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IN THE SPORTS OF BASEBALL AND SOFTBALL, POWER, SPEED, AND AGILITY ARE ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR SUCCESS. PLAYERS WHO POSSESS THESE CHARACTERISTICS MAY BE ABLE TO COVER A LARGER PORTION OF THE FIELD AND REACT TO SPECIFIC SITUATIONS WHILE RUNNING ON THE BASE PATHS. IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE COACH OR STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT DRILLS THAT ARE SPORTS-SPECIFIC TO THE GAME OF BASEBALL OR SOFTBALL. THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE BASEBALL/SOFTBALL PLAYERS’ NEEDS AND PROVIDES RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POTENTIAL SPORT-SPECIFIC DRILLS THAT CAN BE COMPLETED IN AN INDOOR FACILITY OR ON THE BASEBALL/SOFTBALL FIELD.
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Speed and Agility
Training for Baseball/
Softball
Mitchel Magrini, MSc,
1
J. Jay Dawes, PhD,
2
Frank J. Spaniol, EdD,
3
and Adam Roberts, MS
4
1
School of Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma;
2
Helen and
Arthur E. Johnson Department of Health Science, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs,
Colorado;
3
Department of Kinesiology, Texas A&M University—Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas; and
4
Baseball
Performance Specialist and Strength and Conditioning Coach for the Chinese Olympic Committee, Beijing, China
ABSTRACT
IN THE SPORTS OF BASEBALL AND
SOFTBALL, POWER, SPEED, AND
AGILITY ARE ESSENTIAL CHARAC-
TERISTICS FOR SUCCESS. PLAY-
ERS WHO POSSESS THESE
CHARACTERISTICS MAY BE ABLE
TO COVER A LARGER PORTION OF
THE FIELD AND REACT TO SPE-
CIFIC SITUATIONS WHILE RUN-
NING ON THE BASE PATHS. IT IS
ESSENTIAL THAT THE COACH OR
STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING
PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT DRILLS
THAT ARE SPORTS-SPECIFIC TO
THE GAME OF BASEBALL OR
SOFTBALL. THE FOLLOWING
ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE BASE-
BALL/SOFTBALL PLAYERS’ NEEDS
AND PROVIDES RECOMMENDA-
TIONS FOR POTENTIAL SPORT-
SPECIFIC DRILLS THAT CAN BE
COMPLETED IN AN INDOOR
FACILITY OR ON THE BASEBALL/
SOFTBALL FIELD.
INTRODUCTION
In the sports of baseball and softball,
explosive power, agility, and speed
are crucial to a player’s success. In
fact, according to Hoffman et al. (4),
these 3 factors have the greatest
predictive power of future baseball
performance.
From a defensive standpoint, players
possessing greater speed and reactive
agility have greater “range” on the field
and are able to cover greater distances.
Players who have exceptional fielding
range are able to retrieve a hit ball more
quickly and possibly take away poten-
tial hits and scoring opportunities from
the opposing team. Given the dimen-
sions of a baseball and softball field, and
the positioning of players, empirical
evidence suggests that a player may
be required to cover more than 12–
13 m (39–43 ft) in a single play. On
defense, players are separated into 3
general positions: catchers, infielders,
outfielders. Furthermore, observations
suggest that infielders will commonly
cover approximately 3–6 m (9–20 ft) in
a single play, whereas outfielders will
cover no more than approximately 6–
13 m (19–43 ft). Once a ball is hit, the
defensive player must be able to
quickly and accurately determine the
trajectory of the ball off the bat to
properly position themselves in the
most biomechanically efficient way to
catch the ball and make the appropri-
ate play. This not only requires a player
to have good reactive agility but also
have excellent anticipatory skills, per-
ceptual, and decision-making skills,
and body mechanics. If a player gets
a bad read on the ball off the bat,
anticipates incorrectly, or has poor
first-step mechanics or bad running
technique, a routine play can quite eas-
ily become a hit or an error.
From an offensive standpoint, a player
must have good footwork and body
mechanics, when batting, to reach
first base as quickly as possible after
making contact with a pitched ball.
According to Szymnaski and Fredrick
(9), it is expected that a player should
reach the first base between 4.0 and 4.4
seconds after hitting the ball. Once the
player reaches a base, their main objec-
tive is to create opportunities to help
score a run for their team. To be suc-
cessful, a baserunner must be able to (a)
accurately detect the trajectory and/or
spin of a thrown or batted ball, (b) be
aware of any other teammates on the
base paths, (c) know where and how
opposing defensive players are posi-
tioned, and (d) identify signals from
the coaching staff and other team-
mates. Furthermore, baserunners with
good reactive agility are able to read
and react better to specific game situa-
tions and capitalize on defensive mis-
takes made by the opposition. To steal
a base, a player must be able to accu-
rately anticipate and read the pitcher’s
movements to get the best possible
jump. It is expected that a player
Address correspondence to Mitchel Magrini,
mitchel.magrini@okstate.edu.
KEY WORDS:
baseball; softball; speed; agility; sports-
specific training
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Copyright ªNational Strength and Conditioning Association. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
attempting to steal second base should
be able to accomplish this task in 3.6
seconds or less (9). For this reason,
even the slightest hesitation can mean
the difference between being called
safe or out. Hence, speed and reactive
agility are critical components of
success from both the offensive and
defensive sides of the game.
TESTING APPROACH
Traditionally, the 60-yard (180 ft/55
m) dash has been considered the gold
standard evaluation for assessing
player speed in baseball (1,2) and the
40-yard dash (120 ft/36.576 m) in soft-
ball (6). However, because maximal
running velocity is achieved at approx-
imately 31–60 m (102–197 ft) the
30-yard (90 ft/27.432 m) dash, home to
first, and home to second tests may be
Table 1
General defensive drills: infield
Drill Description Purpose Coaching cues
Ball Drops
(Figure 1)
The player should begin in an athletic position.
The coach, standing 10 m (32.8 ft) away from
the athlete, will randomly drop a ball from
shoulder height. When the ball is dropped
the athlete should immediately sprint
toward the ball, pick it up with their bare
hand, and fake a throw to first base. To add
a sport-specific auditory cue, on the
approach to the ball, the coach may
randomly call out another base for the player
to throw toward.
Acceleration/deceleration
First-step quickness
Visual and auditory
stimulus identification
This simulates a bunt
situation.
When the player approaches
the ball to pick it up, the
player should watch the ball
into the hand.
The player should feel like he/
she is “pressing” the ball
into the ground. This will
help the player get a firm
grip on the ball.
Shuffle Ball React
(Figure 2)
Set up 2 cones approximately 5 m apart. The
athlete will stand between the 2 cones. The
coach should position himself/herself 10 m
(32.8 ft) directly in front of the athlete holding
2 baseballs/softballs. The coach will then
randomly roll 1 ball toward the inside of either
cone. The athlete will react to this by side
shuffling to catch the ball. The athlete will
then toss the ball back to the coach.
Simultaneously, the coach will toss a second
ball toward the second cone. When the
second ball is tossed the athlete should
immediately turn and sprint toward the
second ball, attempt to pick it up with either
the bare or glove hand, and fake a throw to
the first base. To add a sport-specific auditory
cue, on the approach to the ball, the coach
may randomly call out another base for the
player to throw toward.
Acceleration/deceleration
First-step lateral quickness
Visual and auditory
stimulus identification
This drill mimics a situation
where a ball is hit to
either side of an
infielder.
When the player is shuffling to
either side, make sure the
player stays square with the
coach throwing the ball.
When the athlete turns to pick
up the second ball, he/she
should perform a quick
pivot or open/or step with
the foot closest to the ball
and drive the opposite knee
toward the second cone.
When the athlete picks the
ball up he/she should watch
the ball into the glove or
press the ball into the
ground with the bare hand
to get a firm grip of the ball.
Shuffle to
Forward Ball
React
(Figure 3)
This drill is same as the shuffle ball react except
that 2 additional cones should be placed at
approximately 5 m in front of the initial
cones. The coach is standing 10 m in front of
the athlete. This drill requires the athlete to
react to a ball tossed, forward and side-to-
side. When the ball is tossed the athlete
should immediately sprint toward the ball,
attempt to pick it up with their glove or bare
hand, and fake a throw to the first base. To
add a sport-specific auditory cue, on the
approach to the ball, the coach may
randomly call out another base for the player
to throw toward.
Acceleration/deceleration
First-step quickness
Visual and auditory
stimulus identification
This drill would simulate
either a hard hit ball
where an infielder
would have to react
laterally, or a softly hit
ball where an infielder
would have to react
linearly.
When the athlete picks the
ball up he/she should watch
the ball into the glove or
press the ball into the
ground with the bare hand
to get a firm grip of the ball.
Training for Baseball/Softball
VOLUME 0 | NUMBER 0 | MONTH 2017
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more appropriate for determining
game speed for both baseball and
softball players (2,6,8).
According to Spaniol (8) the ttest,
proagility, and shuttle are all valid
tests that can be used to assess agility.
These tests are all well established
methods for determining an athlete’s
change of direction speed (CODS).
Because these sports are highly
dependent on a player’s ability to
respond to a variety of visual and
auditory cues, the development of
baseball/softball-specific reactive
agility tests may better help to iden-
tify a player’s strengths and weak-
nesses. For example, some athletes
may possess fast movement time
butbeslowtopickupontaskrele-
vant cues. Using a combination of
both COD and reactive agility tests,
acoachmaybetterbeabletodeter-
mine the most appropriate training
drills specific to an athlete’s needs.
However, at this time there is a signif-
icant gap in the literature in regard to
a quantifiable test to measure reactive
agility among baseball and softball
athletes. Rather, at this time, the
coach is somewhat limited to more
observational methods of assessment,
such as performance in sport-specific
type drills and intersquad competi-
tions (4,5).
TRAINING CONCEPTS
As previously discussed, because base-
ball and softball require players to
cover relatively short distances, seldom
do these athletes achieve maximum
running speed (2). Thus, a player’s
Table 2
General defensive drills: outfield
Drill Description Purpose Coaching cues
Y drill
(Figure 4)
Begin by setting up 4 cones, 9 m apart,
in a Y pattern. To begin, the athlete
will assume a sport-specific position
at the base of the “Y” (the first cone),
facing away from the other cones
and toward the coach. The athlete
will then sprint forward toward the
second cone. On reaching the second
cone, the coach will toss a ball
toward cone A or B. When the ball is
tossed the athlete should
immediately sprint toward the ball,
and attempt to catch it.
Acceleration/deceleration
First-step quickness
Visual stimulus identification
This drill would simulate a situation
where an outfielder would have to
catch a ball that is hit over his/her
head.
When the player is
approaching the cone, he/
she should break down and
stay squared up with the
cone.
When the signal is given, the
player should pivot the lead
foot, and drive the opposite
knee to sprint to the ball.
Forward
Charges
(Figure 5)
The player should begin in an athletic
position. The coach, standing 5 m in
front of the athlete, will randomly roll/
toss a ball in the player’s general
direction. When the ball is released,
the athlete should immediately sprint
toward the ball, pick it up or catch it,
and fake a throw to the infield cutoff
person. To add a sport-specific visual
cue, have a player/coach act as the
cutoff person and have them
randomly position themselves in the
designated area to take a throw, as if
adjusting to make a play.
Acceleration/deceleration
First-step quickness
Visual stimulus identification
This drill would simulate a situation
where a ball is directly hit to the
outfielder and the player will have
to throw the ball to a certain base
to keep the baserunner from
advancing or throw out
a baserunner after making a catch.
When fielding, the player
should stay down (3/4 squat
position) and watch the ball
all the way into the glove.
Look for the cutoff when the
ball is in the glove.
Figure 1. Ball drop drill.
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overall success in these sports is not
solely based on linear speed, but rather
their ability to identify task relevant
cues quickly, and respond accurately
while accelerating and decelerating
rapidly and efficiently. Therefore, when
selecting speed and agility drills for
these sports, acceleration drills from
both the offense and defense should
be emphasized.
Defensively, baseball and softball re-
quires players to react to external
stimuli, such as a batted or thrown
ball. Therefore, when selecting speed
and agility drills for these sports,
both offensive and defensive per-
spectives should be considered.
Moreover, speed/agility drills to
improve baseball/softball-specific
agility should focus primarily on
open as well as semiopen drills.
Open agility drills have been defined
as a reaction to a certain stimulus
with a movement or reaction that is
not predetermined (7). Semiopen
agility drills have preplanned ele-
ments, similar to a closed drill, but
require some perceptual and
decision-making skills to complete
the task (i.e., running a pattern then
responding to a batted or dropped
ball). To maximize the transfer-of-
training effect, the drill should
account for distance traveled, span
movement requirements, and incor-
porate reactionary stimuli. Tables 1
and 2 provide examples of position-
specific defensive drills that may be
used by the practitioner. When per-
forming the following drills outside,
athletes should wear cleats and
should not attempt any agility drills
on wet field conditions (Figures 1–8).
Offensively, after a player hits a ball
into fair play, he/she must be able to
powerfully accelerate, such as when
attempting to beat out a ground ball
forabasehitorwhenroundingthe
bases for an extra-base hit. Once the
player is on base, he/she must now
focus on getting him/herself into the
best possible position to score a run
for his/her team. This involves being
able to read and react to the pitcher’s
movements to steal a base, avoid
Figure 3. Shuffle to forward ball react drill.
Figure 4. Y-drill.
Figure 2. Shuffle ball react drill.
Training for Baseball/Softball
VOLUME 0 | NUMBER 0 | MONTH 2017
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Copyright ªNational Strength and Conditioning Association. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
being picked off, or getting a moving
start to the next base. This requires
the athlete to use a rotation or cross-
over step to transition from a static
base running position into a dynamic
sprint. For this reason, the ability to
react and accelerate quickly in the
first 2–3 steps is often the deciding
factor in the result of a play. Table 3
provides a few examples of offensive
specific drills that may be used by the
practitioner.
PROGRAM DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
When training speed and agility,
quality should take precedence over
quantity. In general, the authors rec-
ommend that speed and agility ses-
sions are performed a minimum of
twice per week for a distance of
approximately 300–600 m (984–
1968 ft) per session. However, this is
predicated on maintaining good form
and technique when performing
sprint work and other drills. Per-
forming speed work under significant
fatigue may hinder the learning pro-
cess and reinforce poor movement
mechanics. It is also recommended
that adequate rest be given between
repetitions to allow repletion of ATP-
PCr and reduce the deleterious effects
of fatigue (3). While rest periods may
vary dramatically depending on the
length and distance of a drill,
a work-to-rest ratio from 1:5 to 1:20
may be used for baseball/softball-
specific agility drills. Because the time
spent to perform a repetition of an
agility/COD drill tends to be rela-
tively short (#5 seconds), a lower rest
time may be more acceptable and
have a marginal impact on technique.
This is because many of these drills
require quick acceleration, decelera-
tion then the execution of a task. By
contrast, base running drills that
require maximum acceleration and
sprint work require the athlete to
work at a greater intensity over the
distance traveled (i.e., 90–100% ef-
forts). For this reason, the authors rec-
ommend that the rest times be toward
the higher end of this continuum.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, baseball and softball are
field sports with similar agility, speed,
and reactionary skills. To develop
agility-specific training programs for
these athletes, overall speed/agility
demands of the sport must be com-
bined with specific demands for each
position. These agility drills may be
used by the coach and/or strength
and conditioning professional during
preseason, in-season, and off-season
conditioning programs on the field
or in an indoor facility teaching situa-
tional skills and monitoring the suc-
cessfulness of the conditioning
program. It should be noted that ath-
letes performing agility drills should
wear appropriate footwear for indoor
or outdoor conditions (i.e., cleats
Figure 6. Acceleration runs.
Figure 7. Get up and go’s drill.
Figure 5. Forward charges drill.
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Copyright ªNational Strength and Conditioning Association. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
should be worn during outdoor agility
work). Furthermore, agility drills should
not be performed in wet conditions
becausethismayincreaseinjuryriskof
the athlete. This article briefly discussed
the general demands of these sports
based on the offensive and defensive re-
quirements necessary for success. Once
basic change of direction techniques
have been mastered, a blend of both
semiopen and open drills are most
appropriate for developing the reactive
agility and speed necessary to be suc-
cessful in these sports.
Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding:
The authors report no conflicts of interest
and no source of funding.
Mitch Magrini
is a graduate
teaching/research
assistant in the
School of Kinesi-
ology, Applied
Health and Rec-
reation at Okla-
homa State
University, Stillwater, Oklahoma.
Table 3
General offensive drills
Drill Description Purpose Coaching cues
Acceleration
Runs
(Figure 6)
Start in a base running stance with
the front (right) foot on the start
line. Use a self-start or a visual cue,
such as a pitcher. On the signal,
the player is to react, rotate, and
accelerate 9–27 m.
Acceleration/deceleration
First-step quickness
Visual stimulus identification
This drill would simulate a base
stealing situation.
The player should pivot on the right
foot and drive the left knee
towards the finish line.
The athlete should stay low for the
first few steps then locate the
finish line.
Get Up and
Go’s
(Figure 7)
Instruct the athlete to begin by lying
on their stomach in a push-up
position. On the signal, the athlete
will immediately jump to their feet
and begin to sprint forward 9 m.
Once the athlete reaches the 9-m
line, the coach will give the signal
for the athlete to “hold” where
they are or signal there has been
a “passed ball” in which the
athlete would sprint to the 27-m
line.
Acceleration/deceleration
First-step quickness
Visual stimulus identification
This drill would simulate a situation
where there was a passed ball and
a baserunner would have to get
up from the sliding position and
run to the next base.
When given the signal, the athlete
should push themselves up as fast
as possible into an athletic stance
(i.e., as if lying on a bed of hot
coals).
During the sprint, the athlete should
locate the coach for the signal.
When the athlete gets to the line, the
athlete should break down and
locate the coach.
If the coach signals a passed ball, the
athlete should punch the lead
knee toward the next line while
driving off the back foot.
Figure 8. Reactive sprints/908rounds/cuts.
Training for Baseball/Softball
VOLUME 0 | NUMBER 0 | MONTH 2017
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J. Jay Dawes is
an assistant pro-
fessor of Strength
and Conditioning
in the Helen and
Arthur E. John-
son Beth-El
College of
Nursing and
Health Sciences at the University of
Colorado Colorado Springs.
Frank J.
Spaniol is a pro-
fessor and grad-
uate program
coordinator in the
Department of
Kinesiology at
Texas A&M
University—
Corpus Christi.
Adam Roberts
Currently serves
as a physical
performance
coach for the
Chinese Olympic
Committee.
REFERENCES
1. Coleman AE and Lasky LM. Assessing
running speed and body composition
in professional baseball players.
J Strength Cond Res 6: 207–213,
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2. Crotin R. Game speed training in baseball.
Strength Cond J 31: 13–25, 2009.
3. Glaister M. Multiple-sprint work:
Methodological, physiological, and
experimental issues. Int J Sports
Physiol Perform 3: 107–112, 2008.
4. Hoffman JR, Vazquez J, Pichardo N, and
Tenenbaum G. Anthropometric and
performance comparisons in professional
baseball players. J Strength Cond Res 23:
2173–2178, 2009.
5. Mangine GT, Hoffman JR, Fragala MS,
Vazquez J, Krause MC, Gillett J, and
Pichardo N. Effect of age on anthropometric
and physical performance measures in
professional baseball players. J Strength
Cond Res 27: 375–381, 2013.
6. Melrose D, Spaniol FJ, Bohling M, and
Bonnette R. Physiological characteristics of
NCAA Division I softball players. J Strength
Cond Res 19, 2005.
7. Sheppard JM and Young WB. Agility
literature review: Classifications, training and
testing. J Sports Sci 24: 919–932, 2006.
8. Spaniol FJ. Baseball athletic test: A baseball-
specific test battery. Strength Cond J 31:
26–29, 2009.
9. Szymanski DJ and Fredrick GA.
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2001.
Table 3
(continued)
Reactive
Sprints/
908
Rounds/
Cuts
(Figure 8)
Position a defensive player at first
base and the other players at
home plate. The first player will
get in the batters’ box and will
make a phantom swing. Then the
coach will either hit a ball or throw
a ball toward the defender. On the
approach, the first baseman will
either (1) let the ball through so
the baserunner would have to
locate the ball in the outfield (a)
receive a throw from one of the
infield positions, (b) standing off
the base or in position to receive
a throw from the outfield, or (c)
going after a passed ball following
a poor throw from the infield
player/s. Based on the scenario,
the player will have to determine
whether to (a) sprint through the
bag, (b) round the bag, or (c) turn
abruptly at the bag toward the
second base. If the athlete decides
to run to second base, the athlete
will have to stay within the cone
while locating the third base
coach.
Acceleration/deceleration
Visual/auditory stimulus
identification
This drill would simulate a situation
where the batter has to decide
whether to run through first base
or round first base trying to go to
second base after hitting a ball.
The addition of the cone will
introduce a task-based constraint,
requiring the athlete to run to
second base efficiently.
The player in the batter’s box should
have a bat and swing normally.
The player will then take a few hard
steps toward first base, then
locate the ball.
If the athlete chooses to run to the
next base after a passed ball, the
athlete should plant the left foot,
pushing hard off the inside edge
of the right foot, and drive the
right knee toward the second
base.
If the athlete chooses to round the
base, the player should step on
the inside corner of the first base
bag locate second base and run
around the cone on the way to
second base.
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... Los beisbolistas presentan diferentes características de acuerdo con la posición que desempeñan en el campo de juego. Estas posiciones son: receptor, bateador, lanzador, jugador de cuadro (primera, segunda y tercera base y campo corto) y jugador de bosque (izquierdo, central y derecho) (Carvajal-Veitía et al., 2009;Coleman, 1982Coleman, , 2007Magrini et al., 2018;Spaniol, 2009). En un estudio de Coleman (1982), se determinaron características antropométricas y fisiológicas por posición en beisbolistas profesionales en los Estados Unidos. ...
... En la literatura existe documentación de ejercicios específicos para el entrenamiento ofensivo en el béisbol (Magrini et al., 2018). Sin embargo, no se ha identificado una prueba de agilidad que integre y evalúe los movimientos específicos en la parte ofensiva del béisbol. ...
... Cuando se corre entre bases, la agilidad es esencial y envuelve demandas físicas de fuerza rápida, procesos cognitivos en la toma de decisiones sobre detenerse o continuar y habilidades técnicas biomecánicas y de destreza motora en el cambio de direcciones en reacción al movimiento de la pelota (Young, James & Montgomery, 2002). Es por esto que el aspecto cognitivo, físico y técnico de la agilidad son importantes en el deporte de béisbol (Magrini et al., 2018;Young et al., 2002). En este capítulo se presenta una breve descripción del deporte del béisbol, las posiciones de juego y detalles de la literatura publicada sobre la importancia de la fuerza, rapidez, potencia y agilidad en este deporte. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This study developed a baseball-specific agility test (BSAT) covering the curvilinear component in baseball base running and was compared with the pro-agility test (linear motion) and reactive strength index (RSI). Twenty-six baseball athletes participated, completing: the 36-yard BSAT; the 20-yard pro-agility test, and a jump protocol to determine the RSI. They reported a positive significant correlation (r = 0.63) between the BSAT and the pro-agility test and significant inverse correlations between RSI and BSAT (r = -0.46). The BSAT (curvilinear component) could be a better tool for evaluating offensive agility in baseball and bring new specific information to players, coaches, scouts, and managers.
... 3 The role of the SCC, through proper physical fitness testing and training, is to develop, maintain, and enhance the physical development of players. [4][5][6][7][8][9][10] The results of such physical fitness testing programs can be predictors of successful baseball performance. 11 Despite the popularity of baseball and the measures taken to maximize baseball development and performance, little is known regarding the impact of statistics that physical fitness testing has on baseball-specific performance on a longitudinal basis. 1 Increases in muscle size, strength, and power have been reported to be associated with improvements in baseball power numbers, 12,13 for example in hitting statistics, home runs are associated with lean body mass (r = 0.5), 12 total bases with grip strength (GS) (r = 0.2), 12 and slugging percentage with vertical jump peak and mean power (r = 0.5). ...
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Physiological characteristics of NCAA Division I softball players
  • D Melrose
  • F J Spaniol
  • M Bohling
  • R Bonnette
Melrose D, Spaniol FJ, Bohling M, and Bonnette R. Physiological characteristics of NCAA Division I softball players. J Strength Cond Res 19, 2005.