Connecting Identities through Drawing: Relationships between Identities in Images Drawn by Immigrant Students

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Immigration is extremely stressful and has an impact on children's identity construction. When immigrating, children must make sense of the changes they experience in order to develop a flexible and plural identity. Schools can foster this meaning-making process by promoting the creation of bridges between home and school social markers. These bridges allow movement between different aspects of students’ identity and account for multiple identity configurations. One way to promote connections between identities is to offer creative expression activities within classrooms. When drawing, children project their inner feelings onto images through symbols and identify to elements of their drawings, which contribute to their identity construction. In this paper, the authors rely on data obtained from immigrant children's drawings and interviews to present three identity expression strategies put in place in their drawings: protective withdrawal on the identity of origin to allow movement between identities, mastery of globalized youth cultural identity and neutralization of identities. These strategies reveal the relationship between identities, particularly between the cultural identity of origin and that of the host culture. One strategy, the protective withdrawal on the identity of origin to allow movement between identities will be illustrated by the case of a young Chinese boy.

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... Canada is the destination for many immigrant, refugee and asylum-seeking families from all around the world (Guruge et al., 2010;Rezazadeh & Hoover, 2018;Stewart, Simich, Shizha, Makumbe, & Makwarimba, 2012). Migration from one's country of origin to another country may be a stressful process and detrimental to the mental health of immigrant children (Beauregard, 2020;Beauregard, Papazian-Zohrabian, & Rousseau, 2017a). Research in Canada indicates that there are complicated social, cultural, economic, and political factors which impact the lives of immigrant children in Canada and may lead to mental health difficulties among these populations (Ginn, Benzies, Keown, Bouchal, & Thurston, 2018;Mohamud et al., 2021;Salami et al., 2020). ...
... In some cases, separation within the family and between parents and children is inevitable, especially in the case of global forced migration (Apergi, 2014;Donnelly et al., 2011;Hakki, 2018). Moreover, immigration may cause children to experience disruption in their identity formation, as they may not feel a sense of belonging either to their home country or to the host country (i.e., Canada) (Beauregard, 2020;Beauregard et al., 2017a). For example, in a study involving a 9-yearold newcomer Chinese boy in Canada, the researchers' interpretations of his paintings reflected his continuous attempts to form a unified new self. ...
... His artwork illustrated that he went back and forth between the certainty that he had experienced in his birth country and the freedom that he enjoyed in the host country. He put effort into overcoming his ambivalent identity by integrating both his Chinese and Canadian identities (Beauregard et al., 2017a). ...
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Migration is stressful and potentially detrimental to the mental health of immigrant children. However, they may draw tremendous mental health benefits by participating in group-based arts programs. In this literature review, we aimed to answer the question: how does participation in group-based arts programs impact the mental health of immigrant children in Canada? Findings indicated that factors at personal, interpersonal, and structural levels affect the mental health of these populations. Arts classes and programs at schools or communities would promote these children’s mental health through both the direct impact of artworks and the facilitation of social support within groups.
... In addition, they have some potential for community involvement (37). Through play and arts children are given the opportunity to express themselves via non-verbal and universal means that enable them to build bridges across past and present experiences, PRINTED concrete and abstract realities, and different identities (32,38,39). Owing to a lack of research and training of therapists, to the unstructured nature of the therapy, as well as to the difficulties of assessing creative arts via empirical methods, empirical evidence on creative arts therapies is still scarce (32,40). ...
... In this sense, interventions in classes can also help children to strengthen the relationships with each other through team work and activities. In addition, educational activities in class may promote the building of bridges across children's social, cultural, and personal worlds and those of the host society, which, in turn, was found to be an effective way to boost learning and active participation in class (38,63,64). ...
... Through art, children build bridges between the past, present, and the future, between internal and external worlds, as well as between different contexts and cultures. During these workshops, children are offered the opportunity to explore and construct their identities (38). This is especially important for migrant and refugee youth, who have to move and negotiate their identities across at least two cultural worlds. ...
In this chapter on children and vulnerable groups services we discuss the challenges involved in the provision of services to migrant and refugee families and young people. Firstly, obstacles preventing migrant and refugee populations from accessing services are identified, and the importance of culturally adapted and culturally safe services is underlined. Secondly, an overview of available interventions at the individual, family, and community level is provided, emphasizing the role of schools as an important bridge between migrant families and the host society. Thirdly, the importance of a resilience-based and ecological approach to provision of services to these vulnerable populations is discussed, and an illustration of a multimodal intervention implemented in collaboration with local schools and communities is provided. Lastly, in light of the complex and heterogeneous needs of migrant and refugee populations, a pyramid, tiered model of provision of services to migrants and refugees is advocated.
... De plus, le travail en sous-groupes est préconisé afin de laisser l'opportunité et le choix aux enfants de partager ce qu'ils créent avec des pairs. La philosophie inhérente aux ateliers d'expression créatrice laisse supposer qu'ils constituent un espace favorable à la construction identitaire harmonieuse des élèves immigrants et à son expression (Beauregard, Papazian-Zohrabian et Rousseau, 2017a). Cette approche est également jumelée à l'utilisation d'un médium artistique qui favorise l'expression de l'ambivalence et de la construction de sens et de cohérence (Ferrara, 2004;Huss, 2009). ...
... Tel que le montre la Figure 1, Yana élabore à plusieurs reprises des scènes domestiques dans ses jeux de sable dans lesquels elle reproduit « sa belle maison » en disposant des meubles tout autour de l'espace et en y disposant de la nourriture. Il est intéressant de préciser que la maison représente l'espace familial et le contact avec ses origines et que par ses murs, la maison protège ses habitants des agressions extérieures (Beauregard et al., 2017a). En recréant symboliquement l'espace familier, Yana cherche possiblement à reprendre contact avec le connu, avec son identité d'origine. ...
... Parfois, un seul drapeau peut recouvrir l'entièreté de la feuille de papier. D'autres fois, les enfants affichent des drapeaux sur les maisons, les châteaux ou les bateaux (Beauregard et al., 2017a). Le recours à ces symboles nationaux n'est pas anodin. ...
... Identity also refers to an individual's integration of past, present and future experiences and connects him or her with the sociocultural environment through the development of a sense of belonging (Flum & Kaplan, 2012). Just as grief work, immigration is about finding meaning in a new experience, which is also at the core of identity construction (Beauregard, Papazian-Zohrabian, & Rousseau, 2017a). Young immigrants face the challenge of developing an identity that makes sense of the different connections they have with their host country and their country of origin (McBrien & Day, 2012). ...
... In this regard, artistic production fosters the creation of bridges between different conflicting aspects of identity (Huss, 2009;Kruger & Swanepoel, 2017). In a larger study from which this paper is derived, researchers found that drawings showed how newcomer children reinvent their identities to suit the context in which they evolve (Beauregard et al., 2017a). This transformative process also suits the exploration of cultural bereavement owing to its non-linear aspect. ...
... As her sense of belonging clarifies in her drawings, the adverse effects of cultural bereavement seem to lessen. These findings corroborate earlier ones in which a strong connection with one's cultural identity of origin play a protective role for identity construction and cultural bereavement (Beauregard et al., 2017a;Bhugra & Becker, 2005). These points will be explored in the following sections. ...
When leaving their country of origin, immigrant children experience various losses that can lead to a grief reaction called cultural bereavement. Being an ambiguous loss, cultural bereavement can complicate children’s identity construction by creating a gap between home and host country identities that may affect children’s sense of belonging and identity. Yet, drawing can support immigrant children in the meaning-making process necessary to work through the experience of cultural bereavement, as it is a non-threatening way to safely express emotionally charged material. This article presents the case study of an 11-year-old immigrant Egyptian girl who used drawing in the context of classroom-based creative expression workshops to express her cultural bereavement process and create a new meaningful identity.
... At this age the opportunity for child development is very valuable. So the role of parents provides stimulation and continuous monitoring in order to more quickly know the aspects of development that have been achieved by the child [22]. ...
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span lang="EN-US">This descriptive qualitative study described the personality or characteristics of children based on the colors used in drawing activities. The subjects in this study were the Pembina Kindergarten students in the city of Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia. They were determined by using snowball sampling technique. The data collected through observations and documentation analysis by researchers without being directly involved in activities. The data analysis technique used was an interactive model which consists of three activity lines: i) Data reduction; ii) Data display; and iii) Drawing conclusions and data verification. </span
... Furthermore, when creating new narratives, participants could remember their motivations and imagine themselves in the future, which is a fundamental feature of a life narrative and a suitable identity. In this sense, creative practices such as drawing have proven to support the identity construction of immigrant students in the classroom (Beauregard et al., 2017). Ultimately, participants have been able to allow themselves to process and build on their grief in a secure context, control anxiety and stress symptoms, and take their time to explore more coherent and unified narratives of their experiences (Neimeyer, 2001). ...
Background: Undocumented immigrants and refugees are more likely to suffer from psychosocial disorders. Methodology: In this pilot study, an art-based intervention is described and assessed, with a sample of 11undocumented immigrants who recently came to southern Spain on a small boat. The art-based intervention is assessed using a pre-post design and four questionnaires, which consist of The General Health Questionnaire, Beck's Depression Inventory, the Barcelona Immigrant Stress Scale and Carol Ryff's Psychological Well Being Scale. Furthermore, five participants were interviewed before and after the intervention and a thematic analysis of the transcriptions was carried out. Results: A significant reduction of depressive symptoms with a large effect size was found. An increase of reflexive discourse and the feeling of belonging after the intervention was also observed. Conclusions: The study suggests that the art-based intervention decreased depressive symptoms and stress, redirecting the narratives of the participants towards the future and increasing the sense of community.
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Creative arts therapy programs delivered by qualified therapy professionals have been identified as effective for adolescents affected by adversity. The current study provided a controlled trial of creative arts therapy to address the psychosocial needs of students from refugee backgrounds. Forty-two students participated in a therapy trial, comprising an creative arts group and control group. Mental health and behavioural difficulties were assessed pre and post intervention. Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to assess well-being. Findings suggested an effect for a reduction in behavioural difficulties for the treatment group. A significant reduction in emotional symptoms was found for the treatment group. Findings provide empirical support for school-based creative arts therapy programs specific to refugee young people.
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Ethnic diversity and inclusive education: foundations and perspectives This article illustrates the main foundations of inclusive and equitable education. First of all, it sets its major “principles of action” and opens the debate on the development of indicators to implement a fair and inclusion process in schools. Emphasis is also placed from an equity and inclusion perspective on the central role of the professional skills in both vocational and basic training of professionals in education in Quebec. The article also highlights the common paradigm that connects the various currents on ethno-cultural, religious and linguistic diversity in education, including the anti-racist and inclusive approaches. To conclude with, two major challenges are raised with regard to the implementation of an institutional inclusive approach in Quebec.
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Schools have become the main provider of services to children with mental health needs. Although there is substantial literature on barriers to implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in under-resourced school districts, less has been written on how to overcome those barriers. Providing mental health services in the school setting presents a tremendous opportunity to increase access to quality mental health care for underserved youth. This review provides a brief overview of the barriers to successful implementation and sustainment of EBPs in under-resourced public schools and provides recommendations for overcoming them. The discussion is organized around an established conceptual framework adapted for the delivery of services in under-resourced schools that focuses on interdependent factors that exist at the individual-, team-, school-, and macro-levels. This manuscript explores some recommendations and strategies for effectively addressing challenges related to implementation of EBPs. Research ideas are offered to bridge the research-to-practice gap that impacts many under-resourced public school districts.
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Gender typicality in children's art development was examined from drawings of a person in an environment. Participants (N = 700) were aged 6 to 12 (boys, n = 314; girls, n = 386) from 13 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and Central America. Inclusion of vehicles, weapons, animals, sports, ground line, Lowenfeld's stage of development, and principal color were observed and analyzed. Boys incorporated vehicles, weapons, and sports more than girls. Girls used more colors than boys. Significant differences were found between some subgroups and countries. Overall there was a significant difference by gender in the following categories: inclusion of vehicles of transportation (χ2 (1, N = 700) = 16.027, p < .01) with boys including vehicles twice as often as girls, inclusion of weapons, no girls included weapons in their images, though some boys did (χ2 (1, n = 283) = 14.317, p < .01), inclusion of images of sports: boys were more likely then girls to include images of sports (χ2 (1, n = 700) = 1.562, p < .01); principal color choice was (χ2 (3,n = 700) = 8.82, p = .032), with boys more likely to use no color and girls were more likely to use equal amounts of warm and cool colors. The data suggests disparity between ages and stages of Lowenfeld's art development (1987) and adds to information on normative development in art and on gender typicality in drawings cross-culturally.
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This paper exemplifies how symbolic self-expression offers the opportunity to express alternative perspectives and hybrid identities that challenge dominant social work paradigms, often in a way that is perceived as less threatening than words by ‘traditional’ women crossing cultural borders due to immigration, or to indigenous cultural transition. This model will be exemplified with a case study of group art work by marginalized Bedouin women in Israel undergoing rapid cultural transition. This will show how symbolic rather than direct forms of expression, mediated through the social–critical prism of third world feminism (namely the static elements of culture and gender, and their interaction with the dynamic elements of hybrid cultural identity and the negotiation of new types of poverty) enabled the social worker to get closer to the pain, dilemmas, conflicts, and solutions that the women constantly negotiate within their hybrid social realities. The aim of using the arts to intensify the interpretive voice of the women is to listen to that voice beyond its ‘entertainment’ element to the level of how it shifts the understanding of people in power and redirects social work policy and intervention.
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This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and ini-tial results of a research study with the long-term goal of estab-lishing contemporary normative data on drawings from chil-dren living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each created a Human Figure Drawing (HFD) that was scored on five mod-ified Formal Elements Art Therapy Scales (FEATS) (Gantt & Tabone, 1998). Data were analyzed along several dimensions: age, gender, ethnic group, and mean scores on each of the five scales. Second graders included more details and used signifi-cantly more color and space than the fourth graders. Fourth graders scored significantly higher on the scale measuring con-gruence with Lowenfeld's stages of drawing development. There was a significant difference between boys' and girls' mean scores on one scale only, with girls using color more real-istically than boys. There was no significant main effect for ethnicity (all p values > .01).
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In order to outline a model of identity crisis, it is necessary to distinguish two types In an identity deficit (“motivation crisis”), the individual experiences a lack of guiding commitments but struggles to establish personal goals and values In an identity conflict (“legitimation crisis”), the person has several commitments which prescribe conflicting behavioral imperatives in some situations, such that at least one commitment may have to be betrayed The literature on identity crisis is reviewed in connection with this distinction, and an attempt is made to delineate the causes, the subjective experiences, behavioral consequences and modes of resolution of each type of crisis
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This paper reports some of the main findings from a large international study of the acculturation and adaptation of immigrant youth (aged 13 to 18 years) who are settled in 13 societies (N = 5,366), as well as a sample of national youth (N = 2,631). The study was guided by three core questions: How do immigrant youth deal with the process of acculturation? How well do they adapt? Are there important relationships between how they acculturate and how well they adapt? Cluster analysis produced four distinct acculturation profiles: integration, ethnic, national, and diffuse. Factor analysis of five adaptation variables revealed two distinct forms of adaptation: psychological and sociocultural. There were substantial relationships between how youth acculturate and how well they adapt: those with an integration profile had the best psychological and sociocultural adaptation outcomes, while those with a diffuse profile had the worst; in between, those with an ethnic profile had moderately good psychological adaptation but poorer sociocultural adaptation, while those with a national profile had moderately poor psychological adaptation, and slightly negative sociocultural adaptation. This pattern of results was largely replicated using structural equation modeling. Implications for the settlement of immigrant youth are clear: youth should be encouraged to retain both a sense of their own heritage cultural identity, while establishing close ties with the larger national society.
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We compared the evolution of perception of discrimination from 1998 to 2007 among recent Arab (Muslim and non-Muslim) and Haitian immigrants to Montreal; we also studied the association between perception of discrimination and psychological distress in 1998 and 2007. We conducted this cross-sectional comparative research with 2 samples: one recruited in 1998 (n = 784) and the other in 2007 (n = 432). The samples were randomly extracted from the registry of the Ministry of Immigration and Cultural Communities of Quebec. Psychological distress was measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. The perception of discrimination increased from 1998 to 2007 among the Arab Muslim, Arab non-Muslim, and Haitian groups. Muslim Arabs experienced a significant increase in psychological distress associated with discrimination from 1998 to 2007. These results confirm an increase in perception of discrimination and psychological distress among Arab Muslim recent immigrant communities after September 11, 2001, and highlight the importance this context may have for other immigrant groups.
This paper describes the construction of meaning through digital metaphoric imagery in trauma therapy by four female adolescents. These artworks supported the creation of a trauma narrative to integrate trauma memories with other memories. Through social constructionism, this art-based research using a case study design uncovered intersubjectively shared, social constructions of vulnerabilities and strengths cocreated by researchers and participants. The digital art trauma therapy sessions integrated into a cognitive-behavioural meta-model of three stages, comprised ten individual, weekly sessions per participant. The creation of four digital metaphorical artworks in the middle stage of therapy directed the participants toward the processing of traumatic material. The results showed that the four participants attached multi-layered meaning to their trauma through the digital metaphoric imagery. The results also showed that the disabled characteristic attributes of the initial metaphors were restored as the participants developed a new understanding of traumatic experiences. Three of the four participants acquired strengths associated with post-trauma growth according to the meaning that they attached to the digital metaphoric imagery. Attaching meaning to trauma memories helped the participants to contain the disorganisation of the trauma in order to integrate their trauma narratives into contextual aspects of their autobiographical memories.
Identity construction can be very complex for refugee children, especially for Palestinian refugee children. For refugee children, organised violence and immigration are important parts of their life experience that can lead to trauma, which in turn influences how they construct their collective identity. Schools have to consider this specific experience as the development of a meaningful identity is an important factor in refugee students’ well-being and school adjustment. School-based activities centred on creative expression can help refugee students in expressing trauma and in making sense of their identity and migration experience. This paper presents the case study of a 9-year-old Palestinian refugee boy in Canada and explores how he expressed and made sense of his multiple identities in his drawings. Many features of the boy’s drawings evoked a wounded identity, especially spatial disorganisation and enmeshment. Data analysis revealed that the boy might have been experiencing collective identity trauma and that he used drawing and a peer as props to heal his wounded identity. Both drawing and the space offered by his teacher to safely explore and experiment with different identities contributed to the integration of his multiple identities into a meaningful whole, which contributed to his school adjustment.
Objective: To examine variations between immigrants and nonimmigrants in 1) prevalence of common mental disorders and other mental health variables; 2) health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions, and 3) health service satisfaction. Methods: This article is based on a longitudinal cohort study conducted from May 2007 to the present: the Epidemiological Catchment Area Study of Montreal South-West (ZEPSOM). Participants were followed up at 4 time points (T1, n = 2433; T4, n = 1095). Core exposure variables include immigrant status (immigrant vs. nonimmigrant), duration of residence, and region of origin. Key outcome variables included mental health status, health service utilisation, and health service satisfaction. Data were analysed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Immigrants had been in Canada for 20 years on average. Immigrants had significantly lower rates of high psychological distress (32.6% vs. 39.1%, P = 0.016), alcohol dependence (1.4% vs. 3.9%, P =0.010), depression (5.2% vs. 9.2%, P = 0.008), and various other mental disorders. They had significantly higher scores of mental well-being (48.9 vs. 47.1 score, P = 0.014) and satisfaction with social (34.0 vs. 33.4 score, P = 0.021) and personal relationships (16.7 vs. 15.6 score, P < 0.001). Immigrants had significantly lower rates of health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions and significantly higher rates of health service satisfaction at all time points. Asian and African immigrants had particularly low rates of utilisation and high rates of satisfaction. Conclusions: Immigrants had better overall mental health than nonimmigrants.
The paper explores processes of identity construction in young people of foreign origin living in Italy. The aim was to understand how youth construct their selves in the global era, characterized by an increase in the possibility of choosing but also in the perception of uncertainty; how they perceive this uncertainty, whether as a chance to construct multifaceted and continually changing identities or as a source of insecurity and loss for their identity. Drawing on 46 in-depth interviews, the research reveals that young people of foreign origin are continually shaping their identities mixing different cultural repertories related to their – or their parents’ – homeland, to the host country, global cultures and youth cultures. Several patterns of identity emerge and they are linked to different perception of uncertainty. A typology of these patterns was developed: young people construct flexible identities or hyphenated identities, or move from a fixed identity to an undefined identity. These types of identity are respectively associated with the perception of uncertainty as a resource, as a constraint, finally with a strategy of reducing or eliminating uncertainty.
Post-traumatic stress disorder in combat veterans is often managed with the use of psychological intervention such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). There is a body of evidence that suggests that some individuals do not respond as well as others to such interventions. Other strategies in use to support veterans in recovery include art-based therapies and anecdotal evidence suggests that these have therapeutic impact for veteran groups that do not benefit from the aforementioned psychological therapies. This article describes a review of the literature associated with art therapy with combat veterans, aiming to ascertain what the therapeutic mechanisms are for veterans in using art therapy to manage post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Themes became evident within the literature review that are discussed and analysed, with resultant ideas for future research possibilities identified.
Objective. This article reviews available qualitative studies that report young refugees' ways of dealing with adversity to address their sources of resilience. Design. We searched five electronic databases. Twenty-six empirical studies were included in the review. A meta-ethnography approach was used to synthesize these qualitative studies. Results. Six sources of resilience emerged: (1) social support, (2) acculturation strategies, (3) education, (4) religion, (5) avoidance, and (6) hope. These sources indi‐ cated social as well as personal factors that confer resilience in young refugees, but most of them also had counterproductive aspects. Conclusion. The results, from an ecological developmental perspective, stressed the interplay between protective and risk processes in the mental health of young refugees who had resettled in Western countries, and they emphasized the variability as well as the universality of resilience-promoting processes. Further research is needed to explore the cultural shape of resilience and the long-term consequences of war and migration on young refugees.
Objective: This article reviews available qualitative studies that report young refugees' ways of dealing with adversity to address their sources of resilience. Design: We searched five electronic databases. Twenty-six empirical studies were included in the review. A meta-ethnography approach was used to synthesize these qualitative studies. Results: Six sources of resilience emerged: (1) social support, (2) acculturation strategies, (3) education, (4) religion, (5) avoidance, and (6) hope. These sources indicated social as well as personal factors that confer resilience in young refugees, but most of them also had counterproductive aspects. Conclusion: The results, from an ecological developmental perspective, stressed the interplay between protective and risk processes in the mental health of young refugees who had resettled in Western countries, and they emphasized the variability as well as the universality of resilience-promoting processes. Further research is needed to explore the cultural shape of resilience and the long-term consequences of war and migration on young refugees.
Youth comprise a significant portion of the total immigrant population in Canada. Immigrant and refugee youth often have different migration trajectories and experiences, which can result in different mental health outcomes. Research is emerging in this area, but study findings have not yet been consolidated. What is known from the existing literature about mental health issues and concerns among immigrant and refugee youth in Canada? We searched Embase, Health Star, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Social Science Abstracts databases for the period 1990-2013 for Canadian studies related to the mental health of youth born outside Canada. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria. Determinants of mental illness included pre-migration experiences, number of years since immigration to Canada, post-migration family and school environment, in- and out-group problems, discrimination, and lack of equitable access to health care. Only a few common categories of mental illness were identified, and the burden of mental illness was shared differently across gender and immigration status, with female youth experiencing more mental health problems than male youth. Some studies identified fewer emotional and behavioural problems among refugee youth; others reported higher rates of psychopathology among refugee youth compared with their Canadian-born provincial counterparts. Pre-migration experiences and the kinds of trauma experienced were important for refugee youth's mental health. Findings also indicated the importance of family involvement, school settings as points of care and services, and in terms of timing, focusing on the first year of arrival in Canada. Professionals must work across health, social, and settlement sectors to address the various pre- and post-migration determinants of mental health and illness, and provide more timely and effective services based on how and when these determinants affect different groups of youth.
The concept of multiplicity describes the fluid nature of identity and experience in the wake of postmodernity. Yet the question of how we negotiate and maintain our identities, despite our multiplicities, requires phenomenological clarification. I suggest that recognition of multiplicity needs to be combined with an acknowledgement of continuity, however minimal. I maintain that this continuity is evidenced in our pre-reflective self-awareness, embodiment and habitual activities. Our authorship of life narratives and our ability to deliberate and shape our identities takes place against the background of our lived, prereflective experience. I develop the notion of prereflective self-awareness using the work of Sartre, Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. I suggest that prereflective self-awareness, embodiment and habitual activity are themselves shaped by our participation in sociocultural frameworks that give meaning to our lives.
In Berry's (1990, 1997) acculturation typology integration is defined by two core components - maintenance of traditional heritage culture and participation in the wider society. These components, underpinned by attitudes, behaviors and identities, are believed to contribute in an additive fashion to the psychological and sociocultural adaptation of immigrants and ethnic minorities, and international research has shown that integration generally leads to more positive outcomes than separation, assimilation or marginalization. This paper draws on an international program of research and describes four multi-method studies that raise and explore key questions about the process, assessment and context of integration and its relationship to adaptation. Three questions are posed for consideration: (1) How is the dynamic process of integration experienced and articulated by immigrants? (2) How do our conceptualization and measurement of identity as an aspect of heritage culture maintenance impact the additive model of integration and adaptation? and (3) Under what conditions does integration fail to be adaptive? Tentative answers are offered, and recommendations are made for future studies to guide the development of acculturation theory and research. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
It is well known that infants as soon as they are born tend to use fist, fingers, thumbs in stimulation of the oral erotogenic zone, in satisfaction of the instincts at that zone, and also in quiet union. It is also well known that after a few months infants of either sex become fond of playing with dolls, and that most mothers allow their infants some special object and expect them to become, as it were, addicted to such objects. There is a relationship between these two sets of phenomena that are separated by a time interval, and a study of the development from the earlier into the later can be profitable, and can make use of important clinical material that has been somewhat neglected. Those who happen to be in close touch with mothers' interests and problems will be already aware of the very rich patterns ordinarily displayed by babies in their use of the first 'not-me' possession. These patterns, being displayed, can be subjected to direct observation. There is a wide variation to be found in a sequence of events that starts with the newborn infant's fist-in-mouth activities, and leads eventually on to an attachment to a teddy, a doll or soft toy, or to a hard toy. It is clear that something is important here other than oral excitement and satisfaction, although this may be the basis of everything else. Many other important things can be studied, and they include: 1. The nature of the object. 2. The infant's capacity to recognize the object as 'not-me'. 3. The place of the object – outside, inside, at the border. 4. The infant's capacity to create, think up, devise, originate, produce an object. 5. The initiation of an affectionate type of object-relationship.
This history of art therapy focuses on the precursory and continuing trends that have shaped the theory and practice and the literature that reflects this development. Scholarship, like history, builds on the foundations laid by others. I am indebted to the authors of four other histories that I found to be particularly useful in the preparation of this chapter. Both Malchiodi (1998) and Rubin (1999) have assembled histories based on contributing trends, as did Junge and Asawa (1994) who have pro-vided extensive details on the personalities and politics involved in the formation of the American Art Therapy Association. My fourth primary source (MacGregor, 1989), while never intended as a book about art therapy, has proven to be an excel-lent "prehistory" of the field. Each of these references provided information as well as inspiration and I encourage readers to consult them for additional perspectives. Finally, it should be noted here that art therapy was not a phenomenon exclusive to the United States. Readers interested in art therapy's development in Europe should consult Waller's (1991, 1998) two books on this subject. History is like a tapestry with each colored thread contributing not only to the formation of the image but to the strength and structure of the fabric itself. Imagine for a moment a tapestry with bobbins of different-colored threads, each adding a hue that becomes part of a new creation, and we can better understand the history of this field. Art therapy is a hybrid discipline based primarily on the fields of art and psychology, drawing characteristics from each parent to evolve a unique new entity. But the inter weaving of the arts and healing is hardly a new phenomenon. It seems clear that this pairing is as old as human society itself, having occurred repeatedly throughout our history across place and time (Malchiodi, 1998). The development of the profession of art therapy can be seen as the formal application of a long-standing human tradi-tion influenced by the intellectual and social trends of the 20th century (Junge & Asawa, 1994).
This paper explores relations between "identity" and "self"-concepts that tend to be approached separately in anthropological discourse. In the conceptualization of the self, the "Western" self, characterized as autonomous and egocentric, is generally taken as a point of departure. Non-Western (concepts of) selves-the selves of the people anthropology traditionally studies-are defined by the negation of these qualities. Similar to anthropological conceptualizations of identity, this understanding of non-Western selves points exclusively to elements shared with others and not to individual features. Consequently, anthropological discourse diverts attention from actual individuals and selves. A different approach is exemplified by a case from northern Pakistan in a social setting characterized by a plurality of contradictory identities. It is argued that an analysis of how a particular individual acts in situations involving contradictory identities requires a concept of a self as it emerges from the actions of individuals that is capable managing the respectively shared identities. Besides any culture-specific attributes, this self is endowed with reflexivity and agency. This concept of self is a necessary supplement to the concept of culture in anthropology and should be regarded as a human universal.
Directions, Volume 18 Number 1 [1] suggests that postmodern theory is beginning to have a significant effect upon educational practice. Atkinson [2] has directed attention towards the effects of both the construction of the subject and the real within art teaching. Much postmodern theory challenges the unitary, pre–existing subject. This paper will argue that the persistence of an ideology of self–expression which asserts that all representation is in connection with (should be read in relation to) a singular, pure, pre–existing self acts to limit our understandings of the complexity of children’s representations and is in conflict with many contemporary positions.Research has centred on the development of ‘out of school’ sketchbooks. Large sketchbooks were given out to nursery and reception children paired with older siblings in primary education. Possible drawing activities and interests were discussed and children were left to develop the sketchbooks at home. Two weeks later (including a half term holiday) the children were interviewed in relation to the drawings developed. The drawings have been considered in relation to contemporary approaches to self and identity.The conclusions of this paper revolve around the possibilities of reading children’s drawing in relation to self and identity through the interaction of social context, discursive practice and agency in a manner which is suggested by Ricouer’s formulation of the social imaginary. Additionally, the substitution of tenacious notions of expression with concepts of agency and contingency grounded in the characteristics of ‘citationality’, articulation and narrative are suggested as a basis for developing the educational potential of drawing.
The research describes the construction and validation of the Ethno-cultural Identity Conflict Scale (EICS) based on 3 independent samples totaling 975 immigrants, international students, and members of ethnic minority groups. The convergent validity of the 20-item scale was supported by its correlations with Self-Concept Clarity (r = -.65), Sense of Coherence (r = -.58), Identity Distress (r = .48), and the Cultural Conflict (r = .62) and Cultural Distance (r = .21) components of the Bicultural Identity Integration Scale. EICS was also linked to contemporary acculturation research with integrated migrants experiencing less conflict than those who were separated, assimilated, or marginalized.
This study builds on the work of researchers such as Anning and Ring (2004) and Brooks (2002, 2004, 2005a, 2005b), who have used socio-cultural theory to investigate the influence of context on young children’s drawing, meaning making, and representation at home and in school. My thesis explores the communicative potential of young children’s drawings through case studies of 14 reception and year one children at a rural school in South West England. The three main research questions concerned what and how the children communicated through drawing, as well as drawing influences. Data were collected over one school year, in three seven-week research phases. Spontaneous drawings from home and school were collected in scrapbooks and discussed with the children. The class teacher and the children’s parents were interviewed and observations of the children drawing in class were also conducted. These methods were repeated for each phase. Nearly 800 drawings were analysed through a data-driven, iterative process where intersubjective understandings were emphasised. The communicative potential of the children’s drawings was considerably broad, but one main theme (Identity) and two sub-themes (Power and Purpose) were visible in relation to the data. Importantly, the drawings offered spaces for intellectual play and identity construction, where the children positioned themselves as competent and creative individuals. The drawings were also shaped by a variety of shifting socio-cultural factors stemming from home, school, and elsewhere. The implications of the study highlight the value of recognising drawing as a complex visual language that should be shared through verbal discussion. Additionally, a large-scale survey was conducted in order to gain a broad base of understanding about early years teachers’ beliefs, practices, and knowledge in relation to drawing. The findings appeared to reflect the impact of the ‘‘mixed messages’’ in current educational policy, particularly in regard to the year group that teachers were teaching.
This evaluative study assessed the effect of a creative expression program designed to prevent emotional and behavioral problems and to enhance self-esteem in immigrant and refugee children attending multiethnic schools. The 12-week program involved 138 children, aged 7 to 13, registered in both integration classes designed for immigrant children and regular classes at two elementary schools. Pretest and posttest data were collected from the children themselves and from their teacher. Teachers used Achenbach's Teacher's Report Form to assess the emotional and behavioral symptoms of their pupils whereas children self-reported their symptoms with the Dominic, a computerized questionnaire. Self-esteem was measured with the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale administered by interviewers to the children. At the end of the program, the children in the experimental groups reported lower mean levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and higher mean levels of feelings of popularity and satisfaction than the children in the control groups, when controlling for baseline data. In integration classes, the effect on self-esteem was especially notable in boys. The intervention's effect on internalizing and externalizing symptoms was not modified by gender, age or fluency in the mainstream language. The study provides some evidence that creative workshops in the classroom can have a beneficial effect on the self-esteem and symptomatology of immigrant and refugee children from various cultures and backgrounds. These quantitative results support previous qualitative analysis showing that the workshops participate in the reconstruction of a meaningful personal world while simultaneously strengthening the link of the child to the group. They also transform the teachers' perceptions of newcomers by placing an emphasis on their strength and their resilience, while not negating their vulnerabilities.
Les identifications de l'enfant à travers son dessin
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L'intégration linguistique, scolaire et sociale des élèves allophones d'origine immigrante dans la région du Grand Montréal: portrait des modèles et perceptions des acteurs. CEETUM: Centre d'études ethniques des universités montréalaises
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Ethics, evidence, trauma-informed practice and cultural sensitivity
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