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Abstract

Informationen verknüpfen, Synergien nutzen, Wissen generieren – die Marine Daten-Infrastruktur Deutschland integriert die wesentlichen Datenquellen über alle Fach-, Behörden- und Institutsgrenzen. Mit Hilfe eines Internet-Portals werden die bislang über Bund und Länder verteilten marinen Fachdaten umfassend zur Nutzung bereitgestellt

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A gazetteer Web service is an essential semantic component in a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). Due to the different query options - starting from the text, searching for its spatial representation or vice versa asking for the designation of an area - the gazetteer can be used both, for issues with semantic context as well for onomasiological questions. From the spatial overlap of the name-bearing objects arise implicitly ontological rules that should be considered in addition, if name and reference objects can be categorized in the gazetteer. Within a SDI a gazetteer is not only an instrument to search for and use geographical names of geoobjects, or vice versa to work starting from the reference objects with the name. The gazetteer has a much more fundamental normative function as it includes the available vocabulary of place names in a SDI. Based on spatial allocation and common quality categorizations the gazetteer defines the usage rules for both the names and reference objects. The use of temporal properties is essential in developing a gazetteer for the coast. Namely, since the variability of the name-bearing geographical forms and also the historic cultural dynamics have an obvious impact on name changes. The integration of the temporal evolution also allows the examination of the temporal development of space and names, so the gazetteer can become an instrument of research. Because of these characteristics and requirements, a coastal gazetteer cannot be modeled by static relations of object and name. For the integration of coastal gazetteer in different work processes, the implementation as a Web service is suitable. “Best practices” and standards developed for the use in mainland areas are currently being tested, however, they are dominated by a static view of the world. In developing a coastal gazetteer service it is important to implement relevant technical specifications and account for the temporal dimension of change.
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Current questions related to changes of marine ecosystems, global warming and the resulting requirements for costal protection as well as reporting obligations of the European Union with respect to effective framework directives (INSPIRE, MSFD, etc.) require interdisciplinary access to the related spatial data. Therefore an integrated national marine and coastal information system was set up within the co-operative project "Marine Data Infrastructure (MDI-DE)". Coastal and marine data collected by 11 Federal and State agencies are made available by OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) compliant Web services and documented with metadata according to the ISO standard. The new MDI-DE portal (www.mdi-de.org) serves as central entry point for data and information from the German coastal zone and the adjacent marine waters. This facilitates intersectoral views of resources by providing technological solutions of networking and distributed data management. The benefit of hosting the data locally is that the data from different sources can be merged in almost any way, custom-made compositions of thematic data layers can be compiled without touching the data itself. Each participating agency or institute operates a node which consists of a few basic components: services to provide the data, metadata and a database. For the provision of spatial data, the OGC has developed a number of open and international standards. The Web Map Service (WMS) to generate and visualize digital maps in the Web and the Web Feature Service (WFS) to download the data in an interoperable format such as GML (Geography Markup Language). The underlying database needs to support these services. After thus ensuring the data distribution, the last piece of the puzzle is the corresponding metadata which are harvested from the different local nodes and are provided through a standardized Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) interface. Beyond the basic services such as WMS and WFS, a Web Processing Service (WPS) for data analysis was implemented. MDI-DE represents not only a state-of-the-art spatial data infrastructure; it also aspires to lose the ‘spatial-only’ attribute and includes other related data into this distributed data source. The future Web- Services provided by MDI-DE will support system analysis applications related to coastal engineering, spatial planning, nature conservation, science and ecology.
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Ein Gazetteer für die deutsche Küste In: Andreas Vött und Helmut Brückner (Hrsg.): Ergebnisse aktueller Küstenforschung-Beiträge der 26 Jahrestagung des Arbeitskreises ‚Geographie der Meere und Küsten‘, 25.-27
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