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Smart garbage monitoring system using sensors with RFID over internet of things

Authors:
  • St. Martin's Engineering College Secunderabad

Abstract

In the present days, the garbage bins or Dust bin are those which are placed at public places in the cities are Getting overflow due to increase in the waste every day. It creates bad health condition for the people by spreading some deadly diseases , to avoid such situation , planning to design a smart bins means it contains some sensors like IR sensor ,weight sensor, photoelectric sensor and Radio frequency identification (RFID) CARD reader with help of these if someone is putting some garbage into the smart bins photo electric sensor will detect the clear representation objects and weight sensor will be placed below the smart bin it will calculate the percentage of the garbage is present inside the bin and with help of IR sensor it will send the information to the authorities who are responsible for that particular area .So, the particular authorities can receive the messages until the bin is squashed and the each bin is given an particular ID it will in display in the screen of the respected officer and they can take immediate action. If the person coming nearby two metres the bin which contain RFID CARD READER with the help of RFID reader it will read all the information about that particular person and send a message to him what they dropped inside the bin and appreciation message for using the bin.
Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems Vol. 9. Sp– 6 / 2017
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SMART GARBAGE MONITORING SYSTEM USING SENSORS WITH RFID
OVER INTERNET OF THINGS
Somu Dhana Satyamanikanta1, M.Narayanan2
1UG Scholar, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha University, Thandalam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, 602 105
2 Professor ,Faculty of Engineering, Golden Valley Integrated Campus (GVIC), Angallu (Near Rishivalley & Horsely
Hills), Madanapalle, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh – 517 325
E-Mail: 1manikantasomu0@gmail.com, 2narayanan_baba@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
In the present days, the garbage bins or Dust bin are those which are placed at public places in the
cities are Getting overflow due to increase in the waste every day. It creates bad health condition for
the people by spreading some deadly diseases , to avoid such situation , planning to design a smart
bins means it contains some sensors like IR sensor ,weight sensor, photoelectric sensor and Radio
frequency identification (RFID) CARD reader with help of these if someone is putting some
garbage into the smart bins photo electric sensor will detect the clear representation objects and
weight sensor will be placed below the smart bin it will calculate the percentage of the garbage is
present inside the bin and with help of IR sensor it will send the information to the authorities who
are responsible for that particular area .So, the particular authorities can receive the messages until
the bin is squashed and the each bin is given an particular ID it will in display in the screen of the
respected officer and they can take immediate action. If the person coming nearby two metres the
bin which contain RFID CARD READER with the help of RFID reader it will read all the
information about that particular person and send a message to him what they dropped inside the bin
and appreciation message for using the bin.
Keywords: Garbage, IR Sensor, Photoelectric Sensor, Radio Sensor, RFID, Weight Sensor
1. INTRODUCTION
Recent days, many people are living in cities only for their convenience in all the ways and many
people are coming from the rural areas for the opportunities .Due to this there is huge growth of
population in metro politician Cities the waste percent is increased to the enormous level, the waste is
overflowing from the bins and finally it leads a situation of general bin into mini dump yard in each
and every street. So, it’s became a major problem for the municipal authorities to clean that waste.
They are unable to clean that waste in time. So, to reduce this, based on latest technology moving to
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JARDCS Special Issue On Trends and Future in Engineering 134
smart bin. Up to now this method is not widely implemented in India .presently we are using only old
bins and compressor bins in our premises.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated digital machines, devices objects, animals
or people that are provided with separate identities and the ability to transfer data over a network
without requiring a human-to communicate to the other -human or human-to-computer interaction.
So, with the help of sensors we can easily monitor the Garbage ratio present in the bins.
There are different types of sensors like optical sensors, proximity sensors, thermal and
temperature sensors etc.,
1. Optical sensors: These are widely used in automated systems because they have been available
no longer and can fit into small locations. These are commonly known as light beam sensors.
2. Proximity sensors: A proximity sensors is a sensor able t to detect the presence of nearby
objects without any physical contact. Its life time is long because of absence of mechanical parts.
3. Thermal and temperature sensors: It is a device that converts the thermal quantity into some
physical quantities such as mechanical energy, pressure and electrical signals.
2. LITERATURE SURVEY
Now a days, the level of garbage is heavily increased .so, because of this many People are facing
health problems in order to reduce these health problems we use smart dust bins instead of our normal
bins .Smart bins means it made with some recent technology. It was provided with some sensors like
Ultrasonic sensors inside it with the help of these the respected authorities can monitor garbage level
in the bin .Until they squash the bin they will get information continuously. Once they squash the bin
people can reuse it [1].
Sol-gel techniques gives advantages over the other process technologies such as low temperature,
low cost and simple fabrication process. The sputtering TiO2 film with illuminating Ultra Violet
power intensity, indicates that the sputtering TiO2 film materials were suitable for Ultra Violet
detection. [2]
When using the substance mask to measure acceleration, usually should not take the width
of substance masks, we have to consider the influences of photo-electric sensors. [3]
The luminance intensity of the organic light emitting diode (OLED) lighting increased when the
integrated device was exposed to different illumination levels under a xenon lamp. We obtain the
operation of the organic light emitting diode (OLED) lighting using series-interconnected OPS. By
adding, power recycling the devices themselves added self-powering function and a higher system-
level power efficiency [4].
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A digital colour sensor that senses of different wavelengths is developed using structures
available in a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. A colour-sensitive
photodiode and a current to-frequency analogy to Digital Convertor is taken on the same
complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) die. High level of integration, reduced power
consumption, and simplification optics are main features that enable low-cost multicolour imaging
[5].
By using the two tap complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor the
photo generated charge will be produced to protect the image for a long time with high resolution
through this time will be saved [6].
IR sensors are used to detect the motion of the objects very effectively when compared to the
normal Inductive sensors .The performance of these sensors is very efficient when compared to
other. A selected IR sensor was used to send -feedback to the control system. These sensors are also
very low cost. These results show the potential of such sensors in the design of low-cost technology
[7].
Nowadays, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has recently implemented great
interest due to its convenience and economic efficiency, and the RFID technology has become
convenient and its manufacturing cost is also reduced, but it also threatens security and privacy of
individuals and organizations [8].
A compact micro strip antenna is compatible to (PCMCIA)-compatible Ultra high frequency
(UHF) RFID reader cards. The small factor results in relatively narrow bandwidth , which is of
primary importance for maximum read-range of RFID-readers Being a balanced antenna, the
radiation pattern less sensitive than unbalanced antennas to hand-effects or nearby metal objects. [9].
Radio frequency identification (RFID) has been widely used for contactless payment. However,
modifying sensitive data in an (RFID) tag over an air interface requires high stability and reliability,
particularly when the tag is away from the (RFID) card reader. When a person coming near to the
(RFID) reader with wearing the (RFID) tag it can detect that person if it contains the details of
person. Without affecting the card from tearing we have to design a well-run anti tearing mechanism,
which can protect the tag from being incorrectly written. [10].
With the help of IR sensors the authorities can see the status of garbage percentage up to date in
the bins, So because of these sensors we can monitor the level of garbage and it sends that
information the to local authorities until they squash the bin, because of this they can clean the bins
as fast as when compared to the past days [11].
Rapid increase in population increase in waste .because of this improper wastage leads to spread
the diseases. In order to decrease this we are implementing a using sensors with VANETS. It means
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that if the bins are filled at the same time in more than one street we have face some problems, to
reduce that for each and every particular street one garbage collecting vehicle is allocated if the bin is
overflowing with the help of sensors it receives a signal indication from the bin. So they can go fast
to squash the bin .by using this we can reduce some problems. [12].
In cities waste management became a particular problem because most of the people living in
cities and in future number may increase, because of this over population in cities many problems are
arising like pollution, waste management. The major problem is waste management because of this
people facing many health problems to reduce that implemented the smart solar compressed dust
bins means even if it full also because of solar power it reduce the content of waste in it so people
can use more than two times .so once it completed with the help of m2m Sim cards it sends the
notification to the local authorities until they squash the bin. [13]
In day to day of life urbanization is heavily increased because of this wastage is also increased. It
is the one way for the cities to recycle the waste into a resource .In this they are planned to promote
broad awareness of reuse and recycling through engagement of all the stakeholders in the urban
context, from local and regional authorities to industry, from decision makers to citizens. In future it
will help for the people to develop the concept of smart cities towards the entrepreneurship for
economic growth and value. By taking inspiration from the already existed experiences in this field,
the future directions for Smart Cities should be targeted towards industrial development. [14]
To develop the city as a smart city it has to develop in all the ways .People are facing so much
illness because of heavy increase in garbage in their street bins to dispose that bins is taking so much
time for the respected authorities. In order to reduce that smart bin process is implemented by the
government .In this used some GPS and Internet enabled smart bins are used to get the information
because of these type of bins it is somewhat easy to squash the bins in short time. [15]
3. PROPOSED WORK
This paper proposing new garbage collecting way to dispose the waste by using the latest
technology. In this technology some sensors are connecting a some sensors to the bin. With the help
of these sensors authorities can get information about the bin up to date by the particular ID of the
bin so if the bin is over flowing, by the information given by the bin indicator they can easily find
out the bin in which area it is located and squash it as early as possible. So, people can again use it. If
the person coming to throw the waste into the bin they can receive a appreciation message and they
can know what they thrown inside the bin through the RFID card reader.
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3.1 Proposed Smart Garbage Monitoring Architecture
Figure.1: Proposed Smart Garbage Monitoring Architecture
3.2 Working Procedure
Step [1]. If the person coming to throw the waste into the bin RFID card reader read the
information stored in the tag.
Step [2]. Photo electric sensor detects the clear detection of the object and sends the outline
representation of object to the local authorities if is there any electrical components
present inside the bin.
Step [3]. Weight sensor detects the weight of the garbage present in the bin and with the help of
RFID and IR sends the up to date information to the officers .They can monitor the bin if
it fills they can squash that bin.
Step [4]. If the bin reaches the maximum level it makes the little noise and some indication will
show on the screen of the authorities.
RFID Card
Reader
RFID CARD
TAG
IR SENSOR
Base Station
Local Authorities
Weight Sensor
Photo Electric
Sensor
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4. SENSOR AND RFID USED
4.1 Identifying how the RFID Card Detecting the Information
Radio frequency identification( RFID) belongs to a group of technologies referred to as
automatic identification And data capture (AIDC) AIDC methods automatic identify objects collect
data and enter that directly into a computer system with little or no human intervention .RFID
method utilizes radio waves to accomplish this at a simple level .RFID consists of a three
components (RFID) TAG with smart label, an (RFID) reader and antenna .RFID tag contains an IC
and antenna which are used to transmit data of the (RFID) reader. The reader then converts the radio
waves to more usable form to data information collected from the tag is then transformed through
communications to a host computer system ,where the data can be stored in a data base and analysed
at a later time.
Radio frequency identification(RFID) reader and reader antenna works together to read the tags
antennas coverts electrical current into electromagnetic waves that are radiated Into space and
received by a tag antenna and converted back to electrical current. Just like tag antenna there is a
large variety of readers antennas and optical antennas selection various according to the solutions
specific applications and environment.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) reader takes the information from the person who
wearing the RFID card tag it has some details stored in it .based on these it can send the notification
to that particular person through notification like an appreciation message and notifying that what he
dropped inside that bin.
4.2 Photo Electric Sensor
Photo electric sensors are used to detect the type of the objects which are coming inside the bin
like metals or non-metals. It can detect the size and type of object by focusing a light on that.
Through this the local authorities can get information if is there any electronics placed inside the bin
they can immediately came to know about that. Using this sensor respected authority can see the
clear outline representation of the object. So, by this information they can easily remove the
electronics in the bin.
4.3 IR Sensor
Infrared sensors will be able to detect or emit IR radiations to scan the surrounding area .They are
capable of amount of that the object emitting and they have the ability to detect the motion of the
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objects. All the objects which have a temperature greater than absolute zero possess thermal energy
and sources of infrared radiation as a result. The source for IR Is blackbody radiator, tungsten lamps
and silicon carbide.
Optical component, such as optical lenses made from quartz lenses and AL or AU mirrors are
used to focus the infrared radiation .In order to limit spectral response, band pass used.
Using the IR sensor in the smart bins it can pass the information to the local authorities when the
wastage is over flowing it indicate by some notification and make a little noise until they squash the
bin.
4.4 Weight Sensor
It is used to calculate the weight of the total waste percentage in the bin and sends the
information to the authorities. it will show the up to date information to the authorities the level of
garbage present in the bin.
5 CONCLUSION
This paper concludes that by using this smart garbage monitoring system using RFID over IOT’s
we can easily dispose the waste present in the garbage bins as early as possible when compared to
the previous methods without it affecting to the people and keep the surroundings clean.
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Smart Dustbin-An Efficient Garbage Monitoring System
  • K A Monika
  • Nikitha Rao
  • S B Prapulla
  • G Shobha
Monika K A, Nikitha Rao, Prapulla S B, Shobha G, "Smart Dustbin-An Efficient Garbage Monitoring System" International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, June 2016. Pp.7113-7116.