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Hair color is one of the oldest and most well-known cosmetics that have been used by many ancient cultures in different parts of the world for not only women but also for men. Synthetic oxidative hair dyes available in the market contain combination of peroxide and ammonia which damage hair and causes allergic reactions. Also, Further the people using synthetic dyes are exposed the risk of breast cancer, urinary bladder cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Hair dyes derived from plants to solve these problems and are safe to use. A few of these natural herbals are henna, chamomile, madder, beets, turmeric, walnuts¸etcwalnuts¸etc. The developed oil hair color may provide multifunctional effects such as softeningçonditioningsofteningçonditioning effect, promotion of growth and density of hair¸etchair¸etc. In this article, the types of used plants for hair color and hair care products are discussed.
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A Review of the Natural Resources Used to Hair
Color and Hair Care Products
Z. Shahi, M. Khajeh Mehrizi*, M. Hadizadeh
1Assistant Professor, Textile Engineering Department, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
Abstract: Hair color is one of the oldest and most well-known cosmetics that have been used by many ancient cultures in different
parts of the world for not only women but also for men. Synthetic oxidative hair dyes available in the market contain
combination of peroxide and ammonia which damage hair and causes allergic reactions. Also, Further the people using
synthetic dyes are exposed the risk of breast cancer, urinary bladder cancer and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Hair dyes
derived from plants to solve these problems and are safe to use. A few of these natural herbals are henna, chamomile,
madder, beets, turmeric, walnuts¸ etc. The developed oil hair color may provide multifunctional effects such as softening¸
conditioning effect, promotion of growth and density of hair¸ etc. In this article, the types of used plants for hair color and
hair care products are discussed.
Keywords: Hair color, Henna¸ Chamomile, Madder¸ Vegetable oils.
I
NTRODUCTION
The art of hair dyeing was known as early as 5000 years
BC among the Egyptians [1]. Hair dye has been used since
ancient Egyptian times when Rameses II reinforced red hair
color using henna [2]. Since ancient times plants have been
used for dyeing targets and even now they play a key role
in food, textile and cosmetic. Among them, henna leaf and
walnut husk were the most efficient natural hair dyes [3].
Natural colors are divided into several categories¸
vegetable origin: From root, stem, bark, wood leaf, flower
and seed of plants as annatto, turmeric, henna
, etc¸
animal
origin as cochineal , etc and mineral origin [4]. Natural dyes
are environmental friendly, low toxic and less allergenic.
Natural dyes in the structure consist of catechins, flavonoids,
ascorbic acid
, etc
, which show natural anti-oxidant property
[5]. Herbal hair color is used in various disorders such as
dandruff, premature graying and head lice etc [1]. Natural hair
dyes solve the problem of the destruction of the scalp and
hair cuticle¸ which are safe for use [6]. Natural colors
include many pigments such as carotene (Golden), lutein
(yellow), anthocyanins (red)
, etc
. In this article, an overview
of the types of used natural pigments for coloring hair and
oils for hair tonic are discussed [7].
V
EGETABLE
D
YES
HENNA
The principle coloring compound of Henna is “Lawsone,” a
redorange colored compound present in dried leaves in a
concentration of 11.5% w/w [8].
Figure1: The structure of Lawsone
Lawsone is proposed to be used as a nonoxidizing hair
coloring agent at a maximum concentration of 1.5% in the
cosmetic product [8]. Other components in henna such as
flavonoids and gallic acid contribute as organic mordants to
the coloring process. Carbohydrates give the henna paste a
suitable consistency to hair attachment [9]. Henna has
affinity to the keratin in the mildly acidic environment
(pH=5.5) [2]. Natural henna is usually hypoallergenic but
allergic reactions occurred in mixed types including black
henna. This was caused by chemical compounds consisting
of para-phenylenediamine¸ 2-nitro-4- phenylenediamine¸ 4-
aminophenol and 3- aminophenol [10]. Henna has also
antifungal activity against Malassezia species (causative
organism of dandruff) [8]. Henna balances the pH of the
scalp for preventing premature hair fall and graying of hair
[11]. Henna leaf paste used for alleviating jaundice, skin
diseases¸ smallpox¸ etc. Extract of Henna leaves with
ethanol (70 %) showed significant hypoglycaemic and
hypolipidaemic activities in diabetic mice [12].
MADDER The madders have been exploited as the source of a red dye
since ancient times. Anthraquinone structure of madder in
various regions is different. For example¸ the major
pigments obtained from European madder are the alizarin
anthraquinones and Indian madder mainly yields purpurin
[13].
Figure 2: Some of anthraquinone structures in the madder
This plant has also been used as natural food colourants and
as natural hair dyes. Also, this plant has anticancer,
antimicrobial, antifungal, hypotensive and antipain
Z. Shahi et al /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 9(7), 2017,1026-1030
1026
properties [14]. Moreover, madder is antiseptic, blood
purifier and antirheumatic [15].
CHAMOMILE Another vegetable dye commonly used to obtain yellow
shades is chamomile that promotes greater light reflection.
The active ingredient of the flower is 1,3,4-
trihydroxyflavone, also known as apigenin [2].
Figure 3: The structure of apigenin
This plant has softening, moisturizing and skin soothing
properties [16]. Chamomile is used for indigestion,
diarrhea, sleeplessness and sciatica [17].
WALNUT Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) can be extracted
from different parts of Walnut tree. Juglone is an isomer of
the more known lawsone (2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone),
the coloring agent of Henna and both are some of the oldest
dyes used throughout history for dyeing hair [3].
Figure 4: The structure of Juglone
Leaves and hull of walnut fruits is used for hair dyeing.
Walnuts is contain compounds: Oleic acid, macadamia,
linoleic acid, linolenic acid, methionine, cysteine,
tryptophan, threonine [18]. 1,4-Benzoquinone is a small
organic compound and, in principle, its low molecular
weight makes it suitable for semipermanent hair dye
formulations. It can be considered a natural brown-dyeing
source being it found in young shoots of the pear (genus
Pyrus L.), where it exhibits strong antibacterial activity
[3].Walnut leaves are used in traditional medicine for
external applications such as eczema, loss of hair, scalp
itching, peeling and dandruff and treat sun burns [19].
TURMERIC Turmeric is a small perennial herbaceous plant, bearing
many rhizomes which are aromatic and pigment yellow
orange-red. Three principal pigments are present in the
rhizomes curcumin, desmethoxy curcumin and
bisdesmethoxy curcumin, which are collectively known as
curcuminoids [13].
Figure 5: The structure of the pigment in turmeric
Turmeric has played a traditional role as a crude dyestuff
and cosmetic [13]. The paste of turmeric powder has been
used as antiseptic and for skin nourishment since centuries
[20]. Curcumin is effective in the treatment of
inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, arthritis and
certain types of cancers [21]. ONION SKIN Quercetin (3-hydroxy flavone) is the structure of the natural
yellow color [3]. Onion skin is rich source of quercetin.
Two major flavonoids of onion skin are quercetinaglycone
and quercetin-4'-glucoside [22].
Figure 6: The structure of flavonoids in onion skins
(Right: quercetinaglycone, left: quercetin-4'-glucoside)
Quercetin is a strong antioxidant with ability to scavenge
free radicals and has been demonstrated to have anti-
inflammatory properties. Also, it can inhibit platelet
aggregation [23].
ECLIPTA ALBA The presence of flavonesapigenin and luteolin, as the
flavone-7-O-glycoside and the flavone-C-glucosides are the
main colorant. Two major compounds in the herb of plant
are wedelolactone and demethylwedelolactone [24].
Figure 7: The structure of the compounds in Eclipta alba
The presence such as alkaloids, flavonoids¸
polyacetylenes, triterpenes and their glycosides in Eclipta
alba qualifies it as a good source of dye [11].The juice of
the fresh plant is used in a traditional Indian recipe to not
only darken the hair, but to improve hair growth and reduce
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1027
hair loss [25]. The fresh juice of leaves is used for jaundice¸
increasing appetite, improving digestion, stopping bleeding,
burns, and enhance memory [26].
GUAIAC WOOD Another blue azulene derivative is guaiazulene (1,4-
dimethyl-7-isopropylazulene), present in the essential oil of
guaiac wood.
Figure 8: The structure of the pigment in the oil guaiac
wood
Recently, it has become a popular ingredient in body care
products (lotions, toothpastes, eye drops) owing to its
application as a skin conditioning agent in cosmetic
formulations (including hair dyes). The absence of polar
functional groups in these compounds suggests that only
very weak interactions with hair might occur [3].
BRAZILWOOD Brazilwood was used as natural source for red colors in
ancient Asian civilizations. For dyeing, only the colored
heartwood of the trunk and larger branches of the tree was
used.in contact with oxygen in the air and light brazilin is
readily converted to brazilein due to the oxidation of one
hydroxyl group to a carbonyl. The Compound creates a red
color with much stronger coloring power [27].
Figure 9: The chemical structure of Brazilin (reduced form)
and brazilein (oxidised form).
Brazilin and brazilein from brazilwood species are very
similar in structure to haematoxylin and haematin,
respectively, from logwood. Brazilwood molecules differ
from those of logwood in only one phenolic hydroxyl
group [27].
Figure 10: The chemical structure of the pigment in
logwood and wood Brazil
The Wood from the Brazilwood tree has been used for
brown hair dyes [28]. Brazilwood has been traditionally
used as food and beverage colorant in Indonesia [29].The
fruits are rich in tannins and may be used for treatment of
leather. Wood and bark are used in traditional medicine for
the treatment of diarrhea and a variety of other ailments
[13].
RED SANDALWOOD The principal red pigments in red sandal heartwood are
santalin A and B [13].
Figure 11: The structure of the pigment in the red
sandalwood
Red sandalwood was employed in the past for wool, cotton
and leather dyeing. Red sandal has been traditionally used
the coloring of seafood sauces, breadcrumbs and alcoholic
drinks [13]. In the traditional system of medicine, the
decoction prepared from the heartwood has been used in
inducing vomiting and treating eye diseases, mental
aberrations, and ulcers. The wood in combination with
other drugs is also prescribed for snake bites and scorpion
stings [30].
ANNATTO Annatto is obtained from the outer layer of the seeds of the
tropical tree Bixaorellana L. The principle pigment in
annatto, namely bixin, is a carotenoid, which is contained
in the resinous coating surrounding the seed itself. The
major pigment present is cis-bixin; also present, as minor
constituents, are trans-bixin, cis-norbixin and trans-
norbixin [31].
Z. Shahi et al /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 9(7), 2017,1026-1030
1028
Figure 12: The structure of the pigment in the annatto
The seed is valued as a source of pigments which impart a
red or orange hue dependent upon the form of usage [13].
Annatto seeds and extracts have been used for over 200
years in Europe and North America to impart a yellow to
red color to foods, especially dairy products such as cheese
[31] .Annatto leaves, roots, and seed extracts are popular to
treat fevers, inflammatory conditions, and parasitic
diseases. A decoction of the leaves is used to stop vomiting
and nausea, to treat heartburn, prostate and urinary
difficulties [32]. .
V
EGTABLE
O
ILS
U
SED
F
OR
H
AIR
ALOE VERA
Anthraquinones, resins, tannins and polysaccharides are the
major chemical constituents in Aloe vera [33]. The gel also
contains vitamins A, B, C, E, B12, enzymes and amino acid
[16]. Aloe vera gel is effective for scalp and can be used
not only to treat hair loss, but to promote hair growth as
well. Aloe vera contains aloe emodin which promotes hair
growth by stimulating hair follicle. It is used as a natural
mordant [11]. One of the most valuable cosmetic properties
of aloe gel is its ability to stimulate the circulation of the
skin and remove the dead skin cells so giving a fresher and
younger appearance to the skin. It is recommended for
sunburn, insect bites and etc [20].
FENUGREEK It is used as a conditioner for the hair [11]. The fenugreek
contain significant amount of protein content which may
help in hair growth and contain riched amount of flavanoid,
which has the antioxidant activity by scavenging free
radicals and preventing hair fall [34]. Also, seeds extract is
used as hair cleanser [4]
.
COCONUT OIL Coconut oil used as such or as a basic raw material for
preparing hair oils and tonics [4]. Coconut oil enhances
strength of hair and also prevents dryness of hair
[35].Vitamins, Minerals Amino acids¸ Promote hair growth
and moisturize scalp [16].
OLIVE OIL Olive oil contains Triolein, Tripalmitin¸ Trilinolein,
Squalene and Tocopherol¸ that gives softening and
moisturizing properties to the hair [16]. It is used as skin
and hair conditioner in cosmetics like lotions, shampoos
and etc [36].
AMLA This fruit contains vitamin C, tannins, minerals such as (Ca,
P, Fe) and amino acid. The fruit extract is useful for hair
growth and reduce hair loss [16]. Amla has antibacterial
and antioxidant properties that can help promote the growth
of healthy and lustrous hair [11].
SHIKAKAI Shikakai is Lupeol, spinasterol, lactone, hexacosanol,
spinasterone, calyctomine, racimase-A oleanolic acid,
lupenone, betulin, betulinic acid, betulonic acid and Pods
extract is used as hair cleanser and for control of dandruff
[18].
SAPINDUS (REETHA) Sapindus encloses vitamin A, D, E, K Saponin, Sugars¸
Fatty acid and Mucilage. Reetha extract is useful for
promote hair growth and reduce dandruff [16]. Extract of
fruit coat works as natural shampoo: used in herbal
shampoo as hair cleanser [18].
HIBISCUS Hibiscus consists of calcium phosphorus, iron, vitamin B1,
vitamin C¸ riboflavin and niacin used to stimulate thicker
hair growth and prevents premature graying of hair
[37].This flower is used for controlling dandruff. Hibiscus
antioxidant properties by producing flavonoids
anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds and are
immune-modulating reducing the harmful effects of UV
radiation. It can be used to rejuvenate the hair by
conditioning [11].
SESAME OIL Sesame oil involves natural antioxidants such as sesamin
and sesamol. It is used in human diet and cosmetics [38].
Seed oil is one of the major sources of hair oils which are
used as a base for preparing of specific hair oils [4].
JOJOBA Jojoba consists of Esters, Acids, Alcohol Tocopherol and
Phytosterols that cause reduce hair loss, Moisturize hair
and Maintain pH [16].it is often used in cosmetics as a
moisturizer and as a carrier oil for exotic fragrances [36].
Z. Shahi et al /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 9(7), 2017,1026-1030
1029
CONCLUSION
The world is changing towards the use of safer, nontoxic
and natural products with traditional usage. Plants play a
key role in food, textile and cosmetic fields and are safe to
use. A few of these natural herbs are henna, chamomile¸
Eclipta alba¸ Annattoetc. Also, the herbal hair coloring are
used in various disorders such as dandruff, premature
greying and head lice and etc. Used vegetable oils for hair
may provide multifunctional effects such as softening¸
reduce dandruff and promotion of growth of hair.
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... A good hair colouring gives both new colour and nutrition in order to get the healthy hair. The developed oil hair colour can provide multifunctional effects such as become softer, stimulate the hair flexible condition, promote the growth and thickness of the hair, and so on [3]. Thus, nowadays, people tend to use a natural and safe hair colouring without causing the presence of the dangerous illnesses. ...
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A HPLC method coupled with diode array detector was developed and validated for the quantitation of alizarin, apigenin, carminic acid, curcumin, ellagic acid, emodin, fisetin, kaempferide, kaempferol, kermesic acid, morin, purpurin, quercetin and sulfuretin which are components of several natural dyes. 1- Hydroxyanthraquinone was selected as internal standard. The compounds were separated under gradient elution on a RP-column (Altima C18, 250 mm x 3.0 mm i.d., 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of solvent A: H2O + 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid and solvent B: acetonitrile + 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, accuracy, precision, ruggedness and robustness and applied to the analysis of silk dyed with buckthorn (Rhamnus trees), cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa), madder (Rubia tinctorum L.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and young fustic (Cotinus coggygria Scop). Furthermore, dyed silk samples were subjected to artificially accelerated ageing conditions induced by UV radiation. The effect of the latter on the quantities of the aforementioned compounds was monitored, except for apigenin, kermesic acid and morin.
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Full-text available
Hair color is one of the oldest cosmetics known by many ancient cultures in different parts of the world like the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, Chinese and Hindus have been used. Before the advent of chemical colors, creative use of natural products for hair color, was common. Natural colors, including colors with plant source (henna, beet, madder, chamomile), animal origin (Cochineal insects, species of mussels) and metal salts. As well as chemical dye the hair into three categories: temporary (non-oxidizing), semipermanent colors (non-oxidizing) and permanent colors (antioxidant) are divided. In general, chemical hair colors is divided into two main categories oxidant and non-oxidant. And the durability of color into three categories: temporary, semi-permanent and permanent split. In this article, we will describe the types of hair color and structure and characteristics of each are discussed.
Conference Paper
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) was established on the 16th of October 1945 in Quebec, Canada. It was created as a technical agency of the United Nations to deal with issues of world hunger and agricultural development. Its Headquarters are in Rome, Italy. FAO's mandate is to raise levels of nutrition, improve agricultural productivity, better the lives of rural populations and contribute to the growth of the world economy. FAO activities comprise four main areas related to food and agriculture: (i) Putting information within reach; (ii) Sharing policy expertise (iii) Providing a meeting place for nations (iv) Bringing knowledge to the field. FAO, in its 60 years of existence, has had close relations with the IUSS and Soil Resources inventories, management and planning in particular. A Land and Water branch was created within FAO as early as 1946. The highlights of this branch (later the Land and Water Development Division) included the publication of one of the first Multilingual Vocabulary on Soils (1952), the “Freedom from Hunger” campaign which created the very successful Fertilizer Program (1960). In the same year FAO and the International Soil Science Society launched the Soil Map of the World project. During the nineteen seventies the FAO-UNESCO Soil Map of the World was published and the World Soil Charter, a FAO initiative, adapted by its member nations (1981). In 1977 the Framework for Land Evaluation was published. In 1978 the first results of FAO's Agro-ecological zones study were published and later expanded globally with the assistance of IIASA. During the 1980's much of the earlier work was consolidated and expanded. A major contribution being the harmonization of soil classification and terminology under the ISSS initiative of the World reference Base for Soil Resources and the constant updates of the soil map of the World under the ISSS working group on SOTER (World Soil and Terrain Database). The land degradation assessments undertaken earlier by FAO became the basis for the GLASOD (Global Assessment of human induced Soil Degradation) legend. The nineteen nineties saw a renewed shift in soil attention when the Rio Conference in 1992 launched a process that emphasised participatory approaches in land use planning (Guidelines published by FAO in 1994) and an enhanced attention to sustainable development, rather than a production-focussed approach. In the first years of the new millenium, new problems, such as climate change and the loss of biodiversity, were recognized and a more holistic and interdisciplinary approach dealing with ecosystems rather than soils in isolation became the rule. FAO's Land and Water Development Division has produced numerous benchmark publications. It remains the custodian of thousands of soil maps and a major source of soil information worldwide through its land and water digital media series and web site.
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