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In the present investigation four states of central India, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Odisha were surveyed to collect specimens of Phellinus badius, a fungus belonging to order Hymenochaetales, causing heart rot and hollowness in trees. Total 30 specimens of Phellinus badius were collected by our group causing heart rot in different trees. The fungus is reported on 27 hosts representing 14 families and 22 genera from central India are documented. Tree species belonging to family Leguminosae (including Fabaceae, Caesalpinnaceae and Mimosaceae) are the most susceptible to Phellinus badius. Amongst them genus Acacia is the most susceptible. The fungus is reported for the first time on 8 trees namely, Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Butea monosperma, Eugenia heynianum, Madhuca indica, Mimusops elengi, Pithecellobium dulce, Shorea robusta and constitutes new host records from India
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© Society for Promotion of Tropical Biodiversity, Jabalpur
Indian Journal of Tropical Biodiversity
ABSTRACT: In the present investigation four states of central India, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and
Odisha were surveyed to collect specimens of Phellinus badius, a fungus belonging to order Hymenochaetales, causing
heart rot and hollowness in trees. Total 30 specimens of Phellinus badius were collected by our group causing heart rot in
different trees. The fungus is reported on 27 hosts representing 14 families and 22 genera from central India are
documented. Tree species belonging to family Leguminosae (including Fabaceae, Caesalpinnaceae and Mimosaceae)
are more susceptible to Phellinus badius. Amongst them genus Acacia is the most susceptible. The fungus is reported
for the first time on 8 trees namely, Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Butea monosperma, Eugenia heynianum,
Madhuca indica, Mimusops elengi, Pithecellobium dulce, Shorea robusta and constitutes new host records from India.
Keyword: Aphyllophorales, forest degradation, new host records, Phellinus diversity, perthophytic, wood decay fungi
Citation: Verma RK, Verma Poonam (2017) Diversity and host susceptibility of Phellinus badius to central Indian trees. Indian
J Trop Biodiv 25(1): 51-58
DIVERSITY AND HOST SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PHELLINUS BADIUS
TO CENTRAL INDIAN TREES
R.K. VERMA AND POONAM VERMA*
Forest Pathology Division, Tropical Forest Research Institute,
Jabalpur - 482021 Madhya Pradesh, India.
*Corresponding author: poonamverma8624@gmail.com
Received on : 12 May 2017
Accepted on : 30 May 2017
Published on : 30 Jun. 2017
Wood is composed of
the structural polymer
cellulose, lignin and
hemicellulose. However,
there is considerable variation, the heartwood of living
trees in which a wide array of non-structural extraneous
materials are deposited, as the maturing cells die.
Fungal species decay heartwood and causes white rot
of live standing trees and dead logs of angiospermic
(Ranadive et al. 2012). The Aphyllophorales is an
obsolete order of fungi in the Basidiomycota and it is
entirely artificial, having miscellany of species now
grouped in the clavarioid, corticioid, cyphelloid, hydnoid
and poroid fungi. As originally conceived, the
Aphyllophorales contained the families Clavariaceae,
Cyphellaceae, Fistulinaceae, Hydnaceae,
Meruliaceae, Polyporaceae, Polystictaceae, and
Thelephoraceae. Most of these families are still
currently used, albeit in an amended form (Kirk et al.,
2008). Though many attempts were made to create a
more natural classification of the Basidiomycota, the
Aphyllophorales is still continued to be used. Species
previously placed in Aphyllophorales play a major role in
wood decay, resulting serious damage to the forest
economy of our country. All fungi of this order are
lignicolous and grow on bark and wood and also cause
white rot, where lignin and cellulose is degraded
(Ranadive et al. 2013). Phellinus is one of the largest
genera with more than 350 species currently placed in
family Hymenochaetaceae. Taxonomic studies of the
genus Phellinus had been extensively done throughout
the world (Bondarzew and Singer, 1941; Cunningham,
1965; Donk, 1954, 1056ab; 1957, 1958, 1960, 1964;
Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1987; Overholts, 1929;
Lowe, 1957; Rajchenberg, 1987a,b; Ryvarden, 1987)
Phellinus badius produced different organic
chemical including drosophilin, a methyl ether
(tetrachloro-1, 4-dimethoxybenzene), in the heartwood
of Prosopis juliflora (Anchel, 1952; Field et al., 1995;
Garvie et al., 2015; Hsu et al., 1971). Medicinal species
of Phellinus, sensu lato produced metabolites were
reported (Dai et al., 2010; Meera and Janardhanan,
2012). Phellinus linteus, a medicinal mushroom was
also screened for anti-viral activity (Lee D et al., 2011).
In India Phellinus spp. was extensively studied
(Bagchee, 1961; Bakshi, 1955; 1958; Thind and
Dhanda, 1980; Ganesh and Leelavathy, 1986; Vaidya
and Rabba, 1993a,b; Verma et al., 2008; 2011; Tiwari et
al., 2013). Till date 47 species have already been
reported from India (Rabba, 1994) and 18 species from
central India (Tiwari et al., 2013).
The present study reports diversity and host
specificity of Phellinus badius in central India. It also
reports 8 new host records of this fungus from India.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Collection of samples
The samples were collected from central India
(Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and
Odisha). The specimen were deposited in the mycology
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Indian Journal of Tropical Biodiversity, 25(1) 2017
herbarium of Forest Pathology Division, Tropical Forest
Research Institute, Jabalpur, India provided
accessesion numbers TF143, TF373, TF719, TF998,
TF1365, TF1366, TF2496, TF2598, TF2602, TF2618,
TF2621, TF2622, TF2631, TF2636, TF2637, TF2638,
TF2639, TF2640, TF3179, TF3235, TF3255, TF3861,
TF3871, TF3873, TF3879, TF3885, TF3894, TF3897
Identification of fungus
Identification of fungus fruiting bodies has been done
with help of relevant literature (Bakshi, 1957; 1958;
1976; 1971; Ryvarden, 1987; Tiwari et al., 2013; Verma
et al., 2008) and literature available on internet.
RESULTS
Taxonomic Description:
Phellinus badius (Cooke) Cunn.
(Hymenochaetaceae, Hymenochaetales, Agaricomy-
cetidae, Basidiomycetes, Basidiomycota)
Fomes badius Berk. ex Cooke
=Polyporus badius Berk.
Sporophore sessile, attached by a broad base, hoof
shaped, perennial, hard, woody, usually up to 110 x 9.5
x 6 cm, upper surface yellowish brown in current year's
growth, black when old, glabrous, rough, cracking with
age. Context is brown. Hymenial surface is dull brown,
rough. Pores regular, more or less round, 3-4 /mm
margin thin, sterile, pore tubes ferruginous, distinctly
stratified, straight. Hyphae yellow to yellow brown, thick
walled, septate, sparsely branched, 2.5-5 µm. Setae
absent. Basidiospores yellow brown, globose to oval,
thick walled, 6-8 x 3.5-5 µm (Figs. 1-7). The fungus
causes punk knot and white spongy rot and hollowness
in main trunks.
Host range of Phellinus badius was recorded from
all over the India (Table 1). The total 22 host genera
(Table 4) belonging to 14 families of Angiosperms (Table
2) were recorded. The dominating genera amongst the
host diversity are Acacia (40 collections) followed by
Leucaena (8) and Gliricidia (6) (Table 4). The host
species were categorized 3 categories as, single host
genera, 2-5 and more than 5 genera. Seven families
were categorized as infected with a single host genus, 5
numbers of families with 2-5 host genera and 2 families
with more than 5 genera (Table 3).\
Phellinus badius is reported for the first time on 8
trees, Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Butea
monosperma, Eugenia heynianum, Madhuca indica,
Mimusops elengi, Pithecellobium dulce, Shorea
robusta.
Tiwari et al. (2013) reported 18 species of Phellinus
on trees of central India which includes P. allardii on
stump of pear and Tectona grandis; P. badius and P.
xeranticus on Tectona grandis; P. caryophylli on Cordia
dichotoma; P. dingleyae and P. linteus on Terminalia
tomentosa; P. fastuosus, P. merrillii, P. ostricolor, P.
portoricensis and P. rimosus on Shorea robusta; P.
lamaoensis on Pterocarpus marsupium; P. lactuosus on
Morus indica; P. merrillii on Acacia auriculiformis; P.
patchyphloeus on Anogeissus latifolia; P. portoricensis
on Lagerstroemia parviflora; P. rimosus on Acacia
catechu; P. senex on Dendrocalamus strictus; P.
setulosus on Grevillea pteridifolia. In addition to the
above Phellinus gilvus is reported on wide range of
hosts including Adina cordifolia, Anogeissus latifolia,
Boswellia serrata, Eucalyptus sp., Mangifera indica,
Ougeinia oojnensis, Pterocarpus marsupium,
Schteichera oleosa, Shorea robusta, Tectona grandis,
Terminalia balerica and T. tomentosa (Tiwari et al.,
2013).
DISCUSSION
Heart rot is the most important damage caused by fungi
live on standing trees. The disease is mainly caused by
Phellinus spp., and it has been reported as wood decay
fungi throughout the world, particularly in tropical areas
(Ivory, 1990; Bolland, 1984; Ryvarden, 2000). The white
rot caused by P. badius leads to serious wood
deterioration. No other class of forest disease cause
more timber damage than heart rot (Ranadive et al.,
2012; Larsen and Cobb-Poulle, 1971). Species of
Phellinus are parasitic, perthophytic (a fungus that lives
on dead or decaying tissue forming part of a living plant)
and/ or saprobic causing white rot that degrade both
lignin and cellulose (Rabba, 1994; Vaidya and Bhor,
1990; Vaidya and Rabba, 1993a). They dwell on a wide
variety of angiosperms and/ or gymnosperms (Mali,
2015, 2016; Mali et al., 2016; Wagner and Fischer,
2002) causing heart rot in live standing trees. It can be
stated that the family infected the most by Phellinus
badius is Fabaceae (48) followed by Mimosaceae (11)
and Caesalpiniaceae (4) (Table 2). Similar results were
observed by Chouse and Mali (2016).
Heartwood is the dead, inner wood. It is formed
when tree gets older and its trunk increases in diameter,
things change. Wood provides structural support,
causes significant changes in the wood. The cells
nearest the center of the trunk die, but they remain
mostly intact. As these older sapwood cells age and die,
they become heartwood. Many compound (including
resins, phenols, and terpenes, sometimes referred to as
extractives) present in heartwood, not only help make
Figures 1-7. Phellinus badius. Sporophores on the stems of 1. Acacia catechu, 2. Anogeissus latifolia and
3. Pithecellobium dulce; 4-5. Upper and lower surfaces of sporophore, 6-7. Basidiospores
1 2 3
4 5
67
Table 1: An account of forest tree species affected by Phellinus badius in India
S. No.
Host
Date of
collection
Place of collection
Reference/ Collected by
1.
Acacia arabica
-
Sawmill,
Gujarat
Nagadesi and Arya
(2013)
20/09/2013
Maharana Pratap Nagar, Latur,
MS,
Chouse and Mali (2016)
24/09/2013
Saw mill, Nilanga, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
30/09/2013
Yermala, Kalamb, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
01/10/2013
Ramling wild life sanctuary, Yedshi,
MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
03/10/2013
Golegaon, Bhoom, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
11/10/2013
Waradwadi, Paranda, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
12/10/2013
Dhoki road, Latur, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
02/08/2014
Khazana well, Beed, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
26/09/2014
Saw mill, MIDC, Beed, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
28/09/2014
Jalna road, Beed, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
30/09/2014
Khapar
pangri, Beed, MS
Chouse and Mali, 2016)
24/10/2014
Mukundraj Forest, Ambejogai, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
27/10/2014
Gevrai, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
27/10/2014
Jayakwadi Stage II Dam,
Majalgaon, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
27/10/2014
MajalgaonTelgaon road, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
29/10/2014
Sawmill, Neknoor, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
08/11/2014
Kakadhira phata, Beed, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
08/11/2014
Ravgan Rajuri, Beed, MS
Chouse and Mali (2016)
2.
Acacia catechu
20.11.2005
Karthua, Sidhi, MP
Verma et al. (2008)
02/08/2011
Barah, Jabalpur, MP
J Parihar and CK Tiwari
22/07/2011
Thane, MS
RK Verma
16/02/2011
Jodhmoha (Yavatmal), MS
RK Verma
16/02/2011
Mukutban
range (Yavatmal), MS
RK Verma
15/02/2011
Hiwari range (Yavatman)
RK Verma
06/07/2011 Barah, Jabalpur, MP J Parihar and CK Tiwari
28/09/2010
Khandwa, MP
J Parihar and CK Tiwari
28/09/2010
Khandwa, MP
J Parihar and CK Tiwari
28/09/2010
Khandwa, MP
J Parihar and CK Tiwari
26/05/2011
TFRI,
Jabalpur, MP
J Parihar and CK Tiwari
06/07/2011
Barah, Jabalpur, MP
J Parihar and CK Tiwari
3.
Acacia
leucophloea
-
Patan Sangavi, Loni, Pimala, Kada,
MS
Mali (2015)
4.
Acacia nilotica
1976
-
Bakshi
(1976)
19/8/2011
Durg (CG)
Tiwari et al. (2013)
-
Patan Sangavi, Loni, Pimala, Kada,
Gujarat
Mali (2015)
20/11/2016
Noornagar, Gauharganj, Bhopal,
MP
RK Verma
- Film Institute Pune, MS Ranadive et al. (2011)
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Indian Journal of Tropical Biodiversity, 25(1) 2017
- Dabhol, Pashan Pune, MS Ranadive et al. (2011)
01/08/1985 Barha, Jabalpur, MP -
20/11/2016 Noornagar, Gauharganj, Bhopal,
MP RK Verma
Albizia lebbeck 30/09/2013 Uplayi, Kalamb, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
01/11/2014 Parli Vaijyanath, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
Alstonia scholaris - Saurashtra University Campus,
Rajkot, Gujarat Mali, 2016
5.
6.
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Indian Journal of Tropical Biodiversity, 25(1) 2017
Anogeissus
latifolia 17/02/2017 Chikhlajhodi, Ukwa range, Laugur,
Balaghat, MP
N 22°17'413'' E 80°23'579''
RK Verma
Azadirachta
indica 14/09/2009 Dhenkenal, Odisha J Parihar and CK Tiwari
Butea
monosperma 23/11/2016 Samardha, Bhopal, MP RK Verma
Casuarina
equisetifolia 01/11/2014 MSEB guest house, Parli, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
Dalbergia
melanoxylon - Dabhol, Pashan Pune, MS Foroutan and Vaidya (2007b)
Delonix regia - Film Institute, Pune, MS Foroutan and Vaidya (2007a)
Diospyros
melanoxylon 08/11/2014 Naigaon Wild life sanctuary,
Patoda, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
Eugenia
heynianum 23/11/2016 Samardha, Bhopal, MP RK Verma
Gliricidia sepium 16/08/2016 Ramling wild life sanctuary, Yedshi,
MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
12/10/2013 Beed– Solapur road, Osmanabad,
MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
12/10/2013 Dhoki road, Latur, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
24/10/2014 Buttenath Forest, Ambejogai, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
24/10/2014 Mukundraj Forest, Ambejogai, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
25/10/2014 Renukadevi Forest, Ambejoga, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
Leucaena
leucocephala 23/09/2013 Bhada village, Ausa, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
11/10/2013 Paranda, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
12/10/2013 Osmanabad, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
02/08/2014 Bendsura dam, Beed, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
02/08/2014 Khazana well, Beed, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
24/10/2014 Mukundraj Forest, Ambejogai, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
29/10/2014 Neknoor, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
29/10/2014 Neknoor, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
Madhuca indica 22/11/2016 Balampur, Bhopal, MP RK Verma
Mimusops elengi 24/11/2016 Samardha, Bhopal, MP RK Verma
Miscellaneous
unidentified
hosts
05/12/2008 Baraha, Jabalpur, MP RK Verma
23/12/2008 Lonawala, MS, Ranadive et al. (2013)
22/09/2013 Roopnagar, Balachaur, Maili,
Punjab -
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Anogeissus
pendula
12/10/2006 Shivpuri, MP Verma et al. (2008)
7.
21. Ficus
22. Peltophorum
ferrugineum
23.
Peltophorum
pterocarpum
24. Pithecellobium
dulce
25. Saccopetalum
tomentosum
26. Shorea robusta
27. Tectona grandis
sp. 29/10/2009 Ahupe, MS Ranadive et al. (2013)
22/04/2007 Vadia palace Rajpipla, Gujarat Nagadesi and Arya (2013)
- Saurashtra University Campus,
Rajkot, Gujarat Mali (2016)
17/08/2016 Ramling wild life sanctuary,
Yedshi, MS Chouse and Mali (2016)
28/11/2016 Jabalpur, MP Poonam Verma and RK Verma
21/11/2016 Chichali beat, Bhopal, MP RK Verma
21/12/2006 Bawai, Belgoan, Kondagoan RK Verma
15/08/2011 Gariyabandh, CG RK Verma et al.
29/9/2011 Achankmar, CG Tiwari et al. (2013)
- Sawmill, Gujarat Nagadesi and Arya (2013)
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Indian Journal of Tropical Biodiversity, 25(1) 2017
Table 2: Family wise distribution of Phellinus badius
S. No. Host Plant Family
Number of
collection
1. Annonaceae
1
2. Apocynaceae
1
3. Casuarinaceae
1
4. Combretaceae
2
5. Dipterocarpaceae
2
6. Ebenaceae
1
7. Caesalpiniaceae
4
8. Fabaceae
48
9. Mimosaceae
11
10. Meliaceae
1
11. Moraceae
1
12. Myrtaceae
1
13. Sapotaceae
2
14. Verbenaceae
2
Table 3: Categories of plants infected by Phellinus badius
S.
No. Category
Number of
Families
Host Distribution
(%)
1. A. Single host genera
from a family
7
50
2. B. 2-5 host genera from
a family
5
35.71
3. C. More than 5 genera
from a family
2
14.29
Table 4: Genera wise distribution of Phellinus badius hosts
S. No. Name of Genera
Number of
collection
1. Acacia
40
2. Albizia
2
3. Alstonia
1
4. Anogeissus
1
5. Azadirachta
1
6. Butea
1
7.Casuarina
1
8.Dalbergia
1
9.Delonix
1
10.Diospyros
1
11. Eugenia
1
12.Ficus
1
13.Gliricidia
6
14.Leucaena
8
15.Madhuca
1
16.Mimusops
1
17. Miscellaneous
4
18.Peltophorum
3
19.Pithecellobium
1
20.Saccopetalum
1
21.Shorea
2
22. Tectona
2
heartwood more resistant to attack by insects and
decay organisms (Capon, 2005; Shigo, 1986). But, the
culture filtrates of Phellinus sp. secret lignin as well as
polysaccharide degrading enzymes, both in vitro and in
vivo; endo and exo-glucanase as well as cellobiase
activities; pectinase (endo-PG) and a pectate-lyase
activity. Besides these enzymes, xylanase,
laminarinase and glycosidase activities were also
observed (Geiger et al., 1986).
During the investigation it was observed that the
Phellinus badius found on different hosts at different
localities in India. The coexistence of several wood-
rotting fungi in nature is frequent and may reflect that:
(a) the species have merely the same ecological optima
(Jahn, 1979) rather than any process of replacement or
other invasive interaction or (b) certain species may
parasitize the sporocarps of other species (Helfer,
1991; Jeffries and Young,1994) or (c) simply using the
earlier dead species only as substrate (Helfer, 1991) or
(d) more accidental or naturalistic association because
of limited space of growing on a single piece of wood
(Cooke and Rayner, 1984).
CONCLUSIONS
Phellinus badius is recorded on 27 host trees from
central India. Tree species belonging to family
Leguminosae (Fabaceae, Caesalpinnaceae and
Mimosaceae) are more susceptible to Phellinus badius
among them Acacia spp. are the most susceptible. This
fungus is for the first time recorded on trees,
Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Butea
monosperma, Eugenia heynianum, Madhuca indica,
Mimusops elengi, Pithecellobium dulce and Shorea
robusta.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors are thankful to Dr. U. Prakasham, Director,
Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur for
providing necessary facilities and Indian Council of
Forestry Research & Education, Dehradun for financial
assistance under project ID No. 224/TFRI/2016/Patho-
1(22).
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Timer decay is caused by primarily enzymatic activities of microorganisms. For the first time fungal diversity of timber degrading fungi was studied in Gujarat, India. Timber Degrading Fungi belonging to Aphyllophorales are economically important as many of these cause serious damage in sawmills of Gujarat. To find out the association of the timber degrading fungi and timber decay problems in sawmills a survey was conducted during 2007 to 2011 in different sawmills of 5 districts of Gujarat i.e. Vadodara, Ahmedabad, Bharuch, Rajkot and Jamnagar. In the present study teak wood present in sawmills was infected with 14 types of fungi in which Lenzites sterioides and Trametes versicolor damaged the wood severely was reported for the first time. In all 94 sawmills were surveyed, the 28 sawmills were from Vadodara, 29 from Ahmedabad, 12 from Bharuch, 21 from Rajkot and 4 from Jamnagar. Out of 94 sawmills survyed, 84 sawmills were having timber rotting fungi associated with wood. Maximum fifteen and thirteen fungal species were observed in saw mills of Chhani road, followed by 11 in Station road, 7 in Dhabhoi road and 6 in Harni, Vadodara. Fours woods uninfected are Beyo, Marinty, Ash, and Arjun. Fourteen different types of fungi were found associated with teak, followed by seven in pinus, madhuca, Acacia nilotica, six in babul, neem, four in tamarind, Pithacoelobium and three in mango, Eucalyptus, African Mahagoni, Kapoor, Peltophoram rouxburghii, Derris pinnata wood respectively. The commonly observed timber decaying fungi were Schizophyllum commune, Flavodon flavus and Ganoderma lucidum belonging to Basidiomycota. Ascomycota members included was Daldinia concentrica and Xylaria polymorpha.