Article

The Role of Solar Photovoltaics and Energy Storage Solutions in a 100% Renewable Energy System for Finland in 2050

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Abstract

There are several barriers to achieving an energy system based entirely on renewable energy (RE) in Finland, not the least of which is doubt that high capacities of solar photovoltaics (PV) can be feasible due to long, cold and dark Finnish winters. Technologically, several energy storage options can facilitate high penetrations of solar PV and other variable forms of RE. These options include electric and thermal storage systems in addition to a robust role of Power-toGas technology. In an EnergyPLAN simulation of the Finnish energy system for 2050, approximately 45% of electricity produced from solar PV was used directly over the course of the year, which shows the relevance of storage. In terms of public policy, several mechanisms are available to promote various forms of RE. However, many of these are contested in Finland by actors with vested interests in maintaining the status quo rather than by those without confidence in RE conversion or storage technologies. These vested interests must be overcome before a zero fossil carbon future can begin. The results of this study provides insights into how higher capacities of solar PV can be effectively promoted and managed at high latitudes, both north and south.

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... In that study, Ref. [5] by conducting a quantitative web-based survey on 246 respondents observed solar energy and heat pumps as the most preferred renewable energy sources for buildings in Helsinki and a strong willingness among their respondents to invest in RETs as a response to carbon emission reduction. Following a quantitative approach on the Finnish energy system for year 2050 in an EnergyPLAN simulation Ref. [31] found the relevance of solar energy storage. As a second phase of their study, by interviewing 31 experts and interested people they pointed out different technological, economic, institutional and political, and behavioural barriers and related solutions in their discussion. ...
... Ref. [3] mainly discussed different barriers to solar energy adoption in Finland with some solutions by conducting 19 semi-structured interviews and analysing climate and energy-related Finnish government strategy documents. Many of her findings were reflected in the study conducted by [31]. ...
... Thereby, 17 experts were interviewed who contributed a lot by providing their valuable information, opinions and thoughtful solutions to different issues. With such small sample size, which is common in all qualitative research [3], [30], [31], [33], it was tried to generate valued and depth responses from the respondents and later on, to provide a descriptive and analytical representation of those responses in the findings e.g., [23], [24]. Although following a "maximum variation" strategy 25 ordinary respondents were interviewed for getting all sorts of consumers as theoretically explained in terms of their adoption status, opinions of the 17 experts received the highest importance to dig out generalized information. ...
Article
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Although most of the Finns are positive toward solar energy, they have long been stumbled to adopt and hesitated to rely on it due to its traditional weak images and mostly unfavourable weather conditions. However, in solar energy, Finland is already credited to award-winning innovation, demonstration projects, business models, and so on. Additionally, decreased price and the availability of some incentives have got the public attraction. In such contexts, the prospects of solar energy in the country in terms of public readiness to invest and adopt, have induced this study to undertake. Results driven by this qualitative study through some semi-structured interviews have shown a trend of escalating social acceptance rate of solar energy among Finns. However, they were seemed to be still entangled with some misconceptions, lack of well-exposed information, good numbers of visible success stories, etc. This study has also included some recommendations and future research directions.
... This study was carried out in Finland to contribute to addressing this gap aided by qualitative semi-structured interviews with Finnish respondents (see Section 3). Although southern areas of Finland have an annual solar irradiation that almost equals northern Germany, traditionally solar energy has had a weak image in the country [4,5]. Although most Finnish citizens prefer solar energy to other renewable energies [6,7], its adoption rate is still surprisingly insignificant. ...
... Although there are some Finnish studies that directly or indirectly emphasize human-centred approaches to adopt solar energy (Appendix A) by stating various barriers and policy recommendations [5,35,36], very few of them have focused on customer segmentation (e.g [5,37].). However, concentration on segmenting 'individual' customers based on WTA tendency is scarce. ...
... Although there are some Finnish studies that directly or indirectly emphasize human-centred approaches to adopt solar energy (Appendix A) by stating various barriers and policy recommendations [5,35,36], very few of them have focused on customer segmentation (e.g [5,37].). However, concentration on segmenting 'individual' customers based on WTA tendency is scarce. ...
Article
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Although most studies present willingness to adopt as a pre-adoption facet, very few studies can be found that include pre-and post-adoption willingness factors/conditions in adopting solar energy. This study was carried out to explore public willingness to adopt solar energy in residential areas through the lens of different states (stages) of willingness to adopt, and consequent patterns of social acceptance. This qualitative study found the existence of four states of willingness to adopt solar energy among laypersons and expert Finnish respondents, forming quadrants in the interplay between decision and actions. This gave rise to five segments of customers, most representing the 'acceptance in principle' pattern of social acceptance. The results of this study emphasize the necessity for an effective and meaningful approach to those states of willingness to adopt in the growth and diffusion of renewable energy technologies such as solar energy.
... It is installed in water supply systems, ventilation and inside climate systems, in vacuum pumps of milking units, and various conveyors. The payback period of such drive is from 0.5 to 2.0 years [9]. ...
... The measures aimed at thermal energy-saving are also required, especially in winter, though the thermal energy consumption in agricultural production is only 3% of the total fuel and energy inputs. The payback period of such measures ranges from 0.8 to 4.0 years [9,10]. Satellite monitoring of vehicles (tractors and cars) comes into common use in agriculture. ...
... Satellite monitoring of vehicles (tractors and cars) comes into common use in agriculture. The estimated payback period for the implementation of this equipment due to the saving of motor fuel is 0.8-3.9 years [9,11]. ...
Article
Currently implemented project “Russian-Finnish Bioeconomy Competence Сentre – BioCom” within South-East Finland – Russia Cross-Border Cooperation Programme 2014-2020 aims to integrate the BioEconomy principles and approaches into the agricultural sector of the neighbouring border areas of Russia and Finland. The energy efficiency of farming and sustainable use of energy resources is one of the fundamentals of the bio-economy concept. The energy audit is the first step in identifying opportunities to reduce the energy inputs on the farms. (Research purpose) To discover the new approaches to the energy auditing of agricultural enterprises and new assessment indicators following the project experience. (Materials and methods) Four farms were selected for the energy inspection – two farms located in the Leningrad Region, Russia, and two farms located in the South Savo Region, Finland. In Russia the standard energy auditing, measurement, and calculation procedure was applied. The systems of electrical power supply, heat supply, water supply, sewage, and building envelopes on the farms were examined and estimated. (Results and discussion) Following the outcomes of the energy audits in the project framework and the previous relevant experience, the basic energy-saving and efficiency improvement measures were established. Three new approaches to the energy auditing of agricultural enterprises were suggested – energy and environmental assessment of applied technologies and equipment; consideration of the application of renewable energy-generating sources; consideration of the conversion of vehicles to biogas. (Conclusions) The study outcomes proved the energy audits to play an important role in improving the energy efficiency of agricultural production provided they are mandatory, take into account the energy environmental assessment criteria, consider the application of renewable energy-generating sources and the conversion of vehicles to biogas.
... Barriers to renewable energy technology penetration in general and to PV technology specifically are global phenomena, and appear quite similarly in the literature, with only some country or technology-specific differences. Child et al. [25] has categorized major barriers to renewable energy technology penetration in six categories: "market failure/imperfection, market distortions, economic and financial, institutional, technical, and social, cultural and behavioural". ...
... Some of the barriers noted by [25] include limited access to information, a bias for established energy resources, financial barriers, the circumstance that externalities are not factored into the decision-main process, lack of training, and a lacking acceptance [26]. ...
... Also, not all the barriers identified by [25] are relevant or applicable in the Kenyan context. These categories of barriers and opportunities for success were therefore revisited and updated to make them relevant in the Kenyan context. ...
Article
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Currently, Kenya depends mainly on oil, geothermal energy and hydro resources for electricity production, however all three have associated issues. Oil-based electricity generation is environmentally harmful, expensive and a burden to the national trade balance. The rivers for hydropower and their tributaries are found in arid and semi-arid areas with erratic rainfall leading to problems of supply security, and geothermal exploitation has cost and risk issues amongst others. Given these problems and the fact that Kenya has a significant yet underexploited potential for photo voltaic (PV)-based power generation, the limited—although growing—exploitation of solar PV in Kenya is explored in this paper as a means of diversifying and stabilising electricity supply. The potential for integration of PV into the Kenyan electricity generation mix is analysed together with the sociotechnical, economic, political, and institutional and policy barriers, which limit PV integration. We argue that these barriers can be overcome with improved and more robust policy regulations, additional investments in research and development, and improved coordination of the use of different renewable energy sources. Most noticeably, storage solutions and other elements of flexibility need to be incorporated to balance the intermittent character of electricity generation based on solar PV.
... The scenario of a 100% renewable energy system was seen as being highly cost competitive to those with increasing shares of nuclear power installed capacity as well as a Business As Usual scenario. In other work, Child et al. [6] examined the role of solar PV for the case of a 100% RE Finnish energy system for 2050, which showed that storage technologies could play a prominent role in facilitating high shares of solar PV. ...
... A thorough description of the tool used and the scenario parameters can be found in [5]. In addition, the main inputs to EnergyPLAN for the 100% RE scenario can be found in [6] as well as a summary of important assumptions and scenario parameters. ...
Conference Paper
Integrating high shares of renewable energy (RE) sources in future energy systems requires a variety of storage solutions and flexibility measures. In this work, a 100% RE scenario was developed for Finland in 2050 for all energy sectors using the EnergyPLAN modelling tool to find a least-cost system configuration that suited the national context. Hourly data was analysed to determine the roles of various energy storage solutions, including stationary batteries, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connections, thermal energy storage and grid gas storage for Power-toGas (PtG) technologies. V2G storage and stationary batteries facilitated use of high shares of variable RE on a daily and weekly basis. Thermal energy storage and synthetic grid gas storage aided in resolving seasonality issues related to variable RE generation plus facilitated efficient use of other forms of RE, such as biomass, and Combined Heat and Power to maintain the reliability and independence of the energy system throughout the year. In this scenario, 30 GWp of installed solar PV, 35 GWe of onshore wind power and 5 GWe of offshore wind power are supported by 20 GWh of stationary Lithium-ion batteries, 150 GWh of V2G storage (Li-ion), 20 GWhth of thermal energy storage, and 3800 GWhth of grid gas storage. Discharge of electricity and heat from storage represented 15% of end-user demand. Thermal storage discharge was 4% of end-user heat demand. In the power sector, 21% of end-user demand was satisfied by electricity storage discharge, the majority of this (87%) coming from V2G connections. Grid gas storage discharge represented 26% of gas demand. These observations suggest that storage solutions will be an important part of a 100% renewable Finnish energy system.
... Increasing renewable energy has proven to be the most significant way to reduce emissions. Many studies have explored the potential of a 100% RES system on a sector, city, or country basis [6], especially in the EU, e.g., for Finland by 2050 [7]. These studies have focused in particular on the growth potential of solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy technologies. ...
... LUT's study used the EnergyPLAN advanced energy system analysis computer model [33] to plan a 100% renewable energy scenario for Finland in 2050 without nuclear. The annual production of electricity is estimated at 166 TWh, which is double the current level, and the growth is due to the considerable production of hydrogen and synthetic methane from electricity [7]. Solar electricity would produce 29 TWh (30 GW production capacity) and wind electricity 106 TWh (35 GW production capacity) annually by 2050. ...
... In the context of the rapid development of the global economy, the continuous growth of energy demands, the gradual depletion of fossil fuels and the increasing environmental pressure, many countries and regions are vigorously advocating for the reform and transformation of current energy structures, and have introduced various policies to promote the use and development of clean energy. Photovoltaic (PV) power generation technology has been rapidly developed and applied during this period [1][2][3]. With the increasing penetration rate and number of distributed PVs in the distribution network, adverse effects such as power backflows, the bus voltage being out of limit, power loss increases, harmonic increases and power supply reliability reductions may occur [4,5]. ...
... In the third step, fuzzy processing is carried out for the objective function, and an ascending half trapezoid distribution is selected for the membership function, as shown in (3). The distribution is shown in Figure 1. ...
Article
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High-penetration grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems can lead to reverse power flow, which can cause adverse effects, such as voltage over-limits and increased power loss, and affect the safety, reliability and economic operations of the distribution network. Reasonable energy storage optimization allocation and operation can effectively mitigate these disadvantages. In this paper, the optimal location, capacity and charge/discharge strategy of the energy storage system were simultaneously performed based on two objective functions that include voltage deviations and active power loss. The membership function and weighting method were used to combine the two objectives into a single objective. An energy storage optimization model for a distribution network considering PV and load power temporal changes was thus established, and the improved particle swarm optimization algorithm was utilized to solve the problem. Taking the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)-33 bus system as an example, the optimal allocation and operation of the energy storage system was realized for the access of high penetration single-point and multi-point PV systems in the distribution network. The results of the power flow optimization in different scenarios were compared. The results show that using the proposed approach can improve the voltage quality, reduce the power loss, and reduce and smooth the transmission power of the upper-level grid.
... The majority of studies still focus on decarbonisation of only the power sector [14]. Studies describing decarbonisation of individual islands [18], Åland [19], Philippines archipelagos [20], countries [21][22][23][24][25] and trans-national regions, like South East Europe [26], Europe [27,28] or Americas [29], show that the power sector can be decarbonised for a substantial less effort in comparison to other sectors using existing RE electricity generation and energy storage technologies. The results highlight that a significant variety of optimal energy system structures are observed for different regions, massively dependent on local climate conditions and RE resources availability [14]. ...
... A large number of studies use EnergyPlan [38], one of the most used tools for an integrated system modelling, which is applied for a wide list of countries and regions from Croatia [18], Jordan [22] to Finland [24] and Ireland [25], and Europe as a whole [27] representing a comprehensive view on possible energy system structures for regions with completely different climate conditions. Another energy system 2-3 wheeled transport modelling tool is TIMES, which models the entire energy system, and was used along with EnergyPlan in the Heat Roadmap Europe project [39] and in numerous studies concerning European regions [28]. ...
Article
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Transition towards long-term sustainable energy systems is one of the biggest challenges faced by the global society. By 2050, not only greenhouse gas emissions have to be eliminated in all energy sectors: power, heat, transport and industry but also these sectors should be closely coupled allowing maximum synergy effects and efficiency. A tool allowing modelling of complex energy system transition for power, heat, transport and industry sectors, responsible for over 75% of the CO2eq emissions, in full hourly resolution, is presented in this research and tested for the case of Kazakhstan. The results show that transition towards a 100% sustainable and renewable energy based system by 2050 is possible even for the case of severe climate conditions and an energy intensive industry, observed in Kazakhstan. The power sector becomes backbone of the entire energy system, due to more intense electrification induced sector coupling. The results show that electrification and integration of sectors enables additional flexibility, leading to more efficient systems and lower energy supply cost, even though integration effect varies from sector to sector. The levelised cost of electricity can be reduced from 62 €/MWh in 2015 to 46 €/MWh in 2050 in a fully integrated system, while the cost of heat stays on a comparable level within the range of 30–35 €/MWh, leading to an energy system cost on a level of 40–45 €/MWh. Transition towards 100% renewable energy supply shrinks CO2eq emissions from these sectors to zero in 2050 with 90% of the reduction achieved by 2040.
... However, studies have also shown that expert views on the role of solar power are highly dependent on which stakeholder group the expert represents (Haukkala, 2018). Bold modelling studies for the Finnish energy system up to 2050 probe a scenario for a solar PV share of up to 10% of final energy consumption, arguing that the intermittency of solar (and other RES) can be addressed by means of daily and seasonal storage solutions (Child, Breyer and Haukkala, 2017;Child and Breyer, 2016), including hydro, heat storage, batteries, EVs, Power-to-Gas and other storage solutions. ...
... Multiple modelling studies of the Finnish energy system up to 2050 (Kiviluoma, Rinne and Helistö, 2018;Ikäheimo et al, 2018;Kiviluoma, 2013;Child and Breyer, 2016;Child, Breyer and Haukkala, 2017;Zakari et al, 2015) lend support to the vision of an energy system that is able to integrate high shares of RES (Holttinen, 2017). These studies focus on the technical capacities and possibilities to identify cost-effective solutions for developing the Finnish energy system. ...
Chapter
Finland, in line with its Nordic neighbours, has set itself ambitious goals to achieve carbon neutrality. By the late 2010s, the idea of a full-scale energy transition was mainstreamed in Finnish society alongside the expectation of renewable energy being the main production component in the Finnish energy system. In this chapter, we argue that an increased share of renewable energy sources is associated with the trends of electrification, decentralisation and variability. These trends contribute to a move from a production-centric to a consumption-centric energy system and require a focus on how flows of electricity are managed, stored and redistributed and how this affects the interests of the widening field of stakeholders. We focus on stakeholders’ interests as they navigate and respond to the trends associated with a higher share of renewable energy in the system with a special focus on grid development and energy storage. Our analysis highlights that whereas the need for a transition to higher shares of renewable energy is being mainstreamed, the policy development necessary is still in a formative phase and stakeholders struggle to balance and interlink the variety of their interests.
... Since many countries are transitioning to 100% renewable grids by 2050, and given the intermittent nature of these energy sources, large storage systems will be needed to cover the supply-demand mismatch as seen in [19] for example. As such, lithium-ion batteries will be used and manufactured in large quantities. ...
... The flow is considered laminar if , < 2300 whereas it is considered as turbulent flow when[25]. On the other hand, Prandlt ≥ 2300 number ( ) can be estimated from Eq.(19). ...
... We discover that applications of EnergyPLAN include 'public acceptance and opposition' in the output discussion [68], [69], [70], [71], [72] and 'behaviour and lifestyle' in input parameters [68], [69], [70]. ...
... Furthermore, Sun e al.[71] use the direct job creation as one of five criteria (total cost, total capacity, excess electricity, and CO2 emissions) for a multi-criteria analyses to evaluate the sustainability of analysed scenarios for the electricity system in China. The authors quantify the job creation based on the results of the modelling exercise, using an employment factor approach (ibid).In the study by Child, Haukkala et al.[72] on the role of PV and energy storages in an energy system based on 100% renwable energy in Finland by 2030, they combine their quantitative results of EnergyPLAN with an ex-post qualitative discussion of barriers for adoption of solar PV and define solutions and drivers for PV. Four categories comprise the barrier aspects: technological, economic, institutional and political, and behavioural. ...
Article
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Computer-based models provide decision-makers with techno-economic insights into transition pathways for decarbonising energy systems. Such models mainly focus on techno-economic aspects and do not adequately represent the social aspects of the energy transition, although there is broad consensus that these non-technical factors are important drivers and constraints. To map the current integration and identify perspectives for future research, we ask: Which model types are particularly good at integrating social aspects? What social aspects are represented in energy models? How are these social aspects integrated? We analysed publications that apply these energy models to investigate which and how models integrate social aspects within three main modelling steps: (i) storyline, scenario, and input parameter, (ii) optimisation/simulation process and (iii) model output discussion. Results show that social aspects are mainly integrated through exogenous assumptions and output discussions. We also identify models that go beyond technical potential and pure cost optimisation/simulation. All model types integrate behaviour and lifestyle; some address public acceptance, but not transformation dynamics. Only agent-based models integrate heterogeneity of actors and public ownership. We conclude that a better representation of social aspects in energy models is needed, and that there is a high potential to improve this by combining different model types and conducting interdisciplinary research.
... However, this problem can be solved with the use of storage. Storage technologies are constantly being updated and improved, and there are many options available, including batteries, pumped hydroelectric and compressed air storage (Child et al. 2017). The cost of lithium-ion batteries is rapidly declining due to their large-scale production in the motor industry, making them one of the more beneficial options to choose from ). ...
Book
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The Twenty Third Annual Research Review describes the ongoing research programme in the School of Biosystems and Food Engineering at University College Dublin from over 98 researchers (12 academic staff, 1 technician, 11 postdoctoral researchers and 74 postgraduates). The research programme covers three focal areas: Food and Process Engineering; Bioresource Systems; and Bioenvironmental Engineering. Each area is divided into sub-areas as outlined in the Table of Contents which also includes the name of the research scholar (in bold); the research supervisor(s); the title of the research; the nature of the research programme; and the research sponsors. It also includes the noting of four awards for presentational excellence at the Twenty First Annual Biosystems and Food Engineering Research Seminar held in University College Dublin on Tuesday 20th March 2018.
... Some research around energy storage system by using EnergyPLAN has been carried out. Child et al. [22] analyzed the impact of photovoltaics and energy storage system in a 100% renewable energy system and integrated more capacity of PV in EnergyPLAN model for Finland in 2050. Bellocchi et al. [18] evaluated the impact on power generation capacity of integrating electric vehicles in Italian as a storage system by CEEP and CO 2 emission output through EnergyPLAN model. ...
... However, this problem can be solved with the use of storage. Storage technologies are constantly being updated and improved, and there are many options available, including batteries, pumped hydroelectric and compressed air storage (Child et al. 2017). The cost of lithium-ion batteries is rapidly declining due to their large-scale production in the motor industry, making them one of the more beneficial options to choose from ). ...
... The prices decline of PV modules (up to 80% in the last decade [3]), the climate goals and the necessity of enhanced resilient power grids have encouraged the development of numerous projects and studies concerning the high penetration of renewable sources in distribution networks for increased self-sufficiency [4]- [7]. The prospects of reaching a 100% renewable resources based system in Finland are discussed in [8], where batteries deployment is considered in order to increase the flexibility of the grid operation and entirely benefit from the wind energy and solar PV potential. The financial benefits of residential photovoltaic battery systems are analyzed in [9] for the German market. ...
... However, this problem can be solved with the use of storage. Storage technologies are constantly being updated and improved, and there are many options available, including batteries, pumped hydroelectric and compressed air storage (Child et al. 2017). The cost of lithium-ion batteries is rapidly declining due to their large-scale production in the motor industry, making them one of the more beneficial options to choose from ). ...
... The complementarity between variable RE generation, smart charging, and V2G services has been noted in several studies. Child et al. [38,70,71] showed that the smart charging component of V2G connections was relatively more important than the ability of BEVs to provide power back to the grid. Likewise, Lassila et al. [72,73] show that the optimisation of electric vehicle charging would neither result in significant burdens for distribution companies, nor extra costs. ...
Article
Renewable energy systems can play a key role in sustainable energy supply. Because of the fluctuating electricity generation, storage technologies are needed to close the gap between demand and supply. Besides the electricity sector, the transport sector causes high energy demand. In this context, because of their remoteness, islands can be seen as blueprints for possible energy transition pathways. The objective of this paper is to analyse different principle concepts that come into question for a 100% renewable subtropical island from the distribution system operator’s point of view. This perspective offers the possibility to account all system costs needed to transfer a centralised energy system into a 100% renewable one and to assume the macroeconomic costs of such a transfer. For the case of La Gomera the economic competitiveness of renewable energy, particularly solar PV and wind power, is shown. All evaluated sustainable scenarios lead to lower annual cost and primary energy demands than the business-of-usual (BAU) scenario based on the cost assumptions used in this study. The analysis underlines that the combination of different technologies will lead to the lowest primary energy demand and to the lowest annualised cost of 10.89M€ for the entire island energy system, which is 37.2% lower than a BAU scenario.
... However, this problem can be solved with the use of storage. Storage technologies are constantly being updated and improved, and there are many options available, including batteries, pumped hydroelectric and compressed air storage (Child et al. 2017). The cost of lithium-ion batteries is rapidly declining due to their large-scale production in the motor industry, making them one of the more beneficial options to choose from ). ...
Chapter
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Staple foods including cereals and root/tuber crops dominate the daily diet of human by providing valuable protein, starch, oils, minerals and vitamins. Combining the techniques of spectroscopy and computer vision into one system, spectral imaging technique with proposed chemometrics (such as PLSR, MLR, and SVM) was introduced in this study for simultaneous detection of both spectral and spatial information of food products. In addition to the ability for classifying tubers into different quality grades and gaining rapid information about tuber chemical components (such as moisture, starch, and dry matter) and physical attributes (texture, water binding capacity (WBC), and specific gravity (SG), infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy is able to determine impurities of specific flour with avoidance of extensive sample preparation. Overall, it is promising for IR imaging spectroscopy to be used for food quality determination.
... Sustainable building (SB) is one of the measures to mitigate these negative effects associated with buildings across their life cycle. There have been extensive studies on various aspects of SB in different contexts, including technical feasibility (e.g., [6,7]), policy incentives and regulations (e.g., [8,9]), social awareness (e.g., [10][11][12]), and performance assessment (e.g., [13][14][15]). ...
Article
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Despite significant policy drives, the wide adoption of sustainable building (SB) is hindered by factors such as high upfront cost and long payback period. Business model (BM) innovation is therefore highly demanded to help SB professionals to cope with the challenges and convert the value of SB into profit. Nevertheless, few studies examined BM innovation in the building sector and factors influencing BM innovation for SB are unclear. This paper aims to identify the critical factors that propel companies to innovate BM for SB. First, a literature review and expert interviews were conducted to identify and filter the drivers for BM innovation within the SB context. Second, a questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on the significance of the selected influencing factors from 132 SB professionals. Finally, a model based on fuzzy set theory was used to ascertain the critical factors influencing BM innovation for SB. Twenty-four critical influencing factors in six categories from the external environment and internal organization were finalized, namely, market and economic, policy and legislation, technology and industry structure, social-culture, entrepreneurship, and organizational learning. The findings illuminate the motivations when developing BM for sustainability and provide strategies on BM innovation for practitioners and policy makers.
... In the P2G concept, energy is renewable electricity based mainly on solar and wind that is transformed to gas when the surplus electricity is available. It has initially been estimated that in a 100% renewable energy system for Finland the electrolysers have a remarkable role [3]. According to the simulations, water electrolysers double the recent electricity consumption, and hence, the electrolysers consume about 80 TWh in Finland in 2050. ...
Conference Paper
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Solar and wind power have intermittent nature. In order to guarantee continuous power supply, they need to be accompanied with energy storage systems or bridges between different energy sectors. Hydrogen is a potential candidate for both applications (an energy storage system and bridging technology). Hence, it is interesting to study the practical dynamic properties and limitations of electrolysers in the viewpoint of renewable energy production. This paper studies optimization strategies of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyser together with a solar photovoltaic (PV) system.
... In the P2G concept, energy is renewable electricity based mainly on solar and wind that is transformed to gas when the surplus electricity is available. It has initially been estimated that in a 100% renewable energy system for Finland the electrolysers have a remarkable role [3]. According to the simulations, water electrolysers double the recent electricity consumption, and hence, the electrolysers consume about 80 TWh in Finland in 2050. ...
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... Although the achievement of this goal is claimed to be viable by policy makers, it has been subject of scrutiny. Existing research concerns not only Germany but a handful of other countries, and has been based on the examination of economies with different adjusted levels of interconnectedness to other markets (Akurua, Onukwubeb, Okoroc, Obea, 2017); (Child, Haukkala, Breyer, 2017); (Connolly, Lund, Mathiesen, 2016); (Krajac, Duic, Carvalho, 2011). Throughout the discussion, the feasibility of such a policy is often presumed to be attainable under the assumptions of a certain level of complementarity of the analysed renewable energy sources, signifi cant advancements in the level of technology eg. ...
Article
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This article is focused on analysing the present state of renewable electricity production and consumption coverage in Germany, concentrating on the intermittence of wind and solar energy production and considering the significance of the wind silence phenomenon. The development and promotion of renewable energy is a major goal set out by politicians of which one example is the German plan “Energiewende”. The author examines wind and solar energy complementarity and attempts assessing the possibility of basing Germanys’ electricity production on renewable energy sources, without significant advancements in technology and changes in consumer behaviour. Using the analysis based on hourly data of consumption and production by source of electricity in Germany in 2016, the research addresses the issues of renewable energy source effectiveness, intermittence and points to the critical matter of periodical unavailability of wind and solar energy.
... This aspect is evaluated by considering alternative scenarios with increasing shares of EV on a national basis, to compare the effects of different strategies and highlight the most significant trends, in the framework of a Smart Energy System perspective, assuming a synergic integration among sectors and taking the Italian case as a reference. In particular, this study aims to extend the existing literature, e.g., [29,30], by quantitatively defining the role of electricity storage in reducing iRES overall installed capacity needed to achieve a given CO 2 emissions reduction target. Such impact, however, has to be evaluated against storage-related costs: an economic analysis is thus included to fully assess the feasibility of electricity storage technologies, taking into account medium-and long-term projections. ...
Article
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Storage technologies are progressively emerging as a key measure to accommodate high shares of intermittent renewables with a view to guarantee their effective integration towards a profound decarbonisation of existing energy systems. This study aims to evaluate to what extent electricity storage can contribute to a significant renewable penetration by absorbing otherwise-curtailed renewable surplus and quantitatively defines the associated costs. Under a Smart Energy System perspective, a variety of future scenarios are defined for the Italian case based on a progressively increasing renewable and storage capacity feeding an ever-larger electrified demand mostly made up of electric vehicles and, to some extent, heat pumps and power-to-gas/liquid technologies. Results are compared in terms of crucial environmental and techno-economic indicators and discussed with respect to storage operating parameters. The outcome of this analysis reveals the remarkable role of electricity storage in increasing system flexibility and reducing, in the range 24–44%, the renewable capacity required to meet a given sustainability target. Nonetheless, such achievements become feasible only under relatively low investment and operating costs, condition that excludes electrochemical storage solutions and privileges low-cost alternatives that at present, however, exist only at a pilot or demonstration scale.
... Compared with geographies with moderate seasonal variations, such as Concepci on, Chile (36 south), where the radiation during the summer exceeds that during the winter by more than five times [59], or that have extreme seasonal conditions, such as in Finland (60 north), where this imbalance exhibits a difference of nine times [60], the considered scenario is a very favourable situation. Research at equatorial latitudes is scarce compared with seasonal regions. ...
Article
The photovoltaic solar potential in an urban sector and the effects produced by the electricity input into a low-voltage grid are determined, the analysis is performed for one year. First, the generation profiles are estimated, assuming the incorporation limits of typical silica panels and using photovoltaic (PV) tiles on roofs as an architectural alternative. Then, the consumer class demand is estimated. Production-demand matching is performed at the load point level to avoid impacts on the grid. A scenario incorporating a new load, induction heating cookers (IHCs) for all residential users, is posed, the use of which coincides with high-radiation hours. Finally, electrical storage is assumed to maximise the PV supply. A 16% coverage with silica PV panels, or 33% with PV tiles, would supply 46% or 39% of the consumption, respectively. With massive incorporation of IHCs and storage, the supply is increased to 73% and 59% of the consumption with silica panels and PV tiles, respectively. An annual consumption reduction of 16 Tn of liquefied petroleum gas is attained in the cases studied. Additionally, it is necessary to redirect the current subsidies for hydro dams and the overall energy sector towards promoting distributed microgeneration.
... Table 1 summarises the studies on highly renewable energy systems in which an analysis of the entire energy system was performed. Studies covering the entire energy system have been conducted mainly at the country level (e.g., Germany [84], Denmark [85], Finland [86], Chile [18], etc.) and, to a lesser extent, also, at larger spatial scales, such as Southeast Europe [87], EU [88], or Europe [89]. ...
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To keep temperature rise well below 2 °C, production systems should be synthesised in a way that are regenerative, climate-resilient, and equitable, and to maintain biodiversity to preserve life and meet future human needs with the integrity of nature. In line with this approach, this paper presents a stepwise transition to a regenerative energy system in the EU by 2050, with the aim of going beyond carbon neutrality and achieving annual net negative emissions. A mixed-integer linear programming model is developed with the goal of maximising the Sustainability Net Present Value while achieving a balanced solution between all the three basic sustainability pillars. In order to obtain a regenerative system design, the annual self-sequestration of CO2 by the Earth was evaluated based on the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere and the change in atmospheric CO2 concentration. The impact of different CO2 emission reduction scenarios on the atmospheric CO2 concentration until 2050 was evaluated. The results show that carbon neutrality at the global level could be achieved by 2050 with a 1.63% annual reduction in anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Moreover, the results indicate that if carbon emission neutrality is achieved at the global level in 2050, it could be achieved in the EU as early as 2039, given the Earth's self-sequestration capacity. To go beyond carbon emissions neutrality at the EU level, electricity demand is expected to nearly double, particularly due to the electrification of road transport, the use of heat pumps for heating residential and the tertiary sectors, 6G and IoT widespread out etc.
... Possibilities to satisfy the electricity demand in the industrially developed country of Japan with RE sources is discussed in Esteban et al. [20]. Many articles describe the possible future RE systems modelled using EnergyPlan, an energy system simulation tool, results show the possibility to satisfy the energy demand for every hour of the year for the Ireland [21], Finland [22], Åland island [23], and whole Southeast Europe [24]. Another widely used tool, JRC-EU-TIMES also allows to automatically optimise the energy system structure, generation and storage capacity mix, for the year represented in a set of representative time slices. ...
Article
Transition towards 100% renewable energy supply is a challenging aim for many regions in the world. Even in regions with excellent availability of wind and solar resources, such factors as limited availability of flexible renewable energy resources, low flexibility of demand, and high seasonality of energy supply and demand can impede the transition. All these factors can be found for the case of Kazakhstan, a mostly steppe country with harsh continental climate conditions and an energy intensive economy dominated by fossil fuels. Results of the simulation using the LUT Energy System Transition modelling tool show that even under these conditions, the power and heat supply system of Kazakhstan can transition towards 100% renewable energy by 2050. A renewable-based electricity only system will be lower in cost than the existing fossil-based system, with levelised cost of electricity of 54 €/MWh in 2050. The heat system transition requires installation of substantial storage capacities to compensate for seasonal heat demand variations. Electrical heating will become the main source of heat for both district and individual heating sectors with heat cost of about 45 €/MWh and electricity cost of around 56 €/MWh for integrated sectors in 2050. According to these results, transition towards a 100% renewable power and heat supply system is technically feasible and economically viable even in countries with harsh climatic conditions.
... Solar PV is powered by the sun and it is environmental friendly (Hajighorbani et al., 2015;Killi and Samanta, 2015;Mohanty et al., 2016). The use of solar PV can potentially mitigate and reduce the carbon dioxide emissions which cause the greenhouse effect in the earth atmosphere (Child et al., 2017;De Brito et al., 2013). Moreover, the operational and maintenance cost of solar PV are low compared to other renewable energy resources (Reza Reisi et al., 2013). ...
Article
In this paper, a hybrid of bio-inspired control algorithm to track the maximum power point of photovoltaic (PV) system under partial shading conditions is proposed. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a well-known method due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. Levy flight optimization (LFO) is a random walk distribution which is also simple and able to provide fast response. In the proposed algorithm, these two methods are integrated together, noted as a hybrid of Levy flight and particle swarm optimization (LPSO) to extract the global maximum power point (GMPP). The proposed LPSO is evaluated under three conditions: (1) under uniform irradiance (2) under non-uniform irradiance and (3) under step-change of irradiance. A prototype is built to verify the effectiveness of the proposed LPSO. Based on the results obtained, it clearly shows that the hybrid LPSO can track the local and global maximum power point effectively. Both simulation and experimental results show that the proposed LPSO is stable and efficient with zero steady-state oscillation. The efficiency of the proposed LPSO is approximately 99.50% for all tested conditions.
... Enabling a 100% renewable energy scenario for a high latitude case (2050 in Finland) requires both short-term (batteries, EV) and seasonal (power-to-gas) energy storages to balance PV production due to high diurnal and annual variation in the availability of the PV electricity [129]. However, the negative correlation between PV and wind power output in Finland can help to reduce the need for storage, similar to Sweden [126]. ...
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Bifacial photovoltaics (BPV) is a rapidly growing technology that can improve electricity production by utilizing light irradiation from both sides of the panel. A vertical east-west mounting of BPV provides two production peaks, one in the morning and one in the evening, instead of one prominent peak at noon. The vertical mounting of BPV leads to a closer match with typical load profiles and improves the self-consumption of BPV production for household and neighborhood systems. Improving the self-consumption of small-scale PV systems is vital because it increases economic profitability and reduces the requirements for grid interaction. At high latitudes, vertical BPV can be especially beneficial, as the low average solar altitude angle enables the vertical surfaces to efficiently collect irradiation for many hours. This review investigates current state-of-the-art BPV based on modelling and experimental perspectives as well as integrating PV with power grids at different levels. The suitability of BPV in electricity production, its integration to the built environment and landscape and the barriers impeding its implementation are discussed for high latitude conditions. BPV has potential and its application has grown significantly over recent years. However, many key questions have failed to address areas such as the quantitative economic benefits of vertically mounted BPV in terms of the levelized cost of electricity.
... Other studies analyzed the Finnish energy system from different perspectives such as the role of energy prosumers, and energy security on transitioning to a low-carbon energy system [41][42][43]. Child et al. carried out an analysis using the EnergyPLAN tool to identify the role of energy storage in a conceptual 100% renewable energy system for Finland in 2050, assuming installed capacities of renewable alone with hybrid energy storage systems that include a stationary battery, battery electric vehicle (BEV), thermal energy storage, gas storage and hydrogen storage [44,45]. Olkkonen et al. used EnergyPLAN modeling tool to analyze the role of demand-side management on the Finnish energy system with anticipation that the energy system would be mainly based on wind, photovoltaics, and nuclear power [46]. ...
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Wind power is rapidly growing in the Finnish grid, and Finland's electricity consumption is low in the summer compared to the winter. Hence, there is a need for storage that can absorb a large amount of energy during summer and discharge it during winter. This study examines one such storage technology, geological hydrogen storage, which has the potential to store energy on a GWh scale and also over longer periods of time. Finland's electricity generation system was modelled with and without hydrogen storage using the LEAP-NEMO modeling toolkit. The results showed about 69% decline in carbon dioxide emissions as well as a decline in the fossil fuel-based power accompanied with a higher capability to meet demand with less imports in both scenarios. Finally, a critical analysis of the Finnish electricity mix with and without hydrogen storage is presented.
... In other words, the positive externality of aggregating distributed EES can be calculated, including lower electricity prices at peak times and lower grid congestion management fees, and a part of that can be used to incentivize EES owners participating in the aggregation scheme. The lack of such incentives can deteriorate the economic attractiveness of centralized coordination schemes for consumers [51][52][53]. ...
Article
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Distributed energy storage is a solution for balancing variable renewable energy such as solar photovoltaic (PV). Small-scale energy storage systems can be centrally coordinated to offer different services to the grid, such as balancing and peak shaving. This paper shows how centralized and distributed coordination of residential electricity storage could affect the savings of owners of battery energy storage and solar PV. A hybrid method is applied to model the operation of solar PV-storage for a typical UK householder, linked with a whole-system power system model to account for long-term energy transitions. Based on results, electricity consumers can cut electricity bills by 28-44% using storage alone, 45-56% with stand-alone solar PV, while 82-88% with PV-battery combined. Centralized coordination of home batteries offers 10% higher benefits compared to distributed operation. Under centralized coordination, consumers without onsite energy technologies benefit almost double compared to PV-battery owners, because peak electricity prices decline in the system for all consumers. Therefore, the economic benefits of aggregation may be redistributed to incentivize prosumers with PV-battery to join such schemes, who can balance their electricity demand even without coordination. The private value of distributed energy storage declines as more storage owners join the coordination scheme.
... The tool includes generic electricity and heat storage models. EnergyPLAN has been widely used to simulate 100% renewable energy systems on national levels in Croatia [18], Denmark [19], Finland [20], Ireland [21], Macedonia [22] and Portugal [23]. Østergaard and Lund studied 100% renewable scenarios for the Danish city of Fredrikshavn [24]. ...
Article
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Many cities and districts have announced that their ultimate goal is to be energy self-sufficient, but there are many technical and economic challenges that are required to be studied. The aim of this study is to find cost-optimal technical solutions for districts with high energy self-sufficiency rates that can cover their electricity demand. Two methods are applied, a rule-based method and an optimization method, to find the renewable energy system capacities for local centralized wind power, solar photovoltaic, battery, heat storage and heat pump in a district with a minimum life cycle cost. The Kalasatama district in Helsinki-Finland, is taken as a case study. The results show that the full energy self-sufficiency target requires very high investments in the renewable energy systems. For the studied case, reducing the self-sufficiency rate to 76% can bring down the life cycle cost by 66% and achieve a net-zero annual energy balance. It is economically and technically more feasible to aim achieving Positive Energy District or Net-Zero Energy District instead of full energy self-sufficiency. Based on the obtained results, the main investment should be made in wind power, due to its higher utilization rate around the year compared to solar photovoltaic. Investments in the expensive centralized battery storage sharply drops when the self-sufficiency rate is reduced from 100%. It is revealed that due to the high population density and limited availability of renewables, the physical boundary of a district may not fit the required renewable energy installations if high self-sufficiency is targeted. This will frequently lead to expanding the district boundary towards a virtual balancing boundary.
... The work of [29] already called attention to the need to invest on energy storage systems for mitigating the wind intermittency and minimizing curtailment of wind for higher levels of wind penetration in Santiago island, Cape Verde. The importance of storage for solar PV systems has been also highlighted by [80] for Finland. The role of storage with a focus on Power-to-Gas and long-term storage technologies has been reviewed by [79] which concluded that as more power options may be considered to support the intermittent characteristics of sources, the lower would be the required storage. ...
Article
Ensuring the supply of affordable energy, improving energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions are some of the priorities of the governments of several countries. The pursuit of these energy goals has triggered interest in the exploration and usage of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), which can be particularly appropriate for island systems as is the case of Cape Verde. This work proposes a generation expansion planning model for Cape Verde considering a 20 years’ period. Different scenarios were analysed, each one representing a possible RES contribution for electricity production, reaching a 100% RES share. The results demonstrate that the increase of the RES in the system will lead to an increase of the total cost of energy. However, both CO2 emissions and external energy dependency of the country significantly decrease. The seasonality of the RES resources, and in particular of wind power is shown to be one of the most important challenges for the effective uptake of such a renewable power system. While the proposed model allowed already to present some useful scenarios, it becomes also evident the need to expand the analysis, and the paper concludes with directions for future research.
... Se descifra con ello que cinco poseerían mayor oportunidad en la ciudad estudiada, más una que ya está implementada; el detalle de este proceso puede revisarse en estudios previos desarrollados por Barragán-Escandón y otros [4,22]. Al ser determinados aspectos como aceptación e integrabilidad social se detecta además del potencial bruto condiciones que se han desarrollado ampliamente en otros contextos [23,24] aspectos detallados del potencial técnico [25]. Para definir el impacto de estas tecnologías se empleó el modelo LEAP (Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning) [26], con esta herramienta y análisis de modificaciones por la incursión de una o varias fuentes se halla un balance entre producción y consumo. ...
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This work reviews individual studies determining different energy technological possibilities and capabilities, in order to figure out their joint potential of urban energy self-supply, with internal resources. This study has been done in the context of the Andean equatorial city of Cuenca, Ecuador, as a representative case. Initially, the existing alternatives are described, selecting six options through an expert survey. Then individual estimations of energy capability of the defined resource and, from that, a joint potential has been found. When comparing the capabilities and against real urban consumption, has been establishing that solar energy is by far the source with the greatest potential and with better adaptability from qualitative and quantitative aspects. Besides It has been found that with the analyzed technologies, together, 14% of the urban consumption of 2015 as base year can be supplied. Nevertheless, it is observed that as a consequence of the PV potential, this potential is increased to 39%, but for this option could be useful, a conversion of consumptions from fuels to electricity is required. In consequence, then is presented the PV potential of typologies that have been determined in buildings of different types in the city. From this it is concluded that the existing Andean equatorial climatic conditions in Cuenca are highly advantageous to reach maximum urban and building energy standards with solar energy, due to the reduced and stable temporary demands, in addition to good and constant presence of irradiation.
... However, the political barriers to microgrid development include a technology and institutional lock-in into energy regimes which are largely reliant on fossil fuels and nuclear power and powerful lobbies and advocacy for the same [8], [25]. Opposition from utilities to microgrids can also be significant. ...
... Some other approaches have calculated the life cycle of a PV system considering the environmental and economic impact sources for rural irrigation systems [25] and the energy payback time and greenhouse emissions [26]. Although operators cannot control the water demands in urban WPN as they do in irrigation systems, this did not avoid the use of photovoltaic technology to supply pumping devices in many regions of the world such as the USA [27,28], India [29], Finland [30], Brazil [31], Malaysia [32], and Spain [33]. In areas with high potential (semi-arid regions and high irradiation levels), many practitioners implement this technology for sizing PV systems [34][35][36][37], minimizing the number of PV modules [38], optimizing the tilt angle [39,40], and comparing the environmental and economic impacts of supplying pumps with electricity grids or PV cells [41]. ...
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Photovoltaic energy production is nowadays one of the hottest topics in the water industry as this green energy source is becoming more and more workable in countries like Spain, with high values of irradiance. In water pressurized systems supplying urban areas, they distribute energy consumption in pumps throughout the day, and it is not possible to supply electromechanical devices without energy storages such as batteries. Additionally, it is not possible to manage energy demand for water consumption. Researchers and practitioners have proven batteries to be reliable energy storage systems, and are undertaking many efforts to increase their performance, capacity, and useful life. Water pressurized networks incorporate tanks as devices used for accumulating water during low consumption hours while releasing it in peak hours. The compensation tanks work here as a mass and energy source in water pressurized networks supplied with photovoltaic arrays (not electricity grids). This work intends to compare which of these two energy storage systems are better and how to choose between them considering that these two systems involve running the network as a standalone pumping system without being connected to electricity grids. This work also calculates the intermediate results, considering both photovoltaic arrays and electricity grids for supplying electricity to pumping systems. We then analyzed these three cases in a synthetic network (used in earlier research) considering the effect of irradiation and water consumption, as we did not state which should be the most unfavorable month given that higher irradiance coincides with higher water consumption (i.e., during summer). Results show that there is no universal solution as energy consumption depends on the network features and that energy production depends very much on latitude. We based the portfolio of alternatives on investments for purchasing different equipment at present (batteries, pipelines, etc.) based on economic criteria so that the payback period is the indicator used for finding the best alternative, which is the one with the lowest value.
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About 75% of the world's energy consumption takes place in cities. Although their large energy consumption attracts a large number of research projects, only a small fraction of them deal with approaches to model energy systems of city districts. These are particularly complex due to the existence of multiple energy sectors (multi-energy systems, MES), different consumption sectors (mixed-use), and different stakeholders who have many different interests. This contribution is a review of the characteristics of energy system models and existing modeling tools. It evaluates current studies and identifies typical characteristics of models designed to optimize MES in mixed-use districts. These models operate at a temporal resolution of at least 1 h, follow either bottom-up or hybrid analytical approaches and make use of mixed-integer programming, linear or dynamic. These characteristics were then used to analyze minimum requirements for existing modeling tools. Thirteen of 145 tools included in the study turned out to be suitable for optimizing MES in mixed-use districts. Other tools where either created for other fields of application (12), do not include any methodology of optimization (39), are not suitable to cover city districts as a geographical domain (44), do not include enough energy or demand sectors (20), or operate at a too coarse temporal resolution (17). If additional requirements are imposed, e.g. the applicability of non-financial assessment criteria and open source availability, only two tools remain. Overall it can be stated that there are very few modeling tools suitable for the optimization of MES in mixed-use districts.
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A cost-optimised transition pathway towards 100 % renewable energy was simulated for Finland. This transition was consistent with EU and international targets to achieve sstainability, while maintaining national competitiveness. Finland was divided into 7 regions that account for resource distribution and demand differences at high spatial and hourly time resolutions. Results indicate that levelised cost of electricity can decrease from 61 €/MWh in 2015 to 53 €/MWh in 2050 and that levelised cost of heat can decrease from 29 €/MWh to 20 €/MWh based on the assumptions used in this study. Transport sector costs decrease for most vehicle classes through electrification but increase marginally for classes that use bioenergy-based or sustainable synthetic fuels. Costs decrease through the adoption of flexible generation by several renewable energy technologies, intra-regional interconnections, and the use of low-cost energy storage solutions. Results show less need for combined heat and power plants as the electrification increases through sector integration. Individuals and groups can become prosumers of energy, motivated by a desire to contribute to climate action and making choices for lower cost, sustainable energy. Collectively, society can increase a sense of agency through lower exposure to risks. A 100 % renewable energy system can be a resilient, low cost and low risk option for the future.
Article
Present day India has tremendous energy requirements, and with each day it is becoming more difficult to meet those needs through conventional power sources. The never-ending demand of population which is growing exponentially has become very tough to fulfill. To enhance its energy security, mitigate carbon emissions and augment its economic development, it becomes an urgent need to implement innovative policies and mechanisms for the adoption of green and clean energy. India because of its demographics has good solar energy potential. This study aims to examine the solar power implementations in thermal power plants situated all across India. This paper contributes to the literature on solar power by identification of barriers for the adoption of solar power in thermal plants. Still, there is some lack of study about solar power implementations in different areas. In this paper, investigating efforts have been made to examine the solar power implementations in thermal power plants within the Indian context by identifying key barriers. In this study, Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM) has been adopted to find the contextual relationships among key barriers and Matriced’Impacts Croises- Multiplication Applique’ an Classment (MICMAC) analysis has been carried out for validation of the model. Requirement of gigantic investment, longer recovery period, safety implications, environmental implications, and societal concerns emerge at the top level in ISM structure. Lack of adequate government policies and lack of political leadership appears at the bottom of a structured model and these emerged as the most influential barriers. This research also suggested how to mitigate the key barriers by the installation of solar power in electricity generation utilities.
Article
In the recent times energy crises is increasing specially in the developing nations where dependency on fossil fuels as their prime source which mainly includes oil, coal & gas energy emissions which are exhaustible in nature which leads to increase in greenhouse gases. As solar energy varies in nature with time of day and day of the year, direct solar radiations can now be stored using PV modules in many parts of the world. As a result, solar energy storage has been brought into solar power to eliminate these types of impediments. Review study mainly focuses on thermal properties of various Phase Change materials, air and water collector and its combination. PV module are often further utilized in several ways to achieve better efficiency. Furthermore, the utilization of the newest technologies like Nano fluids as well as phase change materials performance of the system is enhanced. Here our main focus is on solar energy storage because sun is an unlimited source of energy and maximum utilization can be done that’s why it is widely growing so in coming years it will acquire energy sector so installation costs can be recovered. Conclusion of the review study deals that with a concentration of 0.3 vol% of Nano fluid, thermal efficiency of hybrid PV/T, flat plate, and evacuated-tube solar collectors has increased by up to 96.3%, 95.13%, and 93.42%, respectively which depends on mass flow rate and temperature variation. Practically we can attain thermal efficiency (ηth) = 56.19% and electrical efficiency (ηele) = 13.75% after hybridization.
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Energy systems analyses are integrated elements in planning the transition towards renewable energy-based energy systems. This is due to a growing complexity arising from the wider exploitation of variable renewable energy sources (VRES) and an increasing reliance on sector integration as an enabler of temporal energy system integration, but it calls for consideration to the validity of modelling tools. This article synthesises EnergyPLAN applications through an analysis of its use both from a bibliometric and a case-geographical point of view and through a review of the evolution in the issues addressed and the results obtained using EnergyPLAN. This synthesis is provided with a view to addressing the validity and contribution of EnergyPLAN-based research. As of July 1st, 2022, EnergyPLAN has been applied in 315 peer-reviewed articles, and we see the very high application as an inferred internal validation. In addition, the review shows how the complexity of energy systems analyses has increased over time with early studies focusing on the role of wind power and the cogeneration of heat and power and later studies addressing contemporarily novel issues like the sector integration offered by using power-to-x in fully integrated renewable energy systems. Important findings developed through the application of EnergyPLAN includes the value of district heating in energy systems, the value of district heating for integration of VRES and more generally the importance of sector integration for resource-efficient renewable energy-based energy systems. The wide application across systems and development stages is interpreted as inferred validation through distributed stepwise replication.
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At present, solar energy resources are becoming more and more popular as a substitute for conventional energy sources, in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In order to further improve the utilization rate of solar energy resources, storage, as an important supplement, is more and more widely used. One of the most important research directions is to determine the necessary size of storage capacity by mathematic modeling. This paper will describe a new and efficient decision-making process to determine a series of storage capacities for a grid-connected PV system. The benefit of using a decision-making model is that it can easily determine the most appropriate storage capacity for the system. The paper will show here that the decision-making model will not only find the most effectiveness storage, but also find the relationship between storage capacities and the utilization rates of renewable energy. The case study shows that using 141.25 kWh storage increases the utilization rate of renewable energy in demand by 3.605%. And it would recover the storage cost by 4.66 years in Australia market.
Thesis
Global warming is one of the main effects of humanmade climate change. It is common sense that direct emission-free renewable energy must be integrated on a large scale into our energy systems to limit the earth’s temperature rise. The integration of fluctuating renewable electricity sources presents a major challenge for future energy systems as the residual load curve will be characterized by high fluctuations, significant ramp rates and the need for peak power coverage. Utility-scale energy storage technologies are likely to be required to ensure a reliable and affordable energy supply. In order to achieve deep decarbonization all sectors (electricity, heat, transport, etc.) must be considered. The heating and cooling sector is seen as an important lever to balance fluctuations and increase the share of renewable energy in all sectors. For this reason, hybrid energy storage is introduced within this work. It is a technological option at the intersection of multiple sectors by combining thermal and/or thermo-mechanical and/or chemical conversion and energy storage units to large-scale energy storage solutions. In contrast to power to power energy storages like batteries, hybrid energy storages make it possible to address demands of the electric and heating/cooling sector. Various technologies for energy storage can be found in literature. These technologies are sorted if they already fulfill the hybrid definition made within this work or if they at least could be used in a hybrid way. For this reason, a strategy for hybridization is defined. Different hybrid or hybridizable energy storages based on different physical mechanisms are the fundamental base of this work. They all differ in technical maturity and the underlying performance estimations typically rely on varying boundary conditions and assumptions. This makes storage parameters in terms of roundtrip efficiencies and specific cost highly incomparable. By combining thermodynamic calculations with cost estimation, a comparable database of storage parameters in terms of roundtrip efficiencies and cost data is created. Technologies proposed in literature also serve as pool for modifications. Rapidly changing boundary conditions in energy systems worldwide create unclear requirements towards energy storage technologies. Sometimes, an investment cost-optimized storage could be better than an efficiency-optimized one and vice versa. In order to assess the potential of hybrid energy storages, energy system design is applied. The focus is on urban energy systems since the extraction of heat and cold from hybrid storages can address district heating and cooling systems. For this reason, a generic model for the design and optimization of urban energy systems is developed. Based on an archetype approach, the cities Barcelona, Jakarta, Buenos Aires, Toronto, Dubai and Hamburg are selected – all with different loads (electricity and heating, electricity and cooling or electricity and heating and cooling) and different local boundary conditions, e.g. different potentials for the implementation of renewable energy as they are located in different climate zones. In order to create a powerful model, the hybrid energy storages are combined with a large number of state-of-the-art energy generation, conversion and storage technologies, e.g. renewable and fossil power generation, heat pumps, batteries, thermal storages, as benchmark. A linear programming optimization procedure is applied to derive energy systems that allow the most cost-effective supply in terms of electric and thermal demands to the cities. A special focus is on decarbonization as cost-optimal system configurations are derived under direct carbon emission constraints. The results indicate that hybrid energy storages are not part of cost-optimal energy systems without carbon constraints but generate an impact at medium and high decarbonization rates. Total expenditures for the energy supply of all cities decrease on average by around 1 % at a decarbonization rate of 80 % and by 16 % at a decarbonization rate of 100 %. The deployment of hybrid storages especially has an impact on technologies for large-scale heat and cold generation. Sensitivities towards specific cost and the type of implementation show the robustness of the calculated solutions.
Technical Report
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Technical Report "Global Energy System based on 100% Renewable Energy – Power Sector", published at the Global Renewable Energy Solutions Showcase event (GRESS), a side event of the COP23, Bonn, November 8, 2017 A global transition to 100% renewable electricity is feasible at every hour throughout the year and more cost effective than the existing system, which is largely based on fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Energy transition is no longer a question of technical feasibility or economic viability, but of political will. Existing renewable energy potential and technologies, including storage can generate sufficient and secure power to cover the entire global electricity demand by 2050 . The world population is expected to grow from 7.3 to 9.7 billion. The global electricity demand for the power sector is set to increase from 24,310 TWh in 2015 to around 48,800 TWh by 2050. Total levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) on a global average for 100% renewable electricity in 2050 is 52 €/MWh (including curtailment, storage and some grid costs), compared to 70 €/MWh in 2015. Solar PV and battery storage drive most of the 100% renewable electricity supply due to a significant decline in costs during the transition. Due to rapidly falling costs, solar PV and battery storage increasingly drive most of the electricity system, with solar PV reaching some 69%, wind energy 18%, hydropower 8% and bioenergy 2% of the total electricity mix in 2050 globally. Wind energy increases to 32% by 2030. Beyond 2030 solar PV becomes more competitive. Solar PV supply share increases from 37% in 2030 to about 69% in 2050. Batteries are the key supporting technology for solar PV. Storage output covers 31% of the total demand in 2050, 95% of which is covered by batteries alone. Battery storage provides mainly short-term (diurnal) storage, and renewable energy based gas provides seasonal storage. 100% renewables bring GHG emissions in the electricity sector down to zero, drastically reduce total losses in power generation and create 36 million jobs by 2050. Global greenhouse gas emissions significantly reduce from about 11 GtCO2eq in 2015 to zero emissions by 2050 or earlier, as the total LCOE of the power system declines. The global energy transition to a 100% renewable electricity system creates 36 million jobs by 2050 in comparison to 19 million jobs in the 2015 electricity system. Operation and maintenance jobs increase from 20% of the total direct energy jobs in 2015 to 48% of the total jobs in 2050 that implies more stable employment chances and economic growth globally. The total losses in a 100% renewable electricity system are around 26% of the total electricity demand, compared to the current system in which about 58% of the primary energy input is lost.
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Batteries are often used to overcome the intermittency of renewable energy resources. However, Li-ion batteries are associated with tremendous metal depletion, environmental impact, and human health hazards. Thermal energy storage systems are often disregarded in large-scale plans for direct production of electricity due to the losses encountered in the conversion process. Using Jordan as a case study, six different systems were evaluated, namely Photovoltaic (PV)-thermal storage, PV-wind-thermal storage, PV-concentrated solar power (CSP)-thermal storage, PV-CSP-wind-thermal storage, PV-CSP-Li-ion battery, and PV-CSP-wind-Li-ion battery. Different techno-economic parameters were considered to scan for the installation sites of highest demand-supply matching and lowest levelized cost of electricity. The results showed that when thermal storage is adopted, incorporating wind turbines with the solar system decreases the total installation capacity by about 35%, even though larger thermal storage is required. The optimal configurations of PV-CSP-wind-thermal storage and PV-CSP-wind-battery systems have storage capacities of 0.340 TWhth and 0.109 TWhe, respectively. This work revealed that the integration of thermal storage to renewable power generation systems in Jordan is not only feasible and can cover 100% of the energy requirements at all times, but also can offset the huge need for the more common but perilous alternative (Li-ion batteries).
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This paper proposes a methodology to assess the impact of alternative electricity generation and energy storage scenarios for meeting electricity demand on a national level. The method combines real and synthetic electricity generation and demand data to investigate different decarbonization strategies using solar and wind generation and electrical energy storage. This method is applied to provide relevant case studies for two geographically similar electricity systems in New Zealand and Great Britain. Newly available solar and wind data sets at hourly resolution are used within this method for these systems to assess the potential contribution of these technologies and as such, to refresh understanding of the impact of these technologies on decarbonization strategies against historical and future demand patterns. Although wind, solar and storage technologies are found to reduce the carbon emissions in both electricity systems, a key result is quantifying the impact this has on traditional generation as a backup resource. In New Zealand an investment in wind and solar equivalent to less than 15% of the wind/solar capacity in Great Britain is found to (i) reduce fossil fuel use to less than 2% of annual electricity generation requirements in the data assessed and (ii) remove the need for continuous operation of fossil fuel plants. Further, it is shown that existing hydro storage potential could be used to create near complete decarbonization of New Zealand electricity
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The report describes the development of solar photovoltaics in Finland.
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A 100% renewable energy scenario was developed for Finland in 2050 using the EnergyPLAN modelling tool to find a suitable, least-cost configuration. Hourly data analysis determined the roles of various energy storage solutions. Electricity and heat from storage represented 15% of end-user demand. Thermal storage discharge was 4% of end-user heat demand. In the power sector, 21% of demand was satisfied by electricity storage discharge, with the majority (87%) coming from vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connections. Grid gas storage discharge represented 26% of gas demand. This suggests that storage solutions will be an important part of a 100% renewable Finnish energy system.
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High shares of intermittent renewable power generation in a European electricity system will require flexible backup power generation on the dominant diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal weather timescales. The same three timescales are already covered by today's dispatchable electricity generation facilities, which are able to follow the typical load variations on the intra-day, intra-week, and seasonal timescales. This work aims to quantify the changing demand for those three backup flexibility classes in emerging large-scale electricity systems, as they transform from low to high shares of variable renewable power generation. A weather-driven modelling is used, which aggregates eight years of wind and solar power generation data as well as load data over Germany and Europe, and splits the backup system required to cover the residual load into three flexibility classes distinguished by their respective maximum rates of change of power output. This modelling shows that the slowly flexible backup system is dominant at low renewable shares, but its optimized capacity decreases and drops close to zero once the average renewable power generation exceeds 50% of the mean load. The medium flexible backup capacities increase for modest renewable shares, peak at around a 40% renewable share, and then continuously decrease to almost zero once the average renewable power generation becomes larger than 100% of the mean load. The dispatch capacity of the highly flexible backup system becomes dominant for renewable shares beyond 50%, and reach their maximum around a 70% renewable share. For renewable shares above 70% the highly flexible backup capacity in Germany remains at its maximum, whereas it decreases again for Europe. This indicates that for highly renewable large-scale electricity systems the total required backup capacity can only be reduced if countries share their excess generation and backup power.
Conference Paper
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The objective of this paper is to provide insights for researchers and policy makers concerning the impact of specific mitigation measures for greenhouse gas emissions at the farm level. Both quantitative simulations and qualitative expert judgements are used to analyse the impacts of four different mitigation measures for greenhouse gas emissions in Finland. The quantitative effects projected by the farm level modelling can provide the expert panel an opportunity to evaluate the acceptability at the farm level and the effectiveness of these mitigation measures to reduce emissions from agriculture. The results indicate that the potential to reduce emissions from Finnish agriculture is limited with current technology and the cost is high for implementing these measures at the farm level. The possible emissions reduction in Finland from these measures would contribute to less than one tenth of the reduction target for sectors excluded from the Emissions Trading System.
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We examine the possibilities and challenges of the transition to DE in Finland. Technological niches are emerging both in the heat and electricity sector. Business model innovation is evident only in the electricity sector. Removing barriers and developing new business models will accelerate the transition. a b s t r a c t Small-scale distributed energy generation is expected to play an important role in helping Finland increase its energy self-sufficiency. However, the overall strategy to date for promoting distributed energy remains unclear. It is not yet well understood which factors promote the growth of the distributed energy sector and what barriers need to be removed. In this article we present the results of a questionnaire directed at a panel of 26 experts from the distributed energy value chain and 15 semi-structured interviews with industry and non-industry representatives. We investigated, from a sociotechnical transition perspective, the possibilities and challenges of the transition to distributed energy in Finland through 2025. The results show that a shift to a prosperous future for distributed energy is possible if permit procedures, ease of grid connection, and taxation laws are improved in the electricity sector and new business concepts are introduced in the heat sector. In contrast to other European countries, the transition in Finland is expected to take place through a market-based approach favoring investment-focused measures. We conclude that incentive-based schemes alone, whatever they may be, will be insufficient to create significant growth in Finland without institutional change, removal of barriers, and the engagement of key actors.
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Thesis
As electricity generation based on volatile renewable resources is subject to fluctuations, data with high temporal and spatial resolution on their availability is indispensable for integrating large shares of renewable capacities into energy infrastructures. The scope of the present doctoral thesis is to enhance the existing energy modelling environment REMix in terms of (i.) extending the geographic coverage of the potential assessment tool REMix-EnDaT from a European to a global scale, (ii.) adding a new plant siting optimization module REMix-PlaSMo, capable of assessing siting effects of renewable power plants on the portfolio output and (iii.) adding a new alternating current power transmission model between 30 European countries and CSP electricity imports from power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East via high voltage direct current links into the module REMix-OptiMo. With respect to the global potential assessment tool, a thorough investigation is carried out creating an hourly global inventory of the theoretical potentials of the major renewable resources solar irradiance, wind speed and river discharge at a spatial resolution of 0.45°x0.45°. A detailed global land use analysis determines eligible sites for the installation of renewable power plants. Detailed power plant models for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power allow for the assessment of power output, cost per kWh and respective full load hours taking into account the theoretical potentials, technological as well as economic data. The so-obtined tool REMix-EnDaT can be used as follows: First, as an assessment tool for arbitrary geographic locations, countries or world regions, deriving either site-specific or aggregated installable capacities, cost as well as full load hour potentials. Second, as a tool providing input data such as installable capacities and hourly renewable electricity generation for further assessments using the modules REMix-PlasMo and OptiMo. The plant siting tool REMix-PlaSMo yields results as to where the volatile power technologies photovoltaics and wind are to be located within a country in order to gain distinct effects on their aggregated power output. Three different modes are implemented: (a.) Optimized plant siting in order to obtain the cheapest generation cost, (b.) a minimization of the photovoltaic and wind portfolio output variance and (c.) a minimization of the residual load variance. The third fundamental addition to the REMix model is the amendment of the module REMix-OptiMo with a new power transmission model based on the DC load flow approximation. Moreover, electricity imports originating from concentrating solar power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East are now feasible. All of the new capabilities and extensions of REMix are employed in three case studies: In case study 1, using the module REMix-EnDaT, a global potential assessment is carried out for 10 OECD world regions, deriving installable capacities, cost and full load hours for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power. According to the latter, photovoltaics will represent the cheapest technology in 2050, an average of 1634 full load hours could lead to an electricity generation potential of some 5500 PWh. Although CSP also taps solar irradiance, restrictions in terms of suitable sites for erecting power plants are more severe. For that reason, the maximum potential amounts to some 1500 PWh. However, thermal energy storage can be used, which, according to this assessment, could lead to 5400 hours of full load operation. 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Moreover, the average power generation cost using a portfolio consisting of PV, CSP, wind and hydro power can be stabilized at about 10 €ct/kWh by the year 2050. In case study 3, using the module REMix-OptiMo, a validation of a TRANS-CSP scenario based upon high shares of renewable power generation is carried out. The optimization is conducted on an hourly basis using a least cost approach, thereby investigating if and how demand is met during each hour of the investigated year. It could be shown, that the assumed load can safely be met in all countries for each hour using the scenario's power plant portfolio. Furthermore, it was proven that dispatchable renewable power generation, in particular CSP imports to Europe, have a system stabilizing effect. Using the suggested concept, the utilization of the transfer capacities between countries would decrease until 2050.
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A recent paper by Ferroni and Hopkirk (2016) asserts that the ERoEI (also referred to as EROI) of photovoltaic (PV) systems is so low that they actually act as net energy sinks, rather than delivering energy to society. Such claim, if accurate, would call into question many energy investment decisions. In the same paper, a comparison is also drawn between PV and nuclear electricity. We have carefully analysed this paper, and found methodological inconsistencies and calculation errors that, in combination, render its conclusions not scientifically sound. Ferroni and Hopkirk adopt ‘extended’ boundaries for their analysis of PV without acknowledging that such choice of boundaries makes their results incompatible with those for all other technologies that have been analysed using more conventional boundaries, including nuclear energy with which the authors engage in multiple inconsistent comparisons. In addition, they use out-dated information, make invalid assumptions on PV specifications and other key parameters, and conduct calculation errors, including double counting. We herein provide revised EROI calculations for PV electricity in Switzerland, adopting both conventional and ‘extended’ system boundaries, to contrast with their results, which points to an order-of-magnitude underestimate of the EROI of PV in Switzerland by Ferroni and Hopkirk.
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Solar and wind power are potential carbon-free energy solutions for urban areas, but they are also subject to large variability. At the same time, urban areas offer promising flexibility solutions for balancing variable renewable power. This paper presents models for optimal control of power-to-heat conversion to heating systems and shiftable loads in cities to incorporate large variable renewable power schemes. The power-to-heat systems comprise heat pumps, electric boilers, and thermal storage. The control strategies comprise optimal matching of load and production, and cost-optimal market participation with investment analysis. All analyses are based on hourly data. The models are applied to a case study in Helsinki, Finland. For a scheme providing ca. 50% of all electricity in the city through self-consumption of variable renewables, power-to-heat with thermal storage could absorb all the surplus production. A significant reduction in the net load magnitude was obtained with shiftable loads. Investments to both power-to-heat and load shifting with electric heating and commercial refrigeration have a positive net present value if the resources are controlled cost-optimally.
Conference Paper
Photovoltaics (PV) has become one of the cheapest forms of electricity production during the past few years. The Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE) of PV has already reached grid parity with retail electricity price in many markets. However, the concept of grid parity is not always well defined. In this paper, the retail electricity price includes only the variable (per kWh) components in the customer bill since the fixed monthly or annual fees cannot be saved by the prosumer. Furthermore, the ratio of self-consumption of own production has to be taken into consideration. Self-consumption is valued for the variable electricity retail price, whereas the surplus production can often be valued only for the wholesale electricity price or part of it. True grid parity or competitiveness has already been reached in many European countries like Germany and Italy with all realistic Weighted Average Costs of Capital (WACC) and self-consumption ratios. In moderate irradiation and low electricity price markets like Finland and Sweden, true grid parity in rooftop segments will be reached most probably within 3-10 years without any subsidies. The work for this paper has been carried out under the framework of the EU PV Technology and Innovation Platform.
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The energy demand of photovoltaic (PV) systems is an important part of energy sustainability of PV systems. PV systems are considered sustainable energy systems when the produced energy is higher than the energy needed for the PV system on a life-cycle basis. This paper employs financial learning curve concepts to determine the energy demand of major PV module technologies and systems. General PV module and PV system energy learning curves are calculated by weighting energy demand of different PV systems according to their share in PV market. Additionally, the contribution of module efficiency for reducing specific energy demand is considered. We find an energy learning rate of 17% for PV modules and 14% for PV systems on the basis of a market weighted mix of technologies and volumes. Energy payback time (EPBT) and energy return on energy investment (EROI) in 2010 and for the year 2020 are calculated via the energy learning rate and indicates a further significant progress in energetic productivity of PV systems. To the knowledge of the authors this publication shows for the first time that the energy consumption in PV manufacturing follows the log-linear learning curve law similar to the evolution of production cost. This allows calculating EPBT or EROI for future prognoses. Furthermore, it shows significant evidence of how sustainable PV systems are and justifies their growing share in the energy market.
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A district energy system, especially one employing a large heat storage facility, may be able to tap energy sources that would not otherwise be suitable owing to irregular occurrence or difficulty in transporting the energy to demand centres. To be viable as thermal energy for buildings, sources such as geothermal, solar, and nuclear energy (which is likely to be available in off-peak electrical demand periods) all require at least one of the following: an extensive network for distribution of the energy, large-scale demand applications, or large off-peak storage capacity. These requirements have hindered the use of these sources in individual buildings, but they are compatible with a district energy system. -from Author.
Article
In order to define a cost optimal 100% renewable energy system, an hourly resolved model has been created based on linear optimization of energy system parameters under given constrains. The model is comprised of five scenarios for 100% renewable energy power systems in North-East Asia with different high voltage direct current transmission grid development levels, including industrial gas demand and additional energy security. Renewables can supply enough energy to cover the estimated electricity and gas demands of the area in the year 2030 and deliver more than 2000 TW hth of heat on a cost competitive level of 84 €/MW hel for electricity. Further, this can be accomplished for a synthetic natural gas price at the 2013 Japanese liquefied natural gas import price level and at no additional generation costs for the available heat. The total area system cost could reach 69.4 €/MW hel, if only the electricity sector is taken into account. In this system about 20% of the energy is exchanged between the 13 regions, reflecting a rather decentralized character which is supplied 27% by stored energy. The major storage technologies are batteries for daily storage and power-to-gas for seasonal storage. Prosumers are likely to play a significant role due to favourable economics. A highly resilient energy system with very high energy security standards would increase the electricity cost by 23% to 85.6 €/MW hel. The results clearly show that a 100% renewable energy based system is feasible and lower in cost than nuclear energy and fossil carbon capture and storage alternatives.
Article
A clear consensus exists in German society that renewable energy resources have to play a dominant role in the future German energy supply system. However, many questions are still under discussion; for instance the relevance of the different technologies such as photovoltaic systems and wind energy converters installed offshore in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Concerns also exist about the cost of a future energy system mainly based on renewable energy. In the work presented here we tried to answer some of those questions. Guiding questions for this study were: (1) is it possible to meet the German energy demand with 100% renewable energy, considering the available technical potential of the main renewable energy resources? (2) what is the overall annual cost of such an energy system once it has been implemented? (3) what is the best combination of renewable energy converters, storage units, energy converters and energy-saving measures? In order to answer these questions, we carried out many simulation calculations using REMod-D, a model we developed for this purpose. This model is described in Part I of this publication. To date this model covers only part of the energy system, namely the electricity and heat sectors, which correspond to about 62% of Germany's current energy demand. The main findings of our work indicate that it is possible to meet the total electricity and heat demand (space heating, hot water) of the entire building sector with 100% renewable energy within the given technical limits. This is based on the assumption that the heat demand of the building sector is significantly reduced by at least 60% or more compared to today's demand. Another major result of our analysis shows that - once the transformation of the energy system has been completed - supplying electricity and heat only from renewables is no more expensive than the existing energy supply.
Article
Power-to-gas (PtG) technology has received considerable attention in recent years. However, it has been rather difficult to find profitable business models and niche markets so far. PtG systems can be applied in a broad variety of input and output conditions, mainly determined by prices for electricity, hydrogen, oxygen, heat, natural gas, bio-methane, fossil CO2 emissions, bio-CO2 and grid services, but also full load hours and industrial scaling. Optimized business models are based on an integrated value chain approach for a most beneficial combination of input and output parameters. The financial success is evaluated by a standard annualized profit and loss calculation and a subsequent return on equity consideration. Two cases of PtG integration into an existing pulp mill as well as a nearby bio-diesel plant are taken into account. Commercially available PtG technology is found to be profitable in case of a flexible operation mode offering electricity grid services. Next generation technology, available at the end of the 2010s, in combination with renewables certificates for the transportation sector could generate a return on equity of up to 100% for optimized conditions in an integrated value chain approach. This outstanding high profitability clearly indicates the potential for major PtG markets to be developed rather in the transportation sector and chemical industry than in the electricity sector as seasonal storage option as often proposed.
Article
This study presents the performance assessment of grid-connected PV system installed on the roof of a building. The results presented were based on data recorded from March 2013 to February 2014. The total annual energy output delivered to grid was found to be 1927.7 kW h, with an annual specific yield of 931.6 kWh and monthly average energy output of 160.6 kW h. Furthermore, the annual average daily array yield, final yield and reference yield of the PV were estimated as 2.73 kW h/kW(p), 2.55 kW h/kW(p) and 2.80 kW h/kW(p), respectively. In addition, the annual average daily PV module efficiency, system efficiency and inverter efficiency were 12.7%, 11.6% and 88.8%, respectively. The overall annual capacity factor, system losses and performance ratio were found to be 10.58%, 16.96% (with respect to reference yield) and 83.03%, respectively. The findings from this installation indicate that PV-connected system is technically feasible for electricity generation in Norway and could a play role in the future energy mix of the country.
Article
This paper provides a comprehensive, updated picture of energy subsidies at the global and regional levels. It focuses on the broad notion of post-tax energy subsidies, which arise when consumer prices are below supply costs plus a tax to reflect environmental damage and an additional tax applied to all consumption goods to raise government revenues. Post-tax energy subsidies are dramatically higher than previously estimated, and are projected to remain high. These subsidies primarily reflect under-pricing from a domestic (rather than global) perspective, so even unilateral price reform is in countries’ own interests. The potential fiscal, environmental and welfare impacts of energy subsidy reform are substantial.
Article
Here we analyze the importance of the price differences between energy technologies for their market penetration. A price-conditioned technology diffusion model was shown to adequately describe the market take-up of solar and wind penetration and natural gas (shale gas) with respect to the (subsidized) price. Because of the simplifications made to the energy system and the economic framework the results are indicative only and limited to less complicated policy cases. The model was used to investigate the effects of public support on the market shares of renewable electricity technologies. The results indicate that a dynamic support structure for new energy technologies may be necessary as their market share increases. At market entry “oversubsidizing” may be necessary, but, when the share grows beyond a certain percentage, cutting down on subsidies will be necessary to avoid the overheating of the market, which could otherwise lead to exponential growth and a huge need for financial support. If the aim is a swift transition to sustainable energy, a price ratio of around 1:3 (new:old) or higher may be necessary in industrialized countries, but in emerging economies, a lower ratio of 1:2 could apply. When the new technology passes the grid parity landmark by 30%, the natural (non-subsidized) penetration rate could settle at 1% of the total market per year, but with more ambitious policy goals some support may be necessary even then.
Research
Presentation on the occasion of the Solar Energy in the North –Aurinkoenergia Pohjoisissa Oloissa in Helsinki on June17, 2014.
Article
This paper presents a review and assessment of public-policy options for supporting large-scale penetration of photovoltaics (PV) in the United States. The goal therein is to reduce the costs both of solar technology and of grid integration, so enabling solar deployment nationwide. In this context, we analyze the solar PV markets and the solar industry globally, and discuss the external benefits of PV that must be advertised, and perhaps marketed, to assure an increase in social support for PV. We discuss existing energy-policy mixes in those countries leading to the development of solar power, highlighting the lessons learnt, and outlining areas of improvement of the existing policy mix in the United States. We highlight that there is a need for a holistic approach including social in addition to economic considerations, and we discuss policy options for supporting the continuation of PV market growth when the current investment tax credits expire.
Article
The paper reviews different approaches, technologies, and strategies to manage large-scale schemes of variable renewable electricity such as solar and wind power. We consider both supply and demand side measures. In addition to presenting energy system flexibility measures, their importance to renewable electricity is discussed. The flexibility measures available range from traditional ones such as grid extension or pumped hydro storage to more advanced strategies such as demand side management and demand side linked approaches, e.g. the use of electric vehicles for storing excess electricity, but also providing grid support services. Advanced batteries may offer new solutions in the future, though the high costs associated with batteries may restrict their use to smaller scale applications. Different “P2Y”-type of strategies, where P stands for surplus renewable power and Y for the energy form or energy service to which this excess in converted to, e.g. thermal energy, hydrogen, gas or mobility are receiving much attention as potential flexibility solutions, making use of the energy system as a whole. To “functionalize” or to assess the value of the various energy system flexibility measures, these need often be put into an electricity/energy market or utility service context. Summarizing, the outlook for managing large amounts of RE power in terms of options available seems to be promising.
Article
Greece, as a member of the European Union (EU), has undertaken the obligation to meet the expected goals for the penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the national energy balance in compliance with "20-20-20" goals (20% of the Gross Energy Consumption and 40% of the Gross Electricity Consumption should be covered by RES). Although the development of RES, and particularly of Photovoltaic (PV), in Greece during the last years has presented a satisfactory growth, the country is still far away from the above goals. The main reason for this delay is that - except the financial crisis - many licenses are inactive and waiting funding in order to be utilized. Additionally, the latest law (L.4152/2013) has forbidden the interconnection of new PV power Plants to the grid until the end of 2013. The above fact determines the significance of the existing PV Licenses in achieving the national goals. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated approach of qualitative judgments for the PV business opportunities through the assessing of the licenses' value in Greece. The approach, which is based on a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) theory of quantifying multiple qualitative judgments, takes into account the real factors which can affect the expected production and cost of the PV installation and therefore the RoI (Return of Investment).
Article
Finland is to increase the share of RES (renewable energy sources) up to 38% in final energy consumption by 2020. While benefiting from local biomass resources Finnish energy system is deemed to achieve this goal, increasing the share of other intermittent renewables is under development, namely wind power and solar energy. Yet the maximum flexibility of the existing energy system in integration of renewable energy is not investigated, which is an important step before undertaking new renewable energy obligations. This study aims at filling this gap by hourly analysis and comprehensive modeling of the energy system including electricity, heat, and transportation, by employing EnergyPLAN tool. Focusing on technical and economic implications, we assess the maximum potential of different RESs separately (including bioenergy, hydropower, wind power, solar heating and PV, and heat pumps), as well as an optimal mix of different technologies. Furthermore, we propose a new index for assessing the maximum flexibility of energy systems in absorbing variable renewable energy. The results demonstrate that wind energy can be harvested at maximum levels of 18-19% of annual power demand (approx. 16 TWh/a), without major enhancements in the flexibility of energy infrastructure. With today's energy demand, the maximum feasible renewable energy for Finland is around 44-50% by an optimal mix of different technologies, which promises 35% reduction in carbon emissions from 2012's level. Moreover, Finnish energy system is flexible to augment the share of renewables in gross electricity consumption up to 69-72%, at maximum. Higher shares of RES calls for lower energy consumption (energy efficiency) and more flexibility in balancing energy supply and consumption (e.g. by energy storage).
Article
Wind and solar energy are expected to play a major role in the current decade to help Europe reaching the renewable energy penetration targets fixed by Directive 2009/28/EC. However, it is difficult to predict the actual production profiles of wind and solar energy as they depend heavily on variable meteorological features of solar radiation and wind speed. In an ideal system, wind and solar electricity are both injected in a fast reacting grid instantaneously matching supply and demand. In such a system wind and solar electricity production profiles should complement each other as much as possible in order to minimise the need of storage and additional capacity. In the present paper the complementarity of wind and solar resources is assessed for a test year in Italy. To achieve this goal we employ data at high spatial and temporal resolution data for both solar radiation and wind speed in Italy obtained from running two state of the art models (PVGIS and MINNI). Hourly profiles for solar and wind energy produced are compared in each 4 x 4 km(2) grid cell in Italy for 2005, and hourly, daily and monthly correlation coefficients are computed in order to assess the local complementarity of the two resources. A Monte Carlo approach is also developed to estimate how large-scale wind and solar energy productions could be potentially involved to complement each other in a scenario with up to 100 production sites across Italy. The results show how local complementarity can be very interesting with monthly correlation coefficients reaching values lower than -0.8 in several areas. Large-scale complementarity is also relevant with nation-wide monthly correlation coefficients showing values between -0.65 and -0.6. These model results indicate that in this sample year of 2005, wind and solar energy potential production have shown complementary time behaviour complementary, favourably supporting their integration in the energy system.
Conference Paper
The excellent solar resources of Israel make it possible to reach the target of 100% RE, independent of fossil fuel supply in a rather close future. For now the development of large PV capacities is restrained by battery storage costs: before reaching a cost level of 200 €/kWh, batteries are not competitive and installations of thermal storages and CSP are cost optimal. The role of CSP remains unclear; however, the high competitiveness of PV-battery may limit CSP to a minor role. PV self-consumption plays a significant role in the energy transformation in Israel.
Conference Paper
Grid-parity is a very important milestone for further photovoltaic (PV) diffusion. An updated grid-parity model is presented, which is based on levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) coupled with the experience curve approach. Relevant assumptions for the model are given and its key driving forces are discussed in detail. Results of the analysis are shown for 215 countries/ islands and a total of 645 market segments all over the world. High PV industry growth rates have enabled a fast reduction of LCOE. Depletion of fossil fuel resources and climate change mitigation forces societies to internalize these effects and pave the way for sustainable energy technologies. First grid-parity events have already occurred. The 2010s are characterized by ongoing grid-parity events throughout the most regions in the world, reaching an addressable market of up to 96% of total global electricity market till 2030. In consequence, new political frameworks for maximizing social benefits will be required. In parallel, PV industry tackle its next milestone, fuel-parity. In conclusion, PV is on the pathway to become a highly competitive energy technology.
Article
Integrating a high share of electricity from non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources in a power supply system is a challenging task. One option considered in many studies dealing with prospective power systems is the installation of storage devices to balance the fluctuations in power production. However, it is not yet clear how soon storage devices will be needed and how the integration process depends on different storage parameters. Using long-term solar and wind energy power production data series, we present a modelling approach to investigate the influence of storage size and efficiency on the pathway towards a 100% RES scenario. Applying our approach to data for Germany, we found that up to 50% of the overall electricity demand can be met by an optimum combination of wind and solar resources without both curtailment and storage devices if the remaining energy is provided by sufficiently flexible power plants. Our findings show further that the installation of small, but highly efficient storage devices is already highly beneficial for the RES integration, while seasonal storage devices are only needed when more than 80% of the electricity demand can be met by wind and solar energy. Our results imply that a balance between the installation of additional generation capacities and storage capacities is required.
Article
Smart grids with an intensive penetration of distributed energy resources will play an important role in future power system scenarios. The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources brings new challenges, requiring an efficient management of those sources. Additional storage resources can be beneficially used to address this problem; the massive use of electric vehicles, particularly of vehicle-to-grid (usually referred as gridable vehicles or V2G), becomes a very relevant issue. This paper addresses the impact of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in system operation costs and in power demand curve for a distribution network with large penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) units. An efficient management methodology for EVs charging and discharging is proposed, considering a multi-objective optimization problem. The main goals of the proposed methodology are: to minimize the system operation costs and to minimize the difference between the minimum and maximum system demand (leveling the power demand curve). The proposed methodology perform the day-ahead scheduling of distributed energy resources in a distribution network with high penetration of DG and a large number of electric vehicles. It is used a 32-bus distribution network in the case study section considering different scenarios of EVs penetration to analyze their impact in the network and in the other energy resources management.
Conference Paper
Grid-parity is a very important milestone for further photovoltaic (PV) diffusion. A grid-parity model is presented, which is based on levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) coupled with the experience curve approach. Relevant assumptions for the model are given and its key driving forces are discussed in detail. Results of the analysis are shown for all member states of the European Union and the United States of America, respectively. High PV industry growth rates enable a fast reduction of LCOE. Depletion of fossil fuel resources and climate change mitigation forces societies to internalize these effects and pave the way for sustainable energy technologies. In the EU and the US, first grid-parity events will occur in late 2009 or early 2010 in Italy and Hawaii, respectively. The 2010s are characterized by ongoing grid-parity events throughout the most regions in the EU and the US, reaching an addressable market of about 90% and 65% of total electricity market, respectively. In parallel to grid-parity events, next milestones for PV industry will be diesel-parity and natural gas-parity. Reaching grid-parity will require new political frameworks for maximizing social benefits. PV technology is on the pathway to become a highly competitive energy technology.
Conference Paper
In terms of levelized cost of electricity, renewable energies are able to compete with cost of conventional grid electricity, as of today in relevant regions of the world. Partially, electricity being generated by renewable energy sources reached to be less expensive than conventional electricity from the grid. Thus, an electricity supply by renewable energy sources becomes more and more attractive. Furthermore, a decentralized electricity generation appears to be reasonable. This, enables everyone to generate electricity at the place where it is consumed, reducing cost by less grid electricity demand. The renewable energy source solar irradiation can be used in a decentralised manner, whereas a combination with energy storage systems is needed since the fluctuating energy flow has to be adapted to the load profile of human activities. This combination is about to enhance high shares of self consumed electricity in ones electricity demand. This paper gives an overview on grid-parity for photovoltaic systems with energy storage for Germany and some more regions of the world. Residential systems are focused. System configurations as a function of specific factors like regional economics, typical consumption profiles and geographical conditions are analysed.
Article
Grid-parity is a very important milestone for further photovoltaic (PV) diffusion. A grid-parity model is presented, which is based on levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) coupled with the experience curve approach. Relevant assumptions for the model are given, and its key driving forces are discussed in detail. Results of the analysis are shown for more than 150 countries and a total of 305 market segments all over the world, representing 98.0% of world population and 99.7% of global gross domestic product. High PV industry growth rates enable a fast reduction of LCOE. Depletion of fossil fuel resources and climate change mitigation forces societies to internalize these effects and pave the way for sustainable energy technologies. First grid-parity events occur right now. The 2010s are characterized by ongoing grid-parity events throughout the most regions in the world, reaching an addressable market of about 75–90% of total global electricity market. In consequence, new political frameworks for maximizing social benefits will be required. In parallel, PV industry tackle its next milestone, fuel-parity. In conclusion, PV is on the pathway to become a highly competitive energy technology.
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The Photovoltaic Geographical Information System (PVGIS) is a web application for the estimation of the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems in Europe and Africa, which has become widely used by the PV community in Europe. We here present the results of adapting the solar radiation data calculated from satellite data in the Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility (CM-SAF) to PVGIS. The CM-SAF solar radiation database is characterized by very low overall bias and shows good accuracy at validation sites. The application to PVGIS brings important improvements relative to the existing solar radiation databases within PVGIS.