,37) This supports the findings of other studies, which saw improvements in ROM following massage. (38,39) Reduced subjective stiffness following MT supports the results of other studies. ...
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Background: Migraines involve moderate-to-severe neck and face pain that lasts four to 72 hours, and are followed by fatigue and stiffness. Migraines are treated using medications, massage therapy (MT), and non-pharmacological alternatives. Cervical spondylosis (CS) is characterized by degeneration of the intervertebral discs, neck pain, and involvement of soft tissues in the cervical area. CS is treated using medications and manual therapy, including MT. Objective: To determine the effects of MT on cervical range of motion and daily function in a patient with migraines and CS. Case presentation: The patient was an active 56-year-old female diagnosed with migraines and CS. Initial evaluation included cervical range of motion (ROM), goniometry, reflexes, myotomes, dermatomes, local sensation testing and orthopedic tests. Assessment was followed by five MT treatments. Swedish massage, myofascial trigger point release, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching were applied to the back, neck, head, and face. The Headache Disability Index (HDI) was administered on the initial and final visits to evaluate patient function. Cervical ROM was measured pre- and posttreatment using a universal goniometer. Treatment was conducted by a second-year MT student at the MacEwan Massage Therapy Teaching Clinic in Edmonton, Alberta. Results: All cervical ranges of motion improved. The Headache Disability Index score decreased, but was not considered significant. The patient reported decreased stiffness in the upper back and shoulders, reduced migraines, and better sleeping patterns after the MT intervention. Conclusion: MT was effective in increasing cervical ROM, but had no significant effect on daily function. Further research is warranted on effects of MT on CS and migraines.
... 19,29 There is limited information on the possible mechanisms of performance of this type of therapies. 30,31 The stretching techniques focus on increasing the length of a musculotendinous unit, in essence increasing the distance between the origin and insertions of the diaphragmatic muscle to reduce the tension generated by the shortening of their fibers and promote greater effectiveness of muscle contraction, 32 and are some of the most frequently studied in the scientific literature. 19,33 On the other hand, through myofascial release techniques, the connective tissue could be indirectly stretched after a static load because of its innate viscoelastic properties, causing a modification of the nociceptive sensation and possible reflex changes. ...
... The mechanisms of action of these techniques applied to the diaphragm to achieve these results are not clear. According to different reviews of studies that apply some type of manual therapy, 30,31 there is limited information on the possible mechanisms involved, especially on the mechanical aspects of pressure and movement on muscle mass, such as passive or perhaps energetic muscle stiffness. Research has reported the effects of some type of manual therapy on physiological (investigated by simply blood flow 70 ), neurologic (investigated by the excitability of the nervous organs measured by H-reflex 71 ), psychological (investigated simply by questionnaire), 27,72 and psychophysiological recommendations (such as heart rate or blood pressure 73 ). ...
Article
Objectives To analyze the effects at the musculoskeletal level of manual treatment of the diaphragm muscle in adults. Data Sources Systematic review using four databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science and Scopus. Study selection and data extraction Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale for experimental studies. A third reviewer intervened in cases where a consensus had not been reached. A total of 9 studies were included in the review. Results Manual therapy directed to the diaphragm has been shown to be effective in terms of the immediate increase in diaphragmatic mobility and thoracoabdominal expansion. The immediate improvement in the posterior muscle chain flexibility test is another of the most frequently found findings in the evaluated studies. Limited studies show improvements at the lumbar and cervical level in the range of motion and in pain. Conclusion Manual diaphragm therapy has shown an immediate significant effect on parameters related to costal, spinal and posterior muscle chain mobility. Further studies are needed, not only to demonstrate the effectiveness of manual diaphragm therapy in the long term and in symptomatic populations, but also to investigate the specific neurophysiological mechanisms involved in this type of therapy.
... However, based on studies of low to moderate quality, the results of the present review suggest that different massage techniques induce a reduction in heart rate and an increase in behavioral signs related to relaxation. These results correspond to studies on humans [28] and in animal models [5], showing some evidence of changes in autonomic tone translated into decreasing heart rate, reducing blood pressure, elevating substances indicative of relaxation such as hormones, and increasing heart rate variability. Interestingly, none of the studies of the two types of methods has examined the effect on muscle perfusion, often used as an explanatory model for its positive effects [3]. ...
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Soft tissue mobilization is frequently used in the treatment of sport and companion animals. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of these methods. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review was to assess the evidence for clinical effects of massage and stretching in cats, dogs, and horses. A bibliographic search, restricted to studies in cats, dogs, and horses, was performed on Web of Science Core Collection, CABI, and PubMed. Relevant articles were assessed for scientific quality, and information was extracted on study characteristics, species, type of treatment, indication, and treatment effects. Of 1189 unique publications screened, 11 were eligible for inclusion. The risk of bias was assessed as high in eight of the studies and moderate in three of the studies, two of the latter indicating a decreased heart rate after massage. There was considerable heterogeneity in reported treatment effects. Therefore, the scientific evidence is not strong enough to define the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of massage and stretching in sport and companion animals.
... A massagem é uma terapia manual de tecidos moles que produz uma resposta autonômica através de reflexos viscerocutâneos. Acredita-se que a massagem terapêutica promove o aumento do fluxo sanguíneo e da temperatura do tecido muscular 1 . A massagem terapêutica é frequentemente usada como terapia complementar para apoiar o tratamento farmacológico com sedativos e analgésicos para reduzir o estresse, a dor ou a ansiedade dos pacientes 2 . ...
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Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta da temperatura da pele (Tsk) nas coxas (músculo quadríceps) após a massagem terapêutica unilateral através da imagem térmica. A massagem terapêutica unilateral na coxa esquerda foi realizada em voluntário saudável (51 anos) submetido a uma sessão de massagem terapêutica unilateral (deslizamento – Effleurage; e o amassamento - Petrissage) na coxa esquerda. As capturas das imagens térmicas foram realizadas nos seguintes momentos: pré-massagem, pós-massagem imediato, 5 minutos,10 minutos, 24 horas e 48 horas após a realização da massagem. As regiões de interesse analisadas foram as coxas direita e esquerda. Os resultados mostraram um aumento significativo da Tsk na coxa esquerda pós-massagem imediato e um aumento discreto na coxa contralateral nos intervalos analisados. A simetria térmica foi evidenciada em 48 horas após a massagem. Pode-se concluir que a massagem terapêutica promove mudança na Tsk com magnitude suficiente para ser mensurada instrumentalmente. A termografia infravermelha demonstrou ser uma ferramenta útil na avaliação da resposta víscero-cutânea antes e depois da sessão de massagem, possibilitando avaliar os efeitos de uma força mecânica manual sobre a Tsk.
... A medical diagnosis or treatment such as sport massage may provide one potential justification for the use of touch. Whilst sports massage therapy has the capability to lessen the severity of muscle soreness, amongst other benefits for athletes (Gasibat & Suwehli, 2017), the extracts of the athletes here suggest coaches may not have had the capacity to serve their needs in this area (i.e., injury prevention and/or rehabilitation). Given the seeming lack of knowledge or prerequisite certification for the tasks they were undertaking, if such procedures were to be performed, we must question why there was not a qualified person to implement such actions. ...
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Care research in coaching has repeatedly prioritised the voice of the carer rather than those of the cared-for. This article addresses this shortfall and examines notions of care through the eyes of female footballers. These voices are pertinent because football (soccer) in the United Kingdom (UK) has been labelled micro-political, cut-throat, competitive, and at times, uncaring. Further, women's voices are often marginalised in sport and research. Noddings' theory of care was selected to interpret semi-structured interviews of eight athletes' experiences of care in women's football. Findings suggest that athletes were exposed to superficial acts of care impede their learning and performance. There were also safeguarding concerns regarding the touching of athletes. Interview extracts did, however, describe the positive orchestration of supporting networks to reinforce a "climate of care". Recommendations are provided for coaches on how to develop caring coaching. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Therapeutic massage (Tuina) is thought to increase muscle mass, blood flow, and muscle tissue temperature, which may help increase muscle compliance and reduce muscle stiffness. [21,22] In addition, several studies [23,24] have shown that tactile stimulation is beneficial to restore sensorimotor function after stroke. Sen et al [25] demonstrated that mechanical massage improves sensorimotor behavior after stroke, maintains gait, and reduces inflammation and the subacute expression of metabolic muscle factors. ...
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Background: Limb spasms are a common complication of stroke. It not only affects the quality of life of stroke survivors, but also brings an economic burden. Tuina combined with physical therapy is widely used in the rehabilitation of poststroke spasticity. However, there is no supporting evidence for its efficacy and safety. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Tuinas combined with physical therapy in the treatment of spasticity after stroke. Methods: Literature will be collected from the following databases: China Biology Medicine (CBM), Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science; We will include randomized controlled trials of Tuina combined with physical therapy for poststroke spasticity range from the establishment to May 1, 2021. There were no limitations to the publication time, and the language was limited to Chinese and English. The primary outcome was evaluated using the Modified Ashworth scale, and the secondary outcomes were the simplified Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale, Modified Barthel Index, Functional Independence Measurement (FIM), and Visual Analog Scale. RevMan V.5.4.1 software was used for the meta-analysis. The Cochrane Intervention System Evaluation Manual analyzes the risk of bias, and the recommended grading assessment, development and evaluation are used to assess the quality of evidence. Ethics and dissemination: This study will be based on published systematic review studies, no ethical approval is required and the results of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Systematic review registration: INPLASY2021110064.
... Massage can grant a number of benefits to the body. These consist of accelerated blood flow, reduced muscle pressure [11]. Secondly Petrissage (kneading, rolling, and lifting), kneading). ...
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Background: Chronic hip, knee, and ankle injuries are very common issues in the whole world. Musculoskeletal disorder hampers the development in several sectors including training and athletes' performance. Social, industrial, economic, and education declines are often caused by poor muscular-articular problems. This research aims to reveal the effectiveness of combine massage and physiotherapeutic exercises in: (1) the treatment of chronic hips, knee and ankle injuries; (2) improving and increasing the low limb strength and flexibility; (3) reducing the chronic pain of degenerative diseases; (4) improving the physical and mental wellbeing of human body; (5) increasing motor or sensory function; (6) increasing athlete's performance. This research is quasi-experimental with: quantitative approach. The sample of this study was 15 patients with chronic hips, knee and ankle injuries, taken by purposive sampling technique. The data were collected using measurement and treatment with combine massage and physiotherapeutic exercise. Data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, paired sample t-test, and correlation among items using SPSS Amos.23. The result showed that there is a significant difference between pre-test-posttest strength measurement with P value (0.003<0.05). A significant difference between pre and posttest of all kinds of movement flexibilities is with the P value < 0.05. There is a strong correlation between combine massage and physiotherapeutic to the chronic knee, knee, and ankle with r >0.5. In conclusion, massage and physiotherapeutic exercise were found to be a vital part to improve human body health and it can be used by everybody.
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This review attempts to explore the traditional postnatal practices based on cultural beliefs and evidence-based benefits. This narrative review involved published quantitative and qualitative studies, review papers and guidelines and review documents by the Ministry of Health Malaysia. A literature search was conducted by using these databases-Medline, Science Direct and Google Scholar. There are some evidences to support some of the postnatal practices in providing physical and psychological benefits to postpartum mothers. For example, postnatal body massage could reduce anxiety and postnatal depression. Breast massage caused a reduction in breast pain from breast engorgement and improved lactation. A hot compress could reduce breast pain and prevent postpartum weight retention. These findings are essential for healthcare providers to support or refute the traditional postnatal practices and allow better integration of traditional postnatal practices into modern medicine. More studies with good research design are needed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the traditional postnatal practices.
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Background: Low back pain (LBP) is currently a major reason for disability worldwide. Therapeutic massage is one of the most popular non-pharmacological methods for managing chronic LBP (CLBP), and the Fateh method is a massage technique based on Iranian Traditional Medicine. Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the effects of Fateh massage with those of acupuncture and physiotherapy on relieving pain and disability in CLBP. Methods: Eighty-four patients with CLBP were categorized into groups that received Fateh massage, acupuncture, or physiotherapy. Each group included 28 randomly assigned patients who completed 10 sessions of therapy. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and Roland-Morris disability scores were evaluated at baseline, after intervention, and four weeks later. The findings were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The baseline VAS and Roland-Morris scores of the three study groups did not indicate significant differences (p > 0.05). All three groups showed significant pre-post improvements in both scores (p < 0.05). At the end of the treatment sessions, the three groups showed no significant difference in the reductions in pain intensity and disability score (p > 0.05). Improvements in disability and pain between the first and third time points were significant in all three groups (p < 0.05 for each group). In addition, the results of massage, physiotherapy, and acupuncture groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05). No adverse events occurred in the patients. Conclusion: The effects of Fateh massage were comparable to those of acupuncture and physiotherapy in reducing pain and disability in patients with CLBP.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ultrasound and phonophoresis using an anti-inflammatory–analgesic cream (trolamine salicylate) on delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Repeated eccentric contractions were used to induce DOMS in the elbow flexors of 40 college-aged women. Subjects were then assigned randomly to one of four groups: (1) group 1 (n=10) received sham ultrasound using placebo cream, (2) group 2 (n=10) received sham ultrasound using trolamine salicylate cream, (3) group 3 (n=10) received ultrasound using placebo cream, and (4) group 4 (n=10) received ultrasound using trolamine salicylate cream. Subjects were treated on 3 consecutive days. Muscle soreness and active elbow range of motion were assessed daily prior to each treatment. The subjects in group 3 experienced an increase in DOMS, whereas no increase in soreness was observed in the subjects in group 4. The authors concluded that ultrasound enhanced the development of DOMS but that this enhancement was offset by the anti-inflammatory–analgesic action of salicylate phonophoresis. These findings suggest that salicylate phonophoresis may be useful in clinical situations in which it is desirable to administer ultrasound without increasing inflammation.
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More and more athletes are turning to massage, apparently in hopes of gaining a winning edge. But although research does not support claims that massage improves performance, it can offer athletes some physiological and psychological benefits.
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Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether muscle damage caused from acute resistance exercise with an eccentric overload would influence resting metabolic rate (RMR) up to 72 h postexercise in resistance-trained (RT) and untrained (UT) subjects. Methods: Nine RT and 9 UT male subjects (mean +/- SD; age = 20.7 +/- 2.1 yr; body mass = 79.0 +/- 1.4 kg; height = 178.3 +/- 3.1 cm; and body fat = 10.2 +/- 1.6%) were measured for RMR, creatine kinase concentration ([CK]), and rating of perceived muscle soreness (RPMS) on five consecutive mornings. To induce muscle damage, after the measurements on day 2, each subject performed leg presses that emphasized the eccentric movement for 8 sets at his six-repetition maximum (6-RM). Results: Compared with baseline, the RMR (kJ.d(-1) and kJ.kg FFM-1.h(-1)) was significantly elevated for RT and UT at 24 h and 48 h postexercise. From 24 h to 48 h to 72 h postexercise, RMR significantly decreased within both groups. The UT group had a significantly higher RMR at 24 h (9705.4 +/- 204.5 kJ.d(-1)) and 48 h postexercise (8930.9 +/- 101.4 kJ.d(-1)) when compared with the RT group (9209.3 +/- 535.3 and 8601.7 +/- 353.7 kT.d(-1)). Both [CK] and RPMS showed a similar time course. Conclusion: There was a significantly higher [CK] for the UT group at 24 h postexercise (320.4 +/- 20.1 U.L-1) and for both [CK] and RPMS at 48 h (1140.3 +/- 37.1 U.L-1 and 4.4 +/- 0.5, respectively) and 72 h postexercise (675.9 +/- 41.7 U.L-1 and 1.67 +/- 0.5, respectively) when compared with the RT group (24 h, 201.9 +/- 13.4 U.L-1; 48 h, 845.4 +/- 30.7 U.L-1 and 3.7 +/- 0.5; and 72 h postexercise, 470.2 +/- 70.2 U.L-1 and 0.89 +/- 0.3). These data indicate that eccentrically induced muscle damage causes perturbations in RMR up to 48 h postexercise.
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Massage has often been highlighted as a modality for potentially enhancing psychological regeneration during intense training. Despite numerous anecdotal testimonies to its efficacy, little scientific research exists on the effects of massage on psychological states. This study aimed to investigate massage and the mood response following sports training.
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Massage has a long tradition of use in sport and has been used to facilitate recovery in athletes following training sessions, yet its benefits are not fully understood. Recovery from exercise is assumed to involve a host of factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of massage on selected psychological and immunological responses in athletes after sports training.
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While activation has proved to be a very useful concept in understanding behavior, theoretical and practical problems concerning physiological measurement have reduced its utility. Controlled self-report is suggested as an alternative measurement form, and data from several studies are presented indicating the validity of the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), an objective self-report measure of transient levels of activation. Factor analytic studies yielded four AD-ACL factors representing different points on a hypothetical continuum. These factors correlated substantially with physiological variables and reflected significant activation changes as predicted from diurnal sleep-wakefulness variations and from an impending college examination. The relative merits of self-report and individual peripheral physiological measures in the assessment of activation are discussed.