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Abstract

There has been a structural change in mobility in major Spanish cities in recent decades, with a switch to the pattern followed in other countries in the area. A shift has taken place from a traditional Mediterranean model to a North American city stereotype, with uncontrolled motorization and major implications for public health. This article specifically analyzes negative road safety-related externalities that result from this process, given that the trend seems to show a steady decline in road safety accidents on urban roads in Spain, with major differences among NUTS-3 provinces. The objective is to evaluate the factors that empirically explain these differences for the 2003–2013 period using a panel data analysis. Results show that a key role is played by urban development variables, such as population density and improvements in health services, with advances linked to more accessible and sustainable urban transportation, such as the Smart City concept. Not only does this article close a gap in the literature, but the findings can also serve as a practical guide for the development and implementation of urban mobility and road safety plans, and reveals the special needs of the most vulnerable groups.

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... Fixed effect panel data models with annual dummies (to capture the common trend in all the provinces) were estimated independently for urban roads in total within a province and urban roads within the capitals of the provinces in the study by Castro-Nuño et al. (2018). A total number of urban road traffic accidents and a number of urban road traffic accident fatalities per accident were modelled using the N = 50 Spanish provinces and T = 11-year time units (2003)(2004)(2005)(2006)(2007)(2008)(2009)(2010)(2011)(2012)(2013) data structure. ...
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Although the occurrence of road accidents and the number of road accident casualties in almost all Polish voivodships has decreased over the last few years, the rate of this change varies considerably from region to region. To provide a better understanding of such a tendency, panel data regression models are proposed to conduct this pilot research which evaluates the relative performance of Polish regions in terms of their road traffic safety. Panel data are multi-dimensional data which involve measurements over time. In the research, a voivodeship is a unit analysed at a group level, whereas a year is a unit analysed at a time level. A two-way error component regression model has been applied to survey the impact of regressors, the group effects, and time effects on a dependent variable. The analysis has been conducted using data acquired from the Statistics Poland Local Data Bank website, as well as from the General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways. The panel data from 16 regions in Poland and the 2012-2018 period have been investigated. The examined models refer to road traffic safety indices defined based on the following characteristics: the number of road accidents, the number road fatalities, and the number of people injured. The results of all the three models indicate a negative effect as regards the GDP per capita, (car) motorisation rate, the indicator of government expenditure for current maintenance of national roads, and the road length per capita. A positive association has been found between the truck motorisation rate and the indicator of local government expenditure on roads. The impact of the region's urbanisation indicators on road safety is ambiguous as, on the one hand, its increase causes a reduction in the road accident and accident injury indices, but, on the other hand, it produces a rise in the accident fatality index. In the models, the significance of time effects has been identified; a decreasing time trend suggests a general improvement in road safety from year to year. Most of the group effects have turned out to be highly significant. However, the effects differ as regards both the road accident and the accident injury indices in magnitude and direction. K E Y W O R D S longitudinal data, road accidents, road accident casualties, fixed effects models
... 1 There are some studies in the literature that use provincial data, but they are intended to investigate the relationship between tourism and economic growth (Eleftheriou & Sambracos, 2019;Soukiazis & Proença, 2008), to explore the role of tourism in road traffic accidents in Spain (Castro-Nuño, Castillo-Manzano, & Fageda, 2018), or to construct an indicator to assess the provincial tourism competitiveness in Spain (Lopes, Muñoz, & Alarcón-Urbistondo, 2018). 2 The survey was not initially designed for a provincial level. However, it is possible to perform a provincial analysis given that it explicitly provides information on the tourism flows from the Spanish province i to the province j. ...
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Domestic tourism represents a large share of the total tourism volume in Spain, but it is still an under‐researched topic. This study focuses on the determinants of domestic flows in Spain at provincial level. The prior assumption is that domestic tourism demand may be affected by specific local conditions that previous studies, mostly based on more aggregate data, would hardly capture. A gravity model and various spatial econometric models are estimated assuming alternative spatial weighting matrices. Results suggest that income and relative prices affect tourism demand in Spanish provinces as well as weather, natural amenities, infrastructures, and recreational activities.
... This paper draws on our own original database of Spanish metropolitan areas, while most studies in the literature focused their analyses on specific roads (highways or road networks) or single cities (case studies), with very few papers considering several cities, and none considering all of Spain's metropolitan areas. The literature on road safety in Spain usually estimates the occurrence of accidents at a national or provincial level rather than at the local scale [14][15][16][17]. ...
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Congestion and road accidents are both considered essential challenges for sustainable mobility in large cities, but their relationship is only partially explored by the literature. In this paper, we empirically examine different public policies aimed at reducing urban traffic congestion but which may also have indirect effects on road accidents and casualties. We use data from 25 large urban areas in Spain for the period 2008–2017 and apply econometric methods to investigate how a variety of public policies do affect both negative externalities. Although the relationship between congestion and road safety is complex, we find that the promotion of certain modes of public transportation and the regulation of parking spaces may contribute to making cities more sustainable, both in terms of the time spent traveling and the probability of being affected by an accident. Considering whether policies addressing congestion improve or damage road safety as an indirect result is a useful approach for local policy-makers and planners in their attempt to get sustainable transportation outcomes.
... Numerous studies of zonal CPMs have been conducted at various zone scales, ranging from states (Noland, 2003;Castro-Nuño, Castillo-Manzano, & Fageda, 2018), counties (Aguero-Valverde & Jovanis, 2006;Huang, Abdel-Aty, & Darwiche, 2010;Li et al., 2013), districts (Haynes, Jones, Kennedy, Harvey, & Jewell, 2007, census tracts/wards (Quddus, 2008;Wang & Kockelman, 2013), and postal codes (Lee, Abdel-Aty, & Choi, 2014) to traffic analysis districts (TADs) (Cai, Abdel-Aty, & Lee, 2017a;Cai, Abdel-Aty, Lee, & Eluru, 2017b), TAZs (Abdel-Aty, Siddiqui, Huang, & Wang, 2011;Guo, Pei, Yao, & Wong, 2015;Guo, Xu, Pei, Wong, & Yao, 2017;Hadayeghi et al., 2010;Huang et al., 2016;Xu & Huang, 2015), block groups (Levine, Kim, & Nitz, 1995), and local health areas (MacNab, 2004). ...
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This study presents a joint analysis of daytime and nighttime crash frequencies at the zone level with consideration of spatial correlations. Crash data from 131 traffic analysis zones in Hong Kong in 2011 are investigated. A Bayesian bivariate conditional autoregressive model is proposed to establish links between crash frequencies and traffic attributes, road network characteristics, and land use patterns. The proposed model allows not only for the distinct heterogeneous and spatial effects of each dependent variable, but also for the correlations between them. The parameter estimates indicate that more daytime and nighttime crashes are associated with more vehicle hours traveled and with networks that have greater global integration. Average speed alone has a significant negative effect on daytime crashes. The crash risk in commercial and other areas is lower than that in residential areas, but the crash risk in areas of mixed residential and commercial use is higher. Meanwhile, significant spatial autocorrelation emerges across zones and explains 46.7% and 48.2% extra-Poisson variations for daytime and nighttime crash frequencies, respectively. High positive correlations are found in both heterogeneous and spatial effects. These findings, together with its better performance on model fit than the univariate counterparts, demonstrate the strength of the proposed model.
... This leads us to confirm that urban road safety is better in places where population and services are concentrated, as the areas that top the rankings are those that are more developed in urban terms (with respect to their economies; healthcare; mobility; better available public transportation and road networks; or which have adopted new tech- nologies). These results are in line with the findings by authors such as Castillo- Manzano et al. (2013), Castro-Nuño et al., 2018, Ewing et al. (2003, Kersys (2015), Noland and Quddus (2005), Redman et al. (2013), Sukhai and Jones (2014), and Yannis et al. (2015). ...
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Frequently, road traffic accidents are modelled as discrete and independent random and rare events, which possess a low probability of occurrence through time. Nevertheless, in order to study each accident individually it is necessary to obtain details of a number of characteristics that surround it, which may be correlated with each other. In this article, we propose to associate the probability of occurrence of an accident with a large number of features such as weather conditions, incidents caused by the start and end of a roadwork, geographical location of speed control radars, roadway infrastructure, etc. The influence of these features is significant and should be taken into account when proposing measures to help alleviate these undesirable events. The big data methods employed to extract the variables or features allow us to compose a series of vectors that will serve as a basis to study road accident distributions.
Article
The uptake of mobile media with internet connection has increased rapidly in almost every part of the world, and this has significantly changed how public transport passengers use their travel time. Pre-existing studies have documented that use of mobile ICT while travelling has the potential to enriched use of travel time and in some cases strengthen positive attitudes to public transport. The alternative hypothesis – that mobile communication technologies make travellers more critical and demanding, e.g., due to the risk of interference – has so far hardly been explored through empirical studies. Based on a web-based survey of travellers in two of the largest cities in Norway (Oslo and Trondheim), this paper investigates how use of smart devices are related to general attitudes towards public transportation services. A segmentation of travellers in three clusters based on their mobile use habits, shows that the most active group of mobile media users – a group of younger and middle-aged urban dwellers – were those who bore the most critical attitudes to the public transport services. In contrast, the groups that used their mobile phones rarely, or less actively, on their public transport trips were more satisfied. The findings suggest that a new generation of “equipped travellers” has developed expectations of their public transport journeys that today's service providers may have problems to fulfil. Thus, there is a risk of the most active smartphone users developing negative attitudes to public transport if (or when) their experiences are not improved.
Article
Following a general paucity of small area research on road traffic injuries (RTIs), this study examined small area variations in RTIs for the eThekwini Metropolitan Area (comprising predominantly the City of Durban) in South Africa. Population density was used as an organising framework to examine variations in RTI outcomes, and correspondence with a range of measures relating to characteristics of the crashes and to socioeconomic deprivation. Analyses were undertaken at the suburb level, using data from 2005–2009 and employing a cross-sectional geographical design. Analyses were also undertaken for disaggregated injury, crash severity, and road user groups. The distribution of the injury outcome measures corresponded with several measures that proxied risks relating to excessive driving speeds, excessive travel exposure, and general social as well as area level deprivation. Negative binomial models, fitted for the injury outcome measures, showed population density to be a significant predictor of all injury outcomes but also that its effects was only partially explained by the explanatory measures considered. The findings on deprivation provide new insights to rural-urban variations in RTIs, at least in the South African setting. The findings also have implications for informing integrated developmental policies and strategies across a range of disciplines and departments, especially at the city level.
Article
Objective: In 2012, 4,743 pedestrians were killed in the U.S., representing 14 percent of total traffic fatalities. The number of pedestrians injured was higher at 76,000. Therefore, 36 out of 52 of the largest cities in the U.S. have adopted a citywide target of reducing pedestrian fatalities. The number of cities adopting the reduction goal during 2011 and 2012 increased rapidly with 8 more cities. We examined the scaling relationship of pedestrian fatality counts as a function of the population size of 115 to 161 large U.S cities during the period of 1994 to 2011. We also examined the scaling relationship of non-pedestrian and total traffic fatality counts as function of the population size as well. Methods: For the data source of fatality measures we used Traffic Safety Facts FARS/GES ANNUAL Report published each year from 1994 to 2011 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Using the data source we conducted both annual cross-sectional and panel data bivariate and multivariate regression models. In the construction of the estimated functional relationship between traffic fatality measures and various factors, we used the simple power function for urban scaling used by Bettencourt et al. ( 2007 ; 2010) and the refined STIRPAT(STochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology) model used in Dietz and Rosa ( 1994 ; 1997) and York et al. (2003). Results: We found the scaling relationship display diseconomies of scale or sublinear for pedestrian fatalities. However, the relationship displays superlinear relationship in case of non-pedestrian fatality. The scaling relationship for total traffic fatality counts display a near linear pattern. When the relationship was examined by the four subgroups of cities with different population sizes, the most pronounced sublinear scaling relationships for all three types of fatality counts was discovered for the subgroup of mega cities with a population of more than 1 million. Conclusions: The scaling patterns of traffic fatalities of subgroups of cities depend on population sizes of the cities in subgroups. Especially 9 mega cities with populations of more than 1 million are significantly different from the remaining cities and should be viewed as a totally separate group. Thus, the analysis on the patterns of traffic fatalities needs to be conducted within the group of mega cities separately from the other cities with smaller population sizes for devising prevention policies to reduce traffic fatalities of both group of mega cities and the other group of smaller cities.
Article
Applying econometric techniques to EU28 panel data and controlling for explanatory variables such as road types, we find that increased truck load capacity does not necessarily aggravate road traffic safety. Specifically, heavy trucks do not seem to be linked with greater numbers of traffic fatalities/accidents, medium trucks appear to be the worst performers in terms of fatalities, and light trucks seem to be the worst for accidents. In summary, our results clarify the complex relationship between truck load capacity and road safety, pointing to the existence of a negative correlation for accidents per capita and an inverse U-shaped curve for fatalities per capita.
Article
Objective: A number of efforts have been conducted on travel behaviour and transport fatalities at the neighbourhood or street level, and they have identified different factors such as roadway characteristics, personal indicators and design indicators related to transport safety. However, only a limited number of studies have considered the relationship between travel behaviour indicators and the number of transport fatalities at the city level. Therefore, this study explores this relationship and how to fill the mentioned gap in current knowledge. Method: A generalized linear model (GLM) estimates the relationships between different travel mode indicators (e.g., length of motorway per inhabitants, number of motorcycles per inhabitants, percentage of daily trips on foot and by bicycle, percentage of daily trips by public transport) and the number of passenger transport fatalities. Because this city-level model is developed using data sets from different cities all over the world, the impacts of GDP are also included in the model. Conclusions: Overall, the results imply that the percentage of daily trips by public transport, the percentage of daily trips on foot and by bicycle and the GDP per inhabitant have negative relationships with the number of passenger transport fatalities, while the motorway's length and the number of motorcycles have positive relationships with the number of passenger transport fatalities.
Article
Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution of the vehicles involved in crashes in Miami-Dade County. In addition, we also analyzed the role of time of the day, day of the week, seasonality, drivers' age have on the distribution of traffic crashes. Method: Off the system crash data acquired from the Florida Department of Transportation during 2005-2010 were divided into subcategories according to the risk factors of age, time of the day, day of the week, and by travel season. Various spatial statistics methods, including Nearest Neighbor Analysis, Getis-Ord hot spot analysis, and Kernell density analysis revealed substantial spatial variations, depending on the subcategory that was in question. Results: Downtown Miami and South Beach showed up consistently as hot spots of traffic crashes in all the of sub categories except fatal crashes. However, fatal crashes were concentrated in residential areas in inland areas. Conclusion: This understanding of patterns can help the county target high risk areas and help to reduce crash fatalities to create a safer environment for motorists and pedestrians.
Article
The smart city concept is often simply considered equivalent only to technology. This paper starts by introducing the necessity of a holistic, integrated, and multidisciplinary approach to the concept of smart cities. Smart cities are evolving by the creation of tools that are application specific; therefore, European classification of smart city applications will be reviewed (as authors have used these criteria to classify the analyzed applications) and the relationship between the different European smart classification standards are analyzed. Moreover, in order to see how reality aligns with the theoretical concept of smart cities, the authors analyzed 61 applications from 33 smart cities distributed in North America, South America, Europe and Asia. From these, 16 specific applications from eight cities have been selected and described in detail so they provide an overview of existing tools in different application areas, as defined by European standards. After showing actual smart cities, the concepts and steps for building future smart cities are suggested in a conclusion. Read More: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000282
Conference Paper
Video streaming from cameras, closed-circuit television (CCTV), smartphones and Internet-connected objects (ICO) largely contributes to big data traffic on the Internet. Video streaming provides enormous amount of useful information for delivery of efficient and effective services in smart cities. Modern cities have large networks of surveillance cameras including CCTV, street crossings and the like. In this paper we discuss the challenges of annotating and retrieving video data streams from vehicle-mounted surveillance cameras. We also propose and evaluate the CityWatcher application – an Android application for recording video streams, annotating them with location, timestamp and additional context in order to make them discoverable and available to authorized Internet of Things applications. One of such applications is based on crowdsourced alerts to city authorities about road problems, like potholes, cracks, traffic accidents. These alerts are driver-initiated and are rewarded through an incentive mechanism. OpenIoT platform is used for infrastructure and development support.
Conference Paper
Starting from 2008, more than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas, and this number is expected to grow for the next decades. To the extent that the population of a city grows, new problems arise, which include scarcity of resources, pollution, and traffic congestion. One of the most important problems of big cities are road traffic injuries, which is the eighth leading cause of death globally, and the main cause of death for young people, mainly in middle and low income countries. Vulnerable road users (VRUs) are among the users at higher risks of traffic accidents. In order to cope with the problems of the growing urban communities, the concept of smart cities has emerged. A smart city is based on the use of smart computing technologies, such as Intelligent Transportation Systems and Vehicular Ad hoc Networks. In this paper, we propose a model to be used in smart cities, to detect if a VRU intends to cross a road in a risky zone, and to issue alerts to the vehicles nearby. The proposed model is cost effective, and is able to detect a VRU at risk in a short period of time. The evaluation of the proposed model shows that it performs correctly.
Article
Many studies have dealt with modeling crash occurrences on urban arterials. There is a dearth of research on urban arterials with mixed-traffic patterns in China, however, because of the large traffic flow volume of bicyclists and pedestrians in most Chinese cities. This study investigates the risk factors associated with severe crash occurrences on arterial roads in Beijing. Through use of the generalized estimating equations modeling technique with a negative binomial link function, statistical relationships were established to relate severe crashes to a variety of factors related to geometric design, traffic control, and other traffic-related characteristics. Crash records from 2004 to 2007 for 108 signalized intersections and 123.5 km of road segments were used to estimate the models. Results showed that arterial roads with heavier traffic volumes, more road lanes, and higher speed limits tended to have more severe crashes. Medians were helpful in reducing severe crash risk. Higher risks of severe crashes were generally associated with intersections having small angles and count-down signals and road segments having higher side-access densities and the presence of bus stops. With regard to nonmotorist protection facilities, results revealed that a combined use of crosswalks and overpasses was the most desired pedestrian-crossing facility for safety, especially at sites with heavy traffic or sites located in primarily residential areas. Barriers that separated bikeways from roadways on minor roads were found effective in significantly reducing severe crash risk at intersections.
Article
To analyse the time evolution of the rates of mortality due to motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA) injuries that occurred among the general population of Comunitat Valenciana between 1987 and 2011, as well as to identify trend changes by sex and age group. An observational study of annual mortality trends between 1987 and 2011. We studied all deaths due to MVTA injuries that occurred during this period of time among the non-institutionalised population residing in Comunitat Valenciana (a Spanish Mediterranean region that had a population of 5,117,190 inhabitants in 2011). The rates of mortality due to MVTA injuries were calculated for each sex and year studied. These rates were standardised by age for the total population and for specific age groups using the direct method (age-standardised rate - ASR). Joinpoint regression models were used in order to detect significant trend changes. Additionally, the annual percentage change (APC) of the ASRs was calculated for each trend segment, which is reflected in statistically significant joinpoints. For all ages, ASRs decrease greatly in both men and women (70% decrease between 1990 and 2011). In 1990 and 2011, men have rates of 36.5 and 5.2 per 100,000 men/year, respectively. In the same years, women have rates of 8.0 and 0.9 per 100,000 women/year, respectively. This decrease reaches up to 90% in the age group 15-34 years in both men and women. ASR ratios for men and women increased over time for all ages: this ratio was 3.9 in 1987; 4.6 in 1990; and 5.8 in 2011. For both men and women, there is a first significant segment (p<0.05) with an increasing trend between 1987 and 1989-1990. After 1990, there are 3 segments with a significant decreasing APC (1990-1993, 1993-2005 and 2005-2011, in the case of men; and 1989-1996, 1999-2007 and 2007-2011, in the case of women). The risk of death due to motor vehicle traffic accidents injuries has decreased significantly, especially in the case of women, for the last 25 years in Comunitat Valenciana, mainly as of 2006. This may be a consequence of the road-safety measures that have been implemented in Spain and in Comunitat Valenciana since 2004. The economic crisis that this country has undergone since 2008 may have also been a contributing factor to this decrease. Despite the decrease, ASR ratios for men and women increased over time and it is still a high-risk cause of death among young men. It is thus important that the measures that helped decrease the risk of death are maintained and improved over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
The connection between crime and road safety is a relatively recent topic in academic research, although most studies have focused on the link between criminal behavior and traffic offenses, and only a few authors discuss the possible relationship with traffic accident fatalities. Evidence worldwide shows that people who commit other offenses characteristic of antisocial attitudes are more likely to have road traffic accidents and infringe traffic laws. We examine the records of the 28 current member states of the European Union over the 1999–2010 period. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that crime rates (and specifically, motor vehicle-related crimes) can be considered as predictors of fatal road traffic accidents. If they can be, this could be prima facie justification, at least, of the trend in several countries to consider traffic offenses as crimes in their penal codes and to toughen the punishment imposed on those who commit them. The effect of the severity of the legal system applied to traffic offenses is also analyzed. From a geographical point of view, our results reveal that road traffic fatality rates are higher in countries where the behavior of the inhabitants is more aggressive, while the rates are lower in countries with more severe penal systems.
Article
Traffic safety has become a major component of European transport policies. But the road to a real Common European Road Safety Policy has been a long one. The notion of Europeanization might help to describe the European Union (EU)'s impact on national policies, although the process differs from other transport sectors. The objective of this article is to explain the effect of the EU road safety policy on domestic road mortality rates in the EU-27. Using data on European countries for the 2000–2009 period we analyse how EU traffic safety policies, institutions and networks facilitate and encourage the learning process in the individual countries. This timeframe coincides with the 2001 White Paper and the third European Road Safety Action Programme (ERSAP), both of which are crucial for constructing the Common Road Safety Policy.
Article
This article examines the trends in road traffic fatality rates in a sample of European States over the 1970–2010 period. Taking into account that previous research seems to find that the Europeanization process has had a favorable impact on national road safety performance, our main contribution is to test whether the same mechanism might lead to the convergence of Member States as a whole as a possible outcome. Based on typical convergence methodology for Economic Growth Theory, our findings reveal evidence of the full convergence of road fatality rates across a sample of EU countries during said time period. Compared to the uncertain results obtained by the literature on macroeconomic convergence, we do not find support for the convergence of sub-groups of countries, but a one-speed-convergence for all EU countries. This fact shows that convergence is achievable in certain EU areas even beyond economic convergence through successful efforts made jointly at national and community levels.
Article
The relationship between form and function in European Mediterranean cities has been widely addressed from various perspectives. A number of studies indicate that, until the 1980s, compactness was a key trait of several cities of the Northern Mediterranean. However, after the ‘compact growth’ period, these cities experienced patterns of urbanization that differed from their traditional trends. Since the 1990s, sprawl, coupled with population decline in the inner cities, has become the main pattern of urban development. This article explores the key features of exurban development in the Mediterranean region in order to provide material for a discussion based on the differences and similarities in the characteristics of sprawl processes originating in the US and Northern Europe. It concludes that any debate on policy responses to sprawl must be specifically formulated according to the scope, administrative level, housing and planning system, territorial and socioeconomic characteristics of the urban system under examination. It is our belief that sprawl requires site-specific analyses and policy strategies for the region being studied if the process is to be effectively controlled.
Article
The research germinates from the statement that the cities have to solve the impacts due to freight transport in order to improve their sustainability implementing sets of city logistics measures. But city logistics measures involve several actors and choice dimensions. It is therefore important to have methods and models able to assess the effectiveness of the measures to be implemented. The current models were mainly developed to simulate some aspects of urban freight transport, and are not able to forecast many impacts of implementing traffic and transportation measures at an urban scale. This paper presents a modelling approach that tries to point out the relations existing among city logistics measures, actors and choice dimensions. It comprises three model sub-systems to estimate the quantity O–D matrices by transport service type (e.g. retailer on own account or wholesaler on own account or by carrier), the delivery O–D matrices by delivery time period, and the vehicle O–D matrices according to delivery tour departure time and vehicle type. This modelling system is a multi-stage model and considers a discrete choice approach for each decisional level. It was first tested using some data collected in the inner area of Rome, including traffic counts and interviews with retailers and truck-drivers. The model estimations were also compared with the experimental ones, and quite satisfactory results were obtained.
Article
There are factors that impact traffic safety and the number of accident-related fatalities, such as street users, environment, road design and vehicle characteristics, but there have been limited studies that examine the relationship between street network factors and traffic-related crashes and fatalities at the city level. Therefore, this paper focused on this relationship by introducing urban street network variables, such as blocks per area, nodes per selected areas and length of roads and motorways, as independent variables and the number of fatalities as the dependent variable. This study used Open Street Maps (OSM) and International Association of Public Transport (UITP) data from 20 cities around the world. The number of blocks per area and nodes per selected areas resulted from modifying and analyzing OSM maps in ArcGIS software. The strength of the relationship in this study was found using generalized linear modeling (GLM). The findings of this research indicated that increases in fatalities are correlated with an increasing number of blocks per area, number of nodes per selected areas and length of the motorways.
Article
The City of Madrid is putting into operation Intermodal Exchange Stations (IESs) to make connections between urban and suburban transportation modes easier for users of public transportation. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the actual effects that the implementation of IESs in the City of Madrid has on the affected stakeholders: users, public transportation operators, infrastructure managers, the government, the abutters and other citizens. We develop a methodology intended to help assess the welfare gains and losses for each stakeholder. Then we apply this methodology to the case study of the Avenida de América IES in the city of Madrid. We found that it is indeed possible to arrive at win–win solutions for the funding of urban transportation infrastructure, as long as the cost-benefit ratio of the project is high enough. Commuters save travel time. Bus companies diminish their costs of operation. The abutters gain in quality of life. The private operator of the infrastructure makes a fair profit. And the government is able to promote these infrastructure facilities without spending more of its scarce budgetary resources.
Article
This article estimated a multinomial logit model to identify the factors determining the severity of pedestrian–vehicle crashes in South Korea. Our results showed that relative to minor crashes, fatal and serious crashes were associated with collisions involving heavy vehicles; drivers who were drunk, male or under the age of 65; pedestrians who were over the age of 65 or female; and pedestrians who were hit in the middle of the road, on high speed roads, in inclement weather conditions, at night, on road links, in tunnels, on bridges, or on wider roads.
Article
This paper explores the relationship between tourism and traffic congestion and hyper-congestion using the case study of Mallorca (Spain), one of the most important resort destinations in the Mediterranean. After discussing different proxies to capture the associated problems to road traffic congestion, different time series models are estimated including considering the days of the week, holidays and meteorological determinants jointly with a daily indicator of tourist population pressure. Results show how the tourist pressure variable is an important determinant in explaining the different alternative indicators of traffic congestion and hyper-congestion, for different roads. Hence it is possible to classify the roads in terms of usage by tourists in order to anticipate the levels of traffic intensity, especially during peak periods.
Article
In this paper, we use a flexible function to represent the traffic flow-accidents relationship for urban intersections, called translog function. Considering the common use of predictive models and given the complexity of the traffic movements that usually occur at intersections, this flexible function provides a richer interpretation of traffic flow-accidents relationship. Therefore, five functional forms commonly used are compared to the translog function by modeling accidents using data of four-legged signalized intersections. Better results in terms of goodness of fit are obtained for the translog model. In addition, sensitivity analysis shows that the translog function is distinct from the log-linear functions, especially at the boundary values, revealing the potential to capture the accident risk complexity usually existent at intersections as a result of several traffic movements. Moreover, to analyze if the omitted variables cause variable bias, and thus, affecting the previous model assessment and comparison, panel count data models are applied, namely, random effects models. The results obtained are consistent with those previously obtained, which proves that the translog model may be an alternative providing a richer interpretation of the accident occurrence at intersections.
Article
This paper examines the role of urban scale, density and land-use mix on the incidence of road pedestrian casualties. It develops a spatial model at a disaggregate level that attempts to understand how the nature of the urban environment, with its associated traffic generation characteristics, affects the incidence of road pedestrian casualties. The results show that the characteristics of the local environment have a powerful influence on pedestrian casualties. The incidence of pedestrian casualties and KSIs is higher in residential than in economic zones and a quadratic relationship is found between urban density and pedestrian casualties with incidents diminishing for the most extremely dense wards. Distinguishing broad land-use effects, the paper explores the ways in which population and employment density influence pedestrian casualties.
Article
Our cities should be designed to accommodate everybody, including children. We will not move toward a more sustainable society unless we accept that children are people with transportation needs, and 'bussing' them around, or providing parental limousine services at all times, will not lead to sustainability. Rather, we will need to make our cities walkable for children, at least those above a certain age. Safety has two main aspects, traffic safety and personal safety (risk of assault). Besides being safe, children will also need an urban environment with reasonable mobility, where they themselves can reach destinations with reasonable effort; else they will still need to be driven. This paper presents the results of two expert questionnaires focusing on the potential safety and mobility benefits to child pedestrians of targeted types of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Five different types of functional requests for children were identified based on previous work. The first expert questionnaire was structured to collect expert opinions on which ITS solutions or devices would be, and why, the most relevant ones to satisfy the five different functional requests of child pedestrians. Based on the first questionnaire, fifteen problem areas were defined. In the second questionnaire, the experts ranked the fifteen areas, and prioritized related ITS services, according to their potential for developing ITS services beneficial to children. Several ITS systems for improving pedestrian quality are discussed. ITS services can be used when a pedestrian route takes them to a dangerous street, dangerous crossing point or through a dangerous neighborhood. An improvement of safety and other qualities would lead to increased mobility and a more sustainable way of living. Children would learn how to live to support their own health and a sustainable city environment. But it will be up to national, regional and local governments, through their ministries and agencies and public works departments, to promote, fund, and possibly mandate such systems. It is clear that we need to offer an acceptable level of convenience, efficiency, comfort, safety and security to pedestrians but it is less clear if society will prioritize resources toward this.
Article
This study uses data for the EU-27 countries in the period 1999-2009 to estimate determinants of road traffic fatality rates. Controlling for country attributes and road safety policy variables, we examine the influence of variables related with the national health systems; the number of hospital beds per square kilometer, and the percentage of health expenditures over gross domestic product. We find evidence that the density of hospital beds contributes to the fall in traffic-related fatalities. Furthermore, the quality of general medical facilities and technology associated with increases in health expenditure may be also a relevant factor in reducing road traffic fatalities.
Article
Objective: In Spain, the absolute fatality figures decreased almost 50 percent between 1998 and 2009. Despite this great effort, road mortality is still of great concern to political authorities. Further progress requires efficient road safety policy based on an optimal set of measures and targets that consider the initial conditions and characteristics in each region. This study attempts to analyze road accidents in Spain and its provinces in time and space during 1998-2009. Methods: First, we analyzed daily, monthly, and nationwide (NUTS 0) development of road accidents, the correlation between logarithmic transformations of road accidents and territorial and socioeconomic variables, the causality by simple linear regression of road accidents and territorial and socioeconomic variables, and preliminary frequency by fast Fourier transform. Then we analyzed the annual trend in accidents in the Spanish provinces (NUTS 3) and found a correlation between the logarithmic transformations of the mortality rate, fatalities per fatal accident, and accidents resulting in injuries per inhabitant variables and population, population density, gross domestic product (GDP), length of road network, and area. Finally, causality was analyzed by simple linear regression. Results: The most outstanding results were the negative correlation between mortality rate and population density in Spanish provinces, which has increased over time, and that road accidents in Spain have an approximate periodicity of 57 days. Conclusions: The fast Fourier transform analysis of road accident frequency in Spain was useful in identifying the periodic, harmonic components of accidents and casualties. The periodicity observed both for the period 1998-2009 and by year showed that the highest intensity in road accidents was bimonthly, despite the lower number of accidents and casualties in the spectra of amplitude and power and efforts to reduce the intensity and concentration during off-season travel (summer and December).
Article
Purpose: An average of 611 deaths and over 47,000 bicyclists are injured in traffic-related crashes in the United States each year. Efforts to increase bicycle safety are needed to reduce and prevent injuries and fatalities, especially as trends indicate that ridership is increasing rapidly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bicycle-specific roadway facilities (e.g., signage and bicycle lanes) in reducing bicycle crashes. Methods: We conducted a case site-control site study of 147 bicycle crash-sites identified from the Iowa Department of Transportation crash database from 2007 to 2010 and 147 matched non-crash sites. Control sites were randomly selected from intersections matched to case sites on neighborhood (census block group) and road classification (arterial, feeder, collector, etc.). We examined crash risk by any on-road bicycle facility present and by facility type (pavement markings--bicycle lanes and shared lane arrows, bicycle-specific signage, and the combination of markings and signage), controlling for bicycle volume, motor vehicle volume, street width, sidewalks, and traffic controls. Results: A total of 11.6% of case sites and 15.0% of controls had an on-road bicycle facility. Case intersections had higher bicycle volume (3.52 vs. 3.34 per 30 min) and motor vehicle volume (248.77 vs. 205.76 per 30 min) than controls. Our results are suggestive that the presence of an on-road bicycle facility decreases crash risk by as much as 60% with a bicycle lane or shared lane arrow (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.09-1.82) and 38% with bicycle-specific signage (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.15-2.58). Conclusions: Investments in bicycle-specific pavement markings and signage have been shown to be beneficial to traffic flow, and our results suggest that they may also reduce the number of bicycle-motor vehicle crashes and subsequent injuries and fatalities. As a relatively low-cost traffic feature, community considerations for further implementation of these facilities are justified.