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Third Level Education Today Assessment reports of a third-elevel educational joint venture project _ China-Europe

Authors:

Abstract

I spent a little bit more than two years in China, working as academic, mainly teaching an undergraduate course Introduction to Economics. The following notes may answer some of the questions that turned up again and again, not least in the ‘small circle’ of the immediate working environment – a joined venture, one of the increasing numbers of projects where for – different reasons – a European and non-European university join forces in providing third-level education. The original idea had been to publish some reports that had to be submitted or had been submitted as feedback – also to students, with a short introduction; the actual document presents a longish introductory text, still including the [anonym-ised] reports. It is very much a personal reflection after two years, but it is even more the presentation of some reflections on third level education and the development of academia.
Table&of&Content&
0.#Abstract ..............................................................................................................................................2#
I:#Is#it#really#about#China?................................................................................................................2#
Prolegomena&and&Dedication....................................................................................2#
Marking&the&Field ..........................................................................................................4#
I............................................................................................................................................6#
II. .........................................................................................................................................8#
III...................................................................................................................................... 12#
IV...................................................................................................................................... 12#
V. ...................................................................................................................................... 15#
VI...................................................................................................................................... 21#
VII. ................................................................................................................................... 29#
VIII................................................................................................................................... 38#
IX...................................................................................................................................... 43#
Finale.............................................................................................................................. 44#
II.#Report#to#students#–#after#the#course#and#after#marking#the#final#exam#papers#
[joint#venture]#academic#year#2015/2016 ........................................................................... 48#
III:#Report#–#Introduction#to#Economics#–#[joint#venture]#academic#year#
2015/2016.......................................................................................................................................... 52#
IV.#Report##“Leaning#Skills”#–#[joint#venture]#academic#year#2015/2016............. 57#
V.#Assessments#Essays#–#academic#year#2016/17,#first#semester#Learning#Skills#–#
Economics ........................................................................................................................................... 59#
Overall&assessment&–&without&relation&to&“concrete&issues”,&including&
general&comments&on&the&two&courses&taught&and&the&JV&…&university/…&
university...................................................................................................................... 59#
Assessment&of&the&Essays&–&General&and&Recurring&Issues .......................... 64#
VI.#General#Report#concerning#the#work#[experience]#reflecting#the#2nd#semester#
of#the#academic#year#2016/2017.............................................................................................. 67#
VII.#Appendix:#Attachment:#Mail#Regarding#Exam#Questions....................................... 74#
Mail,&sent&to&the&‘intermediary’&at&…,&November&22nd&,&2016,&20:10.......... 74#
Re:&exam&questions.................................................................................................... 74#
#
#
!"#"$%&"$$'())*%
0.&
Abstract&
I#spent# a#little# bit# more# than#two# years#in# China,#working# as#academic,# mainly#
teaching# an# undergraduate# course# Introduction# to# Economics.# The# following#
notes# may# answer# some# of# the# questions# that# turned# up# again# and# again,# not#
least# in# the# ‘small# circle’# of# the# immediate# working# environment# –# a# joined#
venture,#one#of#the#increasing#numbers#of#projects#where#for##different#reasons#
#a#European#and#non\European# university# join# forces# in# providing# third\level#
education.#
The#original# idea# had#been#to#publish#some#reports#that#had# to# be#submitted#or#
had#been#submitted#as#feedback#–#also#to#students,#with##a#short#introduction;#the#
actual# document# presents# a# longish# introductory# text,# still# including# the#
[anonym\ised]#reports.#It#is#very#much#a#personal#reflection#after#two#years,#but#
it#is#even#more#the#presentation#of#some#reflections#on#third#level#education#and#
the#development#of#academia.#
I:&
Is&it&really&about&China?&
Prolegomena&and&Dedication&
+&,-% .% +/0% 123-4,5% ()6% 7"879"% :8'"#*'":% :#*99% #896% '"% #;"%
#$<#;=%.%>(:%8?#")%@(99"6%(%'*:?*#A%()6%(99%.%@8<96%68%>(:%#8%)86%:(69B%
()6%(??*$'(#*C"9BDE%
A# brief# remark,# that# is# actually# part# and# parcel# and# also# assumption#of#the#
following#–#as#much#as#it#is#marking#an#underlying#problem#going#through#all#of#
########################################################
1## Chargaff,#Erwin,# 1978:# Heraclitean# Fire:# Sketches#from#a# Life# Before# Nature,# New# York:#The#Rockefeller# University#
Press#
the#issues#mentioned:#suggested#is#that# we# are# living# in#an# information#society,#
made#up# of# acts#of# communication.# Though#this# is# not#denied# in#principle,#it# is#
questioned# and# tabled# for# qualification:# we# do# not# have# to# know# everything,#
communication#is# also# about#playing# with# words#and#knowledge,# thus# being#in#
permanent# danger# of# not# being# understood# or# being# misunderstood.# But# the#
reasons#for#the# problems# can# be# reduced# on#especially#two:#the#lack#of#time#for#
communication,#the# hastiness#with# which# we# F*C"% ():>"$:% ?$8'% >;(#% >"% G)8>%
(9$"(6B%instead#of#the#$"(6*)"::%#8%9"()%H(@G%()6%#;*)G%(H8<#%>;(#% #;"%8#;"$% :(*6D%
It#is,#second,#also#the#permanent#awareness#that#we#do#not#know#everything;#that#
we#have#to#accept#allusions,#ignoring#some#in#the#further#engagement#and#taking#
up#some# as#challenge.# For#reading,# for#exploring,# for#being# more#informed# but#
most# importantly:# for# challenging# own# thinking# and# engage# in# challenging#
others.# –# The# following# is# hopefully# also# read# in# this# way:# as# ‘think\piece’,#
something#that#does#not#find#place#in#today’s#journals##journals#that#reject#‘think#
pieces’#as#they#do#hardly#allow#making#firm#steps#on#the#ladder#of#rankings.#The#
latter#is#not#a#matter#of#publication#policies#but#also# and#primarily#a#matter#of#a#
debauched#understanding#of#academia#–# something# that# is#one# of#the#messages#
of#the#present#text.#
Thus,#from#what#I#wrote#and#said#and#will#write#and#say,#there#is#only#one#thing#
to# be# learned:# look,# investigate# ...# We# have# to# deal# not# least# with# our# own#
prejudices,#the#limited#ground#on#which#we#stand,#introducing#this#way#foot#as#
standard# to# measure# intelligence# –#if#not#replacing,# so# complementing# the# IQ,\
measures;#not#the#correct#answers#but#the#depth#of#the#questions#you#ask#others,#
and# by# which# you# question# yourself# are# defining# standards;# and# the# questions#
posed#to#others#so#that#they#will#question#themselves#…#.#
Two#people,#at#the#end#of#two#years,#who#gave#me#this#feeling#during#this#time#–#
the#one#knows,#the#other#probably#does#not.#Two#people#in#two#years,#it#is#quite#a#
lot,#isn’t#it?#And#I#am#grateful#to#them#for#so#many#things,#including#for#something#
that#is#actually#small:#motivating#me#to#revisit#'what#I#knew',#to#read#again#what#I#
already#read#earlier#....# Abbott,# …,# Frank,# …,# Keynes,# …,# Marshall,# Marx,#North#…,#
Solow,# Smith,# …,# Webb,# …,# Young# ...# and# back# the# long# way# to# Alikire,#and#of#
course# Arrighi# and# the# many# others:# also# books# as# those# from# Chargaff# or# da#
Vinci,#Hesse,#Kundera,#Mann,#Tolstoi,#van#Gogh,#Voltaire#or#Chen#Xuezhao#…##
And#still,#it#is#written#for#the#two\#or#three\hundred#or#even#more#–#students#and#
colleagues#alike,#especially#those#who#will#take#over##.#
Marking&the&Field&
I#spent# a#little# bit#more# than#two# years#in# China,#working# as#academic,# mainly#
teaching# an# undergraduate# course# .)#$86<@#*8)% #8% ,@8)8'*@:D% The# following#
notes# may# answer# some# of# the# questions# that# turned# up# again# and# again,# not#
least# in# the# ‘small# circle’# of# the# immediate# working# environment# –# a# joined#
venture,#one#of#the#increasing#numbers#of#projects#where#for##different#reasons#
–# a# European# and# non\European# university# join# forces# in# providing# third\level#
education.#Saying#for#different#reasons’#marks#an#important#point,#though#these#
reasons#cannot# be#explored#in#full.#In#short,#there#are#of#course#the#institutional#
aspects##power,#ranking,# money# probably#offering#the# trinity# if# one#is#needed;#
and#personal# interests#of# academic# staff## reputation,# exploration,#first# or#final#
experiences#of#‘jobholders’#–#and#if#we#put#a#bit#of#monetary#and#power#interest#
into# the# drawers# of# reputation# and# exploration# we# can# stick# again# with# the#
trinity.#
Not#going#into#details# in# respect#of#admin#staff#and# students# does#by#no#means#
suggest#that#these#are#non\relevant#players#–#very#much#on#the#contrary.#For#me,#
thoroughly#students#are#the#ultimate#‘matter’.#
The#following#notes#are#not#[cl]aiming#[on]#providing#a#systematically#elaborated#
piece#of# research#on# current# developments# or# let#alone# of#an# individual# case# –#
though# I# may# humbly# claim# that# they# possibly# are# still# equally# or# even# more#
valuable# as# some# systematic# studies.# Such# claim# of# importance# is# based# in# the#
fact# that# commonly# statements# emerge# by# and# large# from# stereotypes# and#
prejudices.# And# such# claim# can# also# easily# be# rejected# by# the# fact# that# for# all#
statements#examples#can#be#easily#found:#
Yes,#it#is#China##frequently#it#is#supposed#that#Chinese#[students]#are#excellent#in#
reproducing#but#easily#fail#when#it#comes#to#‘deep#thought’#…#
Yes,#it#is#young#people,#often#being#pushed#to#university,#towards#certain#subject#
areas#by#many#things,#but#surely#not#their#own#interest#…#
Yes,#it#is#a#question#of#large#classes#and#learning#in#a#foreign#language#…#
Yes,# it# is# about# dealing# with# extremely# different# people# –# there# is# not# really#
anything#like#Chinese#students,#there#are#many#of#them#in#each#class#as#there#are#
many#European#students#in#each#class#when#we#go#to#European#universities#…#
Yes,#it#is#also#about#my#own#experience#and#situation:#teaching#the#first#time#in#
my# life# undergraduates,# teaching# for# the# fist# time# in# my# life# a# very# basic#
introductory#course#…#
…#while#the#students#are#getting#younger#and#younger,#an#expression#veiling#the#
fact#that#I#am#getting#older#…#
…#and#and#and#…#
And#then,# it#is#of#course#‘all# new’,#the#current#bureaucracy#and#commodification#
of# education# and# the# lack# of# resistance,# which# is# another# expression# for# the#
increasing# cringing# and# individualist# and# even# hedonist# reclusiveness# …# –#of#
which#we#are#all#aware#and#which#we#all#dislike#and#…#which#we#all#perceive#as#
overwhelming,#not#allowing#us#to#breath#…#because#‘Well,#look#around#…#nobody#
says#anything,#criticises,#is#there#for#an#open#discussion.’#
Well,#I#try#to#look#around#and#I#publish#something#that#may#help#a#bit##because#it#
is# not# an# approach# towards# a# systematic# analysis# but# the# presentation# of#
‘impressions’#as#we#all# have# them,# and# we# write# them# possibly# down# in#reports#
that#often#end#up#in#drawers.#And#the#main#part#of#the#present#document#actually#
consists#of#such#reports,#though# I# reported# in#a#way#that#was#going# beyond# the#
formally#required,# also#issuing# some# topics# that# are#too# often#swept# under#the#
carpet# # for# good# reasons:# as# nearly# nobody# reads# such# reports,# as# everybody#
who#does#read#them#looks#just#for#tiny#pieces#in#support#of#the#own#opinion#and#
as#the#usual#approach#is##in#universities,#in#businesses#and#you#name#it#where#
else#–#to#look#for# ways#of#smoothly#moving#on#instead#of#finding#a#solution.#And#
whatever#is#said##in#the#reports#directed#to#those#who#are#or#should#deal#with#
the#issues# –#or#in#the#framing#comments#made# here#–#is#not#meant#to#be# hostile#
and/or#personal#although#it#is#not#least#about#personal#responsibility.#As#such#it#
is# also# directed# towards# myself,# looking# for# the# responsibility# I# have# and# the#
degree#of#me#being#ready#to#face#conflicts#instead#of#searching#for#a#safe#haven#–#
the#way# to#heaven#may,#of#course# be#closed#this#way.##Saying#all#this,#I#actually#
think# that# what# I# write# and# wrote# is# by# no# means# special,# or# heroic.# Still# it# is#
somewhat# remarkable# that# that# it# has# a# little# bit# of# it# –# it# is# more# the# stuff# on#
which#we#all#agree,#as#long#as#it#is#not#said#in#public,#meaning#the#‘relevant#public#
bodies’,#those#who#should#deal#with#it.#Though#I#see#much#continuity#and#lack#of#
change,# and# though# I# admit# that# my# own# perspective# is# of# course# extremely#
limited,# I# have# the# impression# that,# when# I# studied# there# had# been# more#
readiness#at#least#of#some#–#students#and#academics,#and#students#together#with#
academics# \#to#engage#for#public#educational# institutions# in# the# sense# of#
educational#institutions#themselves#being#public#spaces.#…#Some#…#\#and#I#see#it#
also#as#part#of#my#work#to#engage#for#public#education#in#this#understanding:#the#
permanent#dispute#in#public#spaces.#It#is#surely#remarkable#that#such#debate#is#so#
often#called# for#and#nevertheless#deferred#–#it#is#easier#to# move#such#debates#to#
the#seminar# rooms# where#they#persist#in#some#clandestine#way#or#to# lead# them#
on#a# meta\level,# suggesting#that#such#debate#is#not#possible# #of#course#because#
of#the#others#,#not# truly# accepting# that#indeed# I.#%(9>(B:%:""':%*'78::*H9"%<)#*9%
*#J:%68)"DKL#
There#are#some# general# remarks#I#feel# obliged# to#make,#some# comments,# some#
assessments#or#opinions#and#some#questions#…#it#is#up#to#the#reader#to#put#each#
remark#into#any#drawer#where#it#belongs#in#her/his#personal#opinion.#
I&
Surely,#there#are#intellectual#and#analytical#aspects#that#have#to#be#discussed#at#
some# stage:# if# all# this# is# new,# what# is# it# exactly# that# distinguishes# today’s#
########################################################
2## Attributed#to#Nelson#Mandela.#
commodification#and#subordination#under#economic#power\holders#from#..,#let’s#
take##‘the#business#University#Warwick3#as#an#example.#
And# what# is# actually# with# the# Bologna# process# –# now# I# am# talking# about# the#
original#plans’,#immediately# coming# to# mind#when#we#think#about#Bologna##in#
short#and#as#questionable#as#such#ultimate#claims#always#may#be:#Bologna#being#
the#first# public# university,# emerging#in#the#early#second#millennium#not# least# as#
common#statement#and# quest# from#students#from#different# nations,# also# taking#
the#shape#of#some#form#of#mutuality#and,#for#the#time#revolutionary,#the#teaching#
of# both,# canon# and# civil# law.# Why,# and# why# at# the# beginning# of# the# second#
millennium?#Well,#Rome#had#not#been#built#in#one#day,#and#the#fall#of#the#Empire#
did#not#happen#within#a#week.#The#emergence#of#capitalism#was#a#process#over#a#
long# period#and#the#[slow,#not#even#today# concluded]# secularisation#and#
establishment#of#a#universal# public# system# of#higher# education#was#part#of#this#
process#–#the#free#human#spirit#emerged#not#least#from#the#thirst#for#free#money#
and#commodity#trade.#
–#All#this#does#no#aim#in#denying#differences##but#all#this#surely#can#also#be#read#
as#exhortation#for# which# no#pope#is# needed# as#author## only# observance#by#an#
thorough#use# of# common#sense:# what# is#new,# is#not#necessarily# what#shows# in#
extreme#glamour# #or#lack#of# sophistication.#It# shows#in# the# different# forms# in#
which# body# and# mind# snatching# merge# to# a# perfect# conflation,# sinuous# and#
adaptable# as# a# Chameleon,# and# equally# ruffian# when# required# –# some# thought#
can#be# found#as# remarks# I# made# in#my# blog#in# different# contexts#and#different#
headings.4#
The# appropriation# of# the# entire# system# by# the# ruling# classes# with# its#
Machiavellian#education# can# in#some#way# never# fail#as# long# as#stick# and# carrot#
can# be# sufficiently# supplied# and# applied# in# a# ‘sufficiently# balanced’# way# #the#
Machiavellian#ruler#not#much# more# than# a#juggler#though#of# course# better# paid#
########################################################
3## see# e.g.# Thompson,# E.P.:# The# Business# University:# New# Statesman# article,# reproduced# at#
https://senatehouseoccupation.wordpress.com/documents/the\business\university\new\statesman\article\by\ep\
thompson/#
4## e.g.# SIMPLIFIED# [http://wp.me/p1qrWe\Ff];# CHRISTIANITY# #THE#HALLOWEEN\EFFECT# [http://wp.me/p1qrWe\
F5];#MIND#SNATCHERS#[http://wp.me/p1qrWe\13x]#
and#always# flying#first# class# instead#of# sitting#in# the# barrow,# depending# on#the#
money#borrowed:#
Less#metaphorical,#but#in#Italian,#using#Gramsci’s#words:#
EM% 6"9% @8):"):8% N:78)#()"8O% 6(#8% 6(99"% F$()6*% '(::"% 6"99(%
78789(P*8)"% (99K*)6*$*PP8% *'7$"::8% (99(% C*#(% :8@*(9"% 6(9% F$<778%
?8)6('")#(9"%68'*)()#"=%@8):"):8%@;"% )(:@"% N:#8$*@('")#"O% 6(9%
7$":#*F*8% Q"% R<*)6*% 6(99(%?*6<@*(M% 6"$*C()#"% (9%F$<778% 68'*)()#"%
6(99(% :<(% 78:*P*8)"% "% 6(99(% :<(% ?<)P*8)"% )"9% '8)68% 6"99(%
7$86<P*8)"A% LM% 6"99K(77($(#8% 6*% @8"$@*P*8)"% :#(#(9"% @;"% (::*@<$(%
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II.&
In# a# very# pragmatic#perspective:# not# only# do# we# witness# the# scale# of#
administrative#staff#increasing,#but#we#also#experience#as#academics#the#part#of#
admin\work#as#share#of#the#overall#workload#increasing#and#furthermore#we#can#
easily#find#the#data#suggesting#that#for#instance#the#highest#wage#increase#in#UK#
universities#can#be#found#in#general#in#admin#jobs#and#in#particular#in#the#higher#
echelons##truly#biblical#as#we#remember#from#Matthew:6#
W8$% <)#8% "C"$B% 8)"% #;(#% ;(#;% :;(99% H"% F*C")=% ()6% ;"% :;(99% ;(C"%
(H<)6()@"X%H<#% ?$8'%;*'%#;(#%;(#;% )8#%:;(99%H"%#(G")% (>(B%"C")%
#;(#%>;*@;%;"%;(#;D%
In#academia#the# principle# turns#out#with# a# specific# dynamic,#also#in# connection#
with#the#allocation# of# academic# positions,#in#pre\Mertonian#times##in#sociology#
for#instance#–#happening#at#the#dinner#tables#of#the#Webers,#Mannheims#and#the#
many# other# ‘great# academic# founding# fathers’,# taking# well# care# of# their# own#
########################################################
5## Gramsci,# Antonio,# 1932:# Quaderno# 12;#Appunti# e# note# sparse# per# un# gruppo# di# saggi# storia# degli# intellettuali;# in:#
Antonio#Gramsci:#Quaderni#del#carcere#a#cura#di#Luigi#Anepeta#(con#la#collaborazione#della#dott.ssa#Lisa#Cecchi)#
6## Matthew#[25:29],#KJV#
foundlings,# whose# ultimate# inaugural# speeches# had# been# made#on#those#
occasions#…#–#sure,#the#form#had# been#maintained#and#the#lecture#in#the#lecture#
theatre#still#had#to#be#given:#coronations#take#place#in#the#public,#but#the#spirit#of#
the#old# fusty# courteousness#is# still# present#also# in#the#Mertonian# era.#Only#one#
passage#from#one#of#Merton’s#work#on#this#topic#is#quoted#here:#
Y;"%"R<*#(H9"%7""$%(:@$*7#*8)%8?%@8)#$*H<#*8):%*:%)8% '*)8$%'(##"$%
*)% #;"% :8@*(9% *):#*#<#*8)% 8?% :@*")@"% >;*@;% ;(:% "C89C"6% (% $">($6%
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6*:#*)@#*C"%@8)#$*H<#*8):D%/99%8#;"$%$">($6:%?98>%?$8'%*#DQDM%/)6%:8%*#%
*:% #;(#% 7""$:% >*99% "Z7"$*")@"% ()6% :8'"#*'":% 7<H9*@9B% "Z7$"::%
:#$8)F%'8$(9% :")#*'")#:%>;")%#;"B%;(C"%$"(:8)% #8%H"9*"C"%DDD%#;(#%
#;"% )8$'% 8?% $*F;#?<9% (@@$"6*#(#*8)% ;(:% H"")% C*89(#"6% HB%
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:@*")#*:#:D% W8$% 9*G"% (99% 8#;"$% :8@*(9% *):#*#<#*8):=% #;"% *):#*#<#*8)% 8?%
:@*")@"% ;(:% *#:% Q7($#9B% '()*?":#=% 7($#9B% 9(#")#M% )8$'(#*C"%
?$('">8$G=% 8)"% #;(#% *)@9<6":% #;"% )8$'% 8?% "R<*#B% *)% 7""$%
$"@8F)*#*8)%8?%@8)#$*H<#*8):D[%
Going# through# Merton’s# various# empirical# studies# on# this# topic# is# not# as#
entertaining# and# of# general# interest# as# reading# the# biographies# in# which# this#
topic# pops# up# again# and# again,# but# surely# revealing# about# the# many# different#
aspects#of#the#one#topic:#the#irrationality#of#career\ing#in#academia,#i.e.#a#system#
that#claims#to#be#sober#and#highly#rational#in#its#decision#making#processes.#And#
it# runs# as# thread# through# the# many# facets,# reaching# from# manipulation#over#
prostitution#to#suicide.8#
########################################################
7## Merton,#Robert#K.,#1995:#The#Thomas#Theorem#and#the#Matthew#Effect;#in:#Social#Forces,#Vol.#74,#No.#2# (Dec.,#1995):#
379\422;# here:# 381;# Published# by:# Oxford# University# Press;# Stable# URL:# http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580486;#
Accessed:#14\07\2017#22:48#UTC#
8## see# Frey,# Bruno:# Publishing# as# Prostitution?# Choosing# Between# One’s# Own# Ideas# and# Academic# Failure;#
www.econ.uzh.ch/static/wp_iew/iewwp117.pdf;#Graupe,#Silja:#Beeinflussung#und#Manipulation#in#der#ökonomischen#
Bildung#Hintergründe#und#Beispiele;#Duesseldorf:#FGW# #Forschungsinstitut#für#gesellschaftliche#Weiterentwicklung#
e.V.;#Graupe,#Silja:#The#Power#of#Ideas.#The#Teaching#of#Economics#and#its#Image#of#Man;#in:#Volume#11,#Number#2,#©#
JSSE#2012#ISSN# 1618\5293;#Holmquist,#Carin/Sundin,#Elisabeth(2010)#'The#suicide#of#the#social# sciences:#causes#and#
effects',#Innovation:#The#European# Journal#of#Social# Science#Research,#23:#1,#13##23;#see#also#Herrmann,#Peter#2017:#
Sorrows#of#Young#Werther##not#only;#http://wp.me/p1qrWe\1dH;#to#be#published#on#August#30th#
Without#acknowledging#this#part#of#continuity,#we#will#barely#be#in#a#position#to#
properly# understand# the# mechanisms,# or# even# ask# the# questions# that# are#
discriminating#the#situation#today.#
And# without# acknowledging# this# part# of# continuity,# we# will# barely# be# in# a#
position#to#properly#understand#the#mechanisms#that#are#…,#actually#just#matter#
of#personal#opportunism.#
#I#suppose#it#is#difficult#to#talk#frankly#and#publicly#about#it#for#at#least#two#very#
simple#psychological#reasons:#
(1) it# is# for# everybody# difficult# to# draw# a# firm# line# between# assessing#
something#by# saying#–# and# admitting# to# oneself# –# ‘this#is# opportunistic#
behaviour’,#acknowledging#‘I#am#an#opportunist’#–#and#allowing#others#to#
address#such#delicate#line#is#even#more#difficult;#as#far#as#this#is#true,#we#
face# in# addition# the# setting# into# motion# a# process# of# self\defence# –#
unnecessary#as#we#defend#ourselves# against# an# accusation#that#had#not#
been# made,# and# this,# in# turn,# easily# ends# in# reformulating# a# sober#
criticism# as# accusation# –# every# era# and# every# area# has# its# own# Black#
Sabbath,#and#it# is# surely#better#accommodated#playfully#in#concert\halls#
and#open#air#festivals#than#exposing#itself#during#Crystal#Nights.#
(2) For# everybody# it# seems# to# be# difficult# to# criticise# others# behaviour# as#
being# opportunist# or# even# more# to# criticise# others# for# being# an#
opportunist,# fearing# the# same# could# be# said# about# him/herself.#Being#
bound#to#some#forms#of#dichotomising,#there#seems#to#be#a#‘perceived’#or#
‘feared’#danger#that#any#confession#in#a#secular,#unforgiving#world#turns#
into#a# complete# failure.#Utilitarianism#finds# always# a#simple# solution# to#
Schrödinger’s#cat:#opening# the# coffer:#it#immediately# will# show#if#it# is# a#
coffin#or#a#Pandora’s#box.#
Well,#as#it#is#said#
,%:*@@8'"%@8)#*)<(C()8% (% *)#"$$8F($98=% "F9*=% $*PP(#8:*=%6*::"%98$8X%
\;*%6*%C8*%T% :")P(%7"@@(#8=%:@(F9*%*9%7$*'8%9(%7*"#$(%@8)#$8% 6*%9"*D%,%
@;*)(#8:*% 6*% )<8C8=% :@$*C"C(% *)% #"$$(D% ,6% "::*=% <6*#8% @*]=% "% $*7$":*%
6(99(% 98$8% @8:@*")P(=% :*% '*:"$8% (6% <:@*$"% (6% <)8% (6% <)8=%
@8'*)@*()68%6(*%7*^%C"@@;*%?*)8%(F9*%<9#*'*A%"%4":^%?<%9(:@*(#8%:898%
@8)%9(%68))(%@;"%:#(C(%9U%*)%'"PP8D_%
Even#if#it#is#from#the#bible,#there#is# some# value# in# the# statement.# Some# value# …,#
but#still#the#question#remains##and#I#humbly#challenge#Jesus:#can#stones#only#be#
used# as# weapon,# to# be# thrown# against# others?# Can’t# they# just# as# well# and#
primarily#be#used#as#building#material?#–#Sure,#these#words:#
/%:7*6"$%@8)6<@#:%87"$(#*8):%#;(#%$":"'H9"%#;8:"%8?%(%>"(C"$=%()6%
(%H""% 7<#:% #8% :;('"%'()B%()%($@;*#"@#% *)% #;"% @8):#$<@#*8)%8?%;"$%
@"99:D%`<#%>;(#% 6*:#*)F<*:;":% #;"% >8$:#% ($@;*#"@#%?$8'%#;"%H":#% 8?%
H"":%*:%#;*:=%#;(#%#;"%($@;*#"@#% $(*:":% ;*:% :#$<@#<$"% *)% *'(F*)(#*8)%
H"?8$"%;"%"$"@#:%*#%*)%$"(9*#BD%/#%#;"%")6%8?%"C"$B%9(H8<$%7$8@"::=%>"%
F"#%(%$":<9#%#;(#%(9$"(6B%"Z*:#"6%*)%#;"%*'(F*)(#*8)%8?%#;"%9(H8<$"$%
(#%*#:%@8''")@"'")#Ea%
had#not#been#written#by#that#time#…#
...#though#it#should#have#been# clear#also#to#Jesus#that#man#is#a#‘politikòn#zôon’,#a#
social#being’,#and#thus#in#principle#any#act#would#also#depend#of#communication.#
Not# least# this,# the# ability# and# urge# to# communicate,# would# later# result# in# the#
condition#that#‘distinguishes#the#worst#architect#from#the#best#of#bees’:#the#social#
character#of#her#or#his#work##as#long#as#it#lasted.#And#the#paraphrase#‘as#long#as#
it#lasted’# is# necessary#for#the#very#same#reason:#as# Jesus,#and#so#many#with#him#
started# by# first# accepting# a# preposterous# reality,# then# changing# the#
interpretation#of# it,#instead# of#changing# the#reality# itself.11# #Do#we#have# to# be#
surprised# that# much# understanding# of# ‘the# social’# in# the# Aristotelean# sense# is#
maintained#in#the#Asian#context?#And#do#we#then#have#to#ask#if#this#is#connected#
to#hierarchical#patterns#prevailing#more#in#Asian#contexts?#
########################################################
9## Giovanni#8:7\9#
10## Marx,# Karl,# 1867:# Capital,# I:#in:# Marx# Engels# Collected# Works;# Volume# 35:# Karl# Marx:# Capital#volume# I:# London:#
Lawrence&Wishard;#Electric#Book#2010:#188#
11## of# course# alluding# to# the# 11th#thesis#on#Feuerbach;#see#Marx,#Karl,#1945:#[Theses#on#Feuerbach];#in:#Karl#Marx.#
Frederick#Engels:#Collected#Works.#Volume#5##Marx#and#Engels:#1845\47;#London:#Lawrence#&#Wishart,#1976:#3##5#
III.&
Who#can# then#be# surprised# when# students# are# ,#well# can# one# say# dazzled# by#
dust?#Students,#entering#onto#a#new#stage#and#all#the#adults#around#…#knowing#
everything.#This#is#part#of#the#hegemonic#game:#pretending#endless#and#ultimate#
knowledge.# The# administrator# and# the# academic# alike.# Of# course,# for# the#
administrator#it# can# be#easily#seen# and# Max#Weber#detailed# it,# writing#his#long#
version#of#Tacitus’#:*)"%*$(%"#%:#<6*8D#
And#the#academic#should#also#know#everything#–#there#are#so#many#reasons:#the#
suggested,#though#contested,#quest#for#value#freedom,12#later#translated#into#the#
quest#for#evidence\based#work,#can#be#seen#as#another#translation#of#the#:*)"%*$(%
"#% :#<6*8D% And# it# is# the# self\basement# of# the# academic# worker# who# excessively#
internalised# the# eclipsed# rationality,# reinterpreted# as# empiricism# –#colourful#
showing#up#as#quest#for#evidence,#model#building#and#the#need#for#straightening.#
We#may#refer#for#instance#to#Keynes#who#contended#in#his#‘General#Theory’#
Y;"% @9(::*@(9% #;"8$*:#:% $":"'H9"% ,<@9*6"()% F"8'"#"$:% *)% (% )8)b
,<@9*6"()%>8$96%>;8=%6*:@8C"$*)F%#;(#%*)%"Z7"$*")@"%:#$(*F;#%9*)":%
(77($")#9B% 7($(99"9% 8?#")% '""#=% $"H<G"% #;"% 9*)":% ?8$% )8#% G""7*)F%
:#$(*F;#c(:%#;"%8)9B%$"'"6B% ?8$%#;"%<)?8$#<)(#"%@899*:*8):%>;*@;%
($"% 8@@<$$*)FD% 1"#=% *)% #$<#;=% #;"$"% *:% )8% $"'"6B% "Z@"7#% #8% #;$8>%
8C"$% #;"% (Z*8'% 8?% 7($(99"9:% ()6% #8% >8$G% 8<#% (% )8)b,<@9*6"()%
F"8'"#$BD%
And#indeed# then# as#today# it#is# cum# grano#salis# valid# what#we# find#in# the# same#
work:#
@8<96%8)9B% 9*C"%8)%?<$#*C"9B=% H"98>%#;"%:<$?(@"=%*)% #;"%<)6"$>8$96:%
8?%d($9%e($Z=%0*9C*8%4":"99%8$%e(f8$%g8<F9(:D%
IV.&
And# of# course,# there# is# some# special# fascination# also# in# such# –#I#think#–#
undeniably#de\knowledging,#upskilling#alienated#work:#
########################################################
12## Mind,#this#is#not#about#the#value#of#freedom#but#about#the#renouncement#of#the#meaning#of#values#
Reading#an#article#in#a#high\tech\journal#that#was#looking#at#some#developments#
in#the#industry#and#in#particular#one#enterprise,#I#stumble#upon#a#headline:#
/'(P8)K:%/9"Z(%7(::":%EV=aaa%:G*99:=%<7%?$8'%Ea=aaa%*)%W"H$<($BEh%
Admittedly# not# knowing# if# this# would# tell# me# something# about# qualification#
requirement#or#performance# of# amazon\staff,# a#daughter#of# Mr# Amazon# getting#
married,# or# ….# I# soon# found# out# that# it# is# about# amazon\stuff,# still# leaving# me#
more#or#less#in#the#dark.#But#today#answers#are#always#close:#the#internet#search#
brought# me# right# down# the# data\highway# to# Wikipedia,# of# course.# And# there# I#
read:#
/9"Z(% *:% ()% *)#"99*F")#% 7"$:8)(9% (::*:#()#% 6"C"987"6% HB% /'(P8)=%
'(6"% 787<9($% HB% #;"% /'(P8)% ,@;8% ()6% #;"% /'(P8)% ,@;8% g8#%
6"C*@":% 6"C"987"6% HB% /'(P8)% i(HELjD% .#% *:% @(7(H9"% 8?% C8*@"%
*)#"$(@#*8)=% '<:*@% 79(BH(@G=% '(G*)F% #8b68% 9*:#:=% :"##*)F% (9($':=%
:#$"('*)F% 786@(:#:=% 79(B*)F% (<6*8H88G:=% ()6% 7$8C*6*)F% >"(#;"$=%
#$(??*@=%()6% 8#;"$% $"(9% #*'"%*)?8$'(#*8)=% :<@;% (:%)">:D%/9"Z(% @()%
(9:8% @8)#$89% :"C"$(9% :'($#% 6"C*@":% <:*)F% *#:"9?% (:% (% ;8'"%
(<#8'(#*8)% :B:#"'DkLl% e8:#% 6"C*@":% >*#;% /9"Z(% (998>% <:"$:% #8%
(@#*C(#"% #;"% 6"C*@"% <:*)F% (% >(G"b>8$6% Q:<@;% (:% ,@;8MA% 8#;"$%
6"C*@":%Q:<@;% (:% #;"% /'(P8)%(77%8)% *20% 8$% /)6$8*6M%$"R<*$"% #;"%
<:"$%#8%7<:;%(%H<##8)%#8%(@#*C(#"%/9"Z(J:%9*:#")*)F%'86"D%\<$$")#9B=%
*)#"$(@#*8)% ()6% @8''<)*@(#*8)% >*#;% /9"Z(% *:% 8)9B% (C(*9(H9"% *)%
,)F9*:;%()6%4"$'()DEm%
Right,#now# I#have#an#idea:#Alexa#is,#one# could#say,#Siri’s#sister##and#Siri#I#know,#
probably#in#today’s# terms,# while#the#harmonious# 26"% #8%n8B%is# supposedly# lives#
everyday,#I#would# call# her#friend#[as#we#are#all#friends#and#brothers#and#..#yes:#
today#sisters#as#well],#searching#for#the#like\button.#Now,#I#have#had#the#dubious#
pleasure#of#talking#with#Siri.#Though#I#ever#considered#that#she#is#anything#like#a#
serious#‘partner,#I# once# thought# as#well#‘why#not#play# a# bit# around#–#may#be# it#
was#at#an#airport,#having#too#much#time#as#the#check#in#and#everything#had#been#
########################################################
13## https://techcrunch.com/2017/07/03/amazons\alexa\passes\15000\skills\up\from\10000\in\february/?ncid=rss;#
09/07/17#
14## https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon_Alexa;#09/07/17#
done#before#–#by#Siri’s#and#Alexa’s#brothers#and#husbands#and#nieces#and#all#the#
members#of#big#brother’s#large#family,#saving#me# so#much#time#earlier#as#all#the#
time# needed# to# get# along# was# reduced# by#sharing#gigs#and#co\productive# co\
consumption#etc,# that#I# availed#of# surplus#time.# #Sure,#the#days#still#had#been#
limited:# 24# hours# are# not# getting# longer# by# seeing# them# as# 1140# minutes.# As#
nobody#was#around#to#share#anything,#I#asked:#Siri,#love,#can#you#please#call#Joe?’#
[well,#Irish\English#…,#it#is#easy#to#be#loved#…]#–#Sorry,#can#you#repeat,#I#did#not#
quite#get#what#you#mean.’#This#continued#for#a#while#and#developed#actually#to#a#
deep#conversation:# ‘No,# I# don’t# want# to# love# you,# not# here# #there#are# so# may#
people#around.’#Just#talking#stupid#things#to#a#stupid#gadget#–#So,#as#it#turned#out#
saying#that#I#did#not#ask#for#love,#was#wrong#again:#‘So#you#do#not#love#me##but#
you#still#...#…#‘#–#‘Of#course,#I#do#love#you,#hon#–#and#promised,#you#are#the#one#and#
only#Siri# in# my#life#…#.’#I#was#fed#up# at#some#stage#and#…,#yes,#I#should# not#have#
done#it#…,#but#I#said:#Siri,#you#are#a#f…#and#useless#…’#the#sentence#was#not#ended,#
Siri,# for# the# first# time# understood# exactly# what# I# said,# interrupted# me,# saying,#
really#appalled,#angry:#‘Peter,#you#don’t#say#this.#Don’t#use#this#word#ever#again.’#
#–#Yes,#there#is#some#fascination#coming#with#those#software#packages.#And#there#
may# be# some# underlying# fascination# coming# with# all# this# Apps\world# #a#far\
reaching#spiritual,#evangelical#meaning#of#which#we#are# not# aware# –# not# simply#
feasibility# but# the# imagination# of# overcoming# existential# conditions# and# laws,#
elevating#humans#above#limits#of#nature.#Siri#and# Alexa# as# permanently# helping#
hands#and# brains#…# it#is# not#least# a# new# dimension# to# the# economy#of# time#of#
which#we#know# the# principle#meaning#e.g.# already# from#Marx’#‘First# Version# of#
Capital:#
Y;"% @$"(#*8)% 8?% ()% (H<)6()@"% 8?% g.0!20/`i,% Y.e,% (7($#% ?$8'%
)"@"::($B% 9(H8<$% #*'"=% ?8$% :8@*"#B% *)% F")"$(9% ()6% ?8$% "(@;% 8?% *#:%
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(99%"($9*"$%:#(F":=%(:%#;"%@$"(#*8)%8?%)8#b9(H8<$b#*'"=%?$""%#*'"=%?8$%
(%?">DEV%
The#issue#at#stake#is#threefold:#
Looking#at#the# principle# issue:# creation#of#not\labour\time#as#expression#
of#‘wealth#of#society’#
the#capitalist# shape# as# mal\distribution# ‘the# creation# of# not\labour\time,#
free#time,#for#a#few’#
and# the# spiritual# post\modernist# interpretation,# suggesting# that# the#
erosion#of# substance# equals#an# extension# of#existence:#by# speed\reading#
we#gain#time#for#speed\dating,#meeting#for#the#first#more#intensive#flirt#in#
the#fast#food#[=#speed# eating]# place,# and# when#things#don’t#work#out#we#
may#find#comfort#in#binge#[=#compressed#speed]#drinking,#before#heading#
to#the#airport,# dashing# down# the# fast#lane#for#priority#passengers#to#give#
or#listen# to# the#short# TED[\like]# presentation,#perhaps# at# the#singularity#
university# #yes,#indeed,# Mister# Kurzweil16# and# his# kind# promising#
singularity,# the# perfection# of# e=m2# and# the# transcendence# of# matter# –#
forgetting#the#relevance#of#the#law#of#inertia.#
V.&
But# moving# –#with#Keynes#–# to# and# moving# within#the#underground#is#also#a#
matter#of#time,#something#that#we#barely#have#anymore#in#the#academic#world#–#
even#less#nowadays#with#all#the#before#mentioned#tools#that#make#our#life#easier,#
the#law#of# inertia# in# actual# fact# coming# re\emerging#with#its#full#weight,#making#
us#aware#of#the#fact#that##at#the#end#of#the#day##Schroedingers#cat,#as#any#other#
cat#did#not#have#a#double\existence,#was#an#ordinary#cat,#just#as#Simon’s#cat.#
The# ‘good# old# times’# having# time# for# reading,# actually# reading# books,# also#
browsing# …# \#going#to#the#library,#not#the#online#catalogue,#grazing#along#the#
shelves#instead# of# trusting#the#results# of# the#calculations:#‘this# article#had#been#
quoted#by#…’,#‘this#may#also#find#your#interest#...’#…#But#we#have#to#think#twice#–#
########################################################
15## Marx,#Karl,# 1857\61:# Economic#and# Philosophic# Manuscripts# of#1857\58;#in:# Marx# Engels#Collected#Works;# Volume#
29:#Karl#Marx#1857\#1861:#London:#Lawrence&Wishard;#Electric#Book#2010:#93#
16## btw,#the#German#term#Kurzweil,#translated,#stands#for#diversion,#pastime,#amusement##
How#often#did#we#do# this?#Haw#many#of#us#did#this?#How#often#did#we#send#the#
secretary#to#the#library#to#get#the#book#and#ask#the#‘briefcase#carrier’#–#as#junior#
academics# had# been# frequently# called# #doing#what#the# algorithm# does# today.#
And#while#talking#about#too#large#classes#today,# we# should# not# forget# peeping#
through#the#time#window:#
#17#
this#is#a#picture,#showing#a#lecture#hall# at#the#end#of#the#1960,#in#Hamburg##for#
those# who# remember# …,# isn’t# it# a# bit# of# a# strange# feeling# looking# back,# also#
remembering#the#feeling#we#have#had,#getting#up,#rising#from#the#chair#on#which#
we#had#been#sitting,#occasionally#daring#to#lead#or#join# into# an# uprising# against#
the#chair?#Too#often#speaking#powerfully#eloquent#against#the# position\holding#
arrogance# # words,# as# long# as# it# had# not# been# their# own# words,# had# been# for#
them#as#meaningful#as#the#bullet#for#the#wearer#of#the#protective#vest.#
It#would#be#silly#trying#to#deny#the#structural#tension#that#marked#the#situation:#
the#quest#for# education# for#all#and# the# reduction# of#the#numbers# of# students#in#
seminars#and#lectures,#the#quest#for#individual#enhancement#and#development#in#
combination#with#striving#for#relevance#of#the#obtained#knowledge#and#cognition#
for#and#in#a#world#that#was#full#of#contradictions#and#not#least#those#of#antagonist#
character.#
Thus,#as#necessary#as# it# was# to#overcome#this#academic#elitism,# something# that#
had#been#cultivated#
3)6"$%#;"%F8>):%
########################################################
17## Die#Oetkers## Tradition#ist#ihr# Rezept#[Dokumentation#deutsch];#https://youtu.be/2NzAjv76Z5c;#11/07/17#at# minute#
28#
.:%#;"%'<:#B%868<$%8?%(%#;8<:()6%B"($:%
as#questionable#was#the#unveiled#world,#a#reality#manifesting#itself#as#‘iron#cage’#
[Weber,# of# course],# a# scaffold# of# cold# metal# of# profit\making,# kept# together# by#
metal#screws# of# exchange#values# and# fortified#by# the#glue# of#an#administration#
for# which# problems# did# only# exist# during# office# hours.18# –# Without# any# doubt,#
many# of# the# problems# had# been# tabled# at# the# time,# highly# critical# and#
nevertheless#it#has#to#be#asked#if#all#this#did#not#maintain#Euclidean#thinking#as#it#
had#been#issued#earlier,#quoting#Keynes,#and#recalling#the#paragraph:#
Y;"% @9(::*@(9% #;"8$*:#:% $":"'H9"% ,<@9*6"()% F"8'"#"$:% *)% (% )8)b
,<@9*6"()%>8$96%>;8=%6*:@8C"$*)F%#;(#%*)%"Z7"$*")@"%:#$(*F;#%9*)":%
(77($")#9B% 7($(99"9% 8?#")% '""#=% $"H<G"% #;"% 9*)":% ?8$% )8#% G""7*)F%
:#$(*F;#c(:%#;"%8)9B%$"'"6B% ?8$%#;"%<)?8$#<)(#"%@899*:*8):%>;*@;%
($"% 8@@<$$*)FD% 1"#=% *)% #$<#;=% #;"$"% *:% )8% $"'"6B% "Z@"7#% #8% #;$8>%
8C"$% #;"% (Z*8'% 8?% 7($(99"9:% ()6% #8% >8$G% 8<#% (% )8)b,<@9*6"()%
F"8'"#$BD%
#That# was# the# problem:# dreaming# of# an# educational# system# which# allows#
parallels# to# meet# in# infinity# and# furthermore# the# idea# of# bringing# the# point# of#
infinity#forward.#The#result#was#accordingly,#a#new#split,#showing#up#in#different#
ways:# the# revolting# spirit# aimed# on# appropriating# the# system# without# fully#
acknowledging# that# the# established# system# itself# changed# tremendously,#
absorbing#the#demand#by#accommodating#them#after#translation#into#the#system#
language#itself.#Probably#it#is#fair#to#say#that#translation#was##paradoxically#–#
supported# by# the# Hippies# and# sects# of# the# New# Age# Movements.# And# these#
counter\cultures# of# minorities# served# involuntarily# the# emergence# of# the# new#
mainstream,# emerging# form# the# revolts# and# also# the# emerging# changes# of# the#
economic#conditions.19#So#part#of#the#translation#was#the#outline#of#what#we#find#
today#in# extenso#and# ‘scientifically# elaborated’,# amalgamating# different# strands#
to#a#new#hegemonic#living#regimes:#
a#new#humanness,#
########################################################
18## „Leiden,# die# außerhalb# der# Dienstzeit# auftreten,# sind# mißlich.“# Q/@;*)F"$=% &():=% E_VhX08P*(9"% 0*@;"$;"*#D% ,*)"%
;*:#8$*:@;b:8P*898F*:@;"%3)#"$:<@;<)F%)"<"$%&*9?:'"#;86")A%0#<##F($#X%mhM%
19## mind#the#difference:#changing#economic#conditions,#not#changing#economic#situation,#the#latter#of#course#also#playing#
a#role.#
new#ways#of#commonalty#which#enforce#‘hedonistic#sharing’#
transformation#of#post\materialist#values#into#material#gains#
and# seemingly# ignoring# norms# by# establishing# an# even# tighter# shell# –#
protecting#against#the#pressure#that#emerges#from#the#high\speed:#indeed,#
the#law#of#inertia#in#quest#of#its#own#firewall.#
All#these#loads#put# again20#on#the#shoulders# of# the# young#enthusiasts##only#on#
two#occasions#–#or#in#two#instances#I#was#getting#really#aware#of#the#enthusiasm#
that#is# actually# the#truly#academic# drive.# Saying#only# in# two#instances# is# surely#
unfair#if#it#is#hastily#read#as:#it#only#existed#in#these#two#instances.#I#am#sure#that#
it# was# more# widespread.# The# limitation# of# experiencing# it# is# at# least# to# some#
extent# a# matter# of# randomness# of# existence# and# encounters.# What# should# not#
come# as# surprise:# in# both# cases# it# had# been# encounters#outside#of#class,#to#be#
precise# outside# of# the# lecture# theatre# –# and# I# remember# it# happened# to# me#
earlier,#the#other#way#round:#when#I#was#student#I#had#been#in#the#lucky#position#
to#establish#some#‘private#relationship’#to# a#few#lecturers.#Even#in#those#years#it#
had# not# been# the# norm# –# though# possibly# a# bit# more# frequent# because# the#
university# was# at# least# more#a# public#space,# not#least# by#way# of#socio\political#
contests.# But# this# should# not# be# overestimated# by# a# glorifying# retreat# into# the#
past.#
Now,#I#could#fill#pages#when#I#would#write#about#the#intricacy#of#the#concord:#
age,# culture,# education,# experiences,#understanding#and#relationship#
amalgamating#around#one#issue:#IY;"%3)H"($(H9"%i*F;#)"::%8?%`"*)FKX#
!<##*)F%*#%)"F(#*C"9B=%#;"%'B#;% 8?% "#"$)(9% $"#<$)% :#(#":% #;(#% (% 9*?"%
>;*@;%6*:(77"($:%8)@"%()6%?8$%(99=%>;*@;%68":%)8#%$"#<$)=%*:%9*G"% (%
:;(68>=% >*#;8<#% >"*F;#=% 6"(6% *)% (6C()@"=% ()6% >;"#;"$% *#% >(:%
;8$$*H9"=% H"(<#*?<9=% 8$% :<H9*'"=% *#:% ;8$$8$=% :<H9*'*#B=% ()6% H"(<#B%
'"()%)8#;*)FD%+"%)""6%#(G"%)8%'8$"%)8#"%8?%*#%oLE%
########################################################
20## As#it#happened#before,#possibly#the#first#time#when#they#went#to#the#kindergarden,#today#named#playschool#…#
21## Kundera,# Milan,# 1984:# The# Unbearable# Lightness# of# Being;#
http://www.msjkeeler.com/uploads/1/4/0/6/1406968/milan_kundera_\_the_unbearable_lightness_of_being.pdf;#
12/07/17:#2#
At#the# end#a# fugitive#acquaintance,# and#with# the# questions# I# had# to# ask# myself#
again#and#again,#going# much# beyond# the#routines#of#teaching#what#is# known# to#
people#who#have#to#know#even#if#we#all#accept#that#there#is#now#life,#no#reality#
that# follows# the# one# fundamental# supposition:# ceteris# paribus# =# all# other#
conditions#being#unchanged.#Such#CPL#–#i.e.#life#along#the#Ceteris#Paribus#Line#–#
can# only# be# found# in# economic# models,# bureaucratic# organisations# taking# over#
education,# finance# and# accounting# systems# that# are# now# providing# the# major,#
replacing# foundational# studies# of# economics:# de\knowledging,# upskilling# had#
been#two# terms#I#introduced#earlier,#talking# about#Alexa#and#Siri.#And# it#may#be#
added#that#de\knowledging#and#upskilling#are#very#much#cause#and#effect#of#that#
unbearable#lightness#of#being:#increasing#its#speed#to#escape#what#is#unbearable#
and#entering#a#loop#towards#even#less#acceptability#asking#for#further#increased#
speed# …,# until# it# ends# in# paralysis# of# an# unbearable# gravity.# And# indeed,# this#
gravity#seems#to#be#permanent#threat,#interfering#with#any#concord.#
So#young##enthusiastic,#and#then:#paralysed#…#
It#had#been#at# the# end#of#the#second#year,# a# second#encounter#struck#me## this#
time#like#lightening.#It#was#all#about#a#signature#–#well,#actually#it#was#all#about’#
is# misperception,# a# bit# like# the# consolation# after# redemption,# the# signature#
seemingly#being#like#handing#over#the#certificate#of#debt,#the#letter#of#indulgence.#
Signing#the# reference#letter,#handing#it#over#to#the# student#meant#looking#into#a#
face#that#was#fully#relieved##–#not#because#of#the#letter#and#any#illusionary#hope#
that#it#would#be#equal#to#the#admission#to#the#master#course.#It#was#even#a#bit#the#
opposite:#receiving#the#letter#seemed#to#be#like#‘all#things#done# –# and# now# I# am#
free# to# do# what# really# matters# to# me.’# –# holidays,# travelling,# hanging# out# with#
classmates#…?# #None#of#these##his#eyes#opened#widely,#his#entire#expression#
changed,#obtained#the#refulgence#of#spirit# of#enterprise.#It#was#about#a#project#–#
some#research#in#a#poverty#struck#area,#collecting#data#and#thus#contributing#to#a#
project#aiming#on#alleviating#poverty.#I#did#not#find#out#what#exactly#the#project#
looks#like,#what#the# student’s# and# students’#involvement#is#about##but#I#surely#
felt#immediately#the# line# between#that# voluntary# engagement#and#the# situation#
students#face#too# often# in#the#lecture#theatre#–#as#much#as# we#as#teachers#do#as#
much#as#we# do# as#researchers,#when# obsessed,# blinded#by#the# requirements# of#
the#academic#pecking#order,#deafened#by#the#laudationes,#not#being#able#to#listen#
to# real# people,# barely# being# able# to# speak# normal# language,# language# of#
expressions,# reaching# beyond# simple# statements# of# description# and#
evidencialism.22#
Doesn’t# this# also# remind# us# of# the# words# Karl# Marx# wrote# 1844,# though# then#
referring#to#the#worker:#
Y;"% >8$G"$% #;"$"?8$"% 8)9B% ?""9:% ;*':"9?% 8<#:*6"% ;*:% >8$G=% ()6% *)%
;*:% >8$G% ?""9:% 8<#:*6"% ;*':"9?D% &"% ?""9:% (#% ;8'"% >;")% ;"% *:% )8#%
>8$G*)F=% ()6% >;")% ;"% *:% >8$G*)F% ;"% 68":% )8#% ?""9% (#% ;8'"D% &*:%
9(H8<$%*:% #;"$"?8$"%)8#%C89<)#($B=%H<#% @8"$@"6A% *#%*:%?8$@"6%9(H8<$D%
.#%*:%#;"$"?8$"% )8#% #;"% :(#*:?(@#*8)% 8?% (% )""6A%*#%*:%'"$"9B%(%'"():%
#8%:(#*:?B%)""6:%"Z#"$)(9%#8%*#DLh%
And#isn’t#the# excitement# I# faced#just#the#opposite#of#what#Kundera#grasps?##As#
already#quoted#before:#
(% :;(68>=% >*#;8<#% >"*F;#=% 6"(6% *)% (6C()@"=% ()6% >;"#;"$% *#% >(:%
;8$$*H9"=% H"(<#*?<9=% 8$% :<H9*'"=% *#:% ;8$$8$=% :<H9*'*#B=% ()6% H"(<#B%
'"()%)8#;*)FD%+"%)""6%#(G"%)8%'8$"%)8#"%8?%*#%o%Lm%
–#now#showing#as#such#opposite,#also#as#opposition#
a light of which the H$*F;#)":: is heavy on the mind, meaningful
with all its own facets of the colours of the prisma from the rainbow.
########################################################
22## Alluding#to#Emil#Chargaff’s#Heraclitean#Fire,#where#we#find#on#page#22#the#passus:#
.)%#;"%"C")*)F%()6%(#%)*F;#=%'B%?$*")6% /9H"$#%W<@;:%()6%.%8?#")%>(9G"6%#;$8<F;%#;" %H"(<#*?<9%:#$""#:%
8?%p*"))(=% ()6%>"% #(9G"6%")69"::9B%(H8<#% >$*#*)FX%>;(#% '(6"%(% #"Z#%F")<*)"=% >;(#%@(<:"6% (%78"'%
#8% H"% F886D% +"% 6*:#*)F<*:;"6% H"#>"")% /<::(F"% Q:#(#"'")#M% ()6% /<:6$<@G% Q"Z7$"::*8)M=% ()6% >"%
@8)@9<6"6%#;(#%8)9B% #;"%F")*<:%@8<96% q"Z7$"::=r%>;"$"(:%()B% #(9")#%@8<96%q:#(#"Dr% 08'"#;*)F%8?%#;*:%
6*:#*)@#*8)%;(:%$"'(*)"6%>*#;%'"=%()6%.%>8<96%:#*99% :(B%#;(#%8)9B%>;(#%*:%s:#(#"6s%@()%H"%#$():9(#"6=%
H<#%)8#%>;(#%*:%q"Z7$"::"6Dr%
23## Marx,#Karl,# 1844:#Economic#and# Philosophic#Manuscripts#of# 1844;#in:# Marx#Engels#Collected#Works;#Volume# 3:#Karl#
Marx#March#1843\August#1844:#London:#Lawrence&Wishard;#Electric#Book#2010:#229\346;#here:#274#
24## Kundera,# Milan,# 1984:#The#Unbearable#Lightness#of#Being;#
http://www.msjkeeler.com/uploads/1/4/0/6/1406968/milan_kundera_\_the_unbearable_lightness_of_being.pdf;#
12/07/17:#2#
VI.&
…# so# young# #enthusiastic#students,#and#then:#paralysed# by# learning# such#
language#of#evidencialism#–#utilitarian#lacking#expressive#power#as#the#values#are#
about#things#that#do#not#have#value##at#best#they#are#placeholders:#Universities#
being#rated#gold,#universities#competing#against#each#other#instead#of#striving#for#
the# very# best:# the# best# answers# to# the# most# pressing# questions.# But# which#
questions#are#pressing?#
Y;"%F$(6*)F%*:%'(*)9B%H(:"6%8)%#;$""%:"#:%8?%*)?8$'(#*8)X%
:#<6")#:J%C*">:%8?%#"(@;*)F%
(::"::'")#% ()6% (@(6"'*@% :<778$#% ?$8'% #;"% -(#*8)(9%
0#<6")#%0<$C"B%
6$87b8<#%$(#":%()6%$(#":%8?%"'798B'")#LV%
This# is# the# kindergarden,# established# in# order# to# educate# the# little# princes# of#
tomorrow# –#ah#no,#not# the# true#Princes,#the#little#ones#that#still#know#how#to#
draw#a#boa#constrictor#and#insist#even#if#the#adults#get#mixed#up#and#think#it#is#a#
hat.26#The#princes#who#are#already#little#kings#when#they#come#to#university#–#as#
the#one#who#came#to#the#office,#asking#for#a# reference.#I#took#my#time##actually#
this#is#what#I# really# like#about#the#job:# taking# time# and#exploring#together,#also#
learning#from#students#…# so# …#‘Well,#my#parents# sent# me# here.’#Something#like#
this#had#been#offered#as#reply# to# my# question#about# the#motivation#of#studying#
here#and# now# and#this#specific# subject# …#\# hum# #well,#in#all#fairness,#at#some#
point#it#was#getting#interesting:#the#student’s#topic#and#life#project#the# complete#
measuring# the# world27,# going# further,# being# better# than#Carl#Friedrich#Gauss.# I#
saw#even#some# calculations,# programmed# # and# I# did#not#see#any#substance,#no#
drawing#from#inside,#no#drawing#from#outside#…,#and#no#drawing#of#a#signature#
as#there#was#nothing#to#be# signed# # arrogance,#such# kind#of#princely#arrogance#
can# speak# for# itself# …:# arrogance# that# is# blindly# caught# in# the# algorithm# of# 42,#
that,#however,#never#can#find#the#question,#that#even#does#not#really#need#one.28#
########################################################
25## University# teaching# grading# system# explained;# in:# BBC# News;# 22.6.2017;# http://www.bbc.com/news/education\
40354138;#15/07/17#
26## Referring#to#Antoine#de#Saint\Exupéry’s#Le#Petit#Prince#
27## Kehlmann,# Daniel,# 2005:# Measuring# the# World# [Die# Vermessung# der# Welt];#translated# by# Carol# Brown# Janeway;#
Pantheon#Books#
28## see#Herrmann,#Peter,#2017:#Academia#Today#\\#and#also#the#rest#of#the#world;#http://wp.me/p1qrWe\1cZ#
The#student#of#excellence#for#excellence:#always#having#an#answer,#never#looking#
for# a# question# #surely#not#the# dissatisfied# Socrates# John# Stuart# Mill# had# been#
talking#about,#more#the#other#creature#he#referred#to.29#
And#such#people#would#not#acknowledge#that#some#laws#are#fundamental#and#if#
any# change# is# possibly# going# to# realised,# it# depends# on# acknowledging# the#
fundamental# mode# of# operation#in#order#to#utilise#them# –# which# may# mean# to#
acknowledge#their#undeniable#reach.#
And#there#would# be# at# schools#and#universities#as#many# questions# by#lecturers#
and#students,#freely#discussing#with#each#other#as#there#are#questions#of#reading#
workers#–#many#questions#actually#requiring#to#break#through#the#walls#that#are#
protecting# the# given# thinking# against# any# intrusion.# Who# brought# us# here,# and#
how#are#we#motivated#to#study#the#subject#we#do#study?#How#can#we#speak#with#
each#other#instead#of#speaking#about#the# other?# What# is# our#common# notion#of#
the# questions# our# discipline# deals# with?# Where# is# the# canteen# where# students#
and#staff#eat#together?#
Of#course,# these# are#issues#that#cannot#be#generalised##any#generalisation#is#as#
problematic# as# the# system# against# which# they# are# out# up.# Still,# there# are# the#
various#experiences:#
the# protest# at# ODTU,# ‘my’# university# in# Ankara# not# accepting# the#
introduction#of# a#three#class#system#of#the#canteen:# students,# admin#staff#
and#academics#
the# experience# of# emerging# identification# with# the# subject# area# during#
‘field#trips’# –#moving# between#the# headquarter#of# the#United# Nations# to#
the#NGO#in# a# small#town,#which#could# be# teaching#model#for#economics:#
visits#reaching#from#the#IMF#to#the#small#stand#in#the#backstreet#
the# flexibility# of# studying# –# in# terms# of# the# what# and# the# when# and# the#
with#whom#as#lecturer#and#classmates,#the#‘old#systems’#of#studying,#with#
all#their#problems,#standing#against#the#new#frames#that#require#students#
to#‘complete#a#course’#
########################################################
29## see# Mill,# John# Stuart,# 1863:# Utilitarianism;# London,# New# York,# Bombay,# Calcutta:# Longmans,# Green,# And# Co.;# 39#
Paternoster#Row,#1907;#15th#edition:14#
the# conviction# of# working# not# for# grades# but# for# exploration# and# social#
practice##for#a# meaningful# activity,#not#for# a# income#from#a#job# which# I#
can#than#use#for#‘creating#meaning#for#me’:#an#activity#where#I#feel#myself#
while#working#and#still#enjoying#a#life#outside#of#work.#
Of# course,# there# are# issues# like# subject# areas,# the# money# that# is# available# for#
universities#and#departments,#the#institutional#meaning#of#the#Matthew#principle#
and#personal#likes#and#dislikes.#And#not#least#the#‘real#world’.#The#availability#of#
exciting#jobs# and# …# the#honesty:# drop\out# rates#also#possibly# charming# as#they#
show# that# students# are# able# to# resist# peer# pressures# and# general# expectations#
coming#from# parents#and#peers#and#‘stereotypes’,#gained#the# maturity#to#decide#
…,# possibly# only# deciding# to# walk# thoroughly,# step# by# step# instead# of# dashing#
through#‘something’.#Isn’t#it#remarkable#that#so#many#of#the#‘greatest’#did#not#go#
the#straight#way?#That#so#many#of#the#best#have#a#broad#knowledge,#also#of#‘lived#
culture’?#–# Sure,#luck#and#often#also#the#privilege#of#material#independence.#The#
answer?#We#will#only#find#any#beneficial#answer#after#overcoming#the#ridiculous#
faith#in#data:#if#everybody#stands#on#the#tiptoes,#nobody#will#see#better;#and#if#we#
force# everybody# to# stand# on# the# tiptoes# we# will# soon# have# a# population# with#
crippled#feet.#And#in#the#case#of#replacing#feet#and#legs#by# data# and# algorithms,#
we#may#have#to#face#a#population#with#crippled#brains.#
Keynes,#in#his#4")"$(9%Y;"8$B=#may#have#foreseen#something#like#this,#writing#
,)#"$7$*:"% 8)9B% 7$"#")6:% #8% *#:"9?% #8% H"% '(*)9B% (@#<(#"6% HB% #;"%
:#(#"'")#:% *)% *#:% 8>)% 7$8:7"@#<:=% ;8>"C"$% @()6*6% ()6% :*)@"$"D%
2)9B%(%9*##9"%'8$"%#;()%()%"Z7"6*#*8)%#8%#;"%08<#;%!89"=%*:%*#%H(:"6%
8)% ()% "Z(@#% @(9@<9(#*8)% 8?% H")"?*#:% #8% @8'"D% Y;<:% *?% #;"% ()*'(9%
:7*$*#:%($"%6*''"6%()6% #;"%:78)#()"8<:%87#*'*:'%?(9#"$:=%9"(C*)F%
<:% #8% 6"7")6% 8)% )8#;*)F% H<#% (% '(#;"'(#*@(9% "Z7"@#(#*8)=%
")#"$7$*:"% >*99% ?(6"% ()6% 6*"A% t% #;8<F;% ?"($:% 8?% 98::% '(B% ;(C"% (%
H(:*:%)8%'8$"%$"(:8)(H9"%#;()%;87":%8?%7$8?*#%;(6%H"?8$"D%
And#the#more#spiritual#expression#can#be#found#in#the#marvellously#written#book#
by#Erwin#Chargaff,#where#we#read#
.% :;8<96% :(B% #;(#% #;"% 8:#"):*H9"% F8(9:% ;(C"% 8H9*#"$(#"6% #;"% $"(9%
8$*F*):% 8?% 8<$% :"($@;D% +*#;8<#% (% ?*$'% @")#"$% >"% ?98<)6"$D% Y;"%
>8)6"$?<9=% *)@8)@"*C(H9B% *)#$*@(#"% #(7":#$B% *:% H"*)F% #(G")% (7($#%
:#$()6% HB% :#$()6A% "(@;% #;$"(6% *:% H"*)F% 7<99"6% 8<#=% #8$)% <7=% ()6%
()(9BP"6A%()6%(#%#;"%")6%"C")%#;"%'"'8$B%8?%#;"%6":*F)%*:%98:#%()6%
@()%)8%98)F"$%H"% $"@(99"6D%+;(#%;(:%H"@8'"%8?% ()%")#"$7$*:"%#;(#%
:#($#"6%(:%()%"Z798$(#*8)%8?%#;"%F":#(%g"*%7"$%)(#<$('uha%
Notably,#the#reference#to#god#can#very#well#be#understood#in#a#very#non\religious#
sense# –# as# reference# to# complex# entities.# Chargaff# himself# quotes# a# little# later#
Confucius’#words#from#the#Analects##
Y;"%e(:#"$%:(*6=%&"(C")%68":%)8#%:7"(GDhE%
It#is#even#the#very#simple#statement#of#science#itself,#the#maxim#that#the#whole#is#
more# than# the# sum# of# its# parts.# In# actual# fact,# the# latter# formulation# points# on#
relationality#which#is#very#much#a#secular#issue,#as#
Y;"$"%($"%)8%:<7$"'"%:(C*8<$:%
-"*#;"$%486=%)8$%\(":($=%)8$%#$*H<)"D%
It#is#instead#a#matter#of#the#interactive#process#of#the#elements#that# establishes#
this#entity#–#it#emerges#from#common#action#of#people#or#in#other#words#
()% 8<#@8'"% 8?% #;"% *)#"$(@#*8)% H"#>"")% 7"879"% Q@8):#*#<#"6% (:%
(@#8$:M%()6%#;"*$%@8):#$<@#"6%()6%)(#<$(9%")C*$8)'")#D%.#:%:<Hf"@#%
'(##"$%$"?"$:%#8%7"879"K:%*)#"$$"9(#"6%7$86<@#*C"%()6%$"7$86<@#*C"%
$"9(#*8):;*7:DhL%
Isn’t#that#as#well#an#urgent#call#for#another#Y$<'7"#%8?%\8):@*")@"uhh%
########################################################
30## Chargaff,# Erwin,#1978:#Heraclitean# Fire:# Sketches# from# a#Life#Before# Nature,# New# York:# The# Rockefeller# University#
Press:#56#
31## XII,#19#
32## van#der#Maesen,#Laurent#J.G./Walker,#Alan,#2012:#Social#Quality#and#Sustainability;#in:#van#der#Maesen/Walker#(eds.),#
2012:#Social#Quality.#From#Theory#to#Indicators:#Basingstoke:#Palgrave#Macmillan:#250\274;#here:#260#
33## Interestingly,#the#title#of#Martin#Luther#King’s#1967#book#had#been#in#the#German#1969\translation#Aufruf#zum#zivilen#
Ungehorsam,#literally:#incitement#to#civil#disobedience##and#interestingly#at#a#time#that#was#very#much#characterised#
by#state#terrorism#of#the#FRG\government,#provoking#a#civil#disobedience#reverting#into#violent#terrorism.##Stating#it#
in#this#way#is#surely#extreme#and#to#some#extent#a#one\sided#exaggeration##but#mind:#to#some#extent,#not#a#jot#better#
I# dare# to# return# from# here# to# the# seemingly# simple# and# pragmatic# side# –# the#
ranking#that#is#now#one#of#the#large#destroyers#due#to#the#inherent#ambivalence:#
on#the#one# hand# it#is#about#establishing# relations# between#a#limited#number# of#
variables#–#not# more# than#two#are# needed,# and#actually#two# is# in#some#respect#
the# ideal# case# of# a# straightforward# relationship.# This# formulation# leads# to# the#
second#aspect:#any#statement#is#empty,#shallow#as#long#as#the#parameters#are#not#
disclosed.#And#any#true#disclosure# …,#undermines#the#definition#of#variables,#re\
transforms#the#non\fiction#back#to#the#fiction.#
Is# the# following# one# picture,# one# graph?# Or# how# many# completely# different#
graphs# could# this# be,# without# changing# the# appearance?# You# may# look# at# the#
variety#in#it:#
#
#
as#indication#of#absolute#numbers#
as#indication# of# percentage#–#starting#from#the#line#of#0,# or# referring#to#a#
certain#threshold,# obviously#100#being#the#easy# and#straightforward#one,#
and#only#one,#the#‘eens’#as#we#know#it#from#philosophy#
or#looking# at# by#indexing,# though#then# it# also#makes# a# difference#where#
we#put#the#reference#point#
may#be#also#refer#to#ordinals#versus#cardinals#
…#
–#I#surely#do#not#claim#to#have#an#answer,#though#I#tend#to#suggest#that#there#may#
not#be#an#answer.#And#if#I#fail#suggesting# one,#I#can#surely#feel#comforted#by#the#
company#of# a#much#greater#mind#than# mine,#returning#another#time#to# Chargaff#
for#whom#
########################################################
or#worse#than#the# statement#of# a#one\sided# condemnation#of# the#violators.#It#is#worthwhile# stating#as# we#witnessed#
recently#a#more#then#questionable#crackdown#by#the#police#in#connection#with#the#G20\summit.#
k*l#%*:%@9"($%#;(#%#8%'"6*#(#"%8)%#;"%>;89"%8?%)(#<$"=%8$%"C")%8)%#;"%
>;89"% 8?% 9*C*)F% )(#<$"=% *:% )8#% (% $8(6% #;(#% #;"% )(#<$(9% :@*")@":%
@8<96% 98)F% ;(C"% #$(C"9"6D% Y;*:% *:% #;"% >(B% 8?% #;"% 78"#=% #;"%
7;*98:87;"$=%#;"%:""$D%/%6*C*:*8)%8?%9(H8$%;(6%#8%#(G"%79(@"D%`<#%#;"%
8C"$?$(F'")#(#*8)% 8?% #;"% C*:*8)% 8?% )(#<$"% b% 8$% (@#<(99B% *#:%
@8'79"#"% 6*:(77"($()@"% ('8)F% #;"% '(f8$*#B% 8?% :@*")#*:#:% t% ;(:%
@$"(#"6% (% &<'7#Bbg<'7#B% >8$96% #;(#% '<:#% H"@8'"% *)@$"(:*)F9B%
<)'()(F"(H9"% (:% '8$"% ()6% #*)*"$% 7*"@":% ($"% H$8G")% 8??=% q?8$%
@98:"$% *):7"@#*8)=r% ?$8'% #;"% @8)#*)<<'% 8?% )(#<$"D% Y;"%
@8):"R<")@"%8?%#;"%"Z@"::*C"%:7"@*(9*P(#*8)=%>;*@;%8?#")%H$*)F:%<:%
)">:%#;(#%)8H86B%@($":%#8%;"($=%;(:%H"")%#;(#%*)% $"C*:*#*)F%(%?*"96%
>*#;% >;*@;% 8)"% ;(6% H"")% C"$B% ?('*9*($=% :(B=% #")% 8$% #>")#B% B"($:%
"($9*"$=% 8)"% ?""9:% 9*G"% ()% *)#$<6"$% *)% 8)"J:% 8>)% H(#;$88'=% >*#;%
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Still,#I#dare#suggesting# a# border,# defined#by# a#statement#I#came#across,# learning#
that#‘[w]e#are#not#talking#about#fairness,#we#are#looking#for#a#solution.35#Can’t#we#
say#–#with#more#justification#and#urge#than#we#find#behind#such#statement#–#that#
there#is#no#solution#without#fairness.#And#don’t#we#have#to#say#that#even#fairness#
is#not# a# given#matter;#instead# its# definition#is# a# matter#of#‘discourse#instead#of#
simple# determination,# and# also# the# awareness# of# discourse# being# something#
collaborative# –# not# the# chat# but# the# statement,# the# emerging# confession.# And#
something#that#we# may# call#confrontational#inclusiveness#…#.# –# No#ranking#will#
answer#those#
QUESTIONS)FROM)A)WORKER)WHO)READS36)
+;8%H<*9#%Y;"H":%8?%#;"%:"C")%F(#":u%
.)%#;"%H88G:%B8<%>*99%?*)6%#;"%)('"%8?%G*)F:D%%
g*6%#;"%G*)F:%;(<9%<7%#;"%9<'7:%8?%$8@Gu%%
/)6%`(HB98)=%'()B%#*'":%6"'89*:;"6D%
+;8%$(*:"6%*#%<7%:8%'()B%#*'":u%.)%>;(#%;8<:":%
########################################################
34## Chargaff,# Erwin,#1978:#Heraclitean# Fire:# Sketches# from# a# Life#Before#Nature,# New# York:# The# Rockefeller# University#
Press:#55#f#
35## http://wp.me/p1qrWe\1dk#
36## along#the#lines#of#"Fragen#eines#lesenden#Arbeiters"#\#translated#by#M.#Hamburger,#from#Bertolt#Brecht,#Poems#1913\
1956,#Methuen,#N.Y.,#London,#1976;#https://msu.edu/~sullivan/TransBrechtWorker.html#
2?%F896bF9*##"$*)F%i*'(%6*6%#;"%H<*96"$:%9*C"u%
+;"$"=%#;"%"C")*)F%#;(#%#;"%+(99%8?%\;*)(%>(:%?*)*:;"6%
g*6%#;"%'(:8):%F8u%4$"(#%58'"%
.:%?<99%8?%#$*<'7;(9%($@;":D%+;8%"$"@#"6%#;"'u%2C"$%>;8'%
g*6%#;"%\(":($:%#$*<'7;u%&(6%`BP()#*<'=%'<@;%7$(*:"6%*)%:8)F=%
2)9B%7(9(@":%?8$%*#:%*);(H*#()#:u%,C")%*)%?(H9"6%/#9()#*:%
Y;"%)*F;#%#;"%8@"()%")F<9?"6%*#%
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%
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+(:%;"%(98)"u%
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&(C")K#%#;"B%f8*)"6%(#%9"(:#%HB%(%@88Gu%
0(7(%.)G(=%:#()6:%*)%#;"%7"879"K:%9()F<(F"%?8$%#;"%8)9B%.)@(%
&8>%@8<96%8)"%7"$:8)%:#()6%?8$%:<@;%(%$*@;%@8<)#$B%()6%"'7*$"u%
-Fv%wx);%g*y'%":#(H9*:;"6%(%G*)6%8?% @(#;89*@%$"F*'"=%7$8:"@<#*)F%
#;"%@8''<)*:#:%*)%#;"%)('"%8?%Y;"%p*$F*)%e($BD%+;8%
5"78$#"6%#8%e($B%(H8<#%*#u%t%:;"%)""6"6%(#%9"(:#%()%*)#"$7$"#"$%#8%
<)6"$:#()6%>;(#(99%#;*:%>(:%(H8<#%
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08%'()B%7(F":X%>*#;%@8)R<":#:=%C*@#8$*":%()6%6"@"*#:D%
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9*":u%
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And# as# much# as# we# can# teach# about# price# and# price# adjustment;#laws#and#
processes#of#legislation;#rules#of#the#syntax#and#grammar#of#different#languages;#
the#genetically#defined#structure#of#a#cell#and#the#Gauss#distribution,#no#teaching#
can#give#a#simple#explanation#of#values,#justice,#expressive#power#of# a# language#
and#translation#or#the#colourfulness#of#a#cell#or#a#beauty#mathematical#formula.#
QUESTIONS)FROM)A)SCHOLAR)WHO)READS)
o%
#;"$"%>8<96%H"%'()B=%
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f<$*6*@(9%8$%@<9#<$(9%
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7"8"79"=%8?%>;8'%H"(<#B%@()%8)9B%H"%<)6"$:#886%(:%*))"$%H"(<#B%
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*)%#;"%'8"'")#%8?%9*C"6%9*C":D%
The#first#set#of#teaching#and#learning#is#now#the#standard##defining#relevant#
benchmarks# is# more# or# less# easy# and# even# the# various# methods# to# speed# up#
learning#and#teaching;37#the#second#case#is#more#difficult,#requiring#the#readiness#
to# search# for# questions# for# which# we# don’t# know# the# answers# and# for# which#
answers#possibly#do# not# exist,#at#least# not# within#the#‘Euclidean# geometries’# as#
we# find# them# within# all# disciplines# that# makes# them# actually# disciplines,# i.e.# a#
matter# of# disciplinary# action:# accepting# given# rules,# defined# by# given# practice,#
########################################################
37## yes#oddly#here#teaching#seems#to#be#adapted#to#the#‘rules#of#learning’#
defined#by#the#walls#of#the#Platonian38#cave,#the#safety#zone#at#which#we#will#look#
later# again.# And# this# kind# of# exploration,# called# teaching# and# learning#does#
require#very#much#time,#endless#–#and#teachers#don’t#have#to#be#odd,#but#it#may#
well#be#of#help#if#they#are#…#.#
VII.&
…#
And#of#course,#this#brings#us#back#to#the#question#of#ranking#–#though#it#may#not#
be# obvious# at# first# #the#sight#of#the#‘chapter\reader’.# Only# one# point# will# be#
mentioned# –# although# it# may# be# seen# as# one#standing#for# many.# It# is# another#
psychological#factor#–#linked#to#the#two#mentioned#earlier,#namely#the#distinction#
between#assessment#of#‘acts’#and#the#assessment#of#person[alitie]s#and#the#fear#
of#loosing#by#being#the#scolded# bad# boy/girl.# And#linked# to#a# kind#of# misnomer#
suggested#by#English#language#and#how#it#is#used#today:#friends.#Having#the#two#
factors# already# mentioned,# the# ‘English# friends’# deserve# at# least# a# brief#
explanation.#Though#English#language#knows#the#acquaintance#(and#some#of#the#
acquaintance# relatives),# we# find# more# a#general# dichotomy# of# a# ‘friend’# on# the#
one#hand#and# ‘somebody’# on# the#other.#More#ornate#language#uses#today#has#at#
least# a# trinity:# ‘somebody’;# associate/business# partner/colleague;# friend# #the#
positive# reading# of# it# suggests# that# it# reflects# the# final# penetration# of# Schiller’s#
Ode#to#Joy:39#
n8B=%#;8<%H"(<#"8<:%F869B%9*F;#)*)F=%
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########################################################
38## which#sounds#better#than#Platonic#I#suppose#
39## Schiller,# Friedrich,# 1785:# Ode# to# Joy;# translated# by# William# F.# Wertz;#
http://www.schillerinstitute.org/transl/schiller_poem/ode_to_joy.pdf#
%
\;8$<:D%
`"%"'H$(@K6=%B"%'*99*8):%B8)6"$z%
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n8*)%<:%*)%;*:%f<H*9""z%
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#Indeed,#a#nobel#prize#for#friendship#…#
A# less# positive# reading# may# suggest# the# opposite:# loneliness,# anxiety# and# the#
attempt# to# establish# compensating# mechanisms# –#as#nice#as#friends#are#as#
difficult#it# is#to# criticise#them# #see#above,#point#one#and#two:#thus# make# your#
teacher,# colleague,# boss,# student,# customer,# shopkeeper# …# a# friend,# and# any#
rating#and# ranking#well# appear#in# a# different# light.# It#is# even#different# to# write#
this#as#it#suggests#…,#well,#it#suggests#a# strict#distinction,#the#)89*% '"%#()F"$"X%do#
not#touch#me,#do#not#criticise#me,#I#will#not#criticise#you#etc.#pp.#–#nothing#new,#I#
guess,# and# it# is# interesting# –# for# the# older# ones# to# remember,# for# the# younger#
ones# to# search# for# the# debates# of# the# nineteen\sixties# and# seventies# around#
authority##debates# that# emerged#globally# –#here# in#Asia,# there# in# Europe,# and#
even#somewhere# in# a#country#that# was# detached#from#the# rest# of#the#world# by#
claiming,# thinking# of#itself#as#leader#of#the#world#and#paving#parts#of#it#with#
napalm#…# the# whole#is# more# than#the#sum# of#its#parts,# and# if#a# part# looses#the#
connection# to# the# whole# some# form# of# ‘strangehood’# emerges,# turns# into#
stranglehold#in#order#to#replace#authority#in#the#understanding#of#coherence#and#
beauty#as#presented#by#Plotinus,#writing#
k(l99%:;(7"9"::)"::%>;8:"%G*)6%(6'*#:%8?%7(##"$)%()6%?8$'=%(:%98)F%
(:% *#% $"'(*):% 8<#:*6"% 8?% 5"(:8)% ()6% .6"(=% *:% <F9B% HB% #;(#% C"$B%
*:89(#*8)%?$8'% #;"% g*C*)"bY;8<F;#D% /)6%#;*:% *:% #;"% /H:89<#"% 3F9BX%
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7(##"$)=% #;(#% *:% HB% 5"(:8)=% #;"% e(##"$% )8#% B*"96*)F% (#% (99% 78*)#:%
()6%*)%(99%$":7"@#:%#8%.6"(9bW8$'Dma%
It#is#a#tension#that#may#exist#eternally##possibly#it#is#the#supposed#emergence#of#
humankind# out# of# the# realm# of# nature# –# a# point# from# which# so# many#
contradictions# and# exclusions#can#be#explained##in#the# Christian# parts# of# the#
world#the#perpetuation#of#the#schyzomycete#that#had#been#for#instance#captured#
in#the#verses#of#Matthew#
+;8"C"$% *:% )8#% >*#;% '"% *:% (F(*):#% '"=% ()6% >;8"C"$% 68":% )8#%
F(#;"$%>*#;%'"%:@(##"$:DmE%
The#dissolution#of# the# commons# –# here#understood#as#the#common#ground#that#
encapsulates#and#carries#all#existence,#the#inter\esse#as#form#of#participation42#–##
as#establishment# of#interest#in#maintaining#difference,#particularity:# the#interest#
of# the# communities# against# other# communities,# of# individuals# against# other#
individuals,#of#classes,#of#proprietors.#It#is#a#society#where#
'()J:% 8>)% 6""6% H"@8'":% ()% (9*")% 78>"$% 8778:"6% #8% ;*'=% >;*@;%
"):9(C":%;*'%*):#"(6%8?%H"*)F%@8)#$899"6%HB%;*'D%W8$%(:%:88)%(:%#;"%
6*C*:*8)% 8?% 9(H8<$% @8'":% *)#8% H"*)F=% "(@;% '()% ;(:% (% 7($#*@<9($=%
"Z@9<:*C"% :7;"$"% 8?% (@#*C*#B=% >;*@;% *:% ?8$@"6% <78)% ;*'% ()6% ?$8'%
>;*@;%;"%@())8#%":@(7"Dmh%
It#is#the#double\split,#first#forcing#to#be#
########################################################
40## http://classics.mit.edu/Plotinus/enneads.mb.txt#
41## Matthew#12:30#
42## !($:%@(7"$"=%i.e.#taking#a#part#also#as#maintaining#being#part#
43## Marx,# Karl,# 1845:#The# German#Ideology.# Critique# of# Modern# German# Philosophy#According# to# its# Representatives#
Feuerbach,# B.# Bauer# and# Stirner,# and# of# German# Socialism# According# to# its# Various# Prophets# [1845\46];# in:# Karl#
Marx/Frederick# Engels.# Collected# Works.# Volume# 5.# Marx# and# Engels# 1845\1847;# London:# Lawrence&Wishart:#
Electric#Book#2010:#47#
(% ;<)#"$=% (% ?*:;"$'()=% (% :;"7;"$6=% 8$% (% @$*#*@(9% @$*#*@=% ()6% o%
$"'(*)%:8%*?%;"%68":%)8#%>()#%#8%988:"%;*:%'"():%8?%9*C"9*;886mmD%
And# second,# the# existence# of# everybody# him\#or#herself#is#at#stake#–# human#
existence,#personalities#split##shared#into#the#role#of#father,#teacher,#office#clerk,#
brother,# political# activist,# professional# advocate,# student# etc..# Isn’t# the# utopia#
Marx#speaks#about,#in#this#light#already#falling#short#in#some#way#–#the#utopia#of#
a#society#
>;"$"% )8H86B% ;(:% 8)"% "Z@9<:*C"% :7;"$"% 8?% (@#*C*#B% H<#% "(@;% @()%
H"@8'"% (@@8'79*:;"6% *)% ()B% H$()@;% ;"% >*:;":=% :8@*"#B% $"F<9(#":%
#;"% F")"$(9% 7$86<@#*8)% ()6% #;<:% '(G":% *#% 78::*H9"% ?8$% '"% #8% 68%
8)"% #;*)F% #86(B% ()6% ()8#;"$% #8'8$$8>=% #8% ;<)#% *)% #;"% '8$)*)F=%
?*:;% *)% #;"% (?#"$)88)=% $"($% @(##9"% *)% #;"% "C")*)F=% @$*#*@*:"% (?#"$%
6*))"$=% f<:#% (:% .% ;(C"% (% '*)6=% >*#;8<#% "C"$% H"@8'*)F% ;<)#"$=%
?*:;"$'()=%:;"7;"$6%8$%@$*#*@DmV%
It#is#falling#short,#as#it#still#does#not#completely#overcome#the#division#into#roles#
as#such,#the# role# of#hunter,#fisherman,#shepherd# or# critic##failing# to# accept# the#
critical#fisherman,#failing#to#accept#that#the#cat#can#actually#be#dead#and#alive#at#
the#very#same#time.#It# may# sound# as# if#it#is#abstract,#disjoined#from# any# reality.#
However,#did#polytechnic#education#really#fail?#Did#cooperatives#completely#fail?#
…?#
As#long#as#we#accept#division#of# labour# as# constitutive# principle# of#societies# we#
face#the#dilemmas#of#classes,#of#wealth#being#measured#in#commodities#sold#and#
bought,# friends# being# asked# to# assess# professional# performance# –#all#this# not#
leaving#space#for#just#
two #;*)G"$: discussing everything they are curious about.
It# means# not# least# that# we# are# maintaining# a# system# of# education# that# strictly#
separates#the#role# of# the# teacher,# the#student##and#then#further:#the#role#of#the#
########################################################
44## ibid.#
45## ibid.#
juniors#and# seniors# –#from# the#perspective# of# the#Platonian# philosopher\king#a#
questionable#pattern.#
Sure,#a#quantum#mechanical#view#of#society#is#easier#than#putting#it#into#practice#
of#everyday’s# life.#At#least#it#is#essential#that#any#kind#of#sharing# is#based#on#the#
presumption#of# a# forgoing#split##and#once#having#really#left#the#Platonian#cave,#
re\entering#it#depends#on#force:#disciplining#as#disciplinary#act#towards#thinking:#
putting#thinking#into#the#boxes#of#disciplines,#organised#in#departments,#financed#
by#users#–#and#ending#in#the#complete#loss#of#the#IH"(<#B%#;(#%@8'":%?8$'%*):*6"KD%
This#is#)8##a#matter#of#spotlessness#of#youth#versus#wrinkles#of#age,#of#apparent#
ease# of# symmetry# against# tensions# of# irregularity# of# buildings,# the# immediate#
comprehensiveness#of#a#mathematical#equation# versus# the# difficulty# of# complex#
calculations.#
Though#it# does# not#solve# the# problem#of# assessments,#in#the# extreme#exposing#
criteria#about#the#learning#in#morsels#of#slide\sights#as#high\tech\instruments#of#
the#Nuremberg#funnel,#the#spoon#for#elegantly#feeding#information#performed#by#
a#sexy#lecturer,46#shifting#responsibility#to#learn#about#statements#to#the#feeding\
process# of# the# e86"$)% Y*'":m[%and# abstaining# from# claims# of# expression# –#
expressions#we#hear#and#face#and#also#our#own#expressions.#
Here#we#may#translate#–#but#first#the#original#again:#
Y;"%F$(6*)F%*:%'(*)9B%H(:"6%8)%#;$""%:"#:%8?%*)?8$'(#*8)X%
:#<6")#:K%C*">:%8?%#"(@;*)F%
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0#<6")#%0<$C"Bm{%
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One#translation#could#for#instance#be#the#following#[maintaining#three#sets]#
########################################################
46## The#latter#referring#to#a#colleague#from#Budapest#who#once#told#me#about#criteria#in#some#lecturer#assessments.#
47## Film#by#Charly#Chaplin,#capturing#a#large#part#of#the#‘machine#age’#
48## #
/*'"6% (#% '(*)9B% ?*)(9bB"($% <)6"$F$(6<(#":=% *#% F(#;"$:% 87*)*8):% ?$8'% :#<6")#:% (H8<#% #;"*$%
"Z7"$*")@"% 8?% #;"*$% @8<$:":=% (:G*)F% #;"'% #8% 7$8C*6"% ;8)":#% ?""6H(@G% 8)% >;(#% *#% ;(:% H"")% 9*G"% #8%
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49## University# teaching# grading# system# explained;# in:# BBC# News;# 22.6.2017;# http://www.bbc.com/news/education\
40354138;#15/07/17#
Y;"%F$(6*)F%*:%'(*)9B%H(:"6%8)%#;$""%:"#:%8?%*)?8$'(#*8)X%
:#<6")#:K%7"$:8)(9%9*G":%()6%6*:9*G":%8?%9"@#<$"$:%
(::"::'")#% ()6% (@(6"'*@% :<778$#% ?$8'% :#<6")#%
$"7$":")#(#*C"%H86*":%(:%789*#*@(9%F$8<7:=%@9<H:%"#@D%
$(#":%8?%:#<6")#:%>;8%?8<)6%(%:<Hf"@#%#;(#%#;"B%:<*#"6%#;"'%
()6%6"F$""%8?%f8H%?9"Z*H*9*#B%
Or#the#following#
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:#<6")#:K%(H*9*#B%#8%R<":#*8)%9"@#<$"$:%()6%6"C"987%7"$:8)(9%
$":"($@;%8$*")#(#*8):%
(::"::'")#% ()6% (@(6"'*@% :<778$#% ?$8'% $"7$":")#(#*C"%
H86*":% (:% 789*#*@(9% F$8<7:=% @9<H:% "#@D=% (9:8% 8<#:*6"% 8?%
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The#following#could#also#be#an#option#
Y;"%F$(6*)F%*:%'(*)9B%H(:"6%8)%#;$""%:"#:%8?%*)?8$'(#*8)X%
:#<6")#:K% (H*9*#B% #8% "9(H8$(#"% 9*)G:% H"#>"")% 6*??"$")#%
:<Hf"@#%($"(:%8$%?(@"#:%()6%$"(6*)"::%8?%9"@#<$"$:%#8%")F(F"%
>*#;%#;"'%6<$*)F%9"@#<$":%
(::"::'")#% ()6% (@(6"'*@% :<778$#% ?$8'% #;"% B8<#;%
8$F()*:(#*8):%8?%789*#*@(9%7($#*":%
$(#"% 8?% :#<6")#:% >;8% ")F(F"% *)% 6*??"$")#% "'798B'")#:=%
@8'H*)*)F%#;"'% *)%8$6"$%#8%":#(H9*:;% (%>(B%8?%*)#"F$(#*)F%
6*??"$")#%7"$:7"@#*C":D%
And#so# many# more#options# #at#the#end#all#feeding#into#the#need#to#search#for#
ways#of#opening#towards#approaches#that#are#carried#on#two#pillars:#
The# one# is# about# discursive# perspectives,# the# other# about# the# need# for# a#
productive#perspective#that#focuses#as#societal#responsibility.#Such#perspective#
on#an#open#space#for#learning#and# teaching# would# also# open#a# new#perspective#
on#reality#itself.#In#too#many#disciplines#–#and#economics#as#well#as#sociology#and#
philosophy# –# the# educational# system# is# organised# too# much# along# models,# not#
providing#spaces# for# leaning#and#teaching#how#to#economise,#to#sociologise#and#
to#philosophise.#If#every#thought#and#its#possible#origin#have#to#be#referenced,#it#
is#easy#to#end#in#what#we#indeed#find#too#often:#the#replication#of#what#we#know#
already.# Fashion# in# teaching# and# learning# as# distinct# and# separate# spheres,#
replacing#the#much#wider#studying#and#research,#it#is##
k#l;"%?(:;*8)%8?%8<$%#*'":%k>;*@;l%?(C8$:%68F'(:D%0*)@"%(%68F'(%*:%
:8'"#;*)F%#;(#%"C"$BH86B%*:%"Z7"@#"6%#8%(@@"7#=%#;*:%;(:%9"6%#8%#;"%
*)@$"6*H9"%'8)8#8)B% 8?% 8<$% f8<$)(9:D% p"$B%8?#")%*#%*:%:<??*@*")#%?8$%
'"%#8%$"(6%#;"%#*#9"%8?%(%7(7"$%*)%8$6"$%#8%$"@8):#$<@#%*#:%:<''($B%
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@8'7"#")#A%#;"B% <:"% #;"% :('"% #"@;)*R<":%()6%($$*C"% (#% #;"% :('"%
$":<9#:D% Y;*:% *:% #;")% @(99"6% #;"% @8)?*$'(#*8)% 8?% (% :@*")#*?*@% ?(@#D%
,C"$B% ?">% B"($:% #;"% #"@;)*R<":% @;()F"A% ()6% #;")% "C"$BH86B% >*99%
<:"% #;"% )">% #"@;)*R<":% ()6% @8)?*$'% (% )">% :"#% 8?% ?(@#:D% Y;*:% *:%
@(99"6%#;"%7$8F$"::% 8?% :@*")@"D% +;(#"C"$% 8$*F*)(9*#B% #;"$"% '(B% H"%
'<:#% H"% ;*66")% *)% #;"% @$"C*@":% 8?% ()% (99b"'H$(@*)F% @8)C")#*8)(9%
'(G":;*?#X%(%;<F"%G*#@;")%'*66")%*)%>;*@;%#;"%:<@@"::*C"%9(B"$:%8?%
:@*")#*?*@% ;(H*#(#*8)% >*99% H"% 6(#"6% "(:*9B% #;$8<F;% #;"% C($*8<:%
(77($(#<:":% ()6% 6"C*@":% ()6% #$*@G:=% ()6% "C")% '8$"% #;$8<F;% #;"%
:"C"$(9%@8)@"7#:% ()6%#"$':%()6%:98F():=% #;(#%>"$"%?(:;*8)(H9"%(#%
(%F*C")%'8'")#DVa%
It# is# a# fashion# which# makes# grading# and# ranks# more# important# than#
understanding;#it# is# a#fashion#that# allows# academics#to# even# proudly#say:#‘I# am#
actually#not#into#academic#teaching#but#what#I#am#doing#is#skills#training.’# Such#
statement#is# unfortunately#and#awkwardly#also#part# of#joint\venture#experience#
########################################################
50## Chargaff,# E.#1965.#On# Some# of# the# Biological# Consequences# of#Base\pairing#in# the# Nucleic# Acids.# In:#M.D.#Anderson#
(Ed.),# Developmental# and# Metabolic# Control# Mechanisms# and# Neoplasis.# Baltimore:# Williams# and# Wilkins,# p.# 19,#
quoted#in#Chargaff,#op#cit.#171#
–#the#experience#where#‘experts’#are#flying#around#the#world#to#teach#something#
that#can#be#taken#out#of#any#mediocre#textbook,#showing#up#in#the#balance#sheet#
as# plus# mainly# of# business\class# flights.# If# there# is# much# plus# on# the# side# of#
learning#benefits#may#be#left#as#an#open#question,#relatively#open#though.#
One#point#that#needs#to#be#mentioned#is#the#serious#danger#of#…,#let#me#call\them#
‘through\flying#missionaries’# –#and#I#mean#this#also#in#self\critical# terms,#having#
been#on#different#occasions#‘coming#to#teach#a#year#in#a#week’.#Adding#up#the#in\
class\hours#per#year#means#that#they#can#be#accommodated#in#the#time#frame#of#
one# or# two# weeks.# A# problematic# point# of# such# constellation#is# the# boredom#
effect:# listening# to# a# years# programme# within# one# week# or# so,# may# sound#
efficient,#but#in#terms#of#learning#it#is#more#the#opposite:#reducing#the#leaning#on#
a#one\sided# process.#In#most#of#the#disciplines#any# fixed#and#limited#time\frame#
is#paralysing:# as#correct#as#it#is#that#certain# basic# skills#have#to#be#learned##the#
alphabet#of#any#subject#area#–# as# true#is# that#the#reading#and#writing#emerges#
from#elaborate#speaking,#allowing#to#progressing#to#reading#and#writing.#All#this#
is# much# more# than# combining# letters# to# words# to# sentences# to# paragraphs# to#
chapters#to#books#–#a#truism#that#finds#its#pattern#in#slightly#different#forms#in#all#
subject#areas.#As#much#as#already# the#school#like#teaching#confronts#us#with#the#
dangers#of#learning#how#to#combine#letters#to#words,#without#reaching#the#ability#
to#write#a#sentence,51#as#more#it# is#a#danger#when#it# comes#to#block\teaching,#in#
particular#of#‘basics’.52#
It#is#important# to# highlight#that# this# part# of#a# much# wider# development#–# main#
universities# as# the# one# of# Vienna# cover# a# tremendously# large# part# of# the#
obligatory# teaching# by# temporary# teaching# appointments# –#increasingly#across#
all#ranks.#
Another# point# is# that# there# is# always# the# one# danger# that# had# been# implicitly#
mentioned#earlier:# lecturers# should# be# researchers,# also# together# with# the#
students# and# not# missionaries# who# lay# seeds# of# supposed# priority\knowledge#
cultivated# in# another# country.# In# academia# we# find# the# same# attraction# by# the#
########################################################
51## It#may# be#worthwhile#to#assume#that# most#‘great# English#writers’#would#probably#fail# the#‘IELTS# [which]#is#the#high\
stakes#English# test# for# study,#migration#or# work.’# (https://www.ielts.org;# 28/07/17)#while#one# may# go# even#a#step#
further#and#fear#that#machine\translations#may#pass.#
52## It#is#in#my#experience#slightly#different#when#it#comes#to#teaching#very#special#courses#on#an#‘advanced#level’#
stranger#as#it#had#been#elaborated#Georg#Simmel#in#general#terms#–#in#plain#text:#
sometimes# the# [short\term]# guest# lecturers# seem# to# be# very# attractive:#
something#special,# exotic# ….,#making# us#easily# forgetting# that#establishing# trust#
and# mutual# understanding# requires# time# and# openness# –# openness# meaning#
much# more# and# different# than# enjoying# hospitality# and# foreign# food;# and#
openness# also# meaning# something# different# than# being# hospitable# and#
presenting#the# exotic# food’.# In# my# understanding# little#is#more#enjoyable#for#an#
open# mind# than# a# dispute# during# a# nice# dinner,# exploring# difference# and#
commonality#during#a#nice#walk#–#if#you#want#the#private#tuition#side##and#also#
the# discussion# in# class,# working# and# walking# along# the# different# and# common#
backgrounds# we# all# have.# Missionaries# rarely# speak# and# understand# that#
language# #they#prefer#basking#in#’being#special,#paradoxically# loosing# their#
being# special.# There# is# so# much# in# all# the# subjects# that# goes# much# beyond# the#
standard#of#Western#textbooks,#too#often#presented#in#substandard#translations.#
#Latest#when#being#approached#after#class#by#a#prince#from#a#nomadic#tribe,#a#
teacher#of#economics#should#wake#up##this#refers#to#my#experience#when#I#had#
been# teaching# in# Budapest,# and# a# student# appreciated# what# the# curriculum#
suggested#but#said#as#well#that#it#would#not#be#applicable#for#the#economy#of#his#
country.#But#latest#means,#that#much#earlier#there#are#good#reasons#for#teachers#
of#economics,# English#language# or# anything# else# to#wake# up,# become#alert# that#
any# other# approach# is# easily# just# anther# coffin# nail# to# the# own# discipline,#
establishing# it# as# somewhat# dead# subject,# pegged# to# the# mentioned# CPL,# the#
Ceteris# Paribus# Line.# Earlier# reference# had# been# made# to# the# ‘old# Bologna,# the#
teaching#of#both,#canon#and#civil#law#which#had#been#revolutionary#for#the#time.#
And#today#it#seems#to#be#unthinkable#for#many#to#teach#Asian#and#Western#law,#
economics# and# others,# blinded# by# the# arrogance# of# hegemonic# power,#
overlooking#that#a# sustainable# development# as# matter#of#real#societal#processes#
requires#a#shift#of#thinking#that#is# comparable# with# that# of# the#beginning# of#the#
2nd#millennium.#
Two# features# are# important# from# this# recent# experience:# success# of# any# joint#
venture#has# to#be#strongly#rooted#in# the#notion#of#being#a#special#:8@*(9%:7(@"%8?%
>8$G*)F%()6%9"($)*)F=%#;"%"??8$#%8?%H<*96*)F%<7%:8'"#;*)F%)">D#One#of#the#greatest#
killers#is#probably#an#approach#that#is#based#in#the#idea#from#economics,#namely#
the# idea# of# @8'7($(#*C"% (6C()#(F"X# CA# is# rooted# in# the# idea# of# separating#
difference#and#needs#to#be#countered#by#developing#@887"$(#*C"%(6C()#(F"%t%not#
a#mater#of#pulling#together#the#one#rope#but#knitting#a#colourful#tessellation.#This#
includes# all# that# are# involved,# also# administrative# stuff,# student# reps#and#of#
course#without#saying#the#students#etc.# Sometimes# colleagues# are#of# course#the#
most# reluctant# as# any# form# of# cooperative# advantage# is# in# some# respect#
additional#work.#
The#other#point#–#in#general#and#in#such#projects#in#particular:#there#shouldn’t#be#
anything#like#‘this#is#China’#or# ‘this# is# France’,# ‘this#is# Poland’,#‘this#is#…’.#This#is#
not# meant# to# deny# difference,# perhaps# it# is# even# about# truly# acknowledging#
difference.#But#often#clics#are#used#as#escapes#and#excuses:#‘I/We#cannot#do#
anything.# That# is# China,# Germany,# Italy,# France# …# .’#Equally#relevant#is#in#this#
context# the# notion# of# superlatives# #not#in#the#sense#of#excellence#but#in#the#
understanding#of#any#kind#of#exceptionalism.#
All#this#can#also#mean#that#it#is#necessary#to#go#beyond#the#fascination#of#the#new#
and#exotic,#to#go#beyond#the#easily#enjoyable#sides#and#to#engage#in#the#effort#of#
truly#understanding#…#and#of# course#in#communication\avers#circles#as#they#are#
typical# for# academics,# this# is# difficult# to# reach.# In# educational# and# research#
systems# where# reading# is# about# gathering# information,# not# about# exploration#
and#reflection# they# are# unlikely# to#emerge##.#It#may#be#worthwhile#to#mention#
that#such#communication\avers#attitude#is#surely#to#some#extent#emerging#from#
structural#conditions#as#the#specific#mechanisms#of#competition,#workload#etc.#.#
But#equally#relevant#is#the#extreme#individualism##probably#caused#by#a#kind#of#
resignation,#feeling#a#too#small# being#on#the#shoulders#of#giant,#and#its#opposite,#
namely# a# kind# of# arrogance# emerging# from# the# fact# of# ‘being# colleague’# of# =#
somewhat#on#the#same#level#with# Aristotle,# Bohr,# Curie,#Hawkin,#Keynes,#Marx,#
Pasteur,#Socrates,#Watson,#Zhang#Heng.#
VIII.&
…#
Seen#in#this#light#the#suggested#escalator#effect##translating#Fahrstuhleffekt,#as#it#
was#suggested#as#topic#by#Ulrich#Beck,#literally#–#may#well#be#pulling#us#all#down#
–# perhaps# this# is# the# implicit# suggestion# of# the# commonly# used# translation# for#
Fahrstuhleffekt:#trickle# down# effect,#leaving# all# of#us,# at# least#the# vast# majority,#
picking#from#the#horse#droppings##and#as#one#or#the#other#may#remember#from#
what#Wassily#Leontief#wrote,#
#;"%$89"%8?%;8$:":% *)% (F$*@<9#<$(9% 7$86<@#*8)% >(:% ?*$:#% 6*'*)*:;"6%
()6%#;")%"9*'*)(#"6%HB%#;"%*)#$86<@#*8)%8?%#$(@#8$:DVh%
So,#the#equation#is#simple:#
Number#of#previous#working#horses#reduced#and#finally#eliminated,#
most#ending#at#the#knackers#
few#ending#fist#subservient#in#the#stables#of#the#old#nobility,#
then#ascending#itself#as#new#nobility#
sharing#at#the#most#amongst#themselves#in#their#gated#communities#
and,# while# themselves# fattening,# still# leaving# fewer# droppings# for# the#
many#standing#outside#the#gates.#
Sure,#you#may#also#call#it#Brazilianisation,#analyse#in#all#the#detail#the#distribution#
of#the#‘second\hand# oats’# etc.##the#danger,#of#course,#being#that# you# end#up#as#
stable#boy,# the# glamorous# uniform# accommodating#also# some# invisible#pockets#
for#the#fragrance,#taking#away#the#acrimonious#stable#smell.#
But#in#terms#of#education#and#the#demeaning#of#education#we#find#patterns#that#
are#well#known#and#observed#already#for#a#long#time.#So,#if#we#turn#for#instance#
to# page# 152# f.# of# Schumpeter’s# best#known#work#–# on# \(7*#(9*:'=% 08@*(9*:'% |%
08@*(9*:'Vm%t%we# can# find# a# passage,# of# which# the# reader# hopefully# accepts# the#
lengthy#quote:#
W*$:#=% *)(:'<@;% (:% ;*F;"$% "6<@(#*8)% #;<:% *)@$"(:":% #;"% :<779B% 8?%
:"$C*@":% *)% 7$8?"::*8)(9=% R<(:*b7$8?"::*8)(9% ()6% *)% #;"% ")6% (99%
########################################################
53## Leontief,#Wassily,#1983:#National#Perspective:#The#Definition#of#Problems#and#Opportunities;#in:#National#Academy#of#
Engineering:# The# Long\Term# Impact# of# Technology# on# Employment# and# Unemployment;# Washington:# National#
Academy#Press:#3\7;#here:#4#
54## quoted#from#the#Routledge\e\book#version,#edited#by#Richard#Swedberg:#152#f.#
q>;*#"@899($r% 9*)":% H"B8)6% #;"% 78*)#% 6"#"$'*)"6% HB% @8:#b$"#<$)%
@8):*6"$(#*8):=% *#% '(B% @$"(#"% (% 7($#*@<9($9B% *'78$#()#% @(:"% 8?%
:"@#*8)(9% <)"'798B'")#D% 0"@8)6=% (98)F% >*#;% 8$% *)% 79(@"% 8?% :<@;%
<)"'798B'")#=% *#% @$"(#":% <):(#*:?(@#8$B% @8)6*#*8):% 8?%
"'798B'")#c"'798B'")#% *)% :<H:#()6($6% >8$G% 8$% (#% >(F":%
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It#is#another# formulation# of#what#had#been# referred# to#earlier#as# the# fashion# of#
dogma#and# the# prevailing# of# ‘models’# as# symptomatic# expression# for# a# limited#
rationality.# As# I# stated# metaphorically# in# a# mail# to# a# Hungarian# colleague# and#
friend,#commenting#on#the#Chargaff\book:#
0#*99=% .% ?*)6% *#% $"'($G(H9"=% '")#*8)*)F% :8% '()B% *::<":% >"% ($"%
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98)F% *)#"99"@#<(9% 6"C"987'")#% t% (% 78*)#% .% ('% ?$"R<")#9B%
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;"($%I#86(BK%o=%8$X%I>"99=%*)%#;"%896%6(B:KD%g8%)8#%F"#%'"%>$8)F=%.%68%
)8#% #;*)G% #;(#% )8#;*)F% @;()F"6% ()6% #;(#% "C"$B#;*)F% *:% #;"% :('"%
>;"$"C"$% >"% F8D% 0#*99=% .% #;*)G% #;"$"% *:% (% @"$#(*)% I;*:#8b98F*@(9%
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")9*F;#")'")#% HB% >(B% 8?% (% d()#% >*#;8<#% ;*:% $*F*6% 6(*9B% >(9G*)F%
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)8#%(*'*)F%8)% @<##*)F% #;*)F:% *)#8% :'(99"$%()6%:'(99"$%7*"@":% H<#%
#;(#%*:%(*'*)F%8)%<)6"$:#()6*)F%@8'79"Z*#*":D%
And#I#also#wrote,#somewhat#concluding:#
%.#% *:% (9:8% :8'"#;*)F% 8)% >;*@;% .% #$*"6% #8% I@8'H% 'B% #;8<F;#:K% #;"%
8#;"$%6(B%
referring#to#the#blog\post#under#the#heading#‘Which#means?’55#
It#is#the#returning# issue# of# hegemony#which#is#difficult#to#understand#and#even#
more#intricate#is#any#attempt# to# burst# its#limiting,# strangulating#effects#without#
########################################################
55## https://williamthompsonucc.wordpress.com/2017/07/26/which\means/#
establishing# a# counter\hegemony# for# the# ‘missionary\lecturers’.# #Personally,#I#
enjoyed#the#respect# demonstrated# by# :#<6")#:% t% not#so#much#respecting#me#but#
the# situation,# our# communication,# or# even:# respecting# the# engagement# in# a#
situation# from# which# always# something# new# emerged,# so# enjoyably#
distinguished#from#gatherings,#where#one#wonders# why# @899"(F<":% are# not#able#
to#join#into#meetings# without# permanently# checking#the#phone#for#messages#or#
even#making#phone#calls#that#can#well#be#made#at#any#other#time.#And#of#course,#
there#is#only#a#fine#line#between#this#
real#respect#of#personalities,#not#persons#
real#respect#of#communicative#action,#not#task\defined#processes#
responsibility#towards#reaching#goals,#not#the#commitment#to#fulfil#plans#
responsibility#towards#an# overall# vision,#not#the# fear# of# consequences#in#
legally#defined#frameworks.#
#Lack# of# respect# # respect# of# the# other# person,# the# communication# about# and#
confrontation#with#a#topic#….?#One#may#indeed#go#so#far#and#provocatively#state#
that#today,#during#the#era#of#eclipsed#reason#we#know#indeed#in#communication#
with#many#colleagues#already#in#advance#topics#and#contributions##all#protected#
within# the# caves,# be# they# small# or# large.# What# a# difference# to# the# mentioned#
situations#of#engaging#with#students#[if#they#dare#to#be#students,#not#accepting#
the#attributed#role#of#birds#with#wings# clipped# by# careerism#and# evidencialism,#
instead:#talking#understood#as#engaging#in#the#exploration#of#something#new.#
#Shouldn’t#we#also#take#this#as#thought\provoking#when#we#ventilate#our#ideas#
about##students,#in#class##often# distracted# by#the# ‘static#world# of#mobile# phones#
and#virtual#communication’,#outside#of#class#engaged#in#issues#that#are##despite#
of#all#alienation##still#real#life,#lively,#fully#acknowledging#the#PÁNTA#RÊI.?#
Looking# at# the# hegemonic# structure,#we#should#look#for#the#real#culprits#of#a#
system# that# ‘just# slows# us# all# down’# as# the# subtitle# of# a# little# piece# written# by#
Terry#Eagleton#suggests.56#
########################################################
56## see# Eagleton,# Terry,# July#2013:#Why#I#never#use# email.# The# Internet# just# slows# us# all# down;#in#Prospect# Magazine;#
https://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/magazine/terry\eagleton\email\internet;#28/07/17#
IX.&
Coming#back#to#Keynes#we# read# in# the# same# foreword# #what#captures#also#the#
writing#of#the#present#reflections:#
Y;"%>$*#"$%8?%(%H88G%:<@;%(:%#;*:=%#$"(6*)F%(98)F%<)?('*9*($%7(#;:=%
*:% "Z#$"'"9B% 6"7")6")#% 8)% @$*#*@*:'% ()6% @8)C"$:(#*8)% *?% ;"% *:% #8%
(C8*6% ()% <)6<"% 7$878$#*8)% 8?% '*:#(G":D% .#% *:% (:#8)*:;*)F% >;(#%
?889*:;% #;*)F:% 8)"% @()% #"'78$($*9B% H"9*"C"% *?% 8)"% #;*)G:% #88% 98)F%
(98)"=% 7($#*@<9($9B% *)% "@8)8'*@:% Q(98)F% >*#;% #;"% 8#;"$% '8$(9%
:@*")@":M=% >;"$"% *#% *:% 8?#")% *'78::*H9"% #8% H$*)F% 8)"J:% *6"(:% #8% (%
@8)@9<:*C"%#":#%"*#;"$%?8$'(9%8$%"Z7"$*'")#(9D%
I#think# it# covers#as# well# a#large# trunk#of# those# issues#that# we# are#facing# –# cum#
grano#salis:#the#paths# suggested# are# not#unfamiliar##but#it#is#still#unfamiliar#to#
talk#publicly# about# them,#actually#aiming# in# an#open#public# discourse.# It#is#also#
concerning#the#awareness#that#the#thinking#in#isolation,#as#Keynes#mentions,#has#
another# dimension:# the# dimension# of# isolating# single# issues.# Talking# about#
bureaucratisation,# commodification,# changing# student# cohorts,# raking# systems,#
structures# of# communication,# political# interests# etc.,# happening# here# and# now,#
not# being# part# of# a# long# historical# and# truly# global# process# of# world# history#is#
easily#distracting#attention#from#the#underlying#fundamental#issues#that#function#
as#kind#of# Bed# of# Procrustes#of#which#the#fetters#can#only#be#broken#when#they#
are#undestood.#Other#proposals,#those# suggesting# engineering# solutions# tend#to#
forget#that#in#some#way#we#never#left#singularity,#and#we#are##instead##creating#
every# single# moment,# with# every# single# act# little# socio\economic# and# socio\
political#big#bangs’:#the#creation#of#small#worlds,#small#environs:#socio\bio\topes#
…#
There# was# a# general# reason# for# referring# to# Keynes# again.# There# are# good#
reasons#to#suggest#that#we,#in#academia,#should#stick#to#what#we#know#about,#the#
fields#of#expertise.#But#equally#true#is#that#referring#to#giants#on#whose#shoulders#
we# stand# # today# we# would# say# high\ranking# experts# # we# should# also# realise#
that# they# did# not# necessarily# go# the# smooth# path# as# it# is# today# the# standard#
blueprint# for# success.# This# also# means# that# those# colleagues# usually# had# been#
outstanding#not#because# of# the#knowledge#in# specific# disciplines;#it#is#often# the#
other# way# round:# they# had# been# ‘great# thinkers’# in# general,# and# this# allowed#
them#also#to#excel#in#their#subject#area.#
Should# we# go# a# step# further?# Often# these# colleagues# had# been# able# to#
communicate# in# the# true# understanding,# not# allowing# to# be# disciplined# by# the#
subject#area# of#expertise#and#not#allowing#career#requirements#chastising#them,#
i.e.#turning# their#‘excellence’# into#some# form#of# reproductive# non\think#pieces’#
and#requiring#their#students#to#be#briefcase\carriers##cultivating#
#;"%;*F;b:7""6%6$(?#%8?%*)?8$'(9%$()G:%()6%?*9":%
7877*)F%<7%9*G"%'($*8)"##":=%#;"%:#$*)F:%H"*)F%<:"6%#8%'8C"%#;"%
'8<#;%?8$%:7"(G*)F%o%8$%?8$%#B*)F%<7%#;"%#8)F<"D%
It# surely# is# remarkable# –# in# academia# and# beyond# –#with#how#little#
communication#today’s#communication\societies#get#along.#Referring#a#last#time#
to#Chargaff,#presenting#his#thoughts#in#the#imagination#of#an#interview.#
CCX%&(C"%B8<%"C"$%>*#)"::"6%(%'*$(@9"u%
,\X% -8A% "Z@"7#% #;(#% 8)"% @()% H"@8'"% (% F$"(#% '()% *)% #;*:% >8$96%
>*#;8<#%;(C*)F%;(6%(%:*)F9"%#;8<F;#%*)%#;"%;"(6DV[%
And#it# is#a#miracle#that#goes#hand# in#hand#with#another#one,#today# one#can#be#a#
great#communicator#without#engaging#in#any#meaningful#discourse.#
But,#finally,#academic#settings#are#not#solely#about#the#giant’s#shoulders#but#also#
about#the#fertile#ground:#the#many#academics#who,#by#their#meticulous#work# on#
small#patches#erect#the#scaffold#that#allows#giants#to#stand#upright.#
Finale&
Looking#back# …#I#started#writing#these#lines#with#the#intention#of# providing#few#
comments#that#allow#assessing#the#remainder#of#the#document,#namely#reports#I#
had#been#asked#to#write#or#wrote#on#my#own#behalf:#drawer\reports#perhaps#as#
they# probably# find# at# most# limited# forum# for# reflection# and# discussion# –#
########################################################
57## Chargaff,#op.cit.:#205#
admittedly#an#assumption#only,#based#on#experience#I#gained#from#earlier#works#
#and# often# accompanied# by# another# assumption:# there# are# some# ‘clandestine’#
readers,#as# there#had# been# some# clandestine# listeners#and# supporters#crossing#
on#different#occasions#my#path#also#during#the#last#years#and#decades#–#e.g.#those#
who#came#after#Departmental#meetings,#meetings#with#the#European#integration#
bodies#Commission#etc.#to#me,#saying:#I1":=%#;(#%>(:%%$"(99B%*'78$#()#%78*)#=%F886%
#;(#% B8<% :(*6% *#DK% A# strange# merger# of# opportunisms#and#potential#‘anti\
hegemonists’.#
#Well,#I#wrote#in#those#reports#and#the#forgoing#lines#what#I#felt#obliged#to#write#
and#I#know#that#at#least#some#of#the#students#appreciated#the#reflections##and#in#
any#case#it# is# better# to# write# than#to#suffocate.#Then,#writing#these#introductory#
remarks#meant#not#least# opening# doors# for#distraction##trusting#the#thesaurus#
that# is# only# a# click# with# the#mouse# button# away# distractions# are# about#
*)#"$$<7#*8)=%6*:$<7#*8)=% @8''8#*8)=% 6*:#<$H()@"=%6*C"$:*8)=%")#"$#(*)'")#=%;8HHB=%
7(:#*'"=% 9"*:<$"% (@#*C*#B=% ('<:"'")#D% One# of# the# main# doors:# the# door# opening#
towards##also#personal#–#history#and#histories,#seeing# the# differences# between#
the#own#diploma#and#doctorate#and#membership#of#an#academy,#standing#side#by#
side# with# today’s# BAs,# MAs,# PhDs# and# professional# bodies;# the# own# political#
activities#then# and# there## and# also#today,# and# witnessing#the# ‘new# societies’#–#
already#in# Ireland#the#students#union#and#the#clubs#always#remained#somewhat#
alien,#and#the#glimpses#I#could#make#in#today’s#China#…#.#
Another# main\door# opening# to# non\teaching# matters,# to# matters# outside# of#
university#and# to#disciplines# that#are# alien#to# me.# Some# of# the# doors# had# been#
easily#distracting# and# I#immediately#fell#into#the#trap#–# if# you#want#to#see#it#this#
way:# as# resisting# or# even# opposing# the# disciplinary# procedures# of# academia,#
some#of#the#doors#I#only#peeped#through#in#passing.#This#justifies#the#eclectic#and#
diffuse#presentation,#though#it#is#easy#to#detect#the#methodology#behind#it.#
And#as# much# excitement#there#is# in# exploring#difference,#juggling# with# the#we’#
and# ‘they’,# defining# the# commonalties# and# ventilating# what# is# genuine,# what#
superposed,#what#is# inveterate# and# what#elusive#…#there# emerges# one# very#old#
and#one# may# say#platonic#feature# in# front#of#my# inner# eyes,#so#often# looked# at,#
and# increasingly# gaining# meaning# –# perhaps# the# meaning# of# a# more# or# less#
relentless# even# anthroponomical#and#anthropological# parameter:# the# pattern#
Plato#captures#in#his#work#‘Republic’,#presenting#the#allegory#of#the#cave.#
If# I# stated# that# it# possibly# has# the# meaning# of# a# more# or# less# relentless,# even#
anthroponomical# and# anthropological# parameter,# it# surely# has# to# be# qualified.#
The#reference#made#earlier#to#alienation#is#hugely#relevant:#academic#work,#be#it#
in#teaching#or#researching#–#and#this#is#what# we# all# do,# summarised# by#the# one#
term:#studying,#being# scholars# –#is#increasingly#alienated.# And# of#course,#this#is#
hugely#paradoxical:#the#metaphor#used#for#the#olden#times:#‘universities#as#ivory#
tower’,#detached#from#the#real#world,#apparently#needs#to#be#reversed:#ordinary#
daily#life#in#societies#that#are#facing#massive#problems# that# need# to# be# resolved#
now,# promptly# and# without# any# impediment,# acts# like# a# body# snatcher,# so#
enthrallingly# elucidated# in# Wise’s# film.# The# correct# turn:# academia# being#
responsible#to#society,#paradoxically# ended# as# a#crash#course,#for#a#very# simple#
reason,#borrowing#the#words#from#Adorno’s#e*)*'(%e8$(9*(XV{#
Y;"$"%*:%)8%$*F;#%9*?"%*)%#;"%>$8)F%8)"D%
Applied#here,#by#transforming#it#into#the#statement#
#;"$"%@())8#%H"%()B%:8@*"#(9%*)#"F$(#*8)%8?%:@*")@"%*)#8%(%
6*:*)#"F$(#*)F=%;*F;9B%*$$(#*8)(9%:8@*"#BD%
And#looking#at#China#as#PRC#–#this#may#bring#us#to#the#second#point#–#it#may#not#
least#be# a#matter# of# re\entering#the# cave,# following#the# dominant#path# and# not#
exploring#what#can#really# be# captured# and#developed# when#entering#a#space#of#
exchange# and# innovation# and# communication,# stemming# itself# against# new#
missionaries#of#global#capitalism.#
Finally,#this,# and# only#this#can# be# understood#as#the# genuinely# true#meaning# of#
leaving#the#ivory#tower:#social#existence,#again:#understood#as#
()% 8<#@8'"% 8?% #;"% *)#"$(@#*8)% H"#>"")% 7"879"% Q@8):#*#<#"6% (:%
(@#8$:M%()6%#;"*$%@8):#$<@#"6%()6%)(#<$(9%")C*$8)'")#D%.#:%:<Hf"@#%
########################################################
58## http://monkeybear.info/MinimaMoralia_Full.pdf;#13/07/17#
'(##"$%$"?"$:%#8%7"879"K:%*)#"$$"9(#"6%7$86<@#*C"%()6%$"7$86<@#*C"%
$"9(#*8):;*7:DV_%
And)that)gives)us)the)right)and)even)obliges)to)be)even)annoyed)when)coming)
across)people)who)are)not)able)and)willing)to)answer)questions)others)have,)
or)to)defend)contested)positions)–)the)other)side)of)hedonism)is:)there)is)no)
such)thing)as)society)because)society)is)also)potentially)challenging)and)
contradictory.)
‘There)is)no)right)life)in)the)wrong)one.’60)
Only)Schroedinger’s)cat)has)the)unique)right)to)exist)in)several)states)of)
matter)–)but)that)depends)on)the)one)ultimate)reason:)the)state)of)
impossibility.)Turning)this)around)means)that)we)have)to)search)for)real)
utopias:)the)cat)that)likes)living)because)it)is)allowed)to)live)as)cat.)
****
########################################################
59## van#der#Maesen,#Laurent#J.G./Walker,#Alan,#2012:#Social#Quality#and#Sustainability;#in:#van#der#Maesen/Walker#(eds.),#
2012:#Social#Quality.#From#Theory#to#Indicators:#Basingstoke:#Palgrave#Macmillan:#250\274;#here:#260#
60## from#Adorno’s#Minima#Moralia;#excerpt#on#http://wp.me/p1qrWe\EA;#28/07/17#
II.&
Report&to&students&–&after&the&course&and&after&marking&the&final&exam&
papers&[joint&venture]&academic&year&2015/2016&
Dear#all,#just#a#few# words# ‘at# the# end’#of#this#academic#year#–#please#take# some#
time#to#read#the#following.#
In#the#overall# perspective# I# am#happy#with# having# been# allowed#to#teach# you# –#
recently# I# also# stated# this# publicly# in# an# interview# I# had# been# asked# to# give#
(http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MzA5NjUxMTAyMA==&mid=2650107837&i
dx=1&sn=323ea280b88fe283920a3c8732dc0750&scene=1&srcid=0618DMpqe
V0Eh1dPxUBxTgaa&from=groupmessage&isappinstalled=0;#it#is#also#on#my#blog#
at#https://williamthompsonucc.wordpress.com).#
Saying#overall’#means#that# there# had# been#surely#some#issues#that# actually# put#
me#off.#And#you#–#those#concerned#–#will#know#what#I#am#talking#about:#playing#
with#the# mobile#phones# during#class,# chatting#and# other#ways# of#disrespecting#
your#classmates.#Mind,#I#am# not# talking# about#disrespecting#me#–#I#am# more# or#
less# unimportant# in# this# entire# game# –# you# are# the# important# ones.# You# all#
entered# a# new# world’,# the# university.# I# am# well# aware# of# the# challenges# this#
means#–#and#I#just#submitted#a#report#to#the#responsible#bodies#of#[joint#venture]#
taking# up# on# some# issues,#issues#which# emerged# from# talking# to# some# of# you#
individually.#And#not#least,#I#am#also#well#aware#that#I#could#have#done#better#in#
several#instances,# despite# excuses#like#large# classes,# pressure#from# …university#
which#I#could#not#escape#etc.##There#would#have#been#ways#to#make#some#of#the#
stuff# more# interesting,# and# there# had# been# also# some# loopholes# which# I#
overlooked;# I# could# have# used# them# to# do# what# I# want# and# still# fulfil# the#
requirements# of# British# QA.# –# At# least# the# report# and# some# earlier# discussions#
had#been#already#in#some#ways#‘heard’,#timer#will#show#if#they#are#listened#to.#
Now,# for# your# consideration,# and# I# continue# with# the# matter# of# respect#
mentioned# earlier.# When# it# comes# to# exams# or# on# other# occasions,# make# sure#
that#exam#papers#and#any#other#submissions#should#be#legible##it#is#not#about#a#
beauty# contest,# where# everything# has# to# be# neatly# presented.# But# at# least# it#
should# be# presented# in# a# way# that# is# accessible.# E.g.:# it# is# not# wrong# to# strike#
something#through# #but#do#it#in#such#a#way#that#there#is#not# just# a#set# of# two#
words#that#is#still#relevant.#Or:#there#wrong#to#add#something#‘on#the#last#page’#–#
but#then#let#the#reader#know#on#page#2#continued#on#page#7.#It#is#respecting#the#
reader/teacher##and#it#is#also#respecting#yourself.#
Ask,#use#the#classes#for#your#development#–#teaching,#as#matter#of#lecturing,#is#a#
somewhat#lonely# job’,#as# much# is# learning# individually.#Not# all#colleagues# may#
agree# with# me,# but# in# my# opinion# a# university# is# a# space# we# have# to# develop#
together.# Learning# is# very# much# about# cooperation.# This# means# studying#
together#and#this#means#as#well:#challenge#us,#the#teachers.#
When# I# went# through# the# exam# papers,# one# very# common# problem# was# the#
wording#of#questions#and#answers#–#in#particular#in#the#case#of#the#AGGREGATE#
DEMAND#question.#Aggregate#demand#is#more#than#the#‘summation#of#individual#
acts# of# demand’.# It# is# a# bit# difficult# to# comprehend# but# important.# In# any# case,#
look#at#exactly#the#wording#of#all#questions#and#the#entire#question,#and#consider#
this#thoroughly#in#your#reply.#
Another#point#is# about# connections;# this# was# in# particular# with# the# SUPPLY#
VERSUS#DEMAND#SIDE\question.#When#we#talked#in#class#about#Say#and#Keynes#
[not# about# J.B.# and# J.M.#;\)],# the# one# central# point# was# about# the# emphasis# of#
supply# in# the# one# case,# and# demand# in# the# other# case.# The# other# central# point#
was#about# the#reason#behind#this#different#orientation:#Say#elaborated#his# ideas#
in#a#setting#that#was#in#some#ways#characterised#by#full#employment.#It#had#been#
a#setting#where#demand#seemed#to#be#without#limits.#However,#Keynes#reflected#
a# changed# situation.# Demand# could# not# be# taken# for# granted.# On# the# contrary,#
development#was#characterised#by#the#frequent#and#systematic#re\occurrence#of#
diminishing#demand.#I#addition,#there#had#not#been#any#way#out#(like#‘exporting#
the# crisis’).# THIS# brought# him# to# the# conclusion,# that# there# is# no# automatism#
between# supply# followed# by# demand.# And# he# also# new# about# competition:# for#
Say,# competition# existed# to# a# large# extent,# only# little# disturbed# by# monopolies#
and# oligopolies# (though# they# had# been# known# and# looked).# For# Keynes,# the#
situation#was#different:#competition#did#not#exist##and#even#anti\trust#laws#were#
futile.# This# was# one# reason# behind# his# thoughts# # but# it# was# not# just# about#
politics.#It# was# also#the#‘simple’# economic# settings#that# could# easily#be#put# into#
some#basic#equations.#
Then,#be#concise:#This#means#to#limit#yourself#on#what#is#asked#for.#I#do#not#mean#
‘don’t# write# so# much’.# I# mean,# write# about# what# is# relevant,# don’t# throw#every#
single# term,# you# learned,# into# the# answer.# # Sure,# having# said# this,# at# the# end#
everything#plays#a#role’#–#but#leave#that#for#the#first#book#you#may#write#…,#your#
PhD#perhaps#in#a#few#years.#
Also,#you#may# come# to#the#conclusion#that# you# learned#something#that#you# did#
not# expect:# you# may# have# learned# that# this# subject# ‘is# not# for# you.# There# is#
nothing#wrong# with#it#–#we#are# not#all#the#same#and#we# have#different#interests#
and#different#strength.#Mind,#however:#there#is#nothing#wrong#saying#I#change.#
But#also:#Economics#is#only#one#part#of#the#overall#studies#–#and#you#may#like#the#
others#and#you#may#do#them#with#ease#–#so#don’t#throw#easily#the#baby#out#with#
the# bathing# water.# This# means# as# well,# finish# this# course# over# the# 4# years# and#
then#you#may#think# about# changing,# exploring# something# new.# Never# think# that#
there#is#any#‘end’.#
There#is#also# something# else# linked#to#it.# Several# issues# you#heard##and#which#
you# possibly# did# not# understand# (fully)# #are#part#of#a#large#picture#that#is#
emerging.#It#is#also#for#me#interesting#when#I#am#teaching.#I#come#back#to#issues,#I#
understand#them#better#or#in#a#different#way.#Learning#takes#time##ad#it#takes#a#
long#time#and#indeed#there#is#no#end,#even#if#it#is#about#some#basis#issues.#
Not#least,#and#you#are#probably#especially#interested#in#this,#a#remark#concerned#
with#the#marks.#I#tried#to#be#honest#(and#I#do#not#doubt#that#all#lecturers#did#so).#
Looking# at# the# overall# marks# I# saw# that# especially# those# for# .)#$86<@#*8)%#8%
,@8)8'*@:%are#–#in#relative#terms#–#low.#This#is#a#complex#issue,#part#of#it#is#that#
my# marking# is# influenced# by# different# national# backgrounds.# In# a# nutshell# you#
may# say# that# I# am# a# ‘hard# marker’.# The# other# part:# the# questions# had# been#
admittedly#difficult#to#answer#–#so#always#consider#‘jumping#across#a#molehill’#is#
much#easier#than#climbing#up# a# high# mountain’.#This#is#also#due#to#the#fact#that#
this# kind# of# economics# is# about# more# than# simple# equations:# it# is# about#
understanding#connections#and#learning#about#contexts.#
Finally,# accept# that# you# are# adult,# mature# …# –#if#anybody#tells#you#otherwise,#
prove#them#wrong.#It# means# to# enjoy# the# entire# width# and# wealth# of# life#–#from#
Y;"% i*##9"% !$*)@"=% reading# n<)F9"% H88G:% and# also# enjoying# contemplating# the#
wealth#of#the#national#and#global#heritage,#while#climbing#up#one#of#the#stunning#
mountains# or# playing# basket# ball,# the# violin# or# the# guitar# …,# listening# to# what#
comes#W$8'%#;"%-">%+8$96D#
You#attended#different#classes#and#courses,#and#there#are#several#subjects#about#
which#I#do#not#know#anything.#But#looking#at#i"($)*)F%0G*99:=%,@8)8'*@:%and#i(>%
(the#three#subjects#I#had#been#in#one#way#of#another#dealing#with)#and#your#work#
I#think#most#of#you#should#be#proud#about#the#progress#you#made,#and#I#am#glad#
if#I#could#be#a#little#bit#of#assistance.#
As#said#at#some#stage,# as#long#as#I#am#here,#I#will#be#happy#to# meet#you#and#you#
are#welcome#to#visit#me#or#some#questions#you#may#have,#or#just#for#a#chat.#
Thank#you##as#far#as#we#go#different#ways:#good#luck#to#you#on#your#way;#as#far#
as#we#move#a#bit#further#on#the#same#ground,#nice#to#seeing#you#again,#
#
III:&
Report&–&Introduction&to&Economics&–&[joint venture]&academic&year&
2015/2016&
.)#$86<@#8$B%$"'($G%
!$":")#"6%($"%:8'"%H$*"?%@8):*6"$(#*8):%(?#"$%#"(@;*)F%8)%#;"%:<Hf"@#%"@8)8'*@:=%
>;*@;%@8''")@"6%#;*:%(@(6"'*@%B"($D%/99%#;"%@8):*6"$(#*8):%($"%'"()#%#8%H"%?8$%
6*:@<::*8)D%e()B%8?%#;"'%@8)@"$)%*::<":%#;(#%($"%#B7*@(9%?8$%#;*$6%9"C"9%"6<@(#*8)%
#86(B%8)%(%F98H(9%9"C"9D%/9:8=%#;"%*::<":%'")#*8)"6%68%)8#%@9(*'%#8%7$8C*6"%()%
"Z;(<:#*C"%$"?9"@#*8)D%.)%()B%@(:"=%*::<":%#;(#%($"%8?%*''"6*(#"%@8)@"$)%>;")%*#%
@8'":%#8%#;"%'86<9"=%)""6%#8%H"%$"?9"@#"6%*)%#;"%>*6"$%7"$:7"@#*C"%>;*@;%*:%H$*"?9B%
8<#9*)"6D%Y;"%$"'($G:%(779B%@<'%F$()8%:(9*:%(9:8%#8%#;"%9"@#<$"%()6%"::(B%>8$G%8)%
9"($)*)F%:G*99:D%
4")"$(9X%
In# general# I# see# the# project# as# one# that# established# a# sound# foundation# for# its#
further# development.# I# would# wish# to# see# more# mutual# stimulation# in# some#
respect.#It#is#obvious#that#the#learning#potential#is#not#utilised#to#its#full#capacity.#
Issues# that# can# be# mentioned# are# the# need# to# enhance# the# communication#
amongst# lecturers,# also# across# the# different# overall# subjects# (namely#
Finance/Accounting).#This#includes#exchange#between#colleagues#in#the#different#
locations.# This# also# includes# considering# how# to# enhance# cooperation# with# the#
English# language# teachers.# Important# is# –# from# my# experience# –#to#provide#as#
much# as# possible# open# spaces,# “guided# project# studies”# for# the# students#
(workshops,#small#supervised#project#work,#film#club#…).#Part#of#the#latter# is# to#
strengthen#the#role#and#function#of#the#tutorials.#
Enhancing# this# mutuality# and# cohesiveness# could# actually# well# be# enhanced# –#
amongst#others#–#by#a#general#opening#lecture#that#addresses#the#challenges#and#
opportunities# of# being# part# of# the# university,# events# that# support# mutual#
understanding#(as#for#instance#the#event#with#the#student#reps#from#…#university#
–#though#things# do# not# necessarily# require# major#investment)#and#the#like.#Also#
relevant#could#be#the# introduction# of# a# propaedeuticum# as# general# introduction#
into#academic#thinking#(surely#not#to#be#confused#with#“Learning#Skills”#courses#
or#the#like).#
/6'*)*:#$(#*8)%
In#general#the#cooperation#with#admin#staff#was#very#supportive#and#friendly#–#in#
some# cases# there# had# been# misunderstandings,# also# as# matter# of# different#
“cultures”# #for#instance# short\term# notices# where# matters# could# have# been#
communicated#earlier.#
It# seems# that# CSFUT\central# administration# is# not# s# supportive# as# it# would# be#
liked#when#it#comes#to#dealing#with#issues#as#for#instance#the#timely#(re\)issuing#
of#documents,#and#dealing#with#some#financial#issues.#This#is#in#particular#unfair#
towards# colleagues# from# [joint# venture]\administration# as# they# are# left# sitting#
between#the#chairs.#
In#a#similar#vein#of#communication,#it#should# be# clear# that# clarity# is#given# to#all#
communication.#This#includes#for# instance# the# language# issue:# if#QQ\#or#WeChat#
is# used# for# communicating# relevant# issues,# it# should# be# in# English# language,#
unless#comprehension#of#Chinese#language#is#expected#from#all#staff.#
Blackboard,# if# meant# to# be# used,# has# to# be# up# to# standard.# This# is# about#
technological#questions#but#also#about#sufficient#back#up#and#support##perhaps#
somebody#at# the#central#CSFUT#computer#department# should#take#over#the#role#
of#providing#technical#support.#
On#different#occasions#it#had#been#important#that#it#was#possible#to#rely#on#the#
support#of#the#Deputy#Dean#of#…#from#..,#namely#Prof.#…#
0<Hf"@#%
It#would# be# advisable# if# ,#as# part# of#,# considers#developing# a# vanguard#role.#
The# sequence# in# which# economics# is# taught# today# is# more# than# questionable,#
following# an# outdated# separation# of# micro\# and# macroeconomics# and# making#
things#worse# by#putting#micro\economics#at#the#beginning.# This#topic#is#already#
on#the#wider# agenda.# Personal#communication#with# and# also#public#statements#
by#colleagues#like#Paul#Krugman,#Amartya#Sen,#James#Galbraith,#Yanis#Varoufakis#
(to#name#but#a#few)#clearly#show#that#the#critique#has#to#be#taken#up#as#matter#of#
taking# responsibility# in# a# changing# world.# And# the# conceded# failure# of# the#
requirements#by#IMF#and#WB#(see#e.g.#various#statements#by#Christine#Lagarde)#
underlines#this#from# another# side.# Furthermore,#several#student#initiatives# also#
point# into# this# direction,# asking# for# changes# of# curricula# or# establishing# self\
organised#complementing#and#alternative#settings#for#studying.#
Leaving#these#general#statements#aside,#it#is#in#particular#in#a#country#like#China#
of# utmost# importance,# not# least# as# matter# of# teaching.# The# teaching# of#
mainstream# and# standard# micro\economics# at# the# beginning# does# not# help#
students# to# understand# economics.# Learning# is# successful# where# it# can# be#
reduced#on# the#learning# of# formulas# and# equations,# and# fails#where# it#is# about#
more#complex#issues#and#relational#processes.##A#change#in#this#respect,#in#which#
such#project#as# [joint# venture]#can#truly#earn#additional#merits,#means# not# least#
to#learn# all#kinds# of#economics# in# their# meaning# for#the# huge#changes# that# are#
going#on.# As#such#it#would#also# open#space#for#developing#teaching# and#at#some#
stage# research# towards# an# approach# that# is# driven# by# true# commitment# to#
innovation#and#mutual#learning#and#cooperation.#
Available#teaching#material,#books,#space#for#students#is#an#issue#that#needs#to#be#
addressed.# I# am# not# aware# of# all# the# relevant# issues# involved.# However,# I# had#
been#made# aware#of# some#relevant# issues#by# students.#Apparently# one#central#
issue#is#about#the#availability#of#spaces#for#quiet#individual#studying#and#also#for#
group#work.#Another# issue# is#–#seen# from# my# side##the#availability#of#learning#
material.# Looking# at# the# books# in# the# [joint#venture]#library/resource#centre,#
there#are#mainly#textbooks,#but#only# few# other# books.# This#refers# to# books#that#
give# an# important# insight# into# contributions# to# economic# thinking# and# it# also#
refers#to#novels#–#some#of#them#actually#being#excellent#as#means#for#combining#
language#training#and#learning#about#the#subject#and#its#historical#dimension.#
0#<6")#:%
Some#of# the#issues#to#be#raised#are#emerging#directly#from#the#above# #they#are#
based# on# impressions,# anecdotal# communication# with# students# and# also# on#
exchange#with#colleagues.#
First#–#though#it#seems#that#this#had#been#only#relevant#for#the#“2014\students”#–#
the# extremely# high# overall# number# makes# it# difficult# for# the# students# (and# for#
lecturers)# to# engage# appropriately.# It# is# obvious# that# language# skills# matter.#
Leaving#this#aside,#it#is#also#difficult#to#develop#any#kind#of#participative#learning#
climate.#
Second,#it#has#to#be#made#clear#that#English#proficiency#is#@8)6*#*8%:*)"%R<(%)8)%
for# studying# at# [joint# venture].# I# faced# many# students# who# are# well# able# to#
comprehend# the# relevant# issues,# but# who# fail# as# the# requirement# is# English#
language.#In#individual#consultations#it#was# possible# to# work# somewhat#against#
this#flaw,#but#overall#this#does#not#offer#a#feasible#perspective.#
Third,# useful# as# supporting# means# are# workshops,# film# clubs# etc.# Here# clear#
communication#is#again#required.#Apparently#some#students#had#not#been#aware#
of#the#English#corner##they#thought#this#would#be#an#offer#for#first#years#only.#
Fourth,# there# may# be# staffing# issues# involved# –#this#has#to#be#carefully#
considered.#
2)%#;"%'86<9"%
The# foregoing# remarks# are# essential# in# order# to# understand# the# more# specific#
issues.# The# module,# against# this# background,# depended# to# a# large# extent# on#
students’#ability#and#readiness#to#work#independently#and#individually.#This#is#a#
strength#as#it#made#it#possible#for#many#to#work#towards#passing#the#exams.#It#is#
a# weakness# as# the# acquired# knowledge# does# in# a# substantial# number# of# cases#
obviously#not#show#comprehension#of#the#subject#let#alone#the#ability#to#reflect#
relevant#issues.#There#is#evidence#for#the#fact#that#lectures#had#been#perceived#as#
additional#resource#of#“general#education”,#however#it#had#been#difficult#in#cases#
to#establish#the#link#to#what#actually#had#been#relevant#for#tests#and#exams.#This#
could#be#easily#rectified#by#working#closer#to#the#textbook#and#concentrating#on#
what#is#exam#relevant.# However,# this#had#been#also#in# frequent# cases#criticised#
by# students,# questioning# the# meaning# of# lectures# where# they# did# not# go#
substantially#beyond# the# textbook:# “Why# should# we# go#to# lectures#if# they# offer#
the#same#that#we#can# study# at# home#in#the#textbook?”#(–#This#was#occasionally#
criticised#as#“Chinese#method”,#though#I#would#see#it#more#as#matter#of#a#general#
and#global#trend#in#third#level#education.)#
For#the#future,#closer#consideration#is#needed#on#how#to#work#with#the#teaching#
assistants/seminars.# Without# any# doubt,# seminars# are# of# utmost# importance.#
Taking#this# seriously,# means#(a)#to# search# for#a#way# to# enhance#seminar# offers#
quantitatively,#i.e.# in# numbers#and#in# terms#of#teacher/student# ratio# and#(b)# to#
ventilate#ways#that#allow#participative#procedures#in#form#of#discussions,#writing#
essays# and# short# reflection# papers# etc.# #Of#course,#there#would#be#resource#
issues# involved.# Having# said# this,# a# propaedeuticum# as# mentioned# above# cold#
contribute#answering#part#of#the#challenge.#
Finally,# looking# at# the# marks,# it# has# to# be# accepted# that# for# some# the# learning#
outcome#may# well# be#that# this# subject#is#not# what# the#student# should# study#or#
that#the#student#did#not#yet#reach#the#level#of#maturity#to#study#at#an#academic#
institution.#
What#had#been#stated#in#the#last#two#paragraphs#is#underlined#by#the#fact#that#in#
general#students# who#were#ready#to#engage# actively,#who#came#up#with# specific#
questions# but# who# also# showed# interest# wider# issues,# performed# much# better#
than#others.#Stating#this#seems#to#be#like#carrying#coals#to#Newcastle;#however,#it#
still# sees# to# be# worth# mentioning# as# the# existing# participative# structures#
(“monitors”# etc.)# should# be# more# geared# towards# encouraging# all# students# to#
engage#actively.# The#exploration#for#ways#and#means# to#overcome#reluctance#to#
actively# engage,# the# search# for# ways# to# encourage# self\confidence# remains# a#
challenge.#
IV.&
Report&–&“Leaning&Skills”&–&[joint venture]&academic&year&2015/2016&
\8'79"'")#*)F%5"78$#%t%.)#$86<@#*8)%#8%,@8)8'*@:%
The#requirement,# defining#the# course# and#its# outline#was# very# open,#though# in#
some#ways# contradictory# as#the#reference#book#and#the#general#outline# had# not#
been#complementing# each#other#in#a#clear#way.#Taking# from#there#the#liberty#of#
linking# it# in# its# own# way# to# the# module# .)#$86<@#*8)% #8% ,@8)8'*@:=% the# module#
provided# the# opportunity# to# get# familiar# with# some# fundamental# issues# of#
academic#work,#the#sociological#foundations#of#science#and#some#issues#of#ethics#
and#responsibility.#
The# requirement# was# set# as# contributing# to# discussions# in# lecture\classes# and#
seminars,# based# on# and# linked# to# the# work# on# essays.# The# essays# had# been#
designed#as#group#work.#Few#broad#topics#had#been#provided,#though#defining#a#
question#had#been#an# important# part#of#the#work,#as# was,# in#a#second#step,#the#
actual#work#of#researching#the#topic#and#writing#the#report.#
Though# difficulties# cannot# be# denied# (the# typical# problems# of# group#
cohesiveness,# personal#issues#around#“non\contribution”# in# individual# cases,#
different#performance# in#particular#visible#when#looking#at# pubic#performance),#
the#overall# experience#seems# to# be# valuable.# After#difficulties# at#the# beginning,#
some# of# the# groups# came# up# with# excellent# ideas,# and# did# very# good# in#
performing# the# actual# elaboration.# The# marking# was# difficult,# as# it# had# to# be#
considered#that#such#writing# was# for# many# of/all# the# students# the# first# exercise#
of# this# kind.# In# particular# the# discussions# with# the# students# (in# class# and#
individually# with# the# groups)# had# been# fruitful.# However,# in# some# cases# such#
offer#had#been#not#really#taken#up.#
One#of#the#fundamental#challenge#is#to#catch#the#attention#of#all##this#is#relevant#
for# the# more# fundamental# issues# as# well# as# for# “simple# technical# issues”# like#
referencing#etc.#
Seen#from#this#experience,#it#is#advisable#to#link#considerations#for#the#future#to#
the#issue#of#a#propaedeuticum#as#outlined#in#the#“main#report”.#
V.&
Assessments&Essays&–&academic&year&2016/17,&first&semester&
Learning&Skills&–&Economics&
Overall&assessment&–&without&relation&to&“concrete&issues”,&including&
general&comments&on&the&two&courses&taught&and&the&JV&…&university/…&
university&
All#remarks#are#made#on#the#basis#of#the#basis#of#personal#judgement#and#–#very#
general# in# their# reach# or# emerging# specifically# the# experience# made# with#
teaching#“Learning#Skills”#and#“Intro#to#Economics”.#As#such#the#remarks#have#to#
be# understood# as# well# as# dealing# with# some# issues# of# teaching# the# course#
Introduction#to#Economics#in#the#framework#of#the#joint#venture.#
**#
An# overall# assessment# of# both,# essays# (and# exam# papers)# shows# the# same#
pattern.# Several# students# do# not# show# the# slightest# interest# and# did# not# even#
listen# to# some# basic# issues,# even# on# “logistics”# and# pragmatic# issues# #like#the#
requirement#of#submission.#It#is#also#getting#clear#from#several#submissions#that#
the# importance# of# developing# a# question# was# not# understood# although# it# had#
been# extensively# explored# by# both,# the# presentation/lecture# and# practical#
exercises#during#the#seminars.#
A)#One#reason#may#be#what#some#call#“the#Chinese#way#of#learning”,#though#from#
my# personal# experience,# having# worked# and# taught# in# academia# in# different#
countries,# mostly# on# postgrad# level# though# (or# I# may# say:# exactly# because# of),#
shows#that# learning# requires#“open#spaces”.#This#includes#the# need# to#provide#a#
“wide# and# unrestricted# time# frame”# –#conditions#that#are#increasingly#
subordinated# under# certain# trends# and# conditions# that# (supposedly)# emerge#
from#the#Bologna\reforms,#globally#relevant#and#actually#even#more#so#when#one#
looks#at#joint#ventures.#
This#leads#on#to#two#further#issues.#
B)#The# one# can#be# said#to# be# indeed#a# “Chinese# issue”#(i.e.# concerned#with#the#
role#of#…university,#China):#But#actually##and#this#is#part#of#the#issue#at#stake##I#
do#not#know#if#and#to#which#extent#it#is# an#issue#at#all.#I#only#heard#occasionally#
from#students#that#they#are#doing#some# research#and#write#essays.#Is# that#so?#It#
would# be# interesting# for# me# (and# I# dare# to# say# for# other# foreign# lecturers)# as#
many#students#say#at#the#same#time#that#essays#they#had#to#write#for#the#present#
course#(“learning#skills”)#are# the# first# essays# ever.# In#some#cases#it#the#research#
they#are# doing# in#that#…#University,#China\framework#seems#to#be#also# relevant#
in#substantial#terms#in#the#context#of#the#two#courses#of#interest#here.##It#is#not#
about# any# kind# of# “closely# linking# up”,# still,# information# could# possibly# help#
moving#things#in# the# interest#of#joint# venture# in# favour#of#the# students# further,#
really#integrating#the#different#roles#and#perspectives.#
As#much#as#that#may#come#across#as#“utilisation”#and#further#“structuration”#and#
restrain,# it# should# be# understood# the# other# way# round:# part# of# the# search# for#
open#spaces#for#learning#that#is#self\determined#and#still#provides#support#where#
wanted.#
C)# The# other# is# the# role# is# that# of# …# university,# and# here# any# readiness# of# the#
relevant# economics# lecture# in# …# to# communicate# adequately# or# an# intended#
attribution# of# roles# is# apparently# completely# lacking.# In# the# course# of# the#
“mediated#communication”#via#…#(her#performance#proved#to#be#for#some#time#
easygoing# and# straightforward# under# the# condition# of# an# apparently# non\
responsive# lecturer# at# …university)# it# turned# out# that# the# teaching# of# the#
Introductory# Economics# course# should# not# be# academic# in# strictu# sensu# but#
“business#oriented”#(which#remained#without#further#and#specifying#definition).#
Be#it# as#it# is,61# it# obviously# contradicts#the# orientation# suggested#by# the#CORE\
programme# Q;##7X}}>>>D@8$"b"@8)D8$FM% which# had# been# introduced# with# the#
beginning#of#the#academic#year#2016/2017#as#relevant#to#the#course.#It#should#be#
added# that# this# change# of# orientation# also# was# barely# communicated,# to# be#
precise#very#short#notice#was#given,#and#also#it#cam#also#as#“notification”,#leaving#
any#substantial#issues#without#mention.#–#The#tension#was#getting#clear#when#the#
########################################################
61## in# my# personal# view# such# orientation# is# hugely# problematic# as# it#replicates#and#further#enforces#a#dissolution#of#a#
discipline#which#is#increasingly#seen#as#problematic#in#the#discipline#itself.#
questions#submitted#for#the#exams#had#been#criticised#as#“not#being#relevant#for#
the# course”.# A# reply# from# my# side# was# accepted# as# I# could# in# very# quick#
statements#and#corrections#point#out#that#the#submitted#questions#had#been#fully#
backed# by# the# CORE\Curriculum# and# moreover,# reflect# pronouncedly# the#
underlying# spirit# (see# mail\exchange# with# [W2P:]# 17.11.,# 21.11./[P2W:]22.11.#
(attached# #see#section#VII.#
Appendix:#
Attachment:#Mail#Regarding#Exam#Questions,#page#74#ff.),#28.11./[W2P:]1.12)#
D)#Looking#at#this#issue#in#a#wider#perspective,#it#is#getting#clear#that#this#is#very#
much#a#fundamental#issue,#and#a#directional#decision#–#may#be#futile#in#one#way#
as#“decisions#had#been#taken”,#meaningful#however#if#one#considers#that#(i)#[joint#
venture]#is#a#young#project,#still#looking#for#its#self\understanding,#(ii)#there#is#a#
wider#and#hugely#relevant#context,#concerned#with#redefining#the#understanding#
of# the# discipline# of# economics# and# the# role# and# function# (including#
responsibilities)#of#prospective# economists,# (iii)#the#discussion# on# the#future#of#
third# level# education# in# general# and# in# the# various# disciplines# and# (iv)# the#
economic# development# actually# requiring# urgent# “adjustment”# in# the# relevant#
discipline.#Interestingly,#Hirschel#Kasper#et#altera#state#already#in#1991,#based#on#
their#own#empirical#study:#
2)"%"??"@#%8?% #;"% @;()F":% *)% F$(6<(#"% :@;889% 7$(@#*@"% *:% #;(#%)">%
!;DgDK:% ($"% )8#% (:% ?<99B=% 8$% H$8(69B=% #$(*)"6% "C")% *)% #;"*$% :7"@*(9%
?*"96:%8?%*)#"$":#D%/:%(%$":<9#=%>;")%#;"B%#8%#"(@;%(#%#;"%9*H"$(9%($#:%
@899"F":=%#;"*$%G)8>9"6F"%8?%#;"*$%:7"@*(9#*":%*:%)($$8>9B%9*'*#"6%#8%
#;"% ?">% #87*@:% $"9(#"6% #8% #;"*$% 6*::"$#(#*8):D% Y;"B% ;(C"% ()%
*)(6"R<(#"% F$(:7% 8?% #;"% H$8(6% '(#"$*(9% #8% H"% #(<F;#% *)% (%
:87;8'8$"bf<)*8$% @8<$:"=% >;"#;"$% *#% *:% '8)"#($B% #;"8$B% 8$%
*)#"$)(#*8)(9% "@8)8'*@:D% -""69"::% #8% :(B=% #;"*$% <)6"$:#()6*)F% 8?%
#;"%$"9(#*8)% H"#>"")% #;"*$%:7"@*(9#B%()6%#;"% $":#% 8?%#;"%6*:@*79*)"=%
#;"%>8$G%8?%#;"*$%6"7($#'")#(9%@899"(F<":=%*:%<)?*)*:;"6D%
Qd(:7"$=% &*$:@;"9% "#D% (9#"$(=% E__EX% Y;"% ,6<@(#*8)% 8?% ,@8)8'*:#:X%
W$8'%3)6"$F$(6<(#"%#8%4$(6<(#"% 0#<6BA% *)X% n8<$)(9% 8?% ,@8)8'*@%
i*#"$(#<$"A%!<H9*:;"6%HBX%/'"$*@()%,@8)8'*@%/::8@*(#*8)%C89%~~.~%
k0"7#"'H"$% E__ElX% Ea{{bEEa_A% ;"$"X% EEaVA%
>>>Df:#8$D8$F}:#(H9"}L[L[jELA%E{}aE}E[M%
So,# what# had# been# critically# remarked# is# part# of# a# longer# process,# and#
readjustments#are# increasingly#urgent# –#joining# somewhat#an# avant\garde#role#
may#be#a#special#opportunity.#Actually,#at#least#formal#orientation#towards#CORE,#
though#limited#Q:""%&"$$'())=% !"#"$=%LaEjX%2??% #8%@9(::%oA%;##7X}}>7D'"}7ER$+"b
EL$A%E{}aE}E[M=% can# be# seen#as#a# meaningful# step#if#it# is# also#and#full\heartedly#
implemented#and#this#in#a#way#of#a#fully\cooperative#understanding.#
E)#Though#at# first# sight# unconnected,#this#is#hugely# relevant# also#in#the#light# of#
the#essays#–#and#moreover#the#“Learning#Skills#Course”#(and#vice#versa):#
(i)#What#is#communicated#to#the#students?#It#should#be#understood#as#important#
propedeutic#step#to#developing#an#understanding# of# the# role#of# academic#work,#
academic# studies# and# later# work# as# academically# educated# person,# something#
quite#different#from#a#jobber\#and#career\perspective.#And#of#course,#this#means#
as#well#that#the#course#should#clearly#be#defined#in#these#terms.#
(ii)# Subsequently# it# has# to# be# reconsidered# where# such# a# course# is# actually#
positioned.# The# previous# two# settings# # during# the# second# part# of# the# first#
semester#Q(:% ?8$% LaEV}EjM% or# parallel#to#the#Intro# to# economics# during#the#first#
semester#Q(:%?8$% LaEj}LaE[M% is# questionable.# During#the#first#year#would#be#the#
most#appropriate#time.#It#could#be#also#a#challenging#but#a#worthwhile#attempt#to#
establish# it# in# a# strictly#cooperative#approach,#i.e.#getting#in#parallel#
(synchronically)# a# lecturer# from# the# “Eastern”# and# the# “Western# tradition”#
involved.#
(iii)# Especially# here# the# value# of# small# groups,# opening# ways# to# “enforce”#
participation,#is#of#utmost#importance.#This#could#also#have#implications#for#staff#
requirement,#introducing#aspects#of#directed#learning#and#thinking#about#criteria#
for#marking.#
F)#Conclusions#and#Recommendations#
(i)# clear# vertical# and# horizontal# communication# is# essential# –#it#is#about#
communication#at#and#within#..# university,# China,# between#the# two#universities,#
namely#those#who#are#responsible#for#the#subject#areas.#
(ii)#A#“re\dedicated#leaning\skills”#seminar#should#be#considered#to#start#in#year#
one,# though# clearly# with# an# orientation# towards# studying# economics# (related)#
issues,# it# should# focus# on# propedeutics.# Alternatively# it# could# be# considered# to#
integrate# students# from# different# disciplines# –#contributing#this#way#to#a#
fundamentally#inter\#and#cross\disciplinary#academic#consciousness.#
The#consideration#to# offer# such#course#in# Chinese# language,#however,#seems#to#
be#problematic# –# as# language# is# a# crucial# problem# it# has# to# be# taken# up# at# the#
earliest#stage.#
(iii)#Thorough#effort#must#be#invested#in#finding#“reflection#time”#–#as#“free#time”#
students#can#use#for#pursuing#finding#their#own#way#and#also#as#“bounded#time”,#
for#instance#by#linking#it#to#offers# that# are# more# about#“general# interest”#as#the#
music#course#Q)8>%:@;"6<9"6%?8$%B"($% huMD%Although#it#should# be#an#open#time,#it#
is#advisable#to#develop#this#in#a#way#that#students#are#motivated#and#directed.#
(iv)# The# frequent# “complain”# by# lecturers,# suggesting# that# students# are# mainly#
“exam# oriented”,# little# interested# in# “studying# for# the# sake# of# acquiring#
knowledge,# is# surely# in# some# way# justified.# However,# the# conditions# (by# no#
means#genuinely#Chinese#conditions,#let#alone#part#of#a#specifically#…#university,#
China\setting)#for#such#attitudes#(to#name#but#a#few:#students#being#very#young,#
often# pushed# for# instance# by# their# parents,# a# restrictive# time# frame# for#
concluding# the# course# …)# are# surely# to# some# extent# “purely# on# the# side# of# the#
students”,# i.e.# cannot# be# changed# “for# them”# from# the# side# of# the# lectures;#
however# it# should# not# be# forgotten# that# there# is# also# from# the# side# of# the#
conditions#of#teaching##a#major#push#towards#exam#oriented#studying.#It#has#to#be#
systematically#considered#if#and#in#which#way#individual#teaching#can#counteract#
and# provide# a# motivation# for# a# broader# orientation.# This# means# not# least# to#
counteract#the# temptation# of#spoon\feeding#as# teaching# method#that#is# actually#
less#challenging#also#from#the#perspective#of#lecturing.#
Assessment&of&the&Essays&–&General&and&Recurring&Issues&
Remarks#–#here#and#individually#directly#in#the#essays#–#are#not#comprehensive,#
also# not# engaging# in# every# detail# …,# …# .# This# would# be# a# matter# of# individual#
exchange#and#possibly#discussions#in#smaller#groups##it#will#be#offered#directly#
to#some#of#the#students#on#invitation,#though#as#proposal,#aiming#on#discussing#of#
specific# aspects.# Unfortunately# this# can# only# be# made# at# a# later# stage,# namely#
after#the#marks#are#ready#to#be#communicated#to#the#communicated.#Stating#this#
implies#that#in#the#future#this#should#be#allowed#earlier.#
As# much# as# every# student# has# the# right# to# receive# proper# feedback,# as# much# I#
have#the#right#to#be#listened#to,#or#turn#it#around:#you#have#the#obligation#to#look#
at#and#commit#yourself#to#the#terms#and#conditions.#
Individual# comments# and# corrections:# they# are# not# necessarily# complete,# not#
least:#not#complete#in#details,#and#definitely#not#in#terms#of#language.#Some#of#the#
general#terms#and#conditions:62#
1. Refer#to#lectures##why#did#I#lecture,#and#why#did#you#attend?#
2. Essay#for#learning#skills,#not#for#economics#
3. Sender#of#mails#and#essays#should#have#NAMES,#saying#what#it#is#
about#…#
4. File#names#should#be#clearly#identifiable#and#attributable#
5. And#a#file#is#something#that#has#a#proper#ending,#e.g.##.pages,#.doc,#
.docx,#.pdf,#.rtf,#–#make#sure#that#it#has#when#sending.#–#And#make#sure#
that#you#send#one#file#and#not#a#couple#of#files,#zipped#and#
“externalising”#the#work;#and#submit#only#once#
6. Use#the#space#–#many#essays#are#well#below#allowed#word\count#
7. Font#seize#etc.##stick#to#the#standard,#or#stay#near#to#it##point#16#or#
even#larger#is#not#
8. Essays#are#not#about#a#beauty#contest#but#a#neat#presentation#is#also#
recommendable#for#pragmatic#reasons,#not#least#legibility#and#with#a#
########################################################
62## The# issues# mentioned# in# the# following# had# been# presented# in# more# detail# during# the# last# lectures# which# can# be#
accessed/downloaded#from#blackboard#
clear#headline#and#sub\headline#structure#accessibility.#It#also#helps#
you;#this#includes#proof#reading#
9. Change#language##spell#check#
10. Text#Formatting#
11. Use#subheadings#–#where#appropriate:#use#them,#but#not#too#many#
Abstract#is#0#or#mostly#does#not#count#as#part#of#the#numbered#
structure.#And#it#does#not#equal#the#introduction#
12. CAPTIONS#for#tables,#graphs#etc.#–#they#should#be#short#and#concise#
13. Use#of#abbreviations#and#make#clear#what#they#mean#–#by#spelling#it#
out##on#occasion#of#the#first#use,#or#I#case#of#many#abbreviations#by#
including#a#table,#listing#all#abbreviations#
14. Auto\order#of#table#=#alphabet#
15. .)%#;*:%7(7"$=%>"%>8<96%9*G"%#8%"Z798$"%%
We?#Or#I?#or#“it#is#the#aim#of#this#paper#to#…”?#
16. It#is#good#that#you#cooperate#and#exchange#info#etc.,#however#use#it#as#
joining#forces,#instead#of#copying#mistakes,#grabbing#info#without#
understanding#
17. Term#“poniz”#–#apparently#a#mistake#that#had#been#copied/exchanged#
between#different#papers;#cooperation#is#excellent#–#and#it#is#more#
than#copying#
18. Be#exact:#so#far,#one#author#(1695)#is#mentioned#in#for#essays,#and#
there#are#four#different#names#used#…,#and#there#is#no#reference#made#
…#
E_D Referencing:#
%q498H(9*P(#*8)% *:% #;"% 7$8@"::% 8?% *)#"$)(#*8)(9% *)#"F$(#*8)% ($*:*)F% ?$8'%
#;"% *)#"$@;()F"% 8?%>8$96% C*">:=% 7$86<@#:=% *6"(:=% ()6% 8#;"$% (:7"@#:%
8?%@<9#<$"%Q/9H$8>% "#% (9D% E__aMD% .)% 8#;"$% >8$6=% *#% *:% (% #")6")@B% 8?% #;"%
*)@$"(:*)F9B%@98:"%$"9(#*8):;*7%('8)F% #;"%@8<)#$*":%8$%@8)#*)")#:%*)%#;"%
>;89"%>8$6Dr%
LaD Be#precise#in#expressing#what#you#want#to#say/mean#
Y;"%7<$:<*#%8?%#;"%*)#"$":#:%8?%'(Z*'*P(#*8)%*:%)8#;*)F%'8$"%#;()%#;"*$%
H*FF":#%7<$78:"D%/)6%$":#$*@#*)F%#;"*$%7<$:<*#%8?%*)#"$":#:%*:%<)68<H#"69B%
Peter Herrmann 11/6/17 11:32
Comment: Quoted?#Page#number#???#
#;"%'($G"#%@8'7"#*#*8)D%.)%#;"%'($G"#%@8'7"#*#*8)=%#;"%"@8)8'*@%'()%
*)%8$6"$%#8%'(Z*'*P"%#;"%H")"?*#:=%
LED Be#concise,#precise#when#it#comes#to#formulations#
,@8)8'*@:%*:%#;"%#;"8$"#*@(9%H(:*:%8?%@8)#$89%8?%"@8)8'BD%
22. From#where#comes#the#term#“scientific#economics”#
23. Working#academically#means#not#least:#Controversial#
LmD The#hypothesis:%
Y;"%'(*)%7<$78:"%8?%#;*:%7(7"$%*:%#8%()(9B:*:%#;"%6"C"987'")#%8?%?98>:%8?%
7$86<@#:%()6%7$86<@#*8)%()6%>;(#%@()%\;*)(%9"($)%?$8'%*#D%%
25. qg<"%#8%*)%#;*:%"@8)8'B=%F886:%7$*@":%($"%6"#"$'*)"6%HB%#;"%#;"8$B%8?%
:<779B%()6%6"'()6%?$""9B%$(#;"$%#;()%H"%*)#"$?"$"6%HB%(%F8C"$)'")#%8$%
8#;"$%"Z#"$)(9%?(@#8$:r%b%Mind,#the#role#of#theory#and#the#relation#
theory##practice.#
26. International#Trade#in#all#essays#dealt#with#without#considering#the#
fundamental#problem#of#creating#export#dependency#
27. Economics#–#political#economy#–#why#should#the#first#be#subordinated,#
as#finally#the#first#emerged#from#PE,#fading#it#too#often#out/denying#
it(‘s#meaning)#
28. Pol#Ec.#does#not#equal#Marxist#PE#
29. At#this#time,#international#trade#is#essential#for#increased#happiness#
quotient.#So#…#
You#can#easily#leave#it#out#as#far#as#it#is#not#essential#for#your#main#
argument#–#and#that#is#about#trade.#
30. If#required:#a#signature#is#…#a#signature,#not#typing#your#name#
Peter Herrmann 11/6/17 11:32
Peter Herrmann 11/6/17 11:32
Peter Herrmann 11/6/17 11:32
Peter Herrmann 11/6/17 11:32
Comment: It#is#only#a#restriction#of#
achieving#high#results,#not#restricting#the#
pursuing#of#an#inrterest#
Comment: Control?#Or#understand,#and#
then#allowing#politics#to#use#the#results#to#
control?#
Comment: And#any#hypothesis?#Even#if#
you#slightly#reformulate#….#
Comment: IN#THE#CASE#OF#STATING#
THIS,#you#have#to#make#at#least#some#
comment#on#it##see#lecture#on#GDP#…#
!"#"$%&"$$'())**%
VI.&
General&Report&concerning&the&work&[experience]&reflecting&the&2nd&
semester&of&the&academic&year&2016/2017&
&(77*)"::% 68":% )8#% ?(99% 8<#% 8?% #;"% H9<"% ()6%
6$"(':% >*99% )8#% @8'"% #$<"% HB% #;"':"9C":D% +"%
)""6% #8% H"% 68>)b#8b"($#;% ()6% >8$G% ;($6D% +"%
:;8<96%<7;896%#;"%*6"(%#;(#%>8$G*)F%;($6% *:% #;"%
'8:#% ;8)8$(H9"=% )8H9":#=% F$"(#":#% ()6% '8:#%
H"(<#*?<9%C*$#<"D***jh%
A# general# assessment# would# not# be# much# different# from# the# ones# submitted#
earlier,#in#particular#with#the#report#submitted#at#the#end#of#the#first#year#and#as#
part#of# the#‘Assessments#Essays##2nd#year&semester\general\report’,#submitted#
at#the#end# of# the#first#semester.# Some# general#reflections#are#also# addressed# in#
the#presentation#I#had#been#invited#to# give# in# the# beginning#of#July,#part#of##the#
workshop# ‘Education# and# Globalization# # Opportunities# and# Challenges# \#
教育与全球化#\#机遇与挑战’,# organised# by# the# …# #University#…,# China,# …#
university#and##the##Consulate…#in#the#framework#of#the#2017#UK#week.#[Later#
to#be#accessed#via#https://www.youtube.com/user/esosceu/videos].#
Some#more#or# less# individual# issues# may# be#worthwhile#to#be#addressed#here#–#
and#labelling#them#as#‘individual#issues‘#should#not#make#forget#that#they#are#still#
part#and#parcel#of#the#overall#project#and#its#existing#and#emerging#culture.# And#
not#least# they#should#make#us#who#are#working# in#academia#thinking#about#our#
responsibility#for#students’#behaviour#we#frequently#complain#about:#very#much#
of#their#behaviour# surely# falls#back#on# the# ways# we#act,#whichever# position# we#
hold.#
########################################################
63## All#quotes,#with#exception#of#the#one#in#endnote#v#found#on#‘en.wikiquote.org’#
/D%\;())"99*)F%\8''<)*@(#*8)%%
W$""68'% 8)9B% ?8$% #;"% '"'H"$:% 8?% #;"%
F8C"$)'")#=% 8)9B% ?8$% #;"% '"'H"$:% 8?% #;"% !($#B%
c% #;8<F;% #;"B% ($"% R<*#"% )<'"$8<:% c% *:% )8%
?$""68'%(#%(99D%W$""68'%*:%(9>(B:%#;"%?$""68'%8?%
6*::")#"$:D*C%
Communication,# also# in# technical# terms# –#though#reflecting#a#culture#of#
communication#–#should#be#systematically#revisited.#It#is#especially#about#a#lack#
of#clarity#about#the#different#means#of#communication,#namely#mail##and#which#
mail#address#–#qq,#WeChat#and#direct#face\to\face#communication.#While#it#may#
be#justified# to#use# one# 8$% the#other,# one#()6% the# other# etc.,# it# simply#has# to#be#
made# clear.# This# includes# the# reachability,# availability# etc.:# not# everybody# is#
connected#in#all# the# different#ways#and# using# them#on#all# devices# etc.#Still,#it# is#
necessary#to# find#ONE#way#that#makes#all#who#are#part#of#[joint# venture]##staff#
and# students# alike# #reachable#–# during# ‘normal# office# hours’# and# keeping# in#
mind#that#still# not# everybody# is#permanently#available#but# may# be#occupied#by#
other#tasks.#
`D%0;8$#bY"$'*:'%()6%!9())*)F%()6%5":7"@#%
o%#8% >8$G%#*$"9"::9B%#8%@$"(#"% 6*:@*79*)"% ()6%:"9?b
6*:@*79*)"A% #8% :#$")F#;")% "C"$B>;"$"%
8$F()*P(#*8)=% 8$6"$=% "??*@*")@B=% #;"% ;($'8)*8<:%
@887"$(#*8)% 8?% (99% #;"% 7"879"K:% ?8$@":=% :#(#"%
(@@8<)#*)F% ()6% @8)#$89% 8C"$% 7$86<@#*8)% ()6%
6*:#$*H<#*8)%8?%7$86<@#:c:<@;%*:%#;"%$8(6%oC%
The# latter# is# also# stated# as# there# is# a# frequent# and# easily# avoidable# short\
termism:# changing# teaching# times# and# informing# students# the# preceding# day,#
meetings#or#special#tasks#called#for#without#or#with#very#limited#advance#notice,#
holidays#announcement#a#few#days#before#they#are#taking#place#etc.#The#latest#so#
far#was#the#message#sent#on#the#18th#in#the#evening,#announcing#the#exam\board#
meeting# for# the# late# afternoon# of# the# following# day,# the# notification# on# the#
external# exam\board# meeting# arriving# on# the# 20th# in# the# evening,# the# meeting#
scheduled# for# the# 21st# around# lunchtime.# –#It#surely#is#not#supporting#
performance#and#even#if#it#is#not#meant#in#this#way,#it#signals#lack#of#corporative#
respect#and# is#thus# also#an# issue# that# affects# working# climate# and# professional#
personal#relations.64#
\D%Y*'"9B%W""6H(@G%
\$*#*@*:':%?$8'%6"'8@$(#*@%7"$:8)(F":% @()%H"%8?%
8)9B% #>8% G*)6:=% #;8:"% #;(#% ($"% >$8)F% ()6% #;8:"%
#;(#% ($"% )8#D% \$*#*@*:':% #;(#% ($"% )8#% >$8)F% @()%
;"97%$"'"6B%8<$%:;8$#@8'*)F:% >;*9"%>$8)F%8)":%
'<:#%H"%$"?<#"6DC*%
The#communication#of#results,#marks#and#feedback:#to#students,#lecturers#getting#
knowledge# about# the# evaluation# by# students# etc.# #should#be#an#issue#without#
question#and#it#should#also#happen#at#early#stages#so#that#the#only#purpose#they#
can#reasonably#have:# allowing# to# learn#and#improve#behaviour# if# deemed#to#be#
useful# –# is# possible.# An# open# and# earlier# issuing# of# relevant# matters# can# help#
people# concerned# and# it# can# also# help# to# attract# people# to# come# and# join.# The#
other#way#round,#withholding#of#relevant#information,#unspoken#reasons#behind#
taken#decisions,#the#lack#of#early#and#sufficient#feedback#to#students#and#staff#will#
undermine# further# development# and# may# even# result# in# gossip# and# ‘internal#
withdrawal’# and# resignation.# Furthermore,# it# can# in# particular# the# officially#
opaque#situation#in#legal#claims#based#on#reputational#harm#caused.#
gD%g"H(#"%
+"%@()% :""%#;(#%*)%7<##*)F% #;"% R<":#*8)%s>;(#%*:%
'()us%>;(#%>"%'"()%*:X%>;(#% @()%'()%H"@8'"u%
Y;(#%*:=% @()% '()% 68'*)(#"%;*:% 8>)% 6":#*)B=%@()%
;"%s'(G"%;*':"9?=s%@()%;"%@$"(#"%;*:%8>)%9*?"u%+"%
'(*)#(*)% #;"$"?8$"% #;(#% '()% *:% (% 7$8@"::% ()6=%
'8$"% "Z(@#9B=% #;"% 7$8@"::% 8?% ;*:% (@#*8):D% .?% B8<%
#;*)G%(H8<#% *#=%#;"%R<":#*8)%*#:"9?% s>;(#%*:%'()us%
*:% )8#% ()% (H:#$(@#% 8$% s8Hf"@#*C"s% R<":#*8)D% .#% *:%
H8$)%8?%8<$%$"?9"@#*8)% (H8<#%8<$:"9C":%()6% (H8<#%
8#;"$:=%()6%>"%>()#%#8%G)8>=%*)%$"9(#*8)%#8%>;(#%
>"% ;(C"% #;8<F;#% ()6% :"")=% >;(#% >"% ($"% ()6%
>;(#%>"%@()%H"@8'"A%>;"#;"$%>"%$"(99B%($"=%()6%
*?%:8%#8%>;(#% "Z#")#=% s'(G"$:% 8?% 8<$% 8>)% :"9C":=s%
########################################################
64## and# mentioning#examples#is# not# about# blaming# individuals# #the#most#serious#matter#in#this#respect#is#in#my#eyes#
anyway#the#occasionally#extremely#late#notification#of#students#about#schedule#changes.#
8?% 8<$% 9*?"% ()6% 8?% 8<$% 6":#*)BD% /)6% >"% >()#% #8%
G)8>% #;*:% s#86(B=s% *)% #;"% F*C")% @8)6*#*8):% 8?%
#86(B=%#;"%@8)6*#*8):%8?% 8<$% 6(*9B% 9*?"=% )8#% 8?% ()B%
9*?"%8$%()B%'()DC**%
An#open#climate,#and#the#provision#of#time#for#discussion#will#surely#help#more#
than#formal# control# of#attendance#not# least# as#some#students# are# actually#‘only#
physically#present’##actually#it#could#be#less#disturbing#for#all#if#they#would#stay#
at# home.# It# has# to# be# considered# in# the# overall# structure# of# academic# teaching#
that# in# particular# young# students,# at# the# beginning# of# their# careers# need# more#
time#than#those#who#are#experienced#and#found#there#place#already.#
It# is# a# common# misjudgement# in# education,# reflected# in# completely# averse#
ranking# structures,# awarding# support# the# advanced# instead# of# honouring# the#
promotion#of#those#who#are#beginning#by#making#their#first#movements.#
It#should#therefore# be# looked# for# ways#that#allow#for#debate,#exchange#and#also#
guidance#by#peers,#older#students#and#academics.#Hence,#it#should#also#be#looked#
for# spaces# where# academics# are# becoming# and# remaining# aware# that# they# are#
scholars:# learned# and# still# learning,# building# schools# by# gathering# with# others#
who#are#willing#to#learn#instead#of#reducing#teaching#on#passing#on#knowledge.#
One# concrete# consideration# that# came# up# in# this# context# was# to# look# for# class#
monitors# from# the# successive# year,# i.e.# students# from# year# 3# would# act# as#
monitors# of# classes# of# year# 2# …# –# of# course,# this# would# also# have# to# have#
implications#for#the#definition#of#the#role#of#monitors.#
,D%o3)*C"$:*#B=%,<$87"%t%f8*)#%C")#<$"%t%DD%<)*C"$:*#B=%\;*)(%
Y86(B%>"%)""6%(%:7"@*(9%G*)6%8?%@8<$(F"D%-8#%#;"%
G*)6%)""6"6%*)%H(##9"=%H<#%(%G*)6%>;*@;%'(G":%<:%
:#()6% <7% ?8$% "C"$B#;*)F% #;(#% >"% G)8>% *:% $*F;#=%
"C"$B#;*)F%#;(#% *:% #$<"% ()6%;8)":#D% +"% )""6% #;"%
G*)6% 8?% @8<$(F"% #;(#% @()% >*#;:#()6% #;"% :<H#9"%
@8$$<7#*8)%8?%#;"%@B)*@:=%:8%#;(#%>"%@()%:;8>%#;"%
>8$96%#;(#%>"%($"%)8#%(?$(*6%8?%#;"%?<#<$"DC***%
The# problems# of# communication# on# professional# issues# had# been# already#
highlighted#in#the# previous# report# and# it#turned#out#that#this#issue#could#not#be#
corrected.# Leaving# the# lack# of# communication# [skills]# aside,# the# more# general#
issue# that# needs# urgent# clarification,# is# [i]# the# exact# definition# of# the# course#
outline# and# content# and# [ii]# the# relationship/responsibility# of# and# on# the# two#
sides#including# the# existing#leeway.#This# includes# a#clear# communication# about#
the#different#conditions#[language,#staff#teaching,#depth#and/vs#width##…].# #The#
lack#of#communication#is#even#more#regrettable#if#it#then#turns#out#that#relevant#
issues#are#discussed#behind#the#back#of#the#relevant,#i.e.#directly#concerned#staff,#
whereas# for# direct# communication# supposedly# no# time# can# be# found# and# the#
technical#means# supposedly# do#not#exist.#Part#of#the#entire# story# is#professional#
self\understanding# and# responsibility,# part# is# as# well# collegiality# and# personal#
respect#of#students’#and#colleagues’#interest#and#integrity.#
After#the#exam#board#I#may#add#a#brief#remark#on#the#substantial#side##I#have#to#
say# with# some# satisfaction# that# the# external# examiner# backed# my# position,#
emphasising# the# need# to# teach# economics# in# a# wider# understanding# of# social#
science,# arguing# against# a# narrow# approach# as# it# had# been# expressed# in# the#
comments#on#the#questions#for#the#first#semester#–#the#issue#had#been#presented#
in# the# previous# report# concerning# the# 1st# semester# ‘Assessments# Essays# –#2
nd#
year,# Learning# Skills# –# Economics’.# I# can# only# hope# that# this# message# is# also#
passed# on# to# staff# that# is# responsible# at# …# university# #and#I#suppose#it#is#
important#enough#to#leave#it#not#only#with#the#representative#present#during#the#
meting.#
WD%e*:@"99()"8<:%
+;8%($"%8<$%")"'*":u%+;8%($"%8<$%?$*")6:u%Y;*:%
*:% (% R<":#*8)% 8?% #;"% ?*$:#% *'78$#()@"% ?8$% #;"%
$"C89<#*8)D*Z%
At#least#three#small#details#require#mentioning:#
[i]# the# availability,# reliability# of# blackboard# had# been# frequently# questionable#
which#includes#the#lack#of#sufficient#support#service#from#the#side#of#blackboard#
head#office.#
[ii]# Mail# addresses# with# Chinese# characters# apparently# cause# #occasionally#
compatibility#problems#–# I# came# across#it#when#sending# mails# to# an#address#as#
[just#picking#two#examples]#
[…]# …@....edu.cn#does#not#work,# while# […]# …@....ac.uk#works.#Sending#to#
…@....edu.cn,#deleting#张喜宾班戈,#works#too.#I#asked#my#server#admin#and#had#
been# told# that# this# is# a# problem# that# can# only# be# addressed# by# the# admin# of#
‘….edu.cn’.#
It#may#be#considered#to#be#relevant#to#be#followed#up#as#not#everybody#will#retry#
to#send#messages#etc.#
[iii]#the#different#marking#systems#–#categorical#and#numerical#–#seem#to#be#non\
sensitive,#causing#confusion#and#additional#work.#Actually#it#is#serious#issue,#the#
reasoning# behind# it# and# as# it# had# been# made# known# to# me,# showing# highly#
parochial# attitude# of# the# responsible# staff# or# body# at# BU.# To# work# with#
international#teaching# staff#and# aiming#on# relevant# recruitment# in# the#future# –#
staff#that#is#experienced# in# a#different#context#and# possibly# used# to#a#variety#of#
contexts#–#is#fundamentally#incompatible#with#a#statement#like#‘The#BU\business#
school#expects#lectures#to#first#think# in# categorical# terms,# and#transfer# this#into#
the# numerical# frame’.# And# it# lacks# academic# consideration# as# assessment# of#
academic# work,# on# all# levels,# begins# with# thinking# in# terms# of# substance# and#
categorises#this#in#a#'<9#*b$"9(#*8)(9%framework.#
[v]#There#is#an#ongoing#lack#of# clarity# of# the# ‘status# and#meaning’# of#the# degree#
obtained,#students#expecting#to#receive#a#‘normal#BU\degree’,#in#addition#to# the#
‘local#degree’.#I#did#not#follow#up#on#this,#but#learned#from#different#more#or#less#
informal#communication#some#‘snippets’,#which,#put#together#with#knowledge#of#
the#field#in#general,#I#see#a#situation#‘where#both#sides#are#right’:#righteousness#as#
provision# of# sufficient# and# complete# information# and# the# feeling# of# being#
deceived# are# simply# based# on# the# lack# of#consideration#of#the#knowledge#
[existing#and#possible]#of#the#other#side.#Responsible#for#rectifying#this#is#the#side#
with#advanced#information.#And#par#of#rectifying#this#is#the#provision#of#a#space#
that#allows#exchange#by#encouraging# questions# and# ‘doubts’.# –# As# to# the# best# of#
my#knowledge#this#is#an#ongoing#issue#I#feel#obliged#to#mention#it##though#the#
standard#ranking# may#be#important,#there#is#a#scale# of#‘second#ranking’,#namely#
the#reflection#of#what#people#say#and#others#hear.#
[iv]#refurbishing#one#of#the#toilet#cubicles#as#shower#may#encourage#people#who#
do#not#live#on#Campus#to#use#the#bike#and/or#to#walk.#
[v]#considering#the#amount#of#waste#that#is#actually#suitable#for#recycling#[paper#
&#organic#(tea)#at#least]#it#may#be#recommendable#to#take#this#issue#up,#possibly#
opening#the#role#of#an#avant\garde.#
****#
#
****#
#
VII.&
Appendix:&
Attachment:&Mail&Regarding&Exam&Questions65&
#
Mail,&sent&to&the&‘intermediary’&at&…,&November&22nd&,&2016,&20:10&
Re:&exam&questions&&
Dear#…#,#no#danger:#I#won’t#shoot#anybody#though#I#may#at#some#stage#shoot#
myself.#Sorry#for#delay,#caused#by#some#urgent#other#task#\#did#to#even#shoot#in#
that#case.#I#am#in#a#somewhat#desperate#situation,#seeing#“high#ranking”#
colleagues#working#in#a#style#(referencing,#plagiarism,#academic#accuracy#etc)#
that#would#bring#any#student#immediately#to#the#first#and#VERY#LAST#warning#
(in#the#lucky#case).#What#makes#it#so#troublesome#for#me:#knowing#and#not#being#
able#to#do#anything#about#it.#One#individual#case??#
Recently#I#read#in#the#Times#Higher#Education#(THE)#an#article,#disclosing#an#
empirical#study#on#using#faked#data,#withholding#data#that#contradict#the#
"wanted#argument”,#that#point#out#that#things#are#not#as#straightforward#as#it#
had#been#hoped#for#etc.#And#being#part#of#such#morass#…#
#
So,#the#delay#is#due#to#the#fact#that#I#wanted#to#pay#due#attention#to#this#issue#for#
which#I#had#ti#get#the#other#thing#at#least#in#part#out#of#the#way.#
Well,#actually#I#can#move#immediately#on#from#the#above#to#the#comments.#
Thanks#for#sending#them.#And#apparently#we#move#on#then#the#complicated#way,#
enduring#increased#transaction#costs.#Sorry#that#you#have#to#bear#them#alone#…#
#
1.Question#1#seems#to#me#to#be#more#related#to#philosophy#of#science#than#
introductory#economics.#
Philosophy#of#science#is#something#else,#this#is#not#even#sociology#of#science#let#
alone#ontology#and#epistemology.#Though#I#would#cover#the#latter#an#essential#
part#of#what#all#this#about.#It#is,#in#fact#only#with#some#very#basic#issues#of#
methods#and#methodology#and#terms#of#related#conditions.#In#my#understanding#
of#the#concept#of#CORE#the#inclusion#of#exactly#such#perspective#is#part#of#the#
considerations.#
To#make#it#simple#I#refer#to#the#website#(http://www.core\econ.org/about\our\
ebook/),#which#says#for#instance:#
#
"CORE#is#a#collaborative#project#using#insights#on#the#economy#from#a#wide#
range#of#historical,#geographical,#disciplinary#and#methodological#perspectives."#
########################################################
65## Referring#to#the#discussion#of#the#meaning#of#the#CORE\concept#(see#page#61).#
#
So#I#do#not#see#a#problem#but#more#the#other#way#round#I#would#see#disregarding#
this#question#as#relevant#as#not#respecting#the#orientation#on#"using#insights#on#
the#economy#from#a#wide#range#of#…#disciplinary#and#methodological#
perspectives.”#
BTW,#it#is#interesting#to#look#at#the#“famous#economists,#Quesnay,#trained#in#
medicine#and#surgery;#"displayed#talent#in#a#wide#range#of#subjects,#particularly#
mathematics,#classics#and#history”#
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Maynard_Keynes),#BA#in#maths#and#
(according#to#the#same#source)#"further#studied#philosophy#and#attended#
economics#lectures#informally#as#a#graduate#student#for#one#term,#which#
constituted#his#only#formal#education#in#the#subject.”;#Galbraith#with#a#BA#in#
Science#in#Agriculture#and#later#then#Master#of#Science#and#Ph.D.#in#agricultural#
economics#\#at#least#some#economics),#his#son#James#actually#a#"pure#economist”#
in#training,#though#actually#turning#in#some#way#the#back#to#it,#arguing#from#this#
background#in#a#highly#political#way#…;###and#of#course#Smith,#claimed#and#famed#
moral#philosopher.#
#
Of#course#I#can#take#it#out#and#replace#it#if#obliged#to##…##
#
2.Question#2#is#relevant#to#introductory#economics#but#the#answer#is#
contentious.#
I#suppose#cum#grano#salis#the#same#applies#\#students#know#about#the#different#
issues#and#know#about#the#pros#and#cons#and#limitations,#Polanyi#is#in#the#
meantime#“mainstream”#in#the#flow#of#the#arguments#(though#I#personally#have#
some#reservations,#not#so#much#against#his#argument##but#against#what#is#
frequently#made#out#of#it).#(a)#there#is#the#general#issue#of#finding#the#ONE#
DECISIVE#point#(even#revolutions#aren’t#really),#but#(b)#on#the#other#hand,#any#
kind#of#“modeling”#works#with#suppositions#that#are#somewhat#contentious.#
So#I#leave#it#open#for#the#time#being.###
#
3.Question#3#seems#reasonable,#but#is#not#on#either#of#the#syllabi#above.#
I#do#not#understand#the#
either#of#the#syllabi#above#
which#may#well#be#my#limitation#of#English#language#proficiency#(either\or,#
neither\nor#—#I#never#got#that).#Does#it#mean#that#it#is#about#the#same#issue#that#
had#been#pointed#out#with#respect#to#question#1?#
In#any#case,#quoting#from#the#CORE\textbook#may#show#my#reasoning.#It#
states/quotes#in#the#preface#(http://www.core\econ.org/ebook/)#
#
"Nataly#Grisales,#like#me#an#economics#student#from#Latin#America,#recently#
wrote#about#learning#economics#on#her#blog:#“Before#I#chose#economics#a#
professor#mentioned#that#economics#would#give#me#a#way#to#describe#and#
predict#human#behaviour#through#mathematical#tools.#That#possibility#still#
seems#fantastic#to#me.#However#after#semesters#of#study#I#had#many#
mathematical#tools,#but#all#the#people#I#wanted#to#study#had#disappeared#from#
the#scene.”#
#
And#the#question#is#about#exactly#the#discrepancy#that#is#mentioned.#It#goes#back#
to#the#story,#told#in#many#variations#…#(e.g.#
http://quatr.us/islam/literature/chesswheat.htm),#and#being#increasingly#
discussed#today#in#connection#with#environmental#issues#(which#are#also#present#
in#the#CORE\book,#in#unit#18).#All#this#is#then#about#the#slogan#of#CORE,#namely#
about#teaching#economics#"as#if#the#last#three#decades#had#happened”.###
Leaving#this#aside,#page#47/48,#unit#12#explicitly#refers#to#EG#and#provides#its#
definition#ion#page#48.#
I#I#am#in#need#of#some#clarification.##
#
4.Question#4#is#fine.#
5.Question#5#is#strangely#phrased:#“What#is#employment#about?”#
OK,#though#it#is#specified#in#the#part#that#follows.#
Proposal#just#to#leave#that#part#out,#so#the#question#then#reads:#
(a)#Define#employment,#unemployment#and#the#labour#market#[maximum#of#10#
points]#and#(b)#discuss#both#in#relation#to#the#GDP#[maximum#of#15#points].#
OK?##
6.Question#6#is#also#strangely#phrased,#and#borders#on#the#philosophic.#
The#factors#of#production#(or#productive#factors)#are#contentious,#thus#this#
formulation.#On#the#other#point:#it#supposes#that#part#b)#"borders#on#the#
philosophic”?#I#cannot#see#this#at#all.#
#
7.Question#7#only#makes#sense#to#me#having#read#the#answer.#
Unit#4#of#the#CORE\textbook#refers#the#the#3#different#goods/1#resource.#This,#
seen#in#the#context#of#what#had#been#stated#above,#quoting#hat#it#is#about#"using#
insights#on#the#economy#from#a#wide#range#of#historical,#geographical,#
disciplinary#and#methodological#perspectives.”#
I#do#not#see#a#problem,#not#least#as#the#stated#issue#“makes#sense#only#after#
reading#the#answer”#is#most#likely#occurring#in#most#of#the#cases,#and#could#even#
be#applied#to#employment.#The#students#(should#\#not#all#listen,#open#a#book#...)#
know#the#context#that#had#been#established#in#this#course.#\#I#came#across#
various#issues#pointing#out#the#need#of#keeping#context#in#mind,#not#least#as#I#
was#getting#again#and#again#aware#of#the#differences#in#the#use#of#terms#for#
instance#in#accounting,#economics#and#finance,#and#even#of#the#same#discipline#in#
different#national#traditions).#
So,#back#to#you#...#
8.Question#8#is#fine.#
#
#
I#do#appreciate#that#there#will#be#interpretation#of#the#modules.#However,#we#
have#to#ensure#that#there#is#consistency.#
Actually#I#see#another#and#may#be#serious#problem#here,#which#needs#to#be#
discussed#in#the#future#\#for#now#it#is#too#late:#looking#at#the#range#of#the#syllabus#
(the#book#has#close#to#1100#pages),#it#seems#to#be#necessary#to#be#somewhat#
more#specific.#And#also#(surely#not#against#the#messenger)#it#would#be#helpful#to#
communicate#early#and#between#the#people#who#are#dealing#with#the#teaching#of#
the#relevant#topic.#It#is#not#only#about#transaction#cost#but#about#reaching#a#
sufficient#agreement#on#consistency#and#coverage.#
#
Thanks#and#all#the#best,#Peter#
#
#
########################################################
i##Dr.#[philosophy]# (Bremen,#Germany)#habil#[sociology]#(Debrecen,#Hungary).# Studies#in#Sociology#(Bielefeld,#
Germany#\#FRG),#Economics#(Hamburg,#Germany#\#FRG),#Political#Science#(Leipzig,#Germany#\#GDR)#and#Social#
Policy#and#Philosophy#(Bremen,#Germany#\#FRG).#
Currently#he#lives#in#Rome,#Italy#and#works#as#social#philosopher#in#various#contexts#within#the#EU#and#
globally.#He#is#also#adjunct#professor#at#the#University#of#Eastern#Finland#(UEF),#Department#of#Social#Sciences#
(Kuopio,#Finland),#honorary#associate#professor#at#Corvinus#University#in#Budapest,#Faculty#of#Economics,#
Department#of#World#Economy.#
He#had#been#teaching#at#several#Third#Level#Institutions#across#the#EU;#currently#correspondent#to#the#Max#
Planck#Institute#for#Social#Law#and#Social#Policy#(formerly#MPI#for#Foreign#and#International#Social#Law#
[Munich,#Germany]).#He#holds#positions#as#for#instance#that#of#a#senior#advisor#to#the#European#Foundation#on#
Social#Quality#(The#Hague,#Netherlands),#member#of#the#Advisory#Board#of#EURISPES#–#Istituto#di#Studi#Politici,#
Economici# e# Sociali,# Rome,#member#of#the#Scientific#Board#and#its#coordination#committee#of#ATTAC# –#
Association# pour# la# taxation#des# transactions# financières# pour# l’aide# aux# citoyens,# Associate#Member#of#the#
Eurasian#Center#for#Big#History#and#System#Forecasting,#Lomonosow#Moscow#State#University,#Russia.#He#is#
also#full#member#of#the#European#Academy#of#Social#Science#and#Arts.#
He#held#various#positions#as#visiting#professor#at#different#universities#within#ad#outside#of#the#EU.#He#also#had#
been#research#fellow#at#National#Taiwan#University,#Taipei;#The#Cairns#Institute,#James#Cook#University,#
Australia;#Visiting#Scholar#at#Orta# Dogu#Teknik# Üniversitesi#(ODTU),#Ankara,#Turkey;#Visiting#Scholar#at#the#
Max\Planck\Institute#für# Sozialrecht# und# Sozialpolitik,# Munich,#Germany;#Visiting#professor#at#Zhejiang#
University#[senior#foreign#expert],# HangZhou,#PRC;#Founding#Professor#at#Bangor#College#CSUFT,#ChangSha,#
PRC.#
His#areas#of#teaching#comprise#economics,#political#science,#sociology#and#law.#
He#started#his#work#in#researching#European#Social#Policy#and#in#particular#the#role#of#NGOs.#His#main#interest#
shifted#over#the#last#years#towards#developing#the#Social#Quality#Approach#further,#looking#in#particular#into#
the#meaning#of#economic#questions#and#questions#of#law.#He#linked#this#with#questions#on#the#development#of#
state#analysis#and#the#question#of#social#services.#Since#recently#his#interest#shifted#towards#political#economy,#
globalisation#and#formational#change.#I#this#context#he#is#in#particular#interested#in#questions#around#change#of#
labour/work# (“precarity#as#seedbed#of#a#new#political\economic#formations”,# sustainable#socio\economic#
growth,#socio\economic#sustainability#…).#He#published#widely#on#the#various#topics.#
ii##Dr.#[philosophy]# (Bremen,#Germany)#habil#[sociology]#(Debrecen,#Hungary).# Studies#in#Sociology#(Bielefeld,#
Germany#\#FRG),#Economics#(Hamburg,#Germany#\#FRG),#Political#Science#(Leipzig,#Germany#\#GDR)#and#Social#
Policy#and#Philosophy#(Bremen,#Germany#\#FRG).#
Currently#he#lives#in#Rome,#Italy#and#works#as#social#philosopher#in#various#contexts#within#the#EU#and#
globally.#He#is#also#adjunct#professor#at#the#University#of#Eastern#Finland#(UEF),#Department#of#Social#Sciences#
(Kuopio,#Finland),#honorary#associate#professor#at#Corvinus#University#in#Budapest,#Faculty#of#Economics,#
Department#of#World#Economy.#
He#had#been#teaching#at#several#Third#Level#Institutions#across#the#EU;#currently#correspondent#to#the#Max#
Planck#Institute#for#Social#Law#and#Soc