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Objective: The aim of this work was to determine the fatty acids content in corn seeds oil (Zea mays) sample cultivated in Ecuador.Methods: Corn oil was obtained from corn oil seeds using the cold pressing method. Methyl esters fatty acids analysis were carried out using the gas chromatography (GC) method with a mass selective detector and using the database library NIST 14.L to identify the compounds present in the corn seed oil.Results: Methyl esters fatty acids were identified from corn (Z. mays) seeds using the GC mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analytical method. Fatty acids were analyzed as methyl esters on a capillary column DB-WAX 122-7062 with a good separation of palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid, linoleic acid, arachidic acid, and linolenic acid. The structure of methyl esters fatty acids was determined using the GS-MS method. Corn oil has a high content of linoleic acid (omega 6) with a value of 52.68% of the total content of fatty acids in corn oil and 29.70% of oleic acid (omega 9) of the total content of fatty acids in corn oil. The sample presented a value of 12.57% of palmitic acid.Conclusions: Corn oil shows a good content of fatty acids omega 6 and 9. The higher value was of omega 6 with 52.68% content. Corn oil has a good proportion of polyunsaturated of lipids (53.80%) and 14.86% of saturated lipids.
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Vol 10, Issue 8, 2017
Online - 2455-3891
Print - 0974-2441
ZEA MAYS
CARRILLO W1*, CARPIO C21211
Chasquis y Rio Payamino, Campus Huachi, CP 1801334, Ambato, Ecuador. 2Research Department, Faculty of Health and Human Sciences,
Received: 30 March 2017, Revised and Accepted: 27 April 2017
 The aim of this work was to determine the fatty acids content in corn seeds oil (Zea mays) sample cultivated in Ecuador.
 Corn oil was obtained from corn oil seeds using the cold pressing method. Methyl esters fatty acids analysis were carried out using the gas
chromatography (GC) method with a mass selective detector and using the database library NIST 14.L to identify the compounds present in the corn
seed oil.
Results: Methyl esters fatty acids were identified from corn (Z. mays) seeds using the GC mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analytical method. Fatty acids
were analyzed as methyl esters on a capillary column DB-WAX 122-7062 with a good separation of palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid,
linoleic acid, arachidic acid, and linolenic acid. The structure of methyl esters fatty acids was determined using the GS-MS method. Corn oil has a high
content of linoleic acid (omega 6) with a value of 52.68% of the total content of fatty acids in corn oil and 29.70% of oleic acid (omega 9) of the total
content of fatty acids in corn oil. The sample presented a value of 12.57% of palmitic acid.
Conclusions: Corn oil shows a good content of fatty acids omega 6 and 9. The higher value was of omega 6 with 52.68% content. Corn oil has a good
proportion of polyunsaturated of lipids (53.80%) and 14.86% of saturated lipids.
Keywords: Corn, Zea mays, Fatty acids, Lipids.
Maize (Zea mays L.) has been a crop extended and an important food for
the American societies since pre-hispanic times [1] the domestication
of crop was originated in Mexico ca. 8700 cal. BP and later spread to
North and South America [2]. The earliest evidence of maize cultivation
and consumption in South America are from the Pacific coastal regions
of Peru and Ecuador ca. 3000 BC [3,4]. Maize (Z. mays L.) is the third
most important food crop in the world and a major source of energy,
protein, and other nutrients for both human and livestock. Maize
contains 7-13 g/100 g proteins (d.m.). However, the quality of maize
proteins is poor, because they are deficient in the essential amino acids
lysine and tryptophan [5,6]. Due to the economic importance of maize,
genetic improvements have played a key role in the development of
genotypes that could grow in a wide range of environment, rainfall,
and altitudes. Corn seeds oil is mainly used for salad and cooking oil
and the production of products as margarine. Its fatty acid composition
comprises 40-68% of linoleic acid, 20-32% of oleic acid, and 8-14%
saturated fatty acids, mainly palmitic acid [7].
Oil extraction
Corn is cultivated in the central region of Ecuador. Corn oil sample
was obtained from corn seeds using the cold pressed method. Oil was
then stored at 4.0±2°C. Oil extraction was conducted using a Soxhlet
apparatus for approximately 5 hrs with hexane as solvent, with a solid to
solvent ratio of 1/7 m/v. After the extraction process, the flask contents
were filtered, and the liquid fraction containing the lipid extract and
solvent was poured into a 250 mL flask of a rotary film evaporator to
remove the solvent. The obtained oil was collected, evaporated under
nitrogen, weighed, and stored in sealed amber glass vials at −20°C until
analysis [8].
Fatty acids analysis by gas chromatograph
The fatty acid composition of oil extracted from corn seeds was
analyzed by injecting fatty acid methyl esters [9] into an Agilent
Technologies 7980A system GC (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA) equipped
with a MSD 5977A GC/MSD, an auto-sampler 7693, column
(60 m × 250 µm × 0.25 µm, Agilent 122-7062). The oven temperature
was programmed as follows: From 80°C; ramp 1: To 100°C at 20°C/min
for 1 minute; ramp 2: At 200°C at 25°C/min for 10 minutes; ramp 3:
At 250°C at 2°C/min. The injector and detector temperatures were set
at 250°C. Helium was used as carrier gas at a linear flow velocity of
1.4 mL/min.
Corn oil was analyzed using the GC/MS method. The profile of peaks
analyzed show seven majoritarian peaks with different retention
times. The first peak was observed at 19,283 minutes of retention,
a second peak with 25,947 minutes of retention, a third peak
was observed at 26,819 minutes of retention, a fourth peak was
identified at 27,121 minutes of retention, a fifth peak was observed at
28,593 minutes of retention being this peak the more abundant, a sixth
peak was observed at 31,038 minutes of retention, and finally a seventh
peak was observed at 34,233 minutes of retention, with a residual
abundance (Fig. 1a). The profile of peaks from fatty acids of Z. mays
observed in the chromatogram is similar to the one described by Latons
et al., 2015 (Fig. 1b) [10].
Fatty acids of corn oil from Ecuador were methyl esterified. Fatty acids
from corn oil were identified using the GC/MSD. The precursor ions
were compared to three database library NIST 14. L. Seven majority
peaks were identified with their associated retention time. The
concentration of fatty acids in corn oil obtained in the laboratory was
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.
org/licenses/by/4. 0/) DOI:
Research Article
Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 10, Issue 8, 2017, 150-153
Carpio et al.
calculated with a peak area percentage. Fatty acids methyl esters were
characterized: C16:0 palmitic acid with 12.57% of fatty acids content,
C18:0 stearic acid with 2.02% of fatty acids content, C18:1 oleic acid
with 29.70% of fatty acids content, C18:1 trans elaidic acid with 0.81%
of fatty acids content, C18:2 linoleic acid with 52.68% of fatty acids
content, C18:3 linolenic acid with 1.12% of fatty acids content, and
finally C20:0 arachidic acid with 0.27% of fatty acids content (Table 1).
The content of linoleic acid (omega 6) was very high, whereas the
content of linolenic acid was very low with a value of 1.12% of linolenic
acid of corn oil. The content of oleic acid from corn oil was higher with a
value of 52.68% of oleic acid. The content of polyunsaturated lipids was
very high with a value of 53.80% of polyunsaturated lipids. Our results
are in accordance with values reported by other authors.
The mass spectrum of methyl esters fatty acids obtained from corn oil
is shown in Fig. 2. The identity and structures of these fatty acids were
confirmed with the GC-MS method. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was identified
using the mass spectrum with ions of mass/charge (m/z) between 55
and 270 m/z. In the previous range, the ions 74 and 87 m/z were the
most abundant in the mass spectrum (Fig. 2a). Stearic acid (C18:0)
(Fig. 2b), oleic acid (C18:1) (Fig. 2c), linoleic acid (C18:2) (Fig. 2d), and
linolenic acid (C18:3) (Fig. 2e).
The food diet in the developing countries is changing continually and
rapidly, especially the consumption of fats, edulcorates, preservatives,
additives, and food of animal sources. The consumption of food of
vegetal sources is increasing with vegetal proteins, antioxidants, and
vegetal oil. In the Western developed countries, a diet rich in animal
food is popular. The nutrition transition in the developing countries
starts when the consumption of vegetal oils and seed oils start
to be high together with higher consumption of meat and bovine
milk [11,12]. In 1997, the world production of vegetal oils and vegetal
fats was around 71 million tons whereas the production of animal fat
(butter and tallow) was stable with 12 million tons in the world. Vegetal
oils such as soybean, sunflower, rapeseed, palm, and groundnut oil have
triplicated their consumption from 1961 to 1990 [13,14]. When the
economic capacity of a country increases, intake of fats increases. In
poor countries, the consumption of fats can also increase as today the
cost of vegetal oils is extremely low. It has been studied that saturate
fat consumption is harmful to human health and can increase the
cardiovascular risks in consumers. “Oil world” indicates that in the
next 10 years the production of vegetal oil can increase to 118 million
tons. The production of palm oil can increase from 15 million tons to
et al., 
Retention time   Numbers of carbons % Peak area
19,283 min Palmitic acid Hexadecanoic acid C16:0 12.57±0.014
25,947 min Stearic acid Octadecanoic acid C18:0 2.02±0.057
26,819 min Oleic acid Cis-9-octadecenoic acid C18:1 29.70±0.113
27,121 min Elaidic acid Trans-9-octadecenoic acid C18:1 trans 0.81±0.000
28,593 min Linoleic acid (9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid C18:2 52.68±1.435
31,038 min Linolenic acid (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic acid C18:3 1.12±0.007
34,233 min Arachidic acid Eicosanoic acid C20:0 0.27±0.014
GC/MS: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometer
Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 10, Issue 8, 2017, 150-153
Carpio et al.
17 million tons worldwide. Around 13.5% of the world population is
obese (OECD 2011), Denmark has one of the least obese populations
in Europe [15]. Despite this and some generally positive trends in diet
composition, many Danes have intakes of sugar and saturated fat that
are too high: 65% of children and 35% of adults consume higher than
recommended sugar intakes and 80% of both adults and children have
intake of saturated fat that exceed dietary recommendations [16]. For
this reason, in October 2012, Danish government decided to introduce
a tax fat to saturate fat in Danish foods. The fat tax is a tax paid per
kilogram of saturated fat in the following foods if the content of saturated
fat exceeds 2.3 g/100 g. Corn oil has tax for the content of saturated fat
with a value between 8% and 15%. Gofman and Böhme, 2001 reported
content of fatty acids from 30 corn hybrids, the major fatty acids were
palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids, whose contents were in the ranges
9.2-12.1%, 19.5-30.5%, and 53.0-65.3%, respectively [17]. Living style
is very important to human health and a good diet.
The content of oleic acid in olive oil is reported to have a value between
62% and 80% of oleic acid [18]. The oleic acid is recommended to
reduce cardiovascular risk [19-21]. Vegetal oils with a good proportion
of omega 3, 6, and 9 are recommended for their benefits for human
Corn oil (Z. mays L.) is vegetal oil very used in the food industry for their
good composition of fatty acids. In development, countries are a good
alternative for cooking food for their low cost. Corn oil has high content
of omega 6 with a value of 52.68% but has a 12.57% of palmitic acid.
This study was supported by Universidad Técnica de Ambato,
Ecuador (Project CPU-1373-2014-UTA) and (Project Canje de Deuda
España-Ecuador). This work has been reviewed in the English edition
by Emilio Labrador.
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... UNFAs should therefore be kept away from oxidants and compounds which give rise to formation of free radicals (Rustan & Drevon, 2005). Saturated and trans fats consumption is harmful to human health and can increase the cardiovascular risks and coronary heart disease in consumers (Carrillo et al., 2017;White, 2009). ...
... This depends on the dietary fatty acid supplied to the body(Sathya & Siddhuraju, 2015). Saturated and trans fats consumption is harmful to human health and can increase the cardiovascular risks and coronary heart disease in consumers(Carrillo et al., 2017; Ministry of Health of Ghana, 2009;White, 2009).Traditional foods eaten by Ghanaians invariably had low fat content, mainly because of the fact that fat and high fat-containing foods were much more expensive than high carbohydrate-containing foods (Ministry of Health of Ghana, 2009). Some of the traditional dishes in Ghana are Akyeke (made from grated cassava that is fermented, and eaten with fried fish with ground pepper garnished with chopped pepper and onion), Banku (cooked by a proportionate mixture of fermented corn and cassava dough in hot water into a smooth, whitish consistent paste and served with a pepper sauce and fish), Tuo zaafi (maize dough with a little dried cassava dough cooked without salt and served with green vegetable soup made from bitter leaves or freshly pounded cassava leaves) and kenkey (maize dough dumpling served with pepper sauce and fish). ...
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The aim of this study was to determine the potential of some Ghanaian underutilized legumes in helping to reduce the problems of poverty, hunger and malnutrition among the vulnerable group of the Ghanaian population. The study looked into the functional properties, fat and fatty acid distribution, raffinose, sucrose, glucose, fructose, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc, cyanide and isoflavone contents of raw and processed seed flours of Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Canavalia gladiata, Mucuna pruriens, Parkia biglobosa, Phaseolus lunatus and Vigna subterranea. The parameters mentioned above were also determined for raw fruit flour of Dialium guineense. In addition to these, the study also looked into the crude protein and starch contents of the raw and processed seed flours of Canavalia gladiata, Parkia biglobosa and Vigna subterranea. The obtained results suggest that the legumes may have untapped potential, which may be exploited to help assist in reducing hunger, malnutrition and poverty in Ghana. Results of the functional properties reveal that the legumes may serve useful roles in various food products. For instance, velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense) flour may be useful in infant food formulations because of it high solubility and low bulk density. African Locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) flour had the highest fat content among the studied flours, recording a fat content of approximately 14%. It may therefore be economical to express the oil and use the oil as an edible oil or for industrial applications for products such as soaps, shampoos, paints, etc. This means the properties of the oil of African Locust bean flour need to be studied to know the uses of the oil. Unsaturated fatty acids in the cis configuration formed more than 50% of the fatty acids in all the legumes. This observation coupled with the low sodium content of all the legumes suggest that these legumes may be suitable for consumption to prevent cardiovascular diseases. The daily nutrient needs of individuals can be met by the consumption of the appropriate amounts of these legumes. For example, 375.25 g of processed velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) flour may be able to meet the adequate intake (AI) of 350 mg/day magnesium for adult males.
... The fatty acid profile of the oil extracted from the two types of samples is consistent with previous studies (Carrillo et al., 2017;Győri, 2017 ). On the other hand, even though statistically significant differences were found in the present study, the overall fatty acid composition was similar between both types of corn. ...
... The predominant fatty acid in corn oil is linoleic (C18:2, n-6), followed by oleic (C18:1), palmitic (C14:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids (Győri, 2017). In a recent trial, the fatty acid profile of a corn sample included 52.7% linoleic acid, 29.7% oleic acid, 12.6% palmitic acid, and 2.0% stearic acid (Carrillo et al., 2017). These percentages are similar to those found in the present study for both types of corn, although the imported had a higher percentage of linoleic acid than the domestic corn (55.5 and 50.6%, respectively). ...
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Background: Corn is, quantitatively, one of the most important world crops (ranking second only after wheat) and a key ingredient in animal feeds. Objective: to assess and compare corn quality, mycotoxin content, chemical composition and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of domestic and imported corn. Methods: Grain quality (USDA grading system) was determined in 30 samples of domestic and 21 samples of imported corn. From each origin, 15 samples were subjected to proximal analysis and 10 were used to determine fatty acid composition. Mycotoxin analysis was conducted on 30 samples of domestic and 23 of imported corn. Results: six of the 30 domestic samples corresponded to US1 grade (highest quality) vs. none of the imported. In the “sample grade” category (lowest quality), 10 and 6 samples corresponded to imported and domestic corn, respectively. Soybeans were found as contaminant in 15 of the 21 imported corn samples. Aspergillus spp. mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A were not detected, and aflatoxins were found in only a few samples at very low levels. Fusariotoxins such as deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were found in 61 and 43% of imported samples, respectively, but in none of the domestic samples. Domestic corn had lower carbohydrate content compared with imported corn (85.4 vs. 86.7%), but higher crude fat (3.8 vs. 3.1%). The AME values for domestic and imported corn were 3,697 and 3,378 kcal/kg, respectively. The fatty acid profiles from both corn types were similar. Conclusion: This study found significant differences between locally-grown and imported corn, particularly in terms of crude fat, AME content, fusariotoxins, and contaminant seeds (soybeans). These findings suggest that locally-grown corn might have nutritional and toxicological advantages over corn imported from the United States.
... The detection of adulteration of olive oil with most other vegetable oils can be carried out using conventional methods based on the differences in the triacylglycerol, fatty acid, or sterol composition of these oils [4,5]. Thus, fatty acid composition can be used to detect olive oil adulteration with canola, soybean, rapeseed, walnut, mustard, and peanut, with a level below 5% [6][7][8][9][10]. The absolute value of the difference between the experimental and theorical equivalent carbon number 42 (ECN42) in triacylglycerols can be used to detect, (encoding a cytochrome b6/f complex subunit N) and PsbM gene (encoding a photosystem II protein M), showed to be a suitable and reliable system in relation to olive oil and olive ingredients in both food authentication and food safety processes. ...
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Virgin olive oil (VOO), characterized by its unique aroma, flavor, and health benefits, is subject to adulteration with the addition of oils obtained from other edible species. The consumption of adulterated olive oil with nut species, such as hazelnut or almond, leads to health and safety issues for consumers, due to their high allergenic potential. To detect almond and hazelnut in olive oil, several amplification systems have been analyzed by qPCR assay with a SYBR Green post-PCR melting curve analysis. The systems selected were Cora1F2/R2 and Madl, targeting the genes coding the allergenic protein Cor a 1 (hazelnut) and Pru av 1 (almond), respectively. These primers revealed adequate specificity for each of the targeted species. In addition, the result obtained demonstrated that this methodology can be used to detect olive oil adulteration with up to 5% of hazelnut or almond oil by a single qPCR assay, and with a level as low as 2.5% by a nested-qPCR assay. Thus, the present research has shown that the SYBR-based qPCR assay can be a rapid, precise, and accurate method to detect adulteration in olive oil.
... Corn oil belongs to the group of vegetable oils with high levels of linoleic and oleic acids (similar to sunflower oil). Specifically, it has been reported that about 60% of its fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (52% linoleic acid and only 1% of linolenic acid), 25% are monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid), and 15-17% are saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid as the predominant one) [37,38]. Corn oil also represents an important source of minor bioactive lipids, such as phytosterols (β-sitosterol 55-67%, campesterol 19-24%, stigmasterol 4-8%, and Δ-5-avenasterol 4-8%), tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids (especially xantophylls, lutein, and zeaxanthin) [61]. ...
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In the present day, it has been widely established that a high intake of animal fat that contains a high content of saturated fatty acids may cause several life-threatening diseases, including obesity, diabetes-type 2, cardiovascular diseases, as well as several types of cancer. In this context, a great number of health organizations and government agencies have launched campaigns to reduce the saturated fat content in foods, which has prompted the food industry, which is no stranger to this problem, to start working to develop foods with a lower fat content or with a different fatty acid profile. Nevertheless, this is not an easy task due to the fact that saturated fat plays a very important role in food processing and in the sensorial perception of foods. Actually, the best way to replace saturated fat is with the use of structured vegetable or marine oils. The main strategies for structuring oils include pre-emulsification, microencapsulation, the development of gelled emulsions, and the development of oleogels. This review will examine the current literature on the different (i) healthier oils and (ii) strategies that will be potentially used by the food industry to reduce or replace the fat content in several food products.
... On the contrary, the PUFA content in CAO was lower (30.3%) in comparison withCOO and SO (51.43 and 52.46%, respectively). These values are in agreement with the data obtained byKozłowska and Gruczyńska, (2018) for SO and byCarrillo et al. (2017) for COO. ...
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Saffron consists of bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties and is mainly used in medicine, flavoring and coloring. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of extraction methods on the antioxidant activity of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) extracts (SE) and to evaluate the antioxidant performance of SE in vegetable oils. Saffron stigmas were extracted in water, ethanol, methanol, and their combinations using maceration extraction (ME), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and the combination of UAE with MAE. The results showed that the sample extracted by methanol/water (50:50) using the combination of UAE with MAE methods had the highest amount of total phenolic content (31.56 mg/g GAE) and antioxidant activity (83.24% inhibition). The extract with the highest antioxidant activity was freeze-dried before incorporation into oil samples. Freeze-dried SE contained trans-crocin-4 and trans-crocin-3 (most abundant constituents), kaempferol, and picrocrocin. Moreover, the addition of SE at 1000 ppm resulted in a significant increase in the oxidative stability of canola (CAO), sunflower (SO), and corn oil (COO).
... Komposisi jenis lemak tersebut berbeda-beda tergantung pada jenis tanaman maupun geografis tempat tanaman tumbuh. Penelitian sebelumnya melaporkan bahwa pada minyak jagung mengandung asam linoneat sebanyak 52,68%, sedangkan pada minyak kelapa sawit didominasi oleh asam palmitat dan asam oleat masing-masing sebanyak 45,5% dan 38,2% (Sujadi et al., 2016;Carrillo et al., 2017). ...
Minyak jelantah merupakan minyak goreng bekas pakai. Minyak jelantah yang digunakan berulang dapat menimbulkan penyakit, selain itu apabila dibuang langsung kelingkungan dapat menyebabkan pencemaran lingkungan. Kurangnya pengetahuan masyarakat akan bahaya penggunakan minyak jelatan tersebut pada akhirnya akan menimbulkan dampak negatif, sehingga perlu adanya edukasi masyarakat akan risiko kesehatan penggunaan minyak jelantah serta perlu adanya pelatihan guna mendaur ulang minyak jelantah untuk dijadikan produk yang bermanfaat serta ramah bagi lingkungan. Tujuan kegiatan ini yaitu mengedukasi serta memberikan ketrampilan melalui pelatihan yang diberikan kepada masyarakat terutama ibu-ibu PKK di desa Sambirejo tentang mengelolah minyak jelantah menjadi sabun padat. Metode yang dalam pengabdian masyarakat ini berupa penyuluhan yang disertai tanya jawab, kemudian dilanjukan demonstrasi serta praktek. Materi yang disampaikan dalam penyuluhan yakni pengertian minyak jelantah beserta bahaya mengkonsumsinya, dampak membuang sampah secara langsung ke tanah/air, serta cara merecycle minyak jelantah. Berdasarkan hasil pelaksanaan program didapatkan bahwa pembuatan sabun dari minyak jelantah dengan mudah difahami oleh mitra ibu-ibu PKK dari kelurahan sambirejo Mantingan. Kerbelanjutan program ini layak untuk dipertahankan guna meningkatkan kemandirian masyarakat melalui pembuatan produk bernilai ekonomis. Pemberdayaan masyarakat melalui pembuatan sabun dari minyak jelantah sebagai upaya untuk memberikan kebermanfaatan bagi masyarakat. Pembuatan sabun dari minyak jelantah dengan mudah difahami oleh mitra.
... Corn oil (Zea mays L.) is a vegetable oil that is used widely in the food industry with its good fatty acid composition. Corn oil, which is a good alternative for cooking in developing countries because of its low cost, has high omega-6 contents (52.68%) but also contains 12.57% palmitic acid (13). Corn seed oil is mainly used in the production of products such as salad and cooking oil with a fatty acid composition consisting of 40-68% linoleic acid, 20-32% oleic acid, and 8-14% saturated fatty acids (14). ...
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The physical and chemical characteristics of oils are determined by the rate and composition of the fatty acids they have. Knowing the fatty acid composition of oils will enable the production of oils according to intended usage areas. The present study was conducted to determine the fatty acid composition of 20 different corn varieties grown in Turkey. The oil contents of the samples were determined with the Soxhelet Oil Extraction Device, and the fatty acid composition was determined with the GC-S/FID Device. The dominant fatty acids of the cultivars and lines that were examined in the scope of the present study were found to be linoleic acid (50.05-53.14%), oleic acid (31.09-33.21%), palmitic acid (11.07-13.16%), stearic acid (2.10-2.55%), linolenic acid (0.55-1.18%), and arachidic acid (0.36%-0.53%). It was found that the differences between cultivars were very significant for all the characteristics studied here except for lauric acid. The findings of the study show that there is a wide variation in fatty acid composition in the existing cultivars and lines.
... The GC-MS analysis of Z. mays extracts show the presence of 14 compounds as shown in Figure 1 and Table 1 instance, Abirami et al. [32] reported that the presence of 1-(+) ascorbic acid 2, n-hexadecanoic acid in the ethanol extract of CS. Comparably, the fatty acid peak profile of Z. mays was noticed in the chromatogram [33]. Furthermore, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, and 9-octdecenoic acid methyl ester were observed in Casimiroa edulis La Llave and lex leaf extract with significant insecticidal and antifeedant properties on Spodoptera littoralis [34]. ...
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The corn silk (CS) is composed of the thread-like stigmas of female inflorescences of Zea mays L. and represents an important waste material from maize crop production that can be recycled in further applications. In this research, the CS was used for the bio-fabrication of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) that were evaluated against (I–V) larval instars and pupae of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. CS-AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, EDAX, XRD, FTIR, DLS, and zeta potential analysis. Z. mays extract analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry reveals 14 compounds. The larvicidal effectiveness of CS-fabricated AgNPs was 2.35 μg·mL−1 (I Instar) to 6.24 μg·mL−1 (pupae). The field application in water storage reservoirs of both CS extracts and CS-AgNPs (10 × LC50) led to a 68–69% reduction in larval density after 72 h post-treatment. Ecotoxicological impact of CS-fabricated AgNPs was evaluated on the predatory efficacy of Poecilia reticulata on all the larval instars and pupae of Ae. aegypti. Finally, CS-AgNPs were tested to elucidate its anti-biofilm attributes. The CS-AgNPs at 125 μg·mL−1 showed a biofilm inhibition of 90% on S. aureus and 79% on S. epidermidis. These results support the use of CS-AgNPs for futuristic green alternative to mosquito vector management.
... Its carbohydrate is highly digestible (99%) due to its low crude fiber content (Dei, 2017). Its oil has a good composition of fatty acids with high content of linoleic acid (omega 6) and oleic acid (omega 9) (Carrillo et al., 2017). This feed is also palatable and does not contain antinutritional factors. ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the performances of broilers fed the commercial diet CP511 (CCP) partially substituted with leubim fish waste meal (LFW) processed into different parts i.e. whole leubim fish waste meal (LFWW), skinless leubim fish meal (LFM‒S), and leubim fish waste skin meal (LFWS), each mixed with yellow corn (YC) and top mix (TM). This research was conducted at the Field Laboratory of Animal Husbandry (LLP), Syiah Kuala University from March 17 to April 21, 2021. This study used 100 DOC broiler chickens strain CP 707 and commercial local fish meal (CFM). The study used a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment was CCP= 100% CP511 (control+) and the CCP replaced with: CFM (control-), LFWW, LFM‒S, and LFWS with the equal amount of 8% each and the addition of 8% YC + 0.5% TM each. The results showed that although statistically no significant differences (P>0.05), the inclusion of LFW meals in the form of LFWW, LFM‒S, or LFWS plus YC + TM each to substitute partially CCP tended to have higher body weight gain (BWG), final body weight (FBW), feed intake, and better feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER), while protein intake (PI) significantly increased (P<0.05). The inclusion of LFW-based diets reduced feed cost and increased income over feed & chick cost (IOFCC). The LFW‒S diet did not result in better broiler performances than the LFWW diet. In conclusion, LFW meals processed as a whole, without the skin, and the only skin added with yellow corn and top mix as a partial replacement for the commercial diet increased BWG, FBW, PI, FI, and improved FCR, reduced feed cost, and generated better profit. It was suggested not to dispose of the skin out of the waste since the whole leubim fish waste meal carried out more advantages.
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p> Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of an olive tree extract with high polyphenols content on blood glucose level and other related parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg bw). 72h after injection, rats with fasting blood glucose higher than 2 g/l were used for the experiments. Olive tree extract was administered for 28 d and blood glucose level was measured every 4 d. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, urea, total protein, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, were determined at the end of the experiment. Results: The oral administration of olive tree extract contributes to blood glucose level decreasing in diabetic rats group, which was significantly lower at 4th week compared to the diabetic control rats. Moreover, supplementation by olive tree extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the values of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, urea, total protein, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase resulting from damage caused by streptozotocin treatment. Beside this, significant reduce (p<0.05) in heart disease risk ratio was observed for treated group (4.1±0.14) compared to untreated group (7.64±0.36), which was quite similar to normal rats (4.50±0.36). Studied olive tree extract effects were similar to those of glibenclamide, a well-known antidiabetic drug. Conclusion: Results herein obtained reveal the hypoglycemic effect of this olive tree extract, suggesting his potential use as a natural antidiabetic agent.</p
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Abstract Objective: In this study, we thoroughly investigate the effect of drying and storage of olives from four Tunisian cultivars (Chetoui, Chemlali, Oueslati and Picholine) on the final composition of olive oil. Methods: Olives were dried using three different methods: ambient air, infrared radiation and oven heating. Oven-dried olives were stored during six months. Extraction was conducted using a soxhlet apparatus. Its quality was assessed by analyzing the fatty acid and aroma composition on one hand, and on the other hand by evaluating the total chlorophyll content and measuring specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm. Results: The main results show that air dried fruits (Chetoui cultivar) gave the most pigmented oil (3.32 ppm of total chlorophylls) followed by oven dried olives (1.12 ppm), whereas infra-red dried olives had the least amount of chlorophylls (0.98 ppm). Furthermore, the highest amount of total aroma was found in oven dried fruits whereas the lowest one characterized infrared dried olives. Fatty acid composition of our oils wasn’t affected by drying techniques. Also, oven dried and stored olives showed an insignificant change in chlorophyll contents and aroma composition (Chetoui variety), coupled with a decreased level of total fatty acid amount as of the third month of preservation. Conclusion: Drying techniques and storage affected aroma compounds, while oil oxidation, chlorophyll and fatty acid composition were unaffected. A better control for drying and storage should be developed to insure a better quality of olive oil. A comparison should be done between the current study and salt and dried olive preservation in order to offer hypertensive patients fruits with preserved nutritional values and the peculiar delicate flavour characteristic of olive oil Keywords: Olive drying, Storage, Fatty acids, Pigments, Aroma.
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For more than 40 y, there has been an active discussion over the presence and economic importance of maize (Zea mays) during the Late Archaic period (3000-1800 B.C.) in ancient Peru. The evidence for Late Archaic maize has been limited, leading to the interpretation that it was present but used primarily for ceremonial purposes. Archaeological testing at a number of sites in the Norte Chico region of the north central coast provides a broad range of empirical data on the production, processing, and consumption of maize. New data drawn from coprolites, pollen records, and stone tool residues, combined with 126 radiocarbon dates, demonstrate that maize was widely grown, intensively processed, and constituted a primary component of the diet throughout the period from 3000 to 1800 B.C.
This paper summarises the recently introduced fat tax in Denmark, which came into force on 1 October 2012, and discusses some of the consequences of introducing the tax. Furthermore, this paper discusses the theoretical background and reasoning for imposing a fat tax as well as some of the problems and concerns stated, especially by the food industry. The fat tax is a tax paid per kilogram of saturated fat in the following foods if the content of saturated fat exceeds 2.3 g/100 g. These include meat, dairy products and animal fats that are rendered or are extracted in other ways, edible oils and fats, margarine and spreadable blended spreads. The declared aim of the tax is to reduce the consumption of saturated fat among the Danish population in order to decrease the prevalence of diet-related illnesses. The tax is part of a larger reform of the Danish tax system with the general aim of decreasing the income taxation pressure and financing it by, among other things, increased environmental and energy taxes, as well as increased ‘health’ taxes. Pre-tax simulations predict that the health tax on saturated fat will give rise to a reduction in the consumption of saturated fat of approximately 8%.
The paper describes the sequence of breeding stages that led to the development of acceptable quality protein maize (QPM) germplasm at the Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT). Initial emphasis was on the development of soft opaque-2 (o2) maize varieties, but these had undesirable consumer characteristics, among other problems. Research then shifted to the development of hard-textured QPM germplasm. Several breeding approaches were explored and tested in early 1970. The combined use of two genetic systems involving the o2 gene and the genetic modifiers of the o2 locus appeared to be the most promising approach. This strategy first involved the development of donor stocks from which a large volume of QPM germplasm was generated through a modified backcross programme and various recurrent selection procedures. Later merging and reorganization of QPM germplasm was undertaken, which resulted in a definite number of QPM populations and pools to meet germplasm needs for various agroclimatic conditions. This was a turning point in the breeding strategy that permitted work with homozygous o2 genetic backgrounds. In the mid-1980s, a hybrid development initiative was started. Basic information on combining ability and heterotic pattern(s) of QPM germplasm was generated. Later emphasis was shifted to development efforts for inbred and hybrid QPM. Several superior QPM germplasm products are now spreading commercially in several developing countries of Asia, Central and South America, and Africa.
Denmark introduced a tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine and oils. This assessment is done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK Panel Services Denmark), spanning the period from January 2008 until July 2012.The econometric analysis suggest that the introduction of the tax on saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10–15%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – at least for some types of oils and fats, a shift that seems to have been utilised by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done with considerable care. It is thus recommended to repeat – and broaden – the analysis at a later stage, when data are available for a longer period after the introduction of the fat tax.
The main biochemical function of the tocopherols is believed to be the protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against peroxidation. A critical question that must be asked in reference to this is whether there is a biochemical link between the tocopherol levels and the degree of unsaturation in vegetable oils, the main source of dietary PUFA and vitamin E. We used a mathematical approach in an effort to highlight some facts that might help address this question. Literature data on the relative composition of fatty acids (16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3) and the contents of tocopherols (α-, β-, δ-, and γ-tocopherol) in 101 oil samples, including 14 different botanical species, were analyzed by principal-component analysis and linear regression. There was a negative correlation between α- and γ-tocopherols (r=0.633, P<0.05). Results also showed a positive correlation between linoleic acid (18:2) and α-tocopherol (r=0.549, P<0.05) and suggested a positive correlation between linolenic acid (18:3) and γ-tocopherol.
Research carried out during the past 25 years by a number of investigators has demonstrated that phytoliths from some important domesticated plants native to Central and South America can be identified. These plants include major seed crops such as maize (Zea mays), important vegetables such as squashes of Cucurbita spp., and now-minor root crops (e.g., Calathea allouia and Maranta arundinacea) that were probably more important in early pre-Columbian economies than they are today. In some cases, phytoliths can identify the wild ancestors of these plants. The New World patterns follow those demonstrated in other areas of the world—out of all of the domesticated species indigenous to a region, a few important ones (e.g., rice, bananas, wheat and barley) can be identified with their phytoliths. In this paper, I review identification criteria developed for New World plants, summarize the underlying biological mechanisms that are now understood to account for phytolith formation and morphology, and discuss recent archaeological applications and new data from the Central and South American tropical forest. I will also mention the growing importance of starch grain analysis in archaeology with regard to recovering and identifying the remains of wild and domesticated species, including maize and teosinte. Phytoliths and starch grains are turning out to be highly complementary types of studies, and are increasingly being applied together.